Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Renal Replacement Therapy
Estrogen Receptor alpha
Enzyme Replacement Therapy
Estrogen Receptor beta
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Body Dysmorphic Disorders
Acute Kidney Injury
Sex Chromosome Aberrations
Chromosomes, Human, X
Estrogen replacement therapy and breast cancer survival in a large screening study. (1/1512)BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy has been associated in some studies with reductions in breast cancer mortality among women who develop this disease. It is unclear whether this association reflects the biologic activity of the hormones or the earlier detection of tumors among hormone users. We examined breast cancer mortality among women who were diagnosed with axillary lymph node-negative and node-positive breast cancer according to the currency of estrogen use at diagnosis. METHODS: Vital status through June 1995 was determined for 2614 patients with postmenopausal breast cancer diagnosed during the period from 1973 to January 1981. We estimated adjusted hazard-rate ratios (adjusting for tumor size, age, race, Quetelet [body mass] index, and number of positive lymph nodes in women with node-positive disease) and unadjusted cumulative probabilities of breast cancer death over time since diagnosis. RESULTS: Among patients with node-negative disease, rate ratios for breast cancer mortality associated with current use compared with nonuse at diagnosis were 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3-0.8) until 144 months after diagnosis and 2.2 (95% CI = 0.9-5.2) thereafter. Mortality was not statistically significantly lower in past users. The cumulative probabilities of breast cancer mortality at the end of follow-up were 0.14, 0.14, and 0.09 in nonusers, past users, and current users, respectively. Among women with node-positive disease, the rate ratios associated with current and past use were both 0.5 until 48 months after diagnosis (95% CI = 0.3-0.8 for current users; 95% CI = 0.3-0.9 for past users) and were 1.1 (95% CI = 0.7-1.7) and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.7), respectively, thereafter. The cumulative probabilities of breast cancer mortality were 0.32, 0.39, and 0.27 in nonusers, past users, and current users, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with breast cancer who were using replacement estrogens at the time of diagnosis experienced reductions in breast cancer mortality, which waned with the time since diagnosis. (+info)
Breast carcinoma developing in patients on hormone replacement therapy: a histological and immunohistological study. (2/1512)AIM: To study the histopathological features of breast carcinoma developing in postmenopausal patients on hormone replacement therapy (HRT). METHODS: The sample comprised 60 patients with invasive breast carcinoma including 31 who had received HRT at or shortly before presentation, and 29 who had not. Details concerning their tumour size, histological type and grade, lymph node status, and oestrogen and progesterone receptor status were compared. Immunoperoxidase staining for Bcl-2, p53, and E-cadherin was carried out on paraffin sections of all 60 patients. The results were then statistically analysed. RESULTS: Tumours detected in HRT patients were significantly smaller (mean 17 mm v 25 mm; p = 0.0156) and of a lower histological grade (p = 0.0414) than those detected in non-HRT patients. The incidence of invasive lobular carcinoma was slightly higher in HRT patients (19% v 14%). Immunohistologically, 87% of HRT tumours were Bcl-2 positive (compared with 79% in the control group), 29% were p53 positive (45% in the control), and 48% were E-cadherin positive (72% in the control group). Although the differences were not statistically significant there was a trend towards higher incidence of p53 negative and E-cadherin negative tumours in HRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Breast carcinomas detected in patients on HRT have a significantly higher incidence of two favourable prognostic features (small size and a low histological grade). They also show a trend, statistically not significant, of being p53 negative and E-cadherin negative; this may be related to the slightly higher incidence of invasive lobular tumours in these patients. (+info)
The relationship between a polymorphism in CYP17 with plasma hormone levels and breast cancer. (3/1512)The A2 allele of CYP17 has been associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome, elevated levels of certain steroid hormones in premenopausal women, and increased breast cancer risk. We prospectively assessed the association between the A2 allele of CYP17 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. We also evaluated associations between this CYP17 genotype and plasma steroid hormone levels among postmenopausal controls not using hormone replacement to assess the biological significance of this genetic variant. Women with the A2 allele were not at an increased risk of incident breast cancer [OR (odds ratio), 0.85; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.65-1.12] or advanced breast cancer (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.32). We did observe evidence that the inverse association of late age at menarche with breast cancer may be modified by the CYP17 A2 allele. The protective effect of later age at menarche was only observed among women without the A2 allele (A1/A1 genotype: for age at menarche > or =13 versus <13; OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90; A1/A2 and A2/A2 genotypes: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.76-1.45; P for interaction = 0.07). Among controls, we found women with the A2/A2 genotype to have elevated levels of estrone (+14.3%, P = 0.01), estradiol (+13.8%, P = 0.08), testosterone (+8.6%, P = 0.34), androstenedione (+17.1%, P = 0.06), dehydroepiandrosterone (+14.4%, P = 0.02), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (+7.2%, P = 0.26) compared with women with the A1/A1 genotype. These data suggest that the A2 allele of CYP17 modifies endogenous hormone levels, but is not a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer. (+info)
Hormone replacement therapy increases isometric muscle strength of adductor pollicis in post-menopausal women. (4/1512)A randomized open trial of hormone replacement therapy was used to assess changes in adductor pollicis muscle strength during 6-12 months of treatment with Prempak C 0.625(R) in comparison with an untreated control group. Muscle strength (maximal voluntary force; MVF), muscle cross-sectional area and bone mineral density were measured. Women entering the trial had oestrogen levels below 150 pmol.l-1, confirming their post-menopausal hormonal status. In the treated group, MVF increased by 12.4+/-1.0% (mean+/-S.E.M.) of initial MVF over the duration of treatment, while it declined slightly (2.9+/-0.9%) in the control group. This increase in strength could not be explained by an increase in muscle bulk, there being no significant increase in cross-sectional area during the study. Those subjects who were weakest at enrolment showed the greatest increases in muscle strength after treatment. Bone mineral density in total hip, Ward's triangle and total spine increased in the treated group, in agreement with previous studies. There was no correlation between the individual increases in bone mineral density and those in MVF. (+info)
