The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A coronary vasodilator agent.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.
Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
Excision of the uterus.
Therapeutic replacement or supplementation of defective or missing enzymes to alleviate the effects of enzyme deficiency (e.g., GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE replacement for GAUCHER DISEASE).
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of five double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of equilenin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Preoccupations with appearance or self-image causing significant distress or impairment in important areas of functioning.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
Material prepared from plants.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
An X-linked inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of lysosomal ALPHA-GALACTOSIDASE A. It is characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and other GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in blood vessels throughout the body leading to multi-system complications including renal, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and skin disorders.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A characteristic symptom complex.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.

Estrogen replacement therapy and breast cancer survival in a large screening study. (1/1512)

BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy has been associated in some studies with reductions in breast cancer mortality among women who develop this disease. It is unclear whether this association reflects the biologic activity of the hormones or the earlier detection of tumors among hormone users. We examined breast cancer mortality among women who were diagnosed with axillary lymph node-negative and node-positive breast cancer according to the currency of estrogen use at diagnosis. METHODS: Vital status through June 1995 was determined for 2614 patients with postmenopausal breast cancer diagnosed during the period from 1973 to January 1981. We estimated adjusted hazard-rate ratios (adjusting for tumor size, age, race, Quetelet [body mass] index, and number of positive lymph nodes in women with node-positive disease) and unadjusted cumulative probabilities of breast cancer death over time since diagnosis. RESULTS: Among patients with node-negative disease, rate ratios for breast cancer mortality associated with current use compared with nonuse at diagnosis were 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3-0.8) until 144 months after diagnosis and 2.2 (95% CI = 0.9-5.2) thereafter. Mortality was not statistically significantly lower in past users. The cumulative probabilities of breast cancer mortality at the end of follow-up were 0.14, 0.14, and 0.09 in nonusers, past users, and current users, respectively. Among women with node-positive disease, the rate ratios associated with current and past use were both 0.5 until 48 months after diagnosis (95% CI = 0.3-0.8 for current users; 95% CI = 0.3-0.9 for past users) and were 1.1 (95% CI = 0.7-1.7) and 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.7), respectively, thereafter. The cumulative probabilities of breast cancer mortality were 0.32, 0.39, and 0.27 in nonusers, past users, and current users, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with breast cancer who were using replacement estrogens at the time of diagnosis experienced reductions in breast cancer mortality, which waned with the time since diagnosis.  (+info)

Breast carcinoma developing in patients on hormone replacement therapy: a histological and immunohistological study. (2/1512)

AIM: To study the histopathological features of breast carcinoma developing in postmenopausal patients on hormone replacement therapy (HRT). METHODS: The sample comprised 60 patients with invasive breast carcinoma including 31 who had received HRT at or shortly before presentation, and 29 who had not. Details concerning their tumour size, histological type and grade, lymph node status, and oestrogen and progesterone receptor status were compared. Immunoperoxidase staining for Bcl-2, p53, and E-cadherin was carried out on paraffin sections of all 60 patients. The results were then statistically analysed. RESULTS: Tumours detected in HRT patients were significantly smaller (mean 17 mm v 25 mm; p = 0.0156) and of a lower histological grade (p = 0.0414) than those detected in non-HRT patients. The incidence of invasive lobular carcinoma was slightly higher in HRT patients (19% v 14%). Immunohistologically, 87% of HRT tumours were Bcl-2 positive (compared with 79% in the control group), 29% were p53 positive (45% in the control), and 48% were E-cadherin positive (72% in the control group). Although the differences were not statistically significant there was a trend towards higher incidence of p53 negative and E-cadherin negative tumours in HRT patients. CONCLUSIONS: Breast carcinomas detected in patients on HRT have a significantly higher incidence of two favourable prognostic features (small size and a low histological grade). They also show a trend, statistically not significant, of being p53 negative and E-cadherin negative; this may be related to the slightly higher incidence of invasive lobular tumours in these patients.  (+info)

The relationship between a polymorphism in CYP17 with plasma hormone levels and breast cancer. (3/1512)

The A2 allele of CYP17 has been associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome, elevated levels of certain steroid hormones in premenopausal women, and increased breast cancer risk. We prospectively assessed the association between the A2 allele of CYP17 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. We also evaluated associations between this CYP17 genotype and plasma steroid hormone levels among postmenopausal controls not using hormone replacement to assess the biological significance of this genetic variant. Women with the A2 allele were not at an increased risk of incident breast cancer [OR (odds ratio), 0.85; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.65-1.12] or advanced breast cancer (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.54-1.32). We did observe evidence that the inverse association of late age at menarche with breast cancer may be modified by the CYP17 A2 allele. The protective effect of later age at menarche was only observed among women without the A2 allele (A1/A1 genotype: for age at menarche > or =13 versus <13; OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.90; A1/A2 and A2/A2 genotypes: OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.76-1.45; P for interaction = 0.07). Among controls, we found women with the A2/A2 genotype to have elevated levels of estrone (+14.3%, P = 0.01), estradiol (+13.8%, P = 0.08), testosterone (+8.6%, P = 0.34), androstenedione (+17.1%, P = 0.06), dehydroepiandrosterone (+14.4%, P = 0.02), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (+7.2%, P = 0.26) compared with women with the A1/A1 genotype. These data suggest that the A2 allele of CYP17 modifies endogenous hormone levels, but is not a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer.  (+info)

Hormone replacement therapy increases isometric muscle strength of adductor pollicis in post-menopausal women. (4/1512)

A randomized open trial of hormone replacement therapy was used to assess changes in adductor pollicis muscle strength during 6-12 months of treatment with Prempak C 0.625(R) in comparison with an untreated control group. Muscle strength (maximal voluntary force; MVF), muscle cross-sectional area and bone mineral density were measured. Women entering the trial had oestrogen levels below 150 pmol.l-1, confirming their post-menopausal hormonal status. In the treated group, MVF increased by 12.4+/-1.0% (mean+/-S.E.M.) of initial MVF over the duration of treatment, while it declined slightly (2.9+/-0.9%) in the control group. This increase in strength could not be explained by an increase in muscle bulk, there being no significant increase in cross-sectional area during the study. Those subjects who were weakest at enrolment showed the greatest increases in muscle strength after treatment. Bone mineral density in total hip, Ward's triangle and total spine increased in the treated group, in agreement with previous studies. There was no correlation between the individual increases in bone mineral density and those in MVF.  (+info)

Osteoporosis: review of guidelines and consensus statements. (5/1512)

This activity is designed for physicians, pharmacists, nurses, health planners, directors of managed care organizations, and payers of health services. GOAL: To understand current guidelines and consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: List four national or international organizations involved in the development of consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. 2. Discuss the significant differences among different countries regarding the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. 3. List the major risk factors for osteoporosis. 4. Describe the differences in the application of bone mineral density scans, biochemical markers, and ultrasound in evaluating patients with suspected osteopenia and osteoporosis. 5. Distinguish between and briefly discuss therapeutic modalities used in primary prevention, secondary prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. 6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of estrogen/hormone replacement therapy. 7. Describe alternatives to estrogen/hormone replacement therapy.  (+info)

Low use of long-term hormone replacement therapy in Denmark. (6/1512)

AIMS: To examine individual use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in a defined population of Danish women during a 5-year period. HRT may reduce osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women, but may also have side-effects. Little is known about the use of HRT in most populations. METHODS: A Pharmacoepidemiological Prescription Database was used to identify all reimbursed prescriptions for HRT in the county during the period 1991 to 1995. The Danish retail pharmacies' drug subsidy system made it possible to identify prescriptions by individual use. RESULTS: We examined 255797 HRT prescriptions issued during the period in the County of North Jutland. Total sales reached 16.5 million defined daily doses (DDDs), purchased by 31653 women, which corresponds to 26.9% of the female population above the age of 39 years. The annual prevalence proportion of current users rose from 10.4% to 14.8% during the study period, and the therapeutic intensity (DDD/1000 women/day) increased from 20.6 to 32.0. The mean DDD sum of systemic HRT per user was 73.4 in 1991; it and the proportion of users who received less than 90 DDD per year (83.4% in 1991) remained almost constant during the study period. The amount of oestrogen unopposed by progestin was high, 28.1% of all prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: Less than one-fifth of the study population used HRT for more than 3 months per year, and only 32.8% of the women who were new users of HRT in 1992 continued this therapy throughout the study period.  (+info)

Differential effect of transdermal estrogen plus progestagen replacement therapy on insulin metabolism in postmenopausal women: relation to their insulinemic secretion. (7/1512)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on glucose and insulin metabolism of transdermal estrogen patches before and after the addition of cyclic dydrogesterone in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: We studied 21 postmenopausal women seeking treatment for symptomatic menopause. All patients received transdermal 50 micrograms/day estradiol for 24 weeks. After 12 weeks of treatment, 10 mg/day dydrogesterone were added. METHODS: During both regimens, insulin and C-peptide plasma concentrations were evaluated after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); insulin sensitivity was evaluated by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT were expressed as area under the curve (AUC) and as incremental AUC; insulin sensitivity was expressed as mg/kg body weight. Fractional hepatic insulin extraction (FHIE) was estimated by the difference between the incremental AUC of the C-peptide and insulin divided by the incremental AUC of the C-peptide. Plasma hormone and lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Nine patients proved to be hyperinsulinemic and 12 were normoinsulinemic. Transdermal estrogen treatment significantly decreased the insulin AUC (P < 0.05) and the insulin incremental AUC in hyperinsulinemic patients; addition of dydrogesterone further decreased both the AUC and incremental AUC of insulin. Estrogen alone and combined with dydrogesterone evoked a significant increase in C-peptide AUC in hyperinsulinemic (79.2%) and normoinsulinemic (113%) patients. The treatment increased the values for FHIE and insulin sensitivity in all patients (P < 0.04) and in the hyperinsulinemic group (P < 0.01), whereas it did not affect such parameters in normoinsulinemic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transdermal estrogen substitution alone and combined with cyclical dydrogesterone may ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in a selected population of postmenopausal women.  (+info)

