The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of estradiol.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
Sexual activities of animals.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
An estrogen antagonist that has been used in the treatment of breast cancer.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
A synthetic progestin which is useful for the study of progestin distribution and progestin tissue receptors, as it is not bound by transcortin and binds to progesterone receptors with a higher association constant than progesterone.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.
The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Enlargement of the BREAST in the males, caused by an excess of ESTROGENS. Physiological gynecomastia is normally observed in NEWBORNS; ADOLESCENT; and AGING males.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The trans or (E)-isomer of clomiphene.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE but functioning as a more potent inhibitor of ovulation. It has weak estrogenic and androgenic properties. The hormone has been used in treating amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, and for contraception.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Changed levels of endogenous sex steroids in women on oral contraceptives. (1/13451)

Serum and urinary levels of unconjugated testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and oestradiol were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in 10 healthy women in the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and in nine healthy women taking oral contraceptives. The contraceptive group had testosterone levels 1-3 times higher and dihydrotestosterone levels two times higher than those in the controls. Serum oestradiol levels in the contraceptive group were much lower than those in the controls and similar to levels in postmenopausal women. The contraceptive group had about twice the urinary excretion of unconjugated (free) testosterone and dihydrotestosterone of the controls, but their excretion of unconjugated oestradiol was 2-7 times lower. The great increase in serum and urinary androgen concentrations, as well as the suppression of oestradiol, may be related to the antiovulatory effect of oral contraceptives.  (+info)

The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (2/13451)

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

The effects of androgens and antiandrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/13451)

We have examined five human breast cancer cell lines in continuous tissue culture for androgen responsiveness. One of these cell lines shows a 2- to 4-fold stimulation of thymidine incorporation into DNA, apparent as early as 10 hr following androgen addition to cells incubated in serum-free medium. This stimulation is accompanied by an acceleration in cell replication. Antiandrogens [cyproterone acetate (6-chloro-17alpha-acetate-1,2alpha-methylene-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione) and R2956 (17beta-hydroxy-2,2,17alpha-trimethoxyestra-4,9,11-triene-1-one)] inhibit both protein and DNA synthesis below control levels and block androgen-mediated stimulation. Prolonged incubation (greater than 72 hr) in antiandrogen is lethal. The MCF- cell line contains high-affinity receptors for androgenic steroids demonstrable by sucrose density gradients and competitive protein binding analysis. By cross-competition studies, androgen receptors are distinguishable from estrogen receptors also found in this cell line. Concentrations of steroid that saturate androgen receptor sites in vitro are about 1000 times lower than concentrations that maximally stimulate the cells. Changes in quantity and affinity of androgen binding to intact cells at 37 degrees as compared with usual binding techniques using cytosol preparation at 0 degrees do not explain this difference between dissociation of binding and effect. However, this difference can be explained by conversion of [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstanediol and more polar metabolites at 37 degrees. An examination of incubation media, cytoplasmic extracts and crude nuclear pellets reveals probable conversion of [3H]testosterone to [3H]-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Our data provide compelling evidence that some human breast cancer, at least in vitro, may be androgen dependent.  (+info)

Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. (4/13451)

The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens.  (+info)

Estrogen-dependent and independent activation of the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in transiently transfected breast cancer cells. (5/13451)

Loss of p53 function by mutational inactivation is the most common marker of the cancerous phenotype. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated 17 beta estradiol (E2) induction of p53 protein expression in breast cancer cells. Although direct effects of E2 on the expression of p53 gene are not known, the steroid is a potent regulator of c-Myc transcription. In the present studies, we have examined the ability of E2 and antiestrogens to regulate the P1 promoter of the p53 gene which contains a c-Myc responsive element. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D and MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the P1CAT reporter plasmid and levels of CAT activity in response to serum, E2 and antiestrogens were monitored. Factors in serum were noted to be the dominant inducers of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression in MCF-7 cells. The levels of CAT were drastically reduced when cells were maintained in serum free medium (SFM). However, a subtle ER-mediated induction of CAT expression was detectable when MCF-7 cells, cultured in SFM, were treated with E2. In serum-stimulated T47D cells, the CAT expression was minimal. The full ER antagonist, ICI 182 780 (ICI) had no effect. Treatment with E2 or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (OHT) resulted in P1CAT induction; OHT was more effective than E2. Consistent with c-Myc regulation of the P1 promoter, E2 stimulated endogenous c-Myc in both cell lines. Two forms of c-Myc were expressed independent of E2 stimuli. The expression of a third more rapidly migrating form was E2-dependent and ER-mediated since it was blocked by the full ER antagonist, ICI, but not by the ER agonist/antagonist OHT. These data demonstrate both ER-mediated and ER-independent regulation of c-Myc and the P1 promoter of the p53 gene, and show differential effects of the two classes of antiestrogens in their ability to induce the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in breast cancer cells.  (+info)