Osteoporosis: review of guidelines and consensus statements. (5/1512)This activity is designed for physicians, pharmacists, nurses, health planners, directors of managed care organizations, and payers of health services. GOAL: To understand current guidelines and consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: List four national or international organizations involved in the development of consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. 2. Discuss the significant differences among different countries regarding the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. 3. List the major risk factors for osteoporosis. 4. Describe the differences in the application of bone mineral density scans, biochemical markers, and ultrasound in evaluating patients with suspected osteopenia and osteoporosis. 5. Distinguish between and briefly discuss therapeutic modalities used in primary prevention, secondary prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. 6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of estrogen/hormone replacement therapy. 7. Describe alternatives to estrogen/hormone replacement therapy. (+info)
Low use of long-term hormone replacement therapy in Denmark. (6/1512)AIMS: To examine individual use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in a defined population of Danish women during a 5-year period. HRT may reduce osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women, but may also have side-effects. Little is known about the use of HRT in most populations. METHODS: A Pharmacoepidemiological Prescription Database was used to identify all reimbursed prescriptions for HRT in the county during the period 1991 to 1995. The Danish retail pharmacies' drug subsidy system made it possible to identify prescriptions by individual use. RESULTS: We examined 255797 HRT prescriptions issued during the period in the County of North Jutland. Total sales reached 16.5 million defined daily doses (DDDs), purchased by 31653 women, which corresponds to 26.9% of the female population above the age of 39 years. The annual prevalence proportion of current users rose from 10.4% to 14.8% during the study period, and the therapeutic intensity (DDD/1000 women/day) increased from 20.6 to 32.0. The mean DDD sum of systemic HRT per user was 73.4 in 1991; it and the proportion of users who received less than 90 DDD per year (83.4% in 1991) remained almost constant during the study period. The amount of oestrogen unopposed by progestin was high, 28.1% of all prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: Less than one-fifth of the study population used HRT for more than 3 months per year, and only 32.8% of the women who were new users of HRT in 1992 continued this therapy throughout the study period. (+info)
Differential effect of transdermal estrogen plus progestagen replacement therapy on insulin metabolism in postmenopausal women: relation to their insulinemic secretion. (7/1512)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on glucose and insulin metabolism of transdermal estrogen patches before and after the addition of cyclic dydrogesterone in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: We studied 21 postmenopausal women seeking treatment for symptomatic menopause. All patients received transdermal 50 micrograms/day estradiol for 24 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatment, 10 mg/day dydrogesterone were added. METHODS: During both regimens, insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations were evaluated after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT were expressed as area under the curve (AUC) and as incremental AUC; insulin sensitivity was expressed as mg/kg body weight. Fractional hepatic insulin extraction (FHIE) was estimated by the difference between the incremental AUC of the C-peptide and insulin divided by the incremental AUC of the C-peptide. Plasma hormone and lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Nine patients proved to be hyperinsulinemic and 12 were normoinsulinemic. Transdermal estrogen treatment significantly decreased the insulin AUC (P < 0.05) and the insulin incremental AUC in hyperinsulinemic patients; addition of dydrogesterone further decreased both the AUC and incremental AUC of insulin. Estrogen alone and combined with dydrogesterone evoked a significant increase in C-peptide AUC in hyperinsulinemic (79.2%) and normoinsulinemic (113%) patients. The treatment increased the values for FHIE and insulin sensitivity in all patients (P < 0.04) and in the hyperinsulinemic group (P < 0.01), whereas it did not affect such parameters in normoinsulinemic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal estrogen substitution alone and combined with cyclical dydrogesterone may ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in a selected population of postmenopausal women. (+info)
Combined oestrogen-progestogen replacement therapy does not inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation in postmenopausal women. (8/1512)AIMS: The use of oestrogen containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is related to a significantly reduced atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. Oestrogen is thought to be antioxidant and may inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro. We investigated the effect of combined oestrogen and progestogen HRT on LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Eighteen healthy women were given oestrogen/progestogen, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was measured as the level of autoantibody to oxidative modified LDL and the production of conjugated dienes during copper-dependent oxidation after 3 and 6 months HRT. The levels of vitamin E, the major antioxidant in LDL, were also measured. RESULTS: After HRT, the anti-oxidatively modified LDL antibody level remained unchanged [1.58+/-0.16, 0.10 (-0.10, 0.26), and 0.08 (-0.09, 0.19), mean+/-s.d. at baseline, and mean change with 95% confidence intervals for differences at 3 and 6 months, respectively, P>0.05] as did the production of conjugated dienes when determined as lag phase [51.2+/-7.5, -0.3 (-3.9, 3.3), and 1.5 (-3.4, 6.4) min, P>0.05]. The LDL vitamin E content, measured as alpha-tocopherol, was also not altered [2.34+/-0.54, -0.07 (-0.27, 0.13), and -0.07 (-0.33, 0.16) nmol mg(-1) LDL, P>0.05] by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Combined oestrogen and progestogen therapy for 6 months in postmenopausal women does not protect LDL against oxidation. (+info)
Endometrial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of endometrial neoplasm is endometrial hyperplasia, which is a condition where the endometrium grows too thick and can become cancerous if left untreated. Other types of endometrial neoplasms include endometrial adenocarcinoma, which is the most common type of uterine cancer, and endometrial sarcoma, which is a rare type of uterine cancer that develops in the muscle or connective tissue of the uterus.