Combined oestrogen-progestogen replacement therapy does not inhibit low-density lipoprotein oxidation in postmenopausal women. (8/1512)

AIMS: The use of oestrogen containing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is related to a significantly reduced atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. Oestrogen is thought to be antioxidant and may inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro. We investigated the effect of combined oestrogen and progestogen HRT on LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Eighteen healthy women were given oestrogen/progestogen, and the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was measured as the level of autoantibody to oxidative modified LDL and the production of conjugated dienes during copper-dependent oxidation after 3 and 6 months HRT. The levels of vitamin E, the major antioxidant in LDL, were also measured. RESULTS: After HRT, the anti-oxidatively modified LDL antibody level remained unchanged [1.58+/-0.16, 0.10 (-0.10, 0.26), and 0.08 (-0.09, 0.19), mean+/-s.d. at baseline, and mean change with 95% confidence intervals for differences at 3 and 6 months, respectively, P>0.05] as did the production of conjugated dienes when determined as lag phase [51.2+/-7.5, -0.3 (-3.9, 3.3), and 1.5 (-3.4, 6.4) min, P>0.05]. The LDL vitamin E content, measured as alpha-tocopherol, was also not altered [2.34+/-0.54, -0.07 (-0.27, 0.13), and -0.07 (-0.33, 0.16) nmol mg(-1) LDL, P>0.05] by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Combined oestrogen and progestogen therapy for 6 months in postmenopausal women does not protect LDL against oxidation.  (+info)

Endometrial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of endometrial neoplasm is endometrial hyperplasia, which is a condition where the endometrium grows too thick and can become cancerous if left untreated. Other types of endometrial neoplasms include endometrial adenocarcinoma, which is the most common type of uterine cancer, and endometrial sarcoma, which is a rare type of uterine cancer that develops in the muscle or connective tissue of the uterus.

Endometrial neoplasms can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic mutations, and exposure to certain chemicals or radiation. Risk factors for developing endometrial neoplasms include obesity, early onset of menstruation, late onset of menopause, never being pregnant or having few or no full-term pregnancies, and taking hormone replacement therapy or other medications that can increase estrogen levels.

Symptoms of endometrial neoplasms can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain or discomfort. Treatment for endometrial neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the condition, and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. In some cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be necessary.

In summary, endometrial neoplasms are abnormal growths that can develop in the lining of the uterus and can be either benign or malignant. They can be caused by a variety of factors and can cause symptoms such as abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain. Treatment depends on the type and stage of the condition, and may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.

The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back

Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Preventative measures for coronary disease include:

* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.

BDD can affect any aspect of a person's appearance, but the most common areas of concern are the face, skin, and body shape. The prevalence of BDD varies widely depending on the population and gender, with an estimated 1-2% of the general population meeting criteria for BDD at some point in their lives.

There are several subtypes of BDD, including:

1. Body dysmorphic disorder-focused (BDD-F): Characterized by a preoccupation with a specific body part or feature, such as acne, scars, or nose shape.
2. Body dysmorphic disorder-multiplicity (BDD-M): Involves multiple areas of the body that are perceived as flawed.
3. Body dysmorphic disorder-somatic (BDD-S): Features somatic symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, in addition to the preoccupation with appearance.

The exact cause of BDD is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or exposure and response prevention (ERP) therapy.

In addition to the diagnostic criteria outlined in the DSM-5, there are several clinical features that may be present in individuals with BDD, including:

1. Distress: The preoccupation with one's appearance causes significant distress or impairment in daily functioning.
2. Impairment: The preoccupation with one's appearance interferes with social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.
3. Duration: The preoccupation with one's appearance has been present for at least 1 month (although some individuals may experience symptoms for longer periods of time).
4. Functional impairment: Individuals with BDD may experience significant impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning as a result of their preoccupation with their appearance.
5. Avoidance: Individuals with BDD may avoid social situations or activities due to feelings of shame or embarrassment about their perceived flaws.
6. Rituals: Individuals with BDD may engage in ritualistic behaviors, such as excessive grooming or skin picking, in an attempt to correct or hide their perceived flaws.
7. Secrecy: Individuals with BDD may keep their preoccupation and behaviors secret, as they may be ashamed of their appearance or fear judgment from others.
8. Avoidance of mirrors: Some individuals with BDD may avoid looking in mirrors or other reflective surfaces due to the distress caused by their perceived flaws.
9. Camouflaging: Individuals with BDD may use makeup, clothing, or other items to cover up or hide their perceived flaws.
10. Seeking reassurance: Individuals with BDD may seek constant reassurance from others about their appearance, as they may feel that their perceived flaws are a reflection of their worth as a person.

It is important to note that individuals with BDD may experience significant distress and impairment in their daily lives, and may benefit from seeking professional treatment. Treatment for BDD typically includes a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication.

During menopause, the levels of estrogen in the body decrease significantly, which can lead to a loss of bone density and an increased risk of developing osteoporosis. Other risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis include:

* Family history of osteoporosis
* Early menopause (before age 45)
* Poor diet or inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake
* Sedentary lifestyle or lack of exercise
* Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants
* Other medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and liver or kidney disease.

Postmenopausal osteoporosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, which can determine the density of bones and detect any loss of bone mass. Treatment options for postmenopausal osteoporosis typically involve a combination of medications and lifestyle changes, such as:

* Bisphosphonates, which help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which can help to replace the estrogen that is lost during menopause and improve bone density
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which mimic the effects of estrogen on bone density but have fewer risks than HRT
* RANK ligand inhibitors, which can help to slow down bone loss and reduce the risk of fractures
* Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues, which can help to increase bone density and improve bone quality.

It is important for women to discuss their individual risks and benefits with their healthcare provider when determining the best course of treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Additionally, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and avoiding substances that can harm bone health (such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption) can also help to manage the condition.

Fabry disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to produce a substance called alpha-galactosidase A, which is essential for the breakdown of certain fats in the body. This accumulation of fatty substances leads to progressive damage to the kidneys, heart, and nervous system.

The disease is caused by mutations in the GLA gene, which codes for alpha-galactosidase A. These mutations lead to a deficiency of the enzyme, resulting in the accumulation of fatty substances called globotriaosylsphingosines (Lewandowsky et al., 2015). The symptoms of Fabry disease can vary in severity and may include:

* Pain and cramping in the hands and feet
* Skin rashes and lesions
* Eye problems, such as cataracts and glaucoma
* Heart problems, such as hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy
* Kidney problems, such as proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome
* Cognitive impairment and dementia

Fabry disease is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. There is currently no cure for Fabry disease, but various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include:

* Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant alpha-galactosidase A
* Chaperone therapy to enhance the activity of the enzyme
* Pain management with medication and other therapies
* Dialysis or kidney transplantation for advanced kidney disease

Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve the quality of life for individuals with Fabry disease, but it is important to note that the disease can be challenging to diagnose and manage, and ongoing research is needed to improve our understanding of its causes and to develop more effective treatments.


Lewandowsky, F., Sunderkötter, C., & Rübe, C. E. (2017). Fabry disease: A review of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6(2), 34. doi: 10.3390/jcm6020034

Sunderkötter, C., & Rübe, C. E. (2018). Fabry disease: From clinical symptoms to molecular therapies. European Journal of Medical Genetics, 61(1), 15–27. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.02.003

Tfabry, D., & Rübe, C. E. (2019). Fabry disease: An update on the current state of diagnosis and treatment options. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 42(2), 245–256. doi: 10.1007/s10545-018-0138-6

The definition of AKI has evolved over time, and it is now defined as a syndrome characterized by an abrupt or rapid decrease in kidney function, with or without oliguria (decreased urine production), and with evidence of tubular injury. The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria are commonly used to diagnose and stage AKI based on serum creatinine levels, urine output, and other markers of kidney damage.

There are three stages of AKI, with stage 1 representing mild injury and stage 3 representing severe and potentially life-threatening injury. Treatment of AKI typically involves addressing the underlying cause, correcting fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and providing supportive care to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove waste products from the blood.

Early detection and treatment of AKI are crucial to prevent long-term damage to the kidneys and improve outcomes for patients.

Turner syndrome occurs in approximately 1 in every 2,500 to 3,000 live female births and is more common in girls born to older mothers. The symptoms of Turner syndrome can vary widely and may include:

* Short stature and delayed growth and development
* Infertility or lack of menstruation (amenorrhea)
* Heart defects, such as a narrowed aorta or a hole in the heart
* Eye problems, such as cataracts, glaucoma, or crossed eyes
* Hearing loss or deafness
* Bone and joint problems, such as scoliosis or clubfoot
* Cognitive impairments, including learning disabilities and memory problems
* Delayed speech and language development
* Poor immune function, leading to recurrent infections

Turner syndrome is usually diagnosed at birth or during childhood, based on physical characteristics such as short stature, low muscle tone, or heart defects. Chromosomal analysis can also confirm the diagnosis.