Estrogen enhancement of anti-double-stranded DNA antibody and immunoglobulin G production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (6/13451)

OBJECTIVE: To study the in vitro effect of estrogen on IgG anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody and total IgG production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in order to elucidate its regulatory role in SLE. METHODS: PBMC from SLE patients and normal donors were cultured with 17beta-estradiol (E2). IgG anti-dsDNA antibodies, total IgG, and cytokine activity in the culture supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: E2 enhanced production of IgG anti-dsDNA antibodies as well as total IgG in PBMC from SLE patients. Anti-dsDNA production in patients with inactive disease was less responsive to E2 than that in patients with active disease. E2 also enhanced total IgG, but not anti-dsDNA, production in the PBMC of normal donors. Antibody production was increased by E2 to a lesser extent in patients' B cells than in their PBMC. Anti-interleukin-10 (anti-IL-10) antibodies partially blocked the E2-induced increase in antibody production in patients' PBMC, but anti-IL-10 had no effect on B cells. E2 increased IL-10 production by patients' monocytes. Exogenous IL-10 acted additively with E2 in increasing antibody production in patients' B cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that E2 may polyclonally increase the production of IgG, including IgG anti-dsDNA, in SLE patients' PBMC by enhancing B cell activity and by promoting IL-10 production in monocytes. These findings support the involvement of E2 in the pathogenesis of SLE.  (+info)

In vitro development of sheep preantral follicles. (7/13451)

Preantral ovarian follicles isolated from prepubertal sheep ovaries were individually cultured for 6 days in the presence of increasing doses of FSH (ranging from 0.01 to 1 microg/ml) and under two different oxygen concentrations, 20% and 5% O2. Follicle development was evaluated on the basis of antral cavity formation as well as the presence of healthy cumulus oocyte complexes. Follicle growth was enhanced by FSH addition to culture medium, while the use of a low oxygen concentration slightly stimulated this process. However, when follicles were cultured in the presence of high doses of FSH (1 microgram/ml) and under low oxygen concentration, a high proportion of them showed the presence of an antral cavity and of a healthy cumulus-oocyte complex. In addition, under this specific culture condition sheep preantral follicles released higher levels of estradiol as compared to those secreted at lower FSH concentrations or under 20% O2. When the meiotic competence of oocytes derived from follicles cultured at 1 microgram/ml FSH was assessed, no significant difference was recorded between the two oxygen groups. These results show that the culture conditions here identified are beneficial to in vitro growth and differentiation of sheep preantral follicles.  (+info)

Delay of preterm delivery in sheep by omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturates. (8/13451)

A positive correlation has been shown between dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in late pregnancy and gestation length in pregnant women and experimental animals. To determine whether omega-3 fatty acids have an effect on preterm labor in sheep, a fish oil concentrate emulsion was continuously infused to six pregnant ewes from 124 days gestational age. At 125 days, betamethasone was administered to the fetus to produce preterm labor. Both the onset of labor and the time of delivery were delayed by the fish oil emulsion. Two of the omega-3-infused ewes reverted from contractions to nonlabor, an effect never previously observed for experimental glucocorticoid-induced preterm labor in sheep. Maternal plasma estradiol and maternal and fetal prostaglandin E2 rose in control ewes but not in those infused with omega-3 fatty acid. The ability of omega-3 fatty acids to delay premature delivery in sheep indicates their possible use as tocolytics in humans. Premature labor is the major cause of neonatal death and long-term disability, and these studies present information that may lead to a novel therapeutic regimen for the prevention of preterm delivery in human pregnancy.  (+info)