Endometrial neoplasms can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic mutations, and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Risk factors for developing endometrial neoplasms include obesity, early onset of menstruation, late onset of menopause, never being pregnant or having few or no full-term pregnancies, and taking hormone replacement therapy or other medications that can increase estrogen levels.
Symptoms of endometrial neoplasms can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain or discomfort. Treatment for endometrial neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the condition, and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. In some cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be necessary.
In summary, endometrial neoplasms are abnormal growths that can develop in the lining of the uterus and can be either benign or malignant. They can be caused by a variety of factors and can cause symptoms such as abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the condition, and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.
There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:
1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.
2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.
3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.
4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.
5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.
Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.
Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.
It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.
Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back
Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Preventative measures for coronary disease include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.
BDD can affect any aspect of a person's appearance, but the most common areas of concern are the face, skin, and body shape. The prevalence of BDD varies widely depending on the population and gender, with an estimated 1-2% of the general population meeting criteria for BDD at some point in their lives.
There are several subtypes of BDD, including:
1. Body dysmorphic disorder-focused (BDD-F): Characterized by a preoccupation with a specific body part or feature, such as acne, scars, or nose shape.
2. Body dysmorphic disorder-multiplicity (BDD-M): Involves multiple areas of the body that are perceived as flawed.
3. Body dysmorphic disorder-somatic (BDD-S): Features somatic symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, in addition to the preoccupation with appearance.
The exact cause of BDD is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy.
In addition to the diagnostic criteria outlined in the DSM-5, there are several clinical features that may be present in individuals with BDD, including:
1. Distress: The preoccupation with one's appearance causes significant distress or impairment in daily functioning.
2. Impairment: The preoccupation with one's appearance interferes with social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.
3. Duration: The preoccupation with one's appearance has been present for at least 1 month (although some individuals may experience symptoms for longer periods of time).
4. Functional impairment: Individuals with BDD may experience significant impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning as a result of their preoccupation with their appearance.
5. Avoidance: Individuals with BDD may avoid social situations or activities due to feelings of shame or embarrassment about their perceived flaws.
6. Rituals: Individuals with BDD may engage in ritualistic behaviors, such as excessive grooming or skin picking, in an attempt to correct or hide their perceived flaws.
7. Secrecy: Individuals with BDD may keep their preoccupation and behaviors secret, as they may be ashamed of their appearance or fear judgment from others.
8. Avoidance of mirrors: Some individuals with BDD may avoid looking in mirrors or other reflective surfaces due to the distress caused by their perceived flaws.
9. Camouflaging: Individuals with BDD may use makeup, clothing, or other items to cover up or hide their perceived flaws.
10. Seeking reassurance: Individuals with BDD may seek constant reassurance from others about their appearance, as they may feel that their perceived flaws are a reflection of their worth as a person.
It is important to note that individuals with BDD may experience significant distress and impairment in their daily lives, and may benefit from seeking professional treatment. Treatment for BDD typically includes a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication.
During menopause, the levels of estrogen in the body decrease significantly, which can lead to a loss of bone density and an increased risk of developing osteoporosis. Other risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis include:
* Family history of osteoporosis
* Early menopause (before age 45)
* Poor diet or inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake
* Sedentary lifestyle or lack of exercise
* Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants
* Other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver or kidney disease.
Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, which can determine the density of bones and detect any loss of bone mass. Treatment options for postmenopausal osteoporosis typically involve a combination of medications and lifestyle changes, such as:
* Bisphosphonates, which help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can help to replace the estrogen that is lost during menopause and improve bone density
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which mimic the effects of estrogen on bone density but have fewer risks than HRT
* RANK ligand inhibitors, which can help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues, which can help to increase bone density and improve bone quality.
It is important for women to discuss their individual risks and benefits with their healthcare provider when determining the best course of treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Additionally, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding substances that can harm bone health (such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption) can also help to manage the condition.
Fabry disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to produce a substance called alpha-galactosidase A, which is essential for the breakdown of certain fats in the body. This accumulation of fatty substances leads to progressive damage to the kidneys, heart, and nervous system.
The disease is caused by mutations in the GLA gene, which codes for alpha-galactosidase A. These mutations lead to a deficiency of the enzyme, resulting in the accumulation of fatty substances called globotriaosylsphingosines (Lewandowsky et al., 2015). The symptoms of Fabry disease can vary in severity and may include:
* Pain and cramping in the hands and feet
* Skin rashes and lesions
* Eye problems, such as cataracts and glaucoma
* Heart problems, such as hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy
* Kidney problems, such as proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome
* Cognitive impairment and dementia
Fabry disease is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. There is currently no cure for Fabry disease, but various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include:
* Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant alpha-galactosidase A
* Chaperone therapy to enhance the activity of the enzyme
* Pain management with medication and other therapies
* Dialysis or kidney transplantation for advanced kidney disease
Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve the quality of life for individuals with Fabry disease, but it is important to note that the disease can be challenging to diagnose and manage, and ongoing research is needed to improve our understanding of its causes and to develop more effective treatments.