There is no cure for Turner syndrome, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. Hormone replacement therapy may be used to stimulate growth and development in children, while adults with the condition may require ongoing hormone therapy to maintain bone density and prevent osteoporosis. Surgery may be necessary to correct heart defects or other physical abnormalities. Speech and language therapy can help improve communication skills, and cognitive training may be beneficial for learning disabilities.

The long-term outlook for individuals with Turner syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any additional health problems. With proper medical care and support, many women with Turner syndrome can lead fulfilling lives, but they may face unique challenges related to fertility, heart health, and other issues.

Examples of syndromes include:

1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that affects intellectual and physical development.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a missing or partially deleted X chromosome that affects physical growth and development in females.
3. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder affecting the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and cardiovascular problems.
4. Alzheimer's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality and behavior.
5. Parkinson's disease: A neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement.
6. Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to infertility and other physical characteristics.
7. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, characterized by cardiovascular problems, developmental delays, and a distinctive facial appearance.
8. Fragile X syndrome: The most common form of inherited intellectual disability, caused by an expansion of a specific gene on the X chromosome.
9. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a defect in the hypothalamus, leading to problems with appetite regulation and obesity.
10. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dry eyes and mouth.

Syndromes can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for a syndrome depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms and signs presented by the patient.

Types of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:

1. Turner Syndrome: A condition where a female has only one X chromosome instead of two (45,X).
2. Klinefelter Syndrome: A condition where a male has an extra X chromosome (47,XXY) or an extra Y chromosome (47,XYYY).
3. XXX Syndrome: A rare condition where a female has three X chromosomes instead of two.
4. XYY Syndrome: A rare condition where a male has an extra Y chromosome (48,XYY).
5. Mosaicism: A condition where a person has a mixture of cells with different numbers of sex chromosomes.

Effects of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:

Sex chromosome aberrations can cause a range of physical and developmental abnormalities, such as short stature, infertility, and reproductive problems. They may also increase the risk of certain health conditions, including:

1. Congenital heart defects
2. Cognitive impairments
3. Learning disabilities
4. Developmental delays
5. Increased risk of infections and autoimmune disorders

Diagnosis of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:

Sex chromosome aberrations can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Karyotyping: A test that involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes.
2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH): A test that uses fluorescent probes to detect specific DNA sequences on chromosomes.
3. Chromosomal microarray analysis: A test that looks for changes in the number or structure of chromosomes by analyzing DNA from blood or other tissues.
4. Next-generation sequencing (NGS): A test that analyzes an individual's entire genome to identify specific genetic variations, including sex chromosome aberrations.

Treatment and Management of Sex Chromosome Aberrations:

There is no cure for sex chromosome aberrations, but there are various treatments and management options available to help alleviate symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include:

1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): To address hormonal imbalances and related symptoms.
2. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): Such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), to help individuals with infertility or pregnancy complications.
3. Prenatal testing: To identify sex chromosome aberrations in fetuses, allowing parents to make informed decisions about their pregnancies.
4. Counseling and support: To help individuals and families cope with the emotional and psychological impact of a sex chromosome abnormality diagnosis.
5. Surgeries or other medical interventions: To address related health issues, such as infertility, reproductive tract abnormalities, or genital ambiguity.

It's important to note that each individual with a sex chromosome aberration may require a unique treatment plan tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. A healthcare provider can work with the individual and their family to develop a personalized plan that takes into account their medical, emotional, and social considerations.

In conclusion, sex chromosome aberrations are rare genetic disorders that can have significant implications for an individual's physical, emotional, and social well-being. While there is no cure for these conditions, advances in diagnostic testing and treatment options offer hope for improving the lives of those affected. With proper medical care, support, and understanding, individuals with sex chromosome aberrations can lead fulfilling lives.