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Measuring the circulating levels of estradiol is important for assessing the ovarian function and monitoring follicular development for assisted reproduction protocols. Estradiol plays an essential role throughout the human menstrual cycle. Elevated estradiol levels in females may also result from primary or secondary ovarian hyperfunction. Very high estradiol levels are found during the induction of ovulation for assisted reproduction therapy or in pregnancy. Decreased estradiol levels in females may result from either lack of ovarian synthesis (primary ovarian hypofunction and menopause) or a lesion in the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (secondary ovarian hypofunction). Elevated estradiol levels in males may be due to increased aromatization of androgens, resulting in gynecomastia.. ...
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy, safety, and lowest practical dose of a transdermal estradiol gel in the treatment of symptomatic postmenopausal women.. METHODS: Healthy postmenopausal women with seven or more moderate to severe hot flushes per day or 50 to 60 or more per week were randomized to transdermal gel containing 1.5 mg (n = 73) or 0.75 mg (n = 75) estradiol (EstroGel 0.06%) or placebo (n = 73) in a phase 3 study, or to 0.375 mg (n = 119) or 0.27 mg (n = 118) estradiol (0.03% gel) or placebo (n = 114) in a phase 4 study.. RESULTS: The frequency of moderate to severe hot flushes and severity of all hot flushes significantly decreased versus placebo at weeks 4 and 12 with 1.5, 0.75, and 0.375 mg estradiol. Overall participant responder rates were generally lower in the phase 4 study than those in the phase 3 study with the approved 0.75-mg estradiol dose. Vaginal maturation index (VMI) shifts from baseline to week 12 were significant (P , 0.001) with 0.75 ...
Your doctor may conduct an examination to determine the amount of the estradiol hormone present in the body, or only applicable within the region.. Measuring the burden of hormonal. You need to know that the estradiol level varies during your menstrual cycle. At this time, they can reach a peak and you ovulate. If you undergo IVF treatment, the doctor will perform a diagnosis to check your eligibility for Estradiol Treatment.. They also measured levels of estrogen in the body before starting treatment. The test serves as a good tool to measure the growth of the egg. You can then tell whether you are on the right path or not.. Quite frequently, Estradiol comes in synthetic clothing, which acts as a kind of tough treatment of menopause. Advanced therapy eases signs such as hot flushes, uterus dryness, and increase bone density and health.. On form: Estradiol comes in many forms. The most common are topical gels or emulsions, sprays, patches of skin (transdermal), uterus rings and oral form. There ...
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Main / Allergy Wristbands / Estradiol diabetes The association between risk of type 2 diabetes and postmenopausal estrogen use is not clear. Three longitudinal studies have shown no increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with postmenopausal estrogen use (9,12,13), although one study (9) reported a nonsignificant trend, with never users having the lowest risk. OBJECTIVE-Various observational and randomized studies have demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women who received estrogen orally. No studies have been performed on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women treated with transdermal β-estradiol.. Cross-sectional divorces have suggested an association between the maximum female hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), and the morning of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in postmenopausal women (1,2). Even prospective honors have estradiol diabetes that among postmenopausal women not using hormone therapy, higher circulating vela of estradiol diabetes ...
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Functional requirement of aquaporin-5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands. / Nejsum, Lene Niemann; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Jensen, Uffe B; Fumagalli, Ornella; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Krane, Carissa M; Menon, Anil G; King, Landon S; Agre, Peter C; Nielsen, Søren.. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 99, No. 1, 08.01.2002, p. 511-6.. Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaper › Journal article › Research › peer-review ...
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Although estrogens have long been thought to be protective against cardiovascular disease, this assumption has been challenged by clinical trials that failed to corroborate such protective effects of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Umetani et al. found that the cholesterol metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC, which is found in atherosclerotic lesions) competed with estradiol for binding to estrogen receptor α and β (ERα and ERβ), inhibited estradiol-dependent activation of transcriptional activity of the receptors, and inhibited the estradiol-dependent association of ERβ with the transcriptional coactivator SRC-1. In mice fed diets rich in cholesterol and fat, hypercholesterolemia was associated with increased vascular concentrations of 27HC, so that it reached concentrations comparable to those affecting ER function. 27HC inhibited the estradiol-dependent increase in mRNA encoding inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and eNOS) in mouse aortic ...