Lewandowsky, F., Sunderkötter, C., & Rübe, C. E. (2017). Fabry disease: A review of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6(2), 34. doi: 10.3390/jcm6020034
Sunderkötter, C., & Rübe, C. E. (2018). Fabry disease: From clinical symptoms to molecular therapies. European Journal of Medical Genetics, 61(1), 15–27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.02.003
Tfabry, D., & Rübe, C. E. (2019). Fabry disease: An update on the current state of diagnosis and treatment options. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 42(2), 245–256. doi: 10.1007/s10545-018-0138-6
The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.
There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.
Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.
Turner syndrome occurs in approximately 1 in every 2,500 to 3,000 live female births and is more common in girls born to older mothers. The symptoms of Turner syndrome can vary widely and may include:
* Short stature and delayed growth and development
* Infertility or lack of menstruation (amenorrhea)
* Heart defects, such as a narrowed aorta or a hole in the heart
* Eye problems, such as cataracts, glaucoma, or crossed eyes
* Hearing loss or deafness
* Bone and joint problems, such as scoliosis or clubfoot
* Cognitive impairments, including learning disabilities and memory problems
* Delayed speech and language development
* Poor immune function, leading to recurrent infections
Turner syndrome is usually diagnosed at birth or during childhood, based on physical characteristics such as short stature, low muscle tone, or heart defects. Chromosomal analysis can also confirm the diagnosis.
There is no cure for Turner syndrome, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy may be used to stimulate growth and development in children, while adults with the condition may require ongoing hormone therapy to maintain bone density and prevent osteoporosis. Surgery may be necessary to correct heart defects or other physical abnormalities. Speech and language therapy can help improve communication skills, and cognitive training may be beneficial for learning disabilities.
The long-term outlook for individuals with Turner syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any additional health problems. With proper medical care and support, many women with Turner syndrome can lead fulfilling lives, but they may face unique challenges related to fertility, heart health, and other issues.
Examples of syndromes include:
1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that affects intellectual and physical development.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a missing or partially deleted X chromosome that affects physical growth and development in females.
3. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder affecting the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and cardiovascular problems.
4. Alzheimer's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality and behavior.
5. Parkinson's disease: A neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement.
6. Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to infertility and other physical characteristics.
7. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, characterized by cardiovascular problems, developmental delays, and a distinctive facial appearance.
8. Fragile X syndrome: The most common form of inherited intellectual disability, caused by an expansion of a specific gene on the X chromosome.
9. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a defect in the hypothalamus, leading to problems with appetite regulation and obesity.
10. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dry eyes and mouth.
Syndromes can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for a syndrome depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms and signs presented by the patient.
Types of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:
1. Turner Syndrome: A condition where a female has only one X chromosome instead of two (45,X).
2. Klinefelter Syndrome: A condition where a male has an extra X chromosome (47,XXY) or an extra Y chromosome (47,XYYY).
3. XXX Syndrome: A rare condition where a female has three X chromosomes instead of two.
4. XYY Syndrome: A rare condition where a male has an extra Y chromosome (48,XYY).
5. Mosaicism: A condition where a person has a mixture of cells with different numbers of sex chromosomes.
Effects of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:
Sex chromosome aberrations can cause a range of physical and developmental abnormalities, such as short stature, infertility, and reproductive problems. They may also increase the risk of certain health conditions, including:
1. Congenital heart defects
2. Cognitive impairments
3. Learning disabilities
4. Developmental delays
5. Increased risk of infections and autoimmune disorders
Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:
Sex chromosome aberrations can be diagnosed through various methods, including:
1. Karyotyping: A test that involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes.
2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): A test that uses fluorescent probes to detect specific DNA sequences on chromosomes.
3. Chromosomal microarray analysis: A test that looks for changes in the number or structure of chromosomes by analyzing DNA from blood or other tissues.
4. Next-generation sequencing (NGS): A test that analyzes an individual's entire genome to identify specific genetic variations, including sex chromosome aberrations.
Treatment and Management of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:
There is no cure for sex chromosome aberrations, but there are various treatments and management options available to help alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include:
1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): To address hormonal imbalances and related symptoms.
2. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): Such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), to help individuals with infertility or pregnancy complications.
3. Prenatal testing: To identify sex chromosome aberrations in fetuses, allowing parents to make informed decisions about their pregnancies.
4. Counseling and support: To help individuals and families cope with the emotional and psychological impact of a sex chromosome abnormality diagnosis.
5. Surgeries or other medical interventions: To address related health issues, such as infertility, reproductive tract abnormalities, or genital ambiguity.
It's important to note that each individual with a sex chromosome aberration may require a unique treatment plan tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. A healthcare provider can work with the individual and their family to develop a personalized plan that takes into account their medical, emotional, and social considerations.
In conclusion, sex chromosome aberrations are rare genetic disorders that can have significant implications for an individual's physical, emotional, and social well-being. While there is no cure for these conditions, advances in diagnostic testing and treatment options offer hope for improving the lives of those affected. With proper medical care, support, and understanding, individuals with sex chromosome aberrations can lead fulfilling lives.