Ruggiero, Ronald J.; Likis, Frances E. (2002). "Estrogen: physiology, pharmacology, and formulations for replacement therapy". ... Estrogen is a critical sex hormone for women (in conjunction with progesterone). Estrogen is responsible for all different ... This termination of menses is associated with a dramatic drop in estrogen levels. The estrogen levels stated previously ... Androgen-dependent condition Estrogen insensitivity syndrome "Estrogen: Hormone, Function, Levels & Imbalances". Cleveland ...
... hormone therapy, or antiestrogen therapy (not to be confused with hormone replacement therapy). Certain foods such as soy may ... 3. Estrogen preparations and combination preparations]" [Estrogen therapy in practice. 3. Estrogen preparations and combination ... 0.3 with continuous estrogen-progestogen therapy). Continuous estrogen-progestogen therapy is more protective than sequential ... Menopausal hormone therapy with replacement dosages of estrogens and progestogens has been associated with a significantly ...
"Transdermal estrogens in the changing landscape of hormone replacement therapy". Postgraduate Medicine. 129 (6): 632-636. doi: ... Estrogen therapies, including the use of an estrogen patch, can be used to alleviate these symptoms by increasing estrogen ... Premenopausal women may be recommended to take progestin with estrogen therapy. Estrogen patches may be effective in preventing ... An estrogen patch (oestrogen patch) is a transdermal delivery system for estrogens such as estradiol and ethinylestradiol which ...
Estrogen Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a kind of hormone replacement therapy. Its goal is to mitigate discomfort caused by ... Estrogen Replacement Therapy has shown some positive effects with postmenopausal women. Estrogen and estrogen-like molecules ... These unexpected diseases hindered estrogen to get involved in neurodegenerative disease therapy. So, when applying estrogen- ... Plant Estrogens (Phytoestrogens); 3) Fungi Estrogens (Mycoestrogens) and 4) Synthetic Estrogens (xenoestrogens). Xenoestrogens ...
Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel (2007). The Estrogen Elixir: A History of Hormone Replacement Therapy in America. Baltimore: Johns ... Robinson, Roger W (1958). "Estrogen Replacement Therapy in women with coronary atherosclerosis". Annals of Internal Medicine. ... Robinson, Roger W (1956). "Effects of Estrogen Therapy on Hormonal Functions and Serum Lipids in Men with Coronary ... His research led to the identification of lipid-lowering effects of the female hormone estrogen and he performed the earliest ...
Ruggiero RJ, Likis FE (2002). "Estrogen: physiology, pharmacology, and formulations for replacement therapy". Journal of ... Estrone is an estrogen, specifically an agonist of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. It is a far less potent estrogen than is ... The Estrogen Elixir: A History of Hormone Replacement Therapy in America. JHU Press. pp. 21-. ISBN 978-0-8018-8602-7. Gregory ... It is one of three major endogenous estrogens, the others being estradiol and estriol. Estrone, as well as the other estrogens ...
Ruggiero RJ, Likis FE (2002). "Estrogen: physiology, pharmacology, and formulations for replacement therapy". J Midwifery ... Wolf AS, Schneider HP (1989). Östrogene in Diagnostik und Therapie [Estrogens in Diagnostics and Therapy]. Springer-Verlag. pp ... Estradiol is a naturally occurring and bioidentical estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of ... Oettel M, Schillinger E (1999). Estrogens and Antiestrogens I: Physiology and Mechanisms of Action of Estrogens and ...
It is associated with hormone replacement therapy (estrogen). The risk is higher in white women than other ethnicities, ...
Ruggiero RJ, Likis FE (2002). "Estrogen: physiology, pharmacology, and formulations for replacement therapy". Journal of ... "Testosterone inhibits estrogen-induced mammary epithelial proliferation and suppresses estrogen receptor expression". FASEB ... In accordance, replacement of spironolactone with canrenone in male patients has been found to reverse spironolactone-induced ... The medication has also been found to interact very weakly with the estrogen and progesterone receptors, and to act as an ...
"Blood Is Less Sticky With Estrogen Replacement Therapy". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2019-12-18. "Dr. Rosenson on Cholesterol". ... Robert Rosenson: Cholesterol therapy in high-risk CHD patients, retrieved 2019-12-18 "Robert S. Rosenson - Chief, Director, ... Robert S. Rosenson studies the effects of lipid-lowering therapy in different regions of the United States. He researches ... "Lipid-Lowering Therapy in Different Regions of the United States: Insights from Getting to an Improved Understanding of Low- ...
Premarin, a hormone replacement therapy, is a conjugated estrogen. It was first available in the form of a preparation ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Replacement refers to the preferred use of non-animal methods over animal methods whenever it is possible to achieve the same ... PDQ® Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board (23 August 2018). "Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ ...
Uhler, M. L.; Marks, J. W.; Judd, H. L. (May 2000). "Estrogen replacement therapy and gallbladder disease in postmenopausal ... conjugated equine estrogen; CEE) and estrogen-plus-progestin (conjugated equine estrogen with medroxyprogesterone; CEE+MPA ). ... The Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study". Annals of Internal Medicine. 135 (7): 493-501. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-135-7 ... "Effect of estrogen therapy on gallbladder disease" (PDF). JAMA. 293 (3): 330-339. doi:10.1001/jama.293.3.330. ISSN 1538-3598. ...
Elizabeth Siegel Watkins (16 April 2007). The Estrogen Elixir: A History of Hormone Replacement Therapy in America. JHU Press. ... 1953 - Danish endocrinologist Christian Hamburger publishes one of the earliest reports on hormone therapy in transgender women ... and provides free hormone therapy; 1974 Chile allows a trans woman, Marcia Torres, to legally change her name and gender on the ...
Elizabeth Siegel Watkins (6 March 2007). The Estrogen Elixir: A History of Hormone Replacement Therapy in America. JHU Press. ... Estrone is an estrogen, specifically an agonist of the estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERβ. It is a far less potent estrogen ... 1) (Butenandt 1931). Wallach, Edward E.; Hammond, Charles B.; Maxson, Wayne S. (1982). "Current status of estrogen therapy for ... Freed, S. Charles (December 1946). "Some Fundamentals in Estrogen Therapy". California Medicine. 65 (6): 277-278. PMC 1642736. ...
If someone is under Estrogen Replacement Therapy for a long time. Smoking habits may also lead to the same. [2] Treatment:[ ... Radiation therapy to prevent the cancerous cells from developing. The tumor forms in the ovaries and gradually spreads to the ...
Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel (2007). The estrogen elixir : a history of hormone replacement therapy in America. Baltimore: Johns ...
From the 1940s until the late 1980s, DES was FDA-approved as estrogen replacement therapy for estrogen deficiency states such ... 3. Estrogen preparations and combination preparations]" [Estrogen therapy in practice. 3. Estrogen preparations and combination ... Watkins ES (16 April 2007). The Estrogen Elixir: A History of Hormone Replacement Therapy in America. JHU Press. pp. 26-. ISBN ... DES is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. It is a ...
She began her estrogen hormone replacement therapy when she was 18. She had undergone silicone and electrolysis treatment. ...
Estrogen replacement may interfere with growth hormone therapy, due to the closing effects of estrogen on growth plates; ... Estrogen replacement therapy such as the birth control pill, has been used since the condition was described in 1938 to promote ... Estrogen replacement therapy can promote development of the breasts and hips. Medical care is often required to manage other ... Pregnancy in Turner syndrome is inherently high-risk; the maternal death rate is 2%. Usually, estrogen replacement therapy is ...
Speth RC, D'Ambra M, Ji H, Sandberg K (December 2018). "A heartfelt message, estrogen replacement therapy: use it or lose it". ... Hodis HN, Mack WJ (July 2014). "Hormone replacement therapy and the association with coronary heart disease and overall ... Gordon JL, Girdler SS (December 2014). "Hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of perimenopausal depression". Curr ... "Estrogen plus progestin therapy and breast cancer in recently postmenopausal women". Am J Epidemiol. 167 (10): 1207-16. doi: ...
Sherwin BB (1988). "Affective changes with estrogen and androgen replacement therapy in surgically menopausal women". J Affect ... EDE is an estrogen and hence is an agonist of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. It is ... "Estrogen and/or androgen replacement therapy and cognitive functioning in surgically menopausal women". ... Sherwin BB, Gelfand MM, Schucher R, Gabor J (February 1987). "Postmenopausal estrogen and androgen replacement and lipoprotein ...
Sherwin BB (1988). "Estrogen and/or androgen replacement therapy and cognitive functioning in surgically menopausal women". ... Sherwin BB (1988). "Affective changes with estrogen and androgen replacement therapy in surgically menopausal women". J Affect ... Sherwin BB, Gelfand MM, Schucher R, Gabor J (February 1987). "Postmenopausal estrogen and androgen replacement and lipoprotein ... 641-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Al-Imari L, Wolfman WL (September 2012). "The safety of testosterone therapy in women". J Obstet ...
Likewise, post-menopausal estrogen replacement is safe in patients with prolactinoma treated with medical therapy or surgery.[ ... They may also want to discuss testosterone/estrogen replacement therapy with their physician.[citation needed] If a woman has ... If medical therapy is only partially successful, this therapy should continue, possibly combined with surgery or radiation ... Hyperprolactinemia can cause reduced estrogen production in women and reduced testosterone production in men. Although estrogen ...
... implicating high levels of estrogen and progesterone in this effect. Hormone replacement therapy Estrogen deprivation therapy ... High-dose estrogen (HDE) is a type of hormone therapy in which high doses of estrogens are given. When given in combination ... The following steroidal estrogens have been used in HDE therapy: Conjugated estrogens (Premarin) Estradiol and estradiol esters ... Estrogens are agonists of the estrogen receptors (ERs), the biological target of endogenous estrogens such as estradiol. When ...
Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen likely increases the risk of ovarian cancer. The association has ... Estrogen receptor beta gene (ESR2) seems to be a key to pathogenesis and response to therapy. Other genes that have been ... Both obesity and hormone replacement therapy also raise the risk. The risk of developing ovarian cancer is less for women who ... but this risk returns to normal after cessation of therapy. Estrogen HRT with or without progestins increases the risk of ...
Estrogen replacement therapy is critical to minimize bone mineral density deficiencies later in life. Some have hypothesized ... Data has been published that suggests affected women who were not compliant with estrogen replacement therapy, or who had a ... Progestin replacement therapy is seldom initiated, due to the absence of a uterus. Androgen replacement has been reported to ... Areas of management include sex assignment, genitoplasty, gonadectomy in relation to tumor risk, hormone replacement therapy, ...
Oelkers WH (October 2005). "Drospirenone in combination with estrogens: for contraception and hormone replacement therapy". ... "Oral oestrogen and combined oestrogen/progestogen therapy versus placebo for hot flushes". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... Drospirenone has also been used in combination with an estrogen as a component of hormone therapy for transgender women. ... Torgerson, D. J.; Bell-Syer, S. E. (13 June 2001). "Hormone replacement therapy and prevention of nonvertebral fractures: a ...
Patients on hormone replacement therapy may have more estrogen-related side effects when taking prasterone. This supplement may ... The putative role and use of DHEA and its association with the hormone replacement therapy]". Minerva Ginecol (in Italian). 66 ... The compound is a naturally occurring prohormone of androgens and estrogens and hence is an agonist of the androgen and ... Genazzani AR, Pluchino N (August 2010). "DHEA therapy in postmenopausal women: the need to move forward beyond the lack of ...