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BioAssay record AID 82030 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonistic effect on 1 nM estradiol induced transcriptional activation in HEC-1 cells expressing estrogen receptor beta at 10e-9 M.
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Progestin helps protect the uterus from endometrial cancer if you have an intact uterus. Menopause hormone therapy can result in light bleeding or bleeding thats as heavy as a normal period. If your bleeding concerns you, make an appointment to see your doctor or health care provider. Abnormal. Fortunately, most of the time bleeding turns out not to be related to a serious problem. It is important, however, that you not make this assumption and take the necessary steps to be reassured that you do not have something more serious going on. Bottom line, if you are post-menopausal and you have vaginal bleeding you.. Some side does estradiol make you bleed of estradiol may occur that usually do not having medical attention. Hoot with your health care professional if any of the mode side effects continue or are treated or if you have any questions about them:. Genitourinary side effects have included strict uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea. You should not use estradiol if you have: liver disease, a ...
Two hydrosoluble conjugates of 17β-estradiol (ED) and estradiol-17β-valerate (EV) with polyaspartamide polymer were prepared and characterized. ED and EV were first chemically modified and bound to poly,-(N-2-hydroxyethyl-DL-aspartamide)-poly,-(N-2-aminoethyl-DL-aspartamide) (PAHA), a hydrosoluble polyaspartamide-type copolymer bearing both hydroxyl and amino groups. ED was first converted to 17-hemisuccinate (EDS) and then bound to PAHA. In the resulting conjugate PAHA-EDS, the estradiol moiety was linked to the polymer through a 2-aminoethylhemisuccinamide spacer. On the other hand, EV was first converted to estradiol-17-valerate-3-(benzotriazole-1-carboxylate), which readily reacted with amino groups in PAHA affording the polymer-drug conjugate PAHA-EV. In the prepared conjugate PAHA-EV, the estradiol moiety was covalently bound to the polyaspartamide backbone by carbamate linkage, through an ethylenediamine spacer. The polymer-drug conjugates were designed and ...
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Estradiol Supplementation in Postmenopausal Women Doubles Rebound-Like Release of Growth Hormone (GH) Triggered by Sequential Infusion and Withdrawal of Somatostatin: Evidence that Estrogen Facilitates Endogenous GH-Releasing Hormone Drive. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Kohn, H I.; Corbascio, A N.; Guttman, P H.; and Ludwig, F C., Effect of x-ray dose and estradiol treatment on the chronic mortality rate of adult female mice. Abstr. (1961). Subject Strain Bibliography 1961. 518 ...
Estradiol (E2) is produced in women mainly in the ovary. In men, the testes and adrenal glands are the principal source of estradiol. In women, normal levels of estradiol provide for proper ovulation, conception, and pregnancy, in addition to promoting healthy bone structure and regulating cholesterol levels. Normal Result Limits: This test result has no single level of normal results. Your lab report should include a range of numbers that identifies what is expected for you based on your age, sex, and the method used in that laboratory. Since progesterone levels vary predictably throughout the menstrual cycle, multiple (serial) measurements can be used to help recognize and manage some causes of infertility. Progesterone can be measured to determine whether or not a woman has ovulated, to determine when ovulation occurred, and to monitor the success of induced ovulation. Normal Result Limits: This test result has no single level of normal results. Your lab report should include a range of ...
Aim: To determine if the endogenous estrogen 17beta-estradiol protected against oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell damage and the mechanism of this potential effect.. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were isolated and cultured in phenol red free media with 2% charcoal-stripped serum. The following were undertaken (1) Cells were exposed to 0.1 to 1 nM 17beta-estradiol immediately prior to 100 μM hydrogen peroxide added for 24 hours, with and without the anti-estrogen ICI182,780. Cell proliferation, apoptotic DNA fragmentation and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were subsequently measured by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay, Cell Death ELISA and Taqman quantitative PCR, respectively. (2) Cell Bcl-2 expression in response to 17beta-estradiol treatment was determined by Taqman quantitative PCR and western blotting. (3) Cells with or without Bcl-2 siRNA transfection (Bcl-2 knockdown) were exposed to 17beta-estradiol and hydrogen peroxide, and cell DNA fragmentation was then ...
Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cortisol interferes with the positive feedback action of estradiol that induces the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Ovariectomized sheep were treated sequentially with progesterone and estradiol to create artificial estrous cycles. Cortisol or vehicle (saline) was infused from 2 h before the estradiol stimulus through the time of the anticipated LH surge in the artificial follicular phase of two successive cycles. The plasma cortisol increment produced by infusion was ∼1.5 times greater than maximal concentrations seen during infusion of endotoxin, which is a model of immune/inflammatory stress. In experiment 1, half of the ewes received vehicle in the first cycle and cortisol in the second; the others were treated in reverse order. All ewes responded with an LH surge. Cortisol delayed the LH surge and reduced its amplitude, but both effects were observed only in the second cycle. Experiment 2 was modified to provide better control for ...
Estradiol medications are not intended for women who are pregnant, nursing or trying to conceive. If taken during pregnancy, estradiol may harm the unborn fetus or cause serious birth defects.
We have explored membrane-initiated estradiol signaling in several other systems, as well. For example, in dorsal root ganglion cells, ATP acts as a nociceptive messenger. In these cells, estradiol activates an ERα that is coupled to a metabotropic glutamate receptor that inhibits L-type voltage gated Ca2+ channels (VSCC) and attenuates the influx of calcium - thus, potentially attenuating painful signals. In a second system, the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, estradiol membrane signaling is mediated by another estrogen receptor, ERβ. Here, estradiol is neuroprotective and interacts with the IGF-1 system by activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway. Estradiol acts both on neurons and through astrocytes to alter the ratio of anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory cytokines released may serve to protect against Parkinsons disease. ...
Herein are a collection of studies that build on our existing knowledge of estrogen actions in the brain. We extend the efforts of current neuroprotective strategies by demonstrating that estrogenic molecules promote cell survival mechanisms governed by neuronal mitochondria. Estrogen (E2, 17beta-estradiol) protects neurons from a series of age-related risk factors for developing Alzheimer s disease (AD) supported by basic science, clinical, and epidemiological data. However, there exists a window of opportunity for E2 as a preventive therapy and our findings are not intended for hopeful treatments of pre-existing pathologies but rather to support the proposed healthy-cell bias therapeutic approach (Brinton 2005). Our preclinical pharmacology research work covers biochemistry, molecular biology and cell imaging of rodent brain. Controlled in vitro and in vivo studies are organized under four specific aims that test our hypotheses in brain tissues with a focus on the hippocampus and cortex ...
J Mobile or portable Biochem Mid 2001, Eighty two:467�C479.CrossRefPubMed 32. Aronica SM, Krauss WL, Katzenellenbogen Bachelor of science: Oestrogen activity through the cAMP signaling path: Excitement associated with adenylate cyclase and also cAMP-regulated gene transcribing. PNAS USA 94, 91:8517�C8521.CrossRefPubMed Thirty-three. Farhat Our, Abiyounes Ersus, Dingaan W, Vargas Ur, Ramwell PW: Estradiol increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate in rat lung general easy muscle cells by a nongenomic mechanism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther Ninety six, 276:652�C657.PubMed 24. Prakash YS, Togaibayeva AA, Kannan Microsoft, Cooper VM, Fitzpatrick Chicago, Sieck GC: Estrogen increases Ca 2+ efflux via feminine porcine heart arterial easy muscle tissue. Am M Physiol 2000, 45:H926-H934. 30. Migliaccio The, Castoria Grams, Di Domenico M, signifiant Falco A new, Bilancio The, Lombardi Meters, Barone MV, Ametrano Deborah, Zannini Microsoft, Abbondanza Chemical, Auricchio Y: Steroid-induced androgen ...
RJ stimulated the proliferation of mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells at 0.1 mg/ml, and the effect was blocked by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. The addition of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml RJ enhanced collagen production in culture medium. Oral administration of RJ to normal female mice for 9 weeks increased the ash content of their tibiae. DNA microarray analysis revealed significant changes in gene expression related to extracellular matrix formation when the femurs of mice fed RJ were analyzed. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed up-regulation of procollagen I alpha1 gene expression, wrote Y. Narita and colleagues, Research Center ...