Estrogen and neurodegenerative diseases
Roger W. Robinson
Pharmacokinetics of estradiol
Pharmacodynamics of spironolactone
Robert S. Rosenson
Animal products in pharmaceuticals
Timeline of transgender history
Timing hypothesis (menopausal hormone therapy)
Testosterone enantate benzilic acid hydrazone
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome
List of clinical studies of menopausal hormone therapy
Transgender hormone therapy
Effects of hormones on sexual motivation
Drugs and sexual desire
Estrogen receptor beta
Fibrocystic breast changes
Gynoid fat distribution
Estradiol cyclooctyl acetate
Estrogen-Only Hormone Replacement Therapy May Reduce Breast Cancer Risk | Live Science
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- Combinations of estrogen and progestin are used to treat certain symptoms of menopause. (medlineplus.gov)
- Estrogen reduces feelings of warmth in the upper body and periods of sweating and heat (hot flashes), vaginal symptoms (itching, burning, and dryness) and difficulty with urination, but it does not relieve other symptoms of menopause such as nervousness or depression. (medlineplus.gov)
- Dr. James A. Simon discusses hormone replacement therapy and the connection between HRT, menopause and breast cancer. (2ndact.tv)
- Menopause Hormone Therapy: Does It Cause Vaginal Bleeding? (nih.gov)
- For women in their midlife, lower estrogen levels can worsen menopause symptoms, making many women suffer from anxiety, mood swings, sleeplessness, skin issues, and hot flushes. (tobaccofacts.org)
- We have written this article to link smoking and estrogen levels and inform you nicotine can reduce estrogen levels and contribute to early-onset menopause. (tobaccofacts.org)
- As smoking nicotine is known to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity, this can catalyze the conversion of androgens to estrogens and reduce estrogen levels, leading to early-onset menopause. (tobaccofacts.org)
- As decreasing estrogen can worsen menopause symptoms, smoking can intensify the experience, making the midlife process a lot more intolerant and unpleasant. (tobaccofacts.org)
- This means you will have less time with the protective benefits of estrogen and this can lead to higher chances of developing osteoporosis bone issues, heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and obesity following the menopause period. (tobaccofacts.org)
- The majority of these symptoms can be attributed to the lack of estrogen that characterizes natural or iatrogenically-induced menopause. (frontiersin.org)
- 1. [Estrogen therapy and menopause]. (nih.gov)
- 10. Estrogen replacement in the menopause. (nih.gov)
- 17. Current status of menopause and postmenopausal estrogen therapy. (nih.gov)
- When these women were further divided by their estrogen use status after menopause, a negative association between caffeine intake and risk of PD similar to men was observed in those women who had never used estrogen replacement therapy but not in those who had ever used it (Ascherio et al. (jneurosci.org)
- It's long been known that young women have a lower risk of heart disease than men, but that risk rises substantially after a woman's estrogen levels drop with menopause. (eurekalert.org)
- This was a new approach, since most estrogen replacement therapy is typically offered to women after menopause. (eurekalert.org)
- We wanted to test the timing hypothesis: the idea that there's a window of opportunity for taking estrogen so that we could see if we could identify that window, and determine how menopause impacted the response to estrogens," Pyle said. (eurekalert.org)
- That tells us that we can't simply place estrogens into a heart years after menopause, because you are now treating a heart that is fundamentally changed. (eurekalert.org)
- It also tells us that timing is important, and that we likely need to move the window for offering estrogen therapy back up, offering it much earlier and not waiting for after menopause. (eurekalert.org)
- After menopause, estrogen production drops, but it can still be 40-60% of what it was before menopause. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- During menopause, a woman's ovaries produce less oestrogen and for three quarters of women this results in hot flushes which can have a serious impact on their quality of life. (news24.com)
Taking estrogen and progestin2
- One branch of the study looked the effects of taking estrogen and progestin together, but it was halted ahead of schedule in 2002 because the hormone combination was found to increase the risk of breast cancer by 25 percent . (livescience.com)
- Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking estrogen and progestin. (medlineplus.gov)
- It's still not clear why estrogen-only therapies and therapies that use a combination of estrogen and progestin appear to have the opposite effect on breast cancer risk. (livescience.com)
- If you are having surgery or will be on bedrest, talk to your doctor about stopping estrogen and progestin at least 4 to 6 weeks before the surgery or bedrest. (medlineplus.gov)
- Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
- Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in women who still have their uterus. (medlineplus.gov)
- Activella, FemHrt, and Prempro come as tablets containing estrogen and progestin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Take one pink tablet (containing only estrogen) once daily for 3 days, then take one white tablet (containing estrogen and progestin) once daily for 3 days. (medlineplus.gov)
- Take one maroon tablet (containing only estrogen) once daily on days 1 to 14, and take one light-blue tablet (containing estrogen and progestin) once daily on days 15 to 28. (medlineplus.gov)
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to estrogen, progestin, or any other medications. (medlineplus.gov)
- Estrogen plus progestin component of the Women's Health Initiative, a randomized controlled primary prevention trial (planned duration, 8.5 years) in which 16608 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years with an intact uterus at baseline were recruited by 40 US clinical centers in 1993-1998. (nih.gov)
- On May 31, 2002, after a mean of 5.2 years of follow-up, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping the trial of estrogen plus progestin vs placebo because the test statistic for invasive breast cancer exceeded the stopping boundary for this adverse effect and the global index statistic supported risks exceeding benefits. (nih.gov)
- Absolute excess risks per 10 000 person-years attributable to estrogen plus progestin were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 8 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while absolute risk reductions per 10 000 person-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures. (nih.gov)
- Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow-up among healthy postmenopausal US women. (nih.gov)
- Giving lower doses of estrogen and progesterone during hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in combination with calcium and vitamin D, spares older women significant osteoporotic bone mass loss while limiting HRT's significant side effects, according to a new NIAMS-supported study. (nih.gov)
- 1999;130:897-904), carried out by Robert R. Recker, M.D., and his colleagues at the NIAMS-sponsored Specialized Center of Research on Osteoporosis at Creighton University, tested a continuous daily regimen of 0.3 milligrams of estrogen (and 2.5 milligrams of progesterone) in women over 65 with low bone mass. (nih.gov)
- The effect of low-dose continuous estrogen and progesterone therapy with calcium and vitamin D on bone in elderly women. (nih.gov)
- When it's not in proper proportion to the hormone that balances it, (primarily progesterone), estrogen can be dominant even if levels are low. (holtorfmed.com)
- Estrogen stimulates cell growth, while progesterone keeps it in check. (holtorfmed.com)
- Sufficient estrogen is important to good health but, it is dangerous when it exists in excess or it is not balanced by progesterone. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- If you are taking estrogen, you should also take natural progesterone for balance. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- This means that you should use estrogen WITH progesterone to keep your hormones balanced. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Several hundred times more progesterone normally exists in the healthy adult female than estrogen. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- If you are concerned about TOO MUCH ESTROGEN and the associated problems, supplemental natural progesterone will balance your estrogen and its unwanted side effects. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Estrogen and progesterone need each other! (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Hello, I'm aware that Dr J Lee recommends using natural progesterone alongside estrogen in order to balance the hormone ratios, but can you tell me if the same applies if using a estriol cream for vaginal atrophy, where the estrogen dose is very low? (safemenopausesolutions.com)
Plus medroxyprogesterone acetate2
- Participants received conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg/d, plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 mg/d, in 1 tablet (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102). (nih.gov)
- 65 years old who had Medicare fee-for-service coverage with their clinical data from the Women's Health Initiative trials of conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE+MPA) versus placebo and of CEE-alone versus placebo. (healthpartners.com)
Postmenopausal estrogen therapy1
- OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate whether selection of healthy women for postmenopausal estrogen therapy may confound observational studies of estrogen use and cardiovascular disease risk. (elsevier.com)
- ERT replaces the estrogen a woman's body should be making naturally for a normal menstrual cycle. (nih.gov)
- Current smokers against nonsmokers are known to have higher levels of both testosterone and estrogen. (tobaccofacts.org)
- is determined in men when reduced testosterone production is suspected, e.g. in hypogonadism, estrogen therapy, chromosome aberrations (as in the Klinefelter's syndrome) and liver cirrhosis. (cdc.gov)
Lower estrogen levels1
- Dietary changes can also help lower estrogen levels. (holtorfmed.com)
- These latest results should provide reassurance about breast safety," for women taking estrogen for about five years after a hysterectomy for relief from postmenopausal symptoms, said study researcher Garnet Anderson, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. (livescience.com)
- Other women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, to relieve these symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Based on current research, black cohosh is most likely to relieve symptoms related to reductions or imbalances in the hormone estrogen . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Increased intensity of PMS symptoms is perhaps the most obvious and immediate indicator of estrogen dominance. (holtorfmed.com)
- PMS symptoms occur on a spectrum and as estrogen becomes increasingly imbalanced, so too does the intensity and duration of PMS symptoms. (holtorfmed.com)
- There are multiple approaches to resolving the increased PMS symptoms and other issues associated with estrogen dominance. (holtorfmed.com)
- Therefore, those suffering from PMS symptoms or other indicators of estrogen imbalance should consider supplementing with an estrogen regulating product such as HoltraCeuticals' Cellular Support . (holtorfmed.com)
- Many women who suffer from exceptionally challenging PMS symptoms and other forms of discomfort often do not realize that resolving an estrogen imbalance may be the key to improving their situation. (holtorfmed.com)
- A new clinical trial finds that estrogen replacement therapy is associated with a significant decrease in anxiety symptoms among girls with anorexia nervosa. (medindia.net)
- It is also possible that fluctuating estrogen production levels in the body - sometimes too high, sometimes too low - result in a temporary estrogen deficiency that causes menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats and vaginal dryness. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Again, the most common symptoms that can indicate the need for natural estrogen supplementation are hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, urinary tract infections and bone loss. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- However, symptoms are largely neurological in nature, including disruption of estrogen-regulated systems such as thermoregulation, sleep, and circadian rhythms, as well as depression and cognitive decline[ 4 ]. (plos.org)
- Perhaps the most effective and quickest method of alleviating estrogen dominance and restoring hormonal balance is through proper supplementation. (holtorfmed.com)
- Many of them also have other comorbid diseases, such as breast cancer and thrombosis, which contraindicate hormonal therapy. (frontiersin.org)
- While some forms of hormone replacement therapy have been found to increase breast cancer risk, therapies that use only estrogen may actually protect women against the disease, a new study says. (livescience.com)