In addition, PEP is used in hormone replacement therapy for low estrogen levels due to hypogonadism or menopause in women. It ... Mazer NA (2004). "Interaction of estrogen therapy and thyroid hormone replacement in postmenopausal women". Thyroid. 14 Suppl 1 ... PEP is an estrogen and hence is an agonist of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. It is ... Oral estrogen therapy is as effective as orchiectomy in terms of cancer inhibitory effect, but its acceptance as primary ...
Obesity increases the risk for endometrial cancer by 300-400%. Estrogen replacement therapy during menopause when not balanced ... Unopposed estrogen raises an individual's risk of endometrial cancer by 2-10 fold, depending on weight and length of therapy. ... Higher doses or longer periods of estrogen therapy have higher risks of endometrial cancer. Women of lower weight are at ... There is insufficient evidence to inform women considering hormone replacement therapy after treatment for endometrial cancer. ...
... a form of hormone replacement therapy, with the objective to induce puberty. Utilizing sex steroids as hormonal therapy is ... if maternal placenta estrogen is present without DHT, then the development of female external genitalia occurs. Development of ... surgical opportunities and hormone replacement therapy in the course of puberty. There are other factors considered during this ... hormone therapy). Infants born with atypical genitalia often cause confusion and distress for the family. Psychosexual ...
Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Hormone replacement therapy After Breast cancer - Is iT Safe? (HABITS) ... Perimenopausal Estrogen Replacement Therapy Study (PERT) Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Stockholm Trial ... Estrogen in Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial (EPAT) Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis (ERA) Estrogen in Venous ... The following is a list of notable clinical studies of menopausal hormone therapy (estrogen and/or progestogen therapy) in ...
Estrogen. Indications/Usage: Menopausal symptoms; postmenopausal symptoms; posthysterectomy symptoms; estrogen replacement. How ... is an estrogen medication which was previously used in menopausal hormone therapy (i.e., to treat menopausal symptoms in ... We have the following oral estrogens for a treatment. (t) Conjugated estrogens, (2) estradiol valerate, (3) ethinyl-estradiol ... PE3P has been used at a dosage of 40 to 80 mg by intramuscular injection once every 4 to 8 weeks in menopausal hormone therapy ...
Estrogens were discovered in 1929, and beginning in 1936, a variety of estradiol esters, such as estradiol benzoate and ... In fact, esterification involves the replacement of a hydroxyl group with an alkoxy group, and unlike estradiol and ... Weber, Georg F. (22 July 2015). Molecular Therapies of Cancer. Springer. pp. 316-. ISBN 978-3-319-13278-5. Roberts, Stanley M ... Although esters of steroidal androgens and estrogens are generally inactive themselves and act as prodrugs, the same is not ...
... see the androgen replacement therapy and anabolic steroid articles. The main subset of androgens, known as adrenal androgens, ... Moreover, estrogens had no effect. This research demonstrates how androgens can increase AHN. Researchers also examined how ... Also, androgens are the precursors to estrogens in both men and women. In addition to their role as natural hormones, androgens ... It is the primary precursor of both the androgen and estrogen sex hormones. DHEA is also called dehydroisoandrosterone or ...
... protein levels decreased in mice that did not produce estrogen and increased in the hypothalamus after estrogen-replacement ... One study by Karen Overall discovered that by combining behavioral therapy with the more effective clomipramine, the symptoms ... Estrogen deficiency in male mice Based on findings of changes in OCD symptoms in menstruating women and differences in the ... Hill RA; McInnes KJ; Gong EC; Jones ME; Simpson ER; Boon WC (February 2007). "Estrogen deficient male mice develop compulsive ...
Increasing levels of androgen and estrogen have an effect on the thought processes of adolescents and have been described as ... below the natural replacement and the third lowest in independent countries of the Americas, after Canada and Cuba. A 2013 ... Therapy. 42 (1-2): 195-209. doi:10.1300/J015v24n01_21. S2CID 142540904. Stone, Nicole; Hatherall, Bethan; Ingham, Roger; ... combination birth control pills with both estrogen and progestin, are 80% more likely to be prescribed an antidepressant than ...
Non-surgical treatment may involve radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, external beam radiation therapy, and ... Huggins CB, Hodges CV (1941). "Studies on prostate cancer: 1. The effects of castration, of estrogen and androgen injection on ... The study concluded that PSMA PET/CT is a suitable replacement for conventional imaging. Sclerosis of the bones of the thoracic ... Hormonal therapy is used for some early-stage tumors. Cryotherapy (the process of freezing the tumor), hormonal therapy, and ...
He has been criticized in the media for his controversial views on topics like bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and ... North American Menopause, Society (2010). "Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of the ... safer or more efficacious than commonly used synthetic versions in hormone replacement therapy?". Postgraduate Medicine. 121 (1 ... FDA approved therapies for the treatment of fibromyalgia include Cymbalta (duloxetine hydrochloride), Lyrica (pregabalin), and ...
... a genetic disorder Women receiving estrogen therapy for menopausal symptoms[citation needed] Estrogen-containing oral ... replacement by radioactive phosphate groups) in order to measure the presence of the labeled DNA through further steps in the ... doi:10.1007/978-1-4613-2970-1_9. ISBN 978-1-4613-2972-5. Mueller MN, Kappas A (October 1964). "Estrogen pharmacology. I. The ... Paget's disease Sarcoidosis Hyperthyroidism Hyperparathyroidism Myocardial infarction Pregnancy Very high doses of estrogens ...
... , also called hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT), is a ... "Information on Estrogen Hormone Therapy , Transgender Care". Retrieved 2019-08-07. "Overview of feminizing ... Feminizing hormone therapy - for transgender women or transfeminine people; consists of estrogens and antiandrogens. Some ... Masculinizing hormone therapy usually includes testosterone to produce masculinization and suppress the production of estrogen ...
Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... "Novel perspectives for progesterone in hormone replacement therapy, with special reference to the nervous system". Endocr. Rev ... High-dose estrogen therapy, which results in marked or complete suppression of testicular testosterone production such that ... However, sexual function and activity appear to be significantly better with high-dose estrogen therapy than with surgical ...
These adverse effects can be counteracted and treated by add-back therapy, also known as hormone replacement therapy. People ... These hormones are responsible for the synthesis of steroid sex hormones (testosterone in men; progesterone and estrogen in ... gender-affirming hormone therapy and blood pressure: a systematic review". Journal of Hypertension. 39 (2): 223-230. doi: ... treated with GnRH agonists are suggested to undergo this therapy simultaneously by taking adequate progestin, vitamin D, and ...
The first targeted therapies blocked the estrogen receptor molecule, inhibiting the growth of breast cancer. Another common ... Women who take hormone replacement therapy have a higher risk of developing cancers associated with those hormones. On the ... The primary ones include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy and palliative care. ... As with chemotherapy, cancers vary in their response to radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is used in about half of cases. ...
They wrote that while testosterone replacement therapy often resulted in side effects such as transference risk, supranormal ... antagonizing the estrogen receptors in the pituitary gland, disrupting the negative feedback loop by estrogen towards the ... It works differently from traditional testosterone replacement therapy, which replaces testosterone using an exogenous source. ... "Exogenous testosterone replacement therapy versus raising endogenous testosterone levels: current and future prospects". F&S ...
... of estrogen receptor β A1730G polymorphism on ABCA1 gene expression response to postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy". ... Endogenous estrogens (e.g., estradiol, estrone, estriol, estetrol) Natural estrogens (e.g., conjugated estrogens) Synthetic ... Thus, estrogen therapy via an ERβ-targeted approach can be used as a prevention method for AD either before or at the onset of ... "Differential response of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta to partial estrogen agonists/antagonists". ...
Post-menopausal under hormone replacement therapy have also reported symptoms of fibrocystic breast changes indicating hormones ... The most important of these hormones include: estrogen, progesterone and prolactin. These hormones directly affect the breast ... contraception and hormone replacement therapy". Minerva Ginecologica. 64 (1): 67-74. PMID 22334232. Ethel Sloane, Biology of ... whether benign breast conditions improve or worsen with the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Small- ...
Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Stanczyk FZ (2002). "Pharmacokinetics and potency of progestins used for hormone replacement therapy and contraception". Rev ... The medication is available only in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Etynodiol diacetate is a progestin, or ... Etynodiol diacetate is used in combination with an estrogen such as ethinylestradiol or mestranol in combined oral ...
... is a nonsteroidal estrogen which was previously used for estrogen replacement therapy and in the treatment of certain hormone- ... Hexestrol has been used in estrogen replacement therapy, for the treatment of breast cancer in women and prostate cancer in men ... Campbell, N.R.; Dodds, E.C.; Lawson, W.; Noble, R.L. (1939). "Biological effects of the synthetic œstrogen hexœstrol". The ... Hexestrol has approximately 302% and 234% of the affinity of estradiol for the estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERβ, ...
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the major form of treatment with the aim to replace the missing testosterone or oestrogen ... Sex hormone replacement (testosterone or oestrogen & progesterone). Gonadotropin therapy (medications that replicate the ... For females, hormone replacement involves the use of oestrogen and progesterone. Firstly, oestrogen is used in tablet or gel ... In males, testosterone replacement therapy is required for the maintenance of normal muscle mass. Early treatment is sometimes ...
Supportive therapy should be given to all patients experiencing an overdose and urine output should be monitored. Supplemental ... In addition, the drug has been identified as a potent aromatase inhibitor, and suppresses estrogen concentrations. These ... "Gambling disorder during dopamine replacement treatment in Parkinson's disease: a comprehensive review". BioMed Research ... In general, serum or plasma valproic acid concentrations are in a range of 20-100 mg/L during controlled therapy, but may reach ...
Jorgensen stayed in Denmark and underwent hormone replacement therapy under Hamburger's direction. She chose the name Christine ... She began taking estrogen in the form of ethinylestradiol and started researching the surgery with the help of Joseph Angelo, ... a Danish endocrinologist and specialist in rehabilitative hormonal therapy. ...
... patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia or microadenoma can be treated with estrogen replacement therapy and prolactin ... Patients with hypothyroidism should be given thyroid hormone replacement therapy. When symptoms are present, medical therapy is ... can easily initiate therapy and provide follow-up. However, given the time constraints of modern ambulatory medicine, ... tumors resistant to medical therapy, patients who have persistent visual field defects in spite of medical treatment, and ...