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Meu periodo é bem controlado, mas tomo anticoncepcional há muito tempo. Isso seria uma causa para o hormonio estar num nível tao baixo? Obrigada!!! Responder. Visitante. SILVANIA Editar. Minha mestroaçao esta atrasada a 12 dias. Porem o beta que fiz deu negativo. E meu exame de estradiol (e2) deu 9. Portanto, a mulher que usa anticoncepcionais tem a tendência de ter níveis mais baixos de testosterona. Um baixo nível Por isso eu freqüentemente encontro mulheres que tomam anticoncepcionais com baixos níveis de cortisol. O estradiol não procura receptores de progesterona ou de testosterona.. No caso de mulheres mais jovens ou as com mais de 35 anos que tenham fatores de risco para insuficiência prematura do ovário sugere-se dosar o FSH e estradiol no 3º dia do ciclo menstrual. A dosagem do FSH é um exame naps e possui baixo custo. Considera-se um soma inferior a 10 mIU / ml. A pílula anticoncepcional, consiste na união de duas moléculas sintéticas, similares aos hormônios ...
October 7, 2005 Novel progestin drospirenone, when administered in combination with estradiol, may spare or even improve cardiovascular markers, including low-d
Ingredients Contaminants Sterilisation. [2015 Aug] Polio Vaccines Laced with Sterilizing Hormone Discovered in Kenya - WHO is Controlling Population? As they were in the process of negotiating joint testing, they took the liberty of collecting samples from the field from the new shipment brought in for a vaccination campaign planned for April, before any immunization took place. Dr. Ngare explained that when the KCCB tested a selection of polio vaccines from the field, they discovered that two of the six vaccines tested contained estradiol. He explained that while there have been no human studies to determine the effect that this could have on humans, in animal studies estradiol, when exposed to males, has been shown to damage the sperm-forming mechanism in the testes......Not only do I believe the estradiol will render some of these children infertile, it will also cause a myriad of other endocrine related disorders that will affect a child s growth and maturation and other neurological and ...
This is a question I am frequently asked: …How long should I stay on hormone therapy… …When should I stop…?. If you are on estrogen with or without progesterone, should you wean off your estradiol and progesterone and- if so- when?!. The answer, actually, is evidence-based, and has been evolving with time, since that abomination of double-talk, the Womens Health Initiative (WHI,) study was prematurely leaked/released first to the press, and then, (with almost half of the investigators refusing to sign on to the paper because of what they perceived as bias) to the scientific community by the principal investigator in 2002. The bottom line of that paper, that …estradiol causes breast cancer…, and that hormone therapy (HT) does not improve cardiovascular health or cognitive ability has subsequently been proven false, but a majority of general physicians (FPs, PCPs, Internists and many general Ob-Gyns) havent been following the literature, and continue to eschew HT. It is ...
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Rat estradiol ELISA kit can be used for determining quantitative amounts of estradiol (E2, 17β-estradiol) in rat serum samples. • Reactivity: Rat • Sensitivity:
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WebMD provides important information about Drospirenone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral such as if you can you take Drospirenone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral when you are pregnant or nursing or If Drospirenone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral dangerous for children or adults over 60.
Wet-lab validated real-time PCR primer assays for your biological pathway of interest. Select your gene target of interest using an interactive pathway map, and select your plate.
Estradiol, or more precisely, is a steroid and estrogen sex hormone, and the primary female sex hormone. It is named for and is important in the regulation of the estrous and menstrual female reproductive cycles. Estradiol is essential for the...
The products of Naari include: Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) • Allylestrenol • Disulfiram • EstradiolEstradiol ... Benzoate • Estradiol Valerate • Ethinylestradiol • Estriol • Levonorgestrel • Lynestrenol • Nandrolone Decanoate • Nandrolone ...
Pharmacokinetics of estradiol § Transdermal administration Hormone replacement therapy "ESTRADIOL TRANSDERMAL SYSTEM- estradiol ... "Estradiol mixture with levonorgestrel". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Estradiol mixture with ... An estrogen patch (oestrogen patch) is a transdermal delivery system for estradiol, which can be used as hormone replacement ... "Estradiol Transdermal Patch: MedlinePlus Drug Information". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-29. "Estrogen (Oral Route, ...
"Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020. Yuzpe AA, Smith RP & Rademaker AW ( ... and in combination with estradiol or conjugated estrogens in menopausal hormone therapy. It has also been used as an emergency ... 1982). "A Multicenter Clinical Investigation Employing Ethinyl Estradiol Combined with dl-Norgestrel as Postcoital ...