- Women in the study who took estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for six years were 23 percent less likely to develop breast cancer five years after they had stopped the therapy compared with women who never received HRT. (livescience.com)
- Women who took estrogen-only HRT were also less likely to die of breast cancer. (livescience.com)
- The findings mostly apply to women who have had a hysterectomy, as this is the group most likely to take estrogen-only HRT. (livescience.com)
- The therapy raises the risk of uterine cancer, so the therapy is usually not prescribed for other women. (livescience.com)
- The lowered risk was not found in women with a family history of the disease, and the therapy comes with a risk of stroke and blood clots, the researchers said. (livescience.com)
- A separate study branch looked at the effect of estrogen-only HRT in 11,000 postmenopausal women who had had hysterectomies. (livescience.com)
- In the new study, the researchers followed 7,645 women from the estrogen-only branch for about five years after the trial ended. (livescience.com)
- Over the course of the 11-year study, 151 women who took estrogen-only HRT developed breast cancer compared with 199 women took a placebo. (livescience.com)
- Six women who took estrogen-only HRT died from breast cancer, compared with 16 who took a placebo. (livescience.com)
- Women who've had a hysterectomy can take estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy for about five years without an increased risk in breast cancer, according to a new study. (livescience.com)
- Estrogen also prevents thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) in menopausal women. (medlineplus.gov)
- At follow-up postmenopausal women ≥40 years old were catagorized as current users (n = 70) or nonusers (n = 772) of noncontraceptive estrogens. (elsevier.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Selection of healthy women for treatment may not fully explain the apparent protective effect of estrogen replacement on cardiovascular risk. (elsevier.com)
- Our results could mean that many more postmenopausal women who could benefit from the therapy would be willing to be treated, and with a higher compliance rate. (nih.gov)
- This study provides important proof that low-dose estrogen can be an effective preventive and therapeutic option in older women with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. (nih.gov)
- Estrogen Effects on Women! (2ndact.tv)
- For some women, hormone therapy may increase their chances of getting blood clots , heart attacks , strokes , breast cancer , and gallbladder disease . (nih.gov)
- Even though estrogen is a necessary component of health in both men and women, too much can cause significant problems. (holtorfmed.com)
- With less estrogen, women might also have a much harder time trying to get pregnant and trying to have a healthy baby. (tobaccofacts.org)
- or 10 mg daily in postmenopausal women not receiving estrogen. (nih.gov)
- 5. Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women. (nih.gov)
- 9. Estrogen treatment of postmenopausal women. (nih.gov)
- Interestingly, in women, this inverse association is present only in those who have not taken postmenopausal estrogens, suggesting an interaction between the influences of estrogen and caffeine use on the risk of PD. (jneurosci.org)
- While it's well known that estrogen protects the heart and keeps it resilient, many women and physicians have been afraid to use hormone replacement therapy because of a large HRT study 20 years ago that was halted over fears it was linked to increased heart events and cancer. (eurekalert.org)
- [ 2 ] Of note, the incidence of invasive breast cancers decreased between 1999 and 2004, which coincides with and is possibly attributable to better adherence to recommended screening mammography for the general population of women, as well as decreasing use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT). (medscape.com)
- Estrogen replacement therapy and urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women aged 45-89. (nih.gov)
- An option of some menopausal women is to undergo Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), which artificially maintains oestrogen levels. (news24.com)
- At this point, some women chose to supplement their body's natural hormones with hormone replacement therapy. (empowher.com)
- About half had taken estrogen during the trial, and half had taken the placebo. (livescience.com)
- 2) In female mice (both young and RB), caffeine was less potent or altogether ineffective as a neuroprotectant after sham surgery compared to OVX or after OVX plus estrogen replacement compared to OVX plus placebo treatment. (jneurosci.org)
- 4) Consistent with the putative protective effect of estrogen, female and OVX plus estrogen mice were relatively resistant to MPTP toxicity compared to male and OVX plus placebo mice, respectively. (jneurosci.org)
- 5) There was no overall difference in brain levels of caffeine and its metabolites between OVX plus placebo and OVX plus estrogen mice. (jneurosci.org)
- The three main estrogens in the body are estradiol, estrone and estriol. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- In excess, estradiol can cause cancer…the safest estrogen is ESTRIOL and supplementation with the natural estrogen estriol cream is recommended by author and Harvard-trained physician Dr. John R. Lee. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- The synthetic estrogen prescription drugs are NOT natural estrogen…they are usually a form of synthetic ESTRADIOL. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Estradiol is the strongest and "most aggressive" estrogen and in excess, is not healthy. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- According to Dr. Lee, estriol is the SAFEST of the natural estrogen produced in humans (the other two being estradiol and estrone). (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Clomiphene citrate (CC) therapy is often prescribed to help trigger ovulation. (nih.gov)
- Both pregnancy and oral contraception (mainly when estrogen is included) may precipitate the development of Budd-Chiari syndrome in patients with underlying thrombophilia. (nih.gov)
- Medical therapy for patients with luteinizing hormone deficiency varies with respect to cause and if pregnancy is desired. (medscape.com)
- Estrogens diffuse through cell membranes, distribute themselves throughout the cell, and bind to and activate the nuclear estrogen receptor, a DNA-binding protein found in estrogen-responsive tissues. (medscape.com)
- Estrogens are steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. (holtorfmed.com)