Further studies have also found that oestrogen replacement in women lowers the WHR in pre- and post-menopausal women, and that ... Genazzani, A. R.; Gambacciani, M. (2006). "Effect of climacteric transition and hormone replacement therapy on body weight and ... this is because oestrogen replacement maintains gynoid fat distribution in the body. Both android and gynoid fat are found in ... This process is modulated by estrogen, the female sex hormone, causing the female form to store higher levels of fat than the ...
... which has been studied for use in hormone replacement therapy for ovariectomized women and as a hormonal contraceptive in ... is an estrogen medication and an estrogen ester - specifically, the 17β-cyclooctylacetate ester of estradiol - ... List of estrogen esters § Estradiol esters Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela; Rosato, Elena; Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, ... Dahlgren E, Crona N, Janson PO, Samsioe G (1985). "Oral replacement with estradiol-cyclooctyl acetate: a new estradiol analogue ...
... is used in combination with an estrogen in menopausal hormone therapy. It is used under the brand name Klimonorm ... Meikle AW (1 June 1999). Hormone Replacement Therapy. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 383-. ISBN 978-1-59259-700-0. ... Kubíková D (2014). "[Menopausal symptoms and hormone replacement therapy]" (PDF). Praktické Lékárenství. 10 (2): 68-73. " ... "Bioavailability of orally administered sex steroids used in oral contraception and hormone replacement therapy". Contraception ...
... estrogen-only HRT appears to reduce the risk of breast cancer. ... While some forms of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have been ... Its still not clear why estrogen-only therapies and therapies that use a combination of estrogen and progestin appear to have ... Estrogen-Only Hormone Replacement Therapy May Reduce Breast Cancer Risk. News By Rachael Rettner ... Women in the study who took estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for six years were 23 percent less likely to ...
International study of hormone replacement therapy (‎HRT)‎ announced : reports on individual drugs  ... "Estrogen Replacement Therapy". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Hormone Replacement Therapy): learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no ... Before taking hormone replacement therapy,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to estrogen, progestin, or any ... Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy). pronounced as (ess troe jen) (pro jes tin) ...
... mainly when estrogen is included) may precipitate the development of Budd-Chiari syndrome in patients with underlying ... Hepatic vascular involvement related to pregnancy, oral contraceptives, and estrogen replacement therapy Jean-Marc Perarnau 1 ... Hepatic vascular involvement related to pregnancy, oral contraceptives, and estrogen replacement therapy Jean-Marc Perarnau et ... Both pregnancy and oral contraception (mainly when estrogen is included) may precipitate the development of Budd-Chiari ...
Estrogen Replacement Therapy -- history ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Estrogen Replacement Therapy -- history ... Estrogen Replacement Therapy -- history. Aging -- drug effects. Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) -- therapeutic use. Testosterone ... Estrogen Replacement Therapy -- history✖[remove]1. *Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) -- therapeutic use1 ...
keywords = "Estrogen replacement therapy, hormones, menopause",. author = "Derby, {Carol A.} and Hune, {Anne Lamont} and ... Prior and current health characteristics of postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy users compared with nonusers. / Derby, ... Prior and current health characteristics of postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy users compared with nonusers. American ... Prior and current health characteristics of postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy users compared with nonusers. In: ...
Giving lower doses of estrogen and progesterone during hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in combination with calcium and ... The effect of low-dose continuous estrogen and progesterone therapy with calcium and vitamin D on bone in elderly women. Annals ... "Since estrogen is the first line of defense against osteoporosis," she says, "its critical to use the lowest effective dose ... The present study shows the efficacy of low-dose estrogen for women who are well past menopause; its effect in younger women ...
Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow-up among ... Estrogen Replacement Therapy* / adverse effects * Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) / adverse effects * Estrogens, Conjugated (USP ... Design: Estrogen plus progestin component of the Womens Health Initiative, a randomized controlled primary prevention trial ( ... Conclusions: Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow ...
Estrogen replacement therapy. *Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine. Shingles can lead to pain in the ...
Estrogen: Types, Replacement Therapies, and Side Effects. Three main types of estrogen are estrone, estradiol, and estriol. A ... Study Compares Safety of Estrogen Patches, Pills, and Creams for Menopausal Symptoms. ... "horticultural therapy," and there is some preliminary evidence to back up calming effects of greenery: A small study involving ...
Can hormone replacement therapy cause breast cancer? Can hormone replacement therapy cause existing cancers to grow more ... Next post Talking to your Doctor about Vaginal Pain, Estrogen, Menopause, and Hormone Replacement Therapy! ... James A. Simon discusses hormone replacement therapy and the connection between HRT, menopause and breast cancer. ...
Hormone replacement therapy that contains estrogen. *Family history of blood clots. *Trauma, particularly when the vein is ...
However, if estrogen levels exceed healthy norms issues can develop. ... Estrogen replacement therapy. *Birth control. Additionally, poor metabolization may contribute to estrogen dominance. Depending ... Symptoms of high estrogen in men include:. *Infertility: Estrogen is involved with creating healthy sperm. When estrogen levels ... What is Estrogen Dominance?. Even though estrogen is a necessary component of health in both men and women, too much can cause ...
Estrogen derivative. Class Summary. Used as estrogen replacement therapy.. Estradiol (Estraderm, Estrace, Vivelle, Noven, ... and bind to and activate the nuclear estrogen receptor, a DNA-binding protein found in estrogen-responsive tissues. The ... Medical therapy for patients with luteinizing hormone deficiency varies with respect to cause and if pregnancy is desired. ... Pulsatile GnRH therapy may restore hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis function in patients with congenital combined pituitary ...
Estrogen replacement therapy. Adrenal disorders. *Cushings syndrome (hypercortisolism). *Addisons disease (hypoadrenalism). * ...
estrogen medications and hormone replacement therapies. *blood-thinning and antiplatelet medications. *nonsteroidal anti- ... Those on estrogen or hormone therapies may not be able to take it safely. ... black cohosh is most likely to relieve symptoms related to reductions or imbalances in the hormone estrogen. ... Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 16(1), 36-44. ...
Anxiety in Anorexia Nervosa Can Be Reduced With The Help of Estrogen Replacement Therapy. A new clinical trial finds that ... estrogen replacement therapy is associated with a significant decrease in anxiety symptoms among girls with anorexia nervosa. ...
... fee-for-service coverage with their clinical data from the Womens Health Initiative trials of conjugated equine estrogens plus ... Impact of hormone therapy on Medicare spending in the Womens Health Initiative randomized clinical trials Journal Article ... and the secondary outcomes were spending on diseases hypothesized a priori to be sensitive to the effects of hormone therapy. ...
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). ERT may help balance hormonal levels and restart the menstrual cycle in women with primary ... Radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumor, either in combination with surgery or, for those who cannot have surgery, by ... ERT replaces the estrogen a womans body should be making naturally for a normal menstrual cycle. In addition, ERT may help ... Clomiphene citrate (CC) therapy is often prescribed to help trigger ovulation.4 ...
Estrogen use (hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy). *Hospitalization, surgery, or trauma (recent) ... including combinations of the above with hormone replacement therapy, obesity, or pregnancy) the ASH guideline panel suggests ... Bleeding can be a complication of anticoagulant therapy. The most frequently used injectable anticoagulants are unfractionated ... Prevention of VTE in nonsurgical patients: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th edition: American College ...
Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Estrogens Publication Types: Lecture. Webcast Rights: This is a work of the United States ... Estrogen actions in cardiovascular physiology : 2004 update / Michael E. Mendelsohn. Author: Mendelsohn, Michael E. National ...
Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy) Premphase® (as a combination product containing Conjugated Estrogens, ... Hormone Replacement Therapy/Start Here ... Hormone Replacement Therapy ... Food and Drug Administration ... Use this guide to ... Estrogen Injection ... of prostate (a male reproductive organ) cancer. The conjugated estrogens form of estrogen injection is ... Estrogen Amnestrogen® (esterified estrogens) ... Cenestin® (conjugated synthetic A estrogens) ... Premarin® Tablets (conjugated ...
Concomitant Use with Estrogen/Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) The effects on BMD of treatment with alendronate 10 mg once ... Concomitant Use with Estrogen/Hormone Replacement Therapy In two studies (of one and two years duration) of postmenopausal ... All patients on bisphosphonate therapy should have the need for continued therapy re-evaluated on a periodic basis. Patients at ... but rarely resulted in discontinuation of therapy. Discontinuation of therapy due to any clinical adverse events occurred in ...
Estrogen replacement therapy reduces the risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage in post-menopausal women. Researchers are ... Rehabilitative therapy. Individuals who have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage often need physical, speech, and occupational ... Surgery, endovascular treatments, or other therapies are often recommended to manage symptoms and prevent damage from ... therapy to regain lost function and learn to cope with any permanent disability. ...
Current status of estrogen replacement therapy.. May WJ. Am Fam Physician; 1977 Dec; 16(6):109-13. PubMed ID: 930801. [No ... 7. Estrogen replacement therapy.. Vaughn TC; Hammond CB. Clin Obstet Gynecol; 1981 Mar; 24(1):253-83. PubMed ID: 6783358. [No ... 6. Estrogen replacement therapy: current thinking and practice.. DeFazio J; Speroff L. Geriatrics; 1985 Nov; 40(11):32-7, 40-3 ... Yes or no on estrogen replacement therapy?--a formulation for clinicians.. Kase N. Clin Obstet Gynecol; 1976 Dec; 19(4):825-36 ...
We look at whether smoking causes a reduction in estrogen levels depending on the duration, intensity, and type of smoking, and ... Although you can supplement estrogen levels with hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in smokers, it can increase the risk of ... Nicotine Replacement Therapy. This is one way of providing you with the nicotine but not the other harmful toxins in a ... What Is Estrogen?. Estrogen is a vital hormone that plays multiple roles in the body. In women, it can help to develop and ...
... cancer The common denominator for many of them is their effect on the level and duration of exposure to endogenous estrogen. ... Recent and long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) containing estrogen and progestin ... Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women ... What is the effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on breast cancer risk? ...
... why menopausal women decide to initiate estrogen replacement therapy; identify the influence of maternal diet, exercise habits ... o Qualitatively measure the decision-making processes for declining and chosing therapies in families with a child diagnosed ... active antiretroviral therapy. o Assess physiological/immunological/genetic parameters in ethnically diverse groups with and ...
Postmenopausal Estrogen Progestin Interventions Trial. PERT. Progestin-plus-estrogen replacement therapy. PI. Principal ...
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) helps restore the vaginal milieu and may have a beneficial effect on risk of infection. ... Title: Estrogen replacement therapy and urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women aged 45-89. ... MeSH Terms: Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Case-Control Studies; Confidence Intervals; Estrogen Replacement Therapy*; Female; Health ...
  • Combinations of estrogen and progestin are used to treat certain symptoms of menopause. (
  • Estrogen reduces feelings of warmth in the upper body and periods of sweating and heat (hot flashes), vaginal symptoms (itching, burning, and dryness) and difficulty with urination, but it does not relieve other symptoms of menopause such as nervousness or depression. (
  • Dr. James A. Simon discusses hormone replacement therapy and the connection between HRT, menopause and breast cancer. (
  • Menopause Hormone Therapy: Does It Cause Vaginal Bleeding? (
  • For women in their midlife, lower estrogen levels can worsen menopause symptoms, making many women suffer from anxiety, mood swings, sleeplessness, skin issues, and hot flushes. (
  • We have written this article to link smoking and estrogen levels and inform you nicotine can reduce estrogen levels and contribute to early-onset menopause. (
  • As smoking nicotine is known to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity, this can catalyze the conversion of androgens to estrogens and reduce estrogen levels, leading to early-onset menopause. (
  • As decreasing estrogen can worsen menopause symptoms, smoking can intensify the experience, making the midlife process a lot more intolerant and unpleasant. (
  • This means you will have less time with the protective benefits of estrogen and this can lead to higher chances of developing osteoporosis bone issues, heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and obesity following the menopause period. (
  • The majority of these symptoms can be attributed to the lack of estrogen that characterizes natural or iatrogenically-induced menopause. (
  • 1. [Estrogen therapy and menopause]. (
  • 10. Estrogen replacement in the menopause. (
  • 17. Current status of menopause and postmenopausal estrogen therapy. (
  • When these women were further divided by their estrogen use status after menopause, a negative association between caffeine intake and risk of PD similar to men was observed in those women who had never used estrogen replacement therapy but not in those who had ever used it (Ascherio et al. (
  • It's long been known that young women have a lower risk of heart disease than men, but that risk rises substantially after a woman's estrogen levels drop with menopause. (
  • This was a new approach, since most estrogen replacement therapy is typically offered to women after menopause. (
  • We wanted to test the timing hypothesis: the idea that there's a window of opportunity for taking estrogen so that we could see if we could identify that window, and determine how menopause impacted the response to estrogens," Pyle said. (
  • That tells us that we can't simply place estrogens into a heart years after menopause, because you are now treating a heart that is fundamentally changed. (
  • It also tells us that timing is important, and that we likely need to move the window for offering estrogen therapy back up, offering it much earlier and not waiting for after menopause. (
  • After menopause, estrogen production drops, but it can still be 40-60% of what it was before menopause. (
  • During menopause, a woman's ovaries produce less oestrogen and for three quarters of women this results in hot flushes which can have a serious impact on their quality of life. (
  • One branch of the study looked the effects of taking estrogen and progestin together, but it was halted ahead of schedule in 2002 because the hormone combination was found to increase the risk of breast cancer by 25 percent . (
  • Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking estrogen and progestin. (
  • It's still not clear why estrogen-only therapies and therapies that use a combination of estrogen and progestin appear to have the opposite effect on breast cancer risk. (
  • If you are having surgery or will be on bedrest, talk to your doctor about stopping estrogen and progestin at least 4 to 6 weeks before the surgery or bedrest. (
  • Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. (
  • Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in women who still have their uterus. (
  • Activella, FemHrt, and Prempro come as tablets containing estrogen and progestin. (
  • Take one pink tablet (containing only estrogen) once daily for 3 days, then take one white tablet (containing estrogen and progestin) once daily for 3 days. (
  • Take one maroon tablet (containing only estrogen) once daily on days 1 to 14, and take one light-blue tablet (containing estrogen and progestin) once daily on days 15 to 28. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to estrogen, progestin, or any other medications. (
  • Estrogen plus progestin component of the Women's Health Initiative, a randomized controlled primary prevention trial (planned duration, 8.5 years) in which 16608 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years with an intact uterus at baseline were recruited by 40 US clinical centers in 1993-1998. (
  • On May 31, 2002, after a mean of 5.2 years of follow-up, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping the trial of estrogen plus progestin vs placebo because the test statistic for invasive breast cancer exceeded the stopping boundary for this adverse effect and the global index statistic supported risks exceeding benefits. (
  • Absolute excess risks per 10 000 person-years attributable to estrogen plus progestin were 7 more CHD events, 8 more strokes, 8 more PEs, and 8 more invasive breast cancers, while absolute risk reductions per 10 000 person-years were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures. (
  • Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow-up among healthy postmenopausal US women. (
  • Giving lower doses of estrogen and progesterone during hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in combination with calcium and vitamin D, spares older women significant osteoporotic bone mass loss while limiting HRT's significant side effects, according to a new NIAMS-supported study. (
  • 1999;130:897-904), carried out by Robert R. Recker, M.D., and his colleagues at the NIAMS-sponsored Specialized Center of Research on Osteoporosis at Creighton University, tested a continuous daily regimen of 0.3 milligrams of estrogen (and 2.5 milligrams of progesterone) in women over 65 with low bone mass. (
  • The effect of low-dose continuous estrogen and progesterone therapy with calcium and vitamin D on bone in elderly women. (
  • When it's not in proper proportion to the hormone that balances it, (primarily progesterone), estrogen can be dominant even if levels are low. (
  • Estrogen stimulates cell growth, while progesterone keeps it in check. (
  • Sufficient estrogen is important to good health but, it is dangerous when it exists in excess or it is not balanced by progesterone. (
  • If you are taking estrogen, you should also take natural progesterone for balance. (
  • This means that you should use estrogen WITH progesterone to keep your hormones balanced. (
  • Several hundred times more progesterone normally exists in the healthy adult female than estrogen. (
  • If you are concerned about TOO MUCH ESTROGEN and the associated problems, supplemental natural progesterone will balance your estrogen and its unwanted side effects. (
  • Estrogen and progesterone need each other! (
  • Hello, I'm aware that Dr J Lee recommends using natural progesterone alongside estrogen in order to balance the hormone ratios, but can you tell me if the same applies if using a estriol cream for vaginal atrophy, where the estrogen dose is very low? (
  • Participants received conjugated equine estrogens, 0.625 mg/d, plus medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 mg/d, in 1 tablet (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102). (
  • 65 years old who had Medicare fee-for-service coverage with their clinical data from the Women's Health Initiative trials of conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CEE+MPA) versus placebo and of CEE-alone versus placebo. (
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate whether selection of healthy women for postmenopausal estrogen therapy may confound observational studies of estrogen use and cardiovascular disease risk. (
  • ERT replaces the estrogen a woman's body should be making naturally for a normal menstrual cycle. (
  • Current smokers against nonsmokers are known to have higher levels of both testosterone and estrogen. (
  • is determined in men when reduced testosterone production is suspected, e.g. in hypogonadism, estrogen therapy, chromosome aberrations (as in the Klinefelter's syndrome) and liver cirrhosis. (
  • These latest results should provide reassurance about breast safety," for women taking estrogen for about five years after a hysterectomy for relief from postmenopausal symptoms, said study researcher Garnet Anderson, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. (
  • Other women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, to relieve these symptoms. (
  • Based on current research, black cohosh is most likely to relieve symptoms related to reductions or imbalances in the hormone estrogen . (
  • Increased intensity of PMS symptoms is perhaps the most obvious and immediate indicator of estrogen dominance. (
  • PMS symptoms occur on a spectrum and as estrogen becomes increasingly imbalanced, so too does the intensity and duration of PMS symptoms. (
  • There are multiple approaches to resolving the increased PMS symptoms and other issues associated with estrogen dominance. (
  • Therefore, those suffering from PMS symptoms or other indicators of estrogen imbalance should consider supplementing with an estrogen regulating product such as HoltraCeuticals' Cellular Support . (
  • Many women who suffer from exceptionally challenging PMS symptoms and other forms of discomfort often do not realize that resolving an estrogen imbalance may be the key to improving their situation. (
  • A new clinical trial finds that estrogen replacement therapy is associated with a significant decrease in anxiety symptoms among girls with anorexia nervosa. (
  • It is also possible that fluctuating estrogen production levels in the body - sometimes too high, sometimes too low - result in a temporary estrogen deficiency that causes menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats and vaginal dryness. (
  • Again, the most common symptoms that can indicate the need for natural estrogen supplementation are hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, urinary tract infections and bone loss. (
  • However, symptoms are largely neurological in nature, including disruption of estrogen-regulated systems such as thermoregulation, sleep, and circadian rhythms, as well as depression and cognitive decline[ 4 ]. (
  • Perhaps the most effective and quickest method of alleviating estrogen dominance and restoring hormonal balance is through proper supplementation. (
  • Many of them also have other comorbid diseases, such as breast cancer and thrombosis, which contraindicate hormonal therapy. (
  • While some forms of hormone replacement therapy have been found to increase breast cancer risk, therapies that use only estrogen may actually protect women against the disease, a new study says. (
  • Women in the study who took estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for six years were 23 percent less likely to develop breast cancer five years after they had stopped the therapy compared with women who never received HRT. (
  • Women who took estrogen-only HRT were also less likely to die of breast cancer. (
  • The findings mostly apply to women who have had a hysterectomy, as this is the group most likely to take estrogen-only HRT. (
  • The therapy raises the risk of uterine cancer, so the therapy is usually not prescribed for other women. (