- Estrogen is defined as a group of hormones related to the reproductive cycle. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- Hormones used in all types of hormone replacement therapy are manufactured in a lab or pharmacy. (empowher.com)
- Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy involves the use of hormones that are considered to be exact duplicates (or bio-identical) to the hormones naturally produced by the body. (empowher.com)
- Surprisingly few dosing studies of estrogen have been carried out, and those that tested lower doses yielded inconsistent results. (nih.gov)
- Although you can supplement estrogen levels with hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in smokers, it can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. (tobaccofacts.org)
- If a woman is taking estrogen already, she and her doctor must discuss the risks and benefits of doing so. (mountsinai.org)
- This knowledge is slowly making its way into the clinic and being employed to better stratify individual risks of developing colorectal cancer, discover better screening methodologies, allow for better prognostication, and improve the ability to predict benefit from new anticancer therapies. (medscape.com)
- No wonder that the National Institute of Health study found that MAJOR HEALTH RISKS were associated with synthetic HRT that included synthetic estrogen. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- There are synthetic estrogen drugs, but they come with health risks and unwanted side effects. (safemenopausesolutions.com)
- The liver function becomes impaired, leading to an excess of estrogen. (holtorfmed.com)
Hormone that plays2
- Used for the purpose of hormone replacement and induction of puberty. (medscape.com)
- The test dosage was less than half the HRT estrogen dosage most commonly prescribed to prevent osteoporosis. (nih.gov)
- Since estrogen is the first line of defense against osteoporosis," she says, "it's critical to use the lowest effective dose that will preserve and even add bone. (nih.gov)
- Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are also used to treat osteoporosis. (mountsinai.org)
Take hormone replace1
- To help you remember to take hormone replacement therapy, take it around the same time every day. (medlineplus.gov)
- In addition to testing new therapies, the ADCS develops new evaluation instruments for clinical trials and innovative approaches to Alzheimer's disease clinical trial design and analysis. (nih.gov)
- RESULTS: Prior levels of total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and blood pressure were similar for estrogen users and nonusers. (elsevier.com)
- However, if estrogen levels exceed healthy norms, known as estrogen dominance, issues can develop. (holtorfmed.com)
- When estrogen levels are too high, sperm levels may fall, which can lead to fertility issues. (holtorfmed.com)
- High levels of estrogen can often lead to men struggling to get or maintain an erection. (holtorfmed.com)
- Restores estrogen levels in girls with hypogonadotropism to concentrations that induce negative feedback at gonadotrophic regulatory centers, which in turn reduces release of gonadotropins from pituitary. (medscape.com)
- Does Smoking Reduce Estrogen Levels? (tobaccofacts.org)
- Have you ever wondered if smoking can cause estrogen levels to reduce in the body? (tobaccofacts.org)
- On the other hand, estrogen levels vary by individual, and it is not only smoking that causes levels to fluctuate. (tobaccofacts.org)
- Regardless of estrogen levels, smoking is not a good decision when watching your health. (tobaccofacts.org)
- Studies have found that smoking can make your estrogen levels drop, especially in females. (tobaccofacts.org)
- Endocrinologist Dr Julia Prague told Britain's Daily Mail that hot flushes are triggered by the release of a brain hormone called neurokinin B in response to dropping oestrogen levels. (news24.com)
- However, the researchers said they do not recommend estrogen-only HRT as a way to reduce breast cancer risk in general. (livescience.com)
- Some previous studies have suggested that estrogen-only HRT increases the risk of breast cancer, but these studies were less rigorous in design than the new one. (livescience.com)
- Adjuvant (postoperative) therapy is used in selected patients with stage II colon cancer who are at high risk of recurrence, and is standard for stage III colon cancer. (medscape.com)
- Depending on how it is metabolized, estrogen influences the body in different ways. (holtorfmed.com)
- The team next examined how the heart responded when estrogen-mimicking drugs was offered during perimenopause. (eurekalert.org)
- 3. Estrogen therapy of perimenopausal and postmenopausal patients. (nih.gov)
- These pathways determine whether estrogen is converted into harmful or helpful metabolites. (holtorfmed.com)
- Finally, the body uses estrogen to form breast tissue. (tobaccofacts.org)
- 16. Estrogen therapy: the benefits and risk - general discussion. (nih.gov)
- Together, these results suggest that estrogen can occlude and thereby prevent the neuroprotective effect of caffeine in a model of PD neurodegeneration, supporting a biological basis for the interaction between estrogen and caffeine in modifying the risk of PD. (jneurosci.org)
- These results suggest that estrogen replacement therapy may prevent the beneficial effect of caffeine in reducing the risk of developing PD. (jneurosci.org)
- Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) helps restore the vaginal milieu and may have a beneficial effect on risk of infection. (nih.gov)
- We found the window of opportunity for using the therapy likely begins much earlier than previously believed," said Prof. Glen Pyle, senior author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
- They found the hearts' response to the estrogen compounds varied throughout the perimenopause period, suggesting again that molecular changes had taken place during this critical transition period. (eurekalert.org)
- The primary outcome was total Medicare spending during the intervention phase of the trial, and the secondary outcomes were spending on diseases hypothesized a priori to be sensitive to the effects of hormone therapy. (healthpartners.com)
- The activated estrogen receptor binds to specific DNA sequences or hormone-response elements, which enhances transcription of adjacent genes and, in turn, leads to the observed effects. (medscape.com)
- During this age, there is a decrease in circulating estrogen, resulting in anatomical changes that provoke the weakening of the vaginal epithelium and decrease in its collagen content, hyalinization, and elastin content. (frontiersin.org)
- This natural estrogen is easily available in the form of estriol creams and tablets. (safemenopausesolutions.com)