  • The lowered risk was not found in women with a family history of the disease, and the therapy comes with a risk of stroke and blood clots, the researchers said. (
  • A separate study branch looked at the effect of estrogen-only HRT in 11,000 postmenopausal women who had had hysterectomies. (
  • In the new study, the researchers followed 7,645 women from the estrogen-only branch for about five years after the trial ended. (
  • Over the course of the 11-year study, 151 women who took estrogen-only HRT developed breast cancer compared with 199 women took a placebo. (
  • Six women who took estrogen-only HRT died from breast cancer, compared with 16 who took a placebo. (
  • Women who've had a hysterectomy can take estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy for about five years without an increased risk in breast cancer, according to a new study. (
  • Estrogen also prevents thinning of the bones (osteoporosis) in menopausal women. (
  • At follow-up postmenopausal women ≥40 years old were catagorized as current users (n = 70) or nonusers (n = 772) of noncontraceptive estrogens. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Selection of healthy women for treatment may not fully explain the apparent protective effect of estrogen replacement on cardiovascular risk. (
  • Our results could mean that many more postmenopausal women who could benefit from the therapy would be willing to be treated, and with a higher compliance rate. (
  • This study provides important proof that low-dose estrogen can be an effective preventive and therapeutic option in older women with adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. (
  • Estrogen Effects on Women! (
  • For some women, hormone therapy may increase their chances of getting blood clots , heart attacks , strokes , breast cancer , and gallbladder disease . (
  • Even though estrogen is a necessary component of health in both men and women, too much can cause significant problems. (
  • With less estrogen, women might also have a much harder time trying to get pregnant and trying to have a healthy baby. (
  • or 10 mg daily in postmenopausal women not receiving estrogen. (
  • 5. Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women. (
  • 9. Estrogen treatment of postmenopausal women. (
  • Interestingly, in women, this inverse association is present only in those who have not taken postmenopausal estrogens, suggesting an interaction between the influences of estrogen and caffeine use on the risk of PD. (
  • While it's well known that estrogen protects the heart and keeps it resilient, many women and physicians have been afraid to use hormone replacement therapy because of a large HRT study 20 years ago that was halted over fears it was linked to increased heart events and cancer. (
  • [ 2 ] Of note, the incidence of invasive breast cancers decreased between 1999 and 2004, which coincides with and is possibly attributable to better adherence to recommended screening mammography for the general population of women, as well as decreasing use of menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT). (
  • Estrogen replacement therapy and urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women aged 45-89. (
  • An option of some menopausal women is to undergo Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), which artificially maintains oestrogen levels. (
  • At this point, some women chose to supplement their body's natural hormones with hormone replacement therapy. (
  • About half had taken estrogen during the trial, and half had taken the placebo. (
  • 2) In female mice (both young and RB), caffeine was less potent or altogether ineffective as a neuroprotectant after sham surgery compared to OVX or after OVX plus estrogen replacement compared to OVX plus placebo treatment. (
  • 4) Consistent with the putative protective effect of estrogen, female and OVX plus estrogen mice were relatively resistant to MPTP toxicity compared to male and OVX plus placebo mice, respectively. (
  • 5) There was no overall difference in brain levels of caffeine and its metabolites between OVX plus placebo and OVX plus estrogen mice. (
  • The three main estrogens in the body are estradiol, estrone and estriol. (
  • In excess, estradiol can cause cancer…the safest estrogen is ESTRIOL and supplementation with the natural estrogen estriol cream is recommended by author and Harvard-trained physician Dr. John R. Lee. (
  • The synthetic estrogen prescription drugs are NOT natural estrogen…they are usually a form of synthetic ESTRADIOL. (
  • Estradiol is the strongest and "most aggressive" estrogen and in excess, is not healthy. (
  • According to Dr. Lee, estriol is the SAFEST of the natural estrogen produced in humans (the other two being estradiol and estrone). (
  • This trial was stopped in 2004 because the therapy was found to increase the risk of stroke and blood clots. (
  • Hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, breast cancer, and blood clots in the lungs and legs. (
  • Clomiphene citrate (CC) therapy is often prescribed to help trigger ovulation. (
  • Both pregnancy and oral contraception (mainly when estrogen is included) may precipitate the development of Budd-Chiari syndrome in patients with underlying thrombophilia. (
  • Medical therapy for patients with luteinizing hormone deficiency varies with respect to cause and if pregnancy is desired. (
  • Produced primarily in the ovaries, estrogen is also produced in the adrenals and fat tissues. (
  • The adrenal glands, the fat tissues, and the ovaries produce estrogen and both female and male bodies have the hormone. (
  • Estrogens diffuse through cell membranes, distribute themselves throughout the cell, and bind to and activate the nuclear estrogen receptor, a DNA-binding protein found in estrogen-responsive tissues. (
  • Estrogens are steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. (
  • Estrogen is defined as a group of hormones related to the reproductive cycle. (
  • Hormones used in all types of hormone replacement therapy are manufactured in a lab or pharmacy. (
  • Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy involves the use of hormones that are considered to be exact duplicates (or bio-identical) to the hormones naturally produced by the body. (
  • Surprisingly few dosing studies of estrogen have been carried out, and those that tested lower doses yielded inconsistent results. (
  • Although you can supplement estrogen levels with hormone replacement therapy (HRT), in smokers, it can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. (
  • If a woman is taking estrogen already, she and her doctor must discuss the risks and benefits of doing so. (
  • This knowledge is slowly making its way into the clinic and being employed to better stratify individual risks of developing colorectal cancer, discover better screening methodologies, allow for better prognostication, and improve the ability to predict benefit from new anticancer therapies. (
  • No wonder that the National Institute of Health study found that MAJOR HEALTH RISKS were associated with synthetic HRT that included synthetic estrogen. (
  • There are synthetic estrogen drugs, but they come with health risks and unwanted side effects. (
  • The liver function becomes impaired, leading to an excess of estrogen. (
  • Estrogen is a naturally occurring hormone that plays an important role in functions such as childbearing, regulating cholesterol, and bone health. (
  • Estrogen is a vital hormone that plays multiple roles in the body. (
  • Used for the purpose of hormone replacement and induction of puberty. (
  • Patients suffering from estrogen dominance are typically encouraged to maintain a low-fat and high-fiber diet until the issue resolves. (
  • Biologic agents have assumed a major role, typically as targeted therapy based on genetic analysis of the tumor. (
  • The test dosage was less than half the HRT estrogen dosage most commonly prescribed to prevent osteoporosis. (
  • Since estrogen is the first line of defense against osteoporosis," she says, "it's critical to use the lowest effective dose that will preserve and even add bone. (
  • Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are also used to treat osteoporosis. (
  • To help you remember to take hormone replacement therapy, take it around the same time every day. (
  • In addition to testing new therapies, the ADCS develops new evaluation instruments for clinical trials and innovative approaches to Alzheimer's disease clinical trial design and analysis. (
  • RESULTS: Prior levels of total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and blood pressure were similar for estrogen users and nonusers. (
  • However, if estrogen levels exceed healthy norms, known as estrogen dominance, issues can develop. (
  • When estrogen levels are too high, sperm levels may fall, which can lead to fertility issues. (
  • High levels of estrogen can often lead to men struggling to get or maintain an erection. (
  • Restores estrogen levels in girls with hypogonadotropism to concentrations that induce negative feedback at gonadotrophic regulatory centers, which in turn reduces release of gonadotropins from pituitary. (
  • Does Smoking Reduce Estrogen Levels? (
  • Have you ever wondered if smoking can cause estrogen levels to reduce in the body? (
  • On the other hand, estrogen levels vary by individual, and it is not only smoking that causes levels to fluctuate. (
  • Regardless of estrogen levels, smoking is not a good decision when watching your health. (
  • Studies have found that smoking can make your estrogen levels drop, especially in females. (
  • Endocrinologist Dr Julia Prague told Britain's Daily Mail that hot flushes are triggered by the release of a brain hormone called neurokinin B in response to dropping oestrogen levels. (
  • However, the researchers said they do not recommend estrogen-only HRT as a way to reduce breast cancer risk in general. (
  • Some previous studies have suggested that estrogen-only HRT increases the risk of breast cancer, but these studies were less rigorous in design than the new one. (
  • Adjuvant (postoperative) therapy is used in selected patients with stage II colon cancer who are at high risk of recurrence, and is standard for stage III colon cancer. (
  • Depending on how it is metabolized, estrogen influences the body in different ways. (
  • The team next examined how the heart responded when estrogen-mimicking drugs was offered during perimenopause. (
  • 3. Estrogen therapy of perimenopausal and postmenopausal patients. (
  • It is important to keep in mind that although it's called the female hormone, men's bodies also require estrogen and can suffer from an estrogen dominance. (
  • Estrogen is a well-known "master regulator" of the metabolic system of the female brain and body. (
  • These pathways determine whether estrogen is converted into harmful or helpful metabolites. (
  • 16. Estrogen therapy: the benefits and risk - general discussion. (
  • Together, these results suggest that estrogen can occlude and thereby prevent the neuroprotective effect of caffeine in a model of PD neurodegeneration, supporting a biological basis for the interaction between estrogen and caffeine in modifying the risk of PD. (
  • These results suggest that estrogen replacement therapy may prevent the beneficial effect of caffeine in reducing the risk of developing PD. (
  • Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) helps restore the vaginal milieu and may have a beneficial effect on risk of infection. (
  • We found the window of opportunity for using the therapy likely begins much earlier than previously believed," said Prof. Glen Pyle, senior author of the study. (
  • They found the hearts' response to the estrogen compounds varied throughout the perimenopause period, suggesting again that molecular changes had taken place during this critical transition period. (
  • The primary outcome was total Medicare spending during the intervention phase of the trial, and the secondary outcomes were spending on diseases hypothesized a priori to be sensitive to the effects of hormone therapy. (
  • The activated estrogen receptor binds to specific DNA sequences or hormone-response elements, which enhances transcription of adjacent genes and, in turn, leads to the observed effects. (
  • During this age, there is a decrease in circulating estrogen, resulting in anatomical changes that provoke the weakening of the vaginal epithelium and decrease in its collagen content, hyalinization, and elastin content. (