"Ethinyl estradiol mixture with norgestimate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. "Estradiol mixture ... "Ortho Tri Cyclen- norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol kit Ortho Cyclen- norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol kit". DailyMed. 16 ... It is used in combination with ethinylestradiol in birth control pills and in combination with estradiol in menopausal hormone ... Norgestimate was approved in combination with estradiol for use in menopausal hormone therapy in 1999 in the United States, and ...
"Syeda- drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol kit". DailyMed. Retrieved 17 April 2021. "Yasmin- drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol ... "Zarah- drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol kit". DailyMed. Retrieved 17 April 2021. "Beyaz- drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol/ ... including of estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Drospirenone alone at 4 mg/day has been found to suppress estradiol ... The combination of estradiol and drospirenone has been found to increase breast density, an established risk factor for breast ...
The administration of estradiol halts, or reverses atrophic changes that occur due to the loss of endogenous estradiol during ... Yang Z, Hu Y, Zhang J, Xu L, Zeng R, Kang D (February 2017). "Estradiol therapy and breast cancer risk in perimenopausal and ... When estradiol levels are found to be low, dydrogesterone treatment is more effective when supplemented with estrogens. ... Estradiol/dydrogesterone Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and ...
Estradiol mustard (NSC-112259; chlorphenacyl estradiol diester; estradiol 3,17β-bis(4-(bis(2-chloroethyl)amino)phenyl)acetate) ... estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate) 17β-(L-alaninate)) Atrimustine (bestrabucil, busramustine; KM-2210; estradiol 3- ... Estramustine phosphate (Emcyt, Estracyt; Leo 299, NSC-89199, Ro 21-8837/001; estradiol 3-[bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate] ... Estramustine (Leo 275, Ro 21-8837; estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate) ester) Estromustine (Leo 271 f; estrone-cytostatic ...
Estradiol 3-methyl ether (1, EME) is partially reduced to the 1,5-diene (2) as also occurs for the first step in the synthesis ... Norethisterone binds to the ERs, the ERα and the ERβ, with 0.07% and 0.01% of the relative binding affinity of estradiol. Due ... A single 200 mg intramuscular injection of NETE alone or in combination with 2 mg estradiol valerate has been found to produce ... Chu MC, Zhang X, Gentzschein E, Stanczyk FZ, Lobo RA (June 2007). "Formation of ethinyl estradiol in women during treatment ...
With the exception of Ondeva, which is formulated alone, all of these products are formulated in combination with estradiol. ... A transdermal patch with the developmental code name PSK-3987 containing estradiol and trimegestone was under development by ... Trimegestone is available both alone (as Ondeva) and in combination with estradiol (as Ginotex, Lovelle, Minique, Totelle), ... 208-. ISBN 978-3-527-62330-3. "Estradiol/trimegestone - AdisInsight". Martin Birkhauser; David Barlow; Morris Notelovitz; ...
Estradiol and norgestimate (Prefest; 1 mg / 90 μg) was previously available in the U.S. but was discontinued. Estradiol and ... 5 mg Estradiol and drospirenone (Angeliq) - 0.5 mg / 0.25 mg; 1 mg / 0.5 mg Estradiol and norethisterone acetate (Activella, ... Pickar JH, Bon C, Amadio JM, Mirkin S, Bernick B (2015). "Pharmacokinetics of the first combination 17β-estradiol/progesterone ... Drospirenone and Estetrol (Nextstellis) Estradiol valerate and dienogest (Natazia) Ethinylestradiol and desogestrel (Bekyree, ...
Estradiol valerate/hydroxyprogesterone caproate Estradiol benzoate/hydroxyprogesterone caproate Estradiol dipropionate/ ... 1) in combination with estradiol valerate and under the brand name Primosiston in combination with estradiol benzoate. OHPC is ... OHPC has been marketed in combination with estradiol dipropionate in the form of 50 mg/mL OHPC and 1 mg/mL estradiol ... 1). The medication is or was available in combination with estradiol benzoate in the form of ampoules of 125-250 mg OHPC and 10 ...
The combined ethinyl estradiol and norelgestromin contraceptive patch is also known by its developmental code name RWJ-10553. ... The Ortho Evra patch is a 20 cm2, once-weekly adhesive that contains 6.0 mg norelgestromin and 0.75 mg ethinyl estradiol and ... A transdermal gel formulation of norgelstromin and ethinyl estradiol was under development by Antares Pharma for use as a ... Upon application of a transdermal patch containing norelgestromin and ethinyl estradiol, plateau levels of both are reached by ...
"Desogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020. Michael Freissmuth; Stefan Böhm (9 ... In addition to hormonal contraception, desogestrel has been used in combination with estrogens such as estradiol as a component ... However, the metabolite 3β-hydroxydesogestrel has weak affinity for the estrogen receptor (about 2% of that of estradiol), ... Stone S (1993). "Clinical review of a monophasic oral contraceptive containing desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol". Int J Fertil ...
... including estradiol, estriol, estrone; antiandrogens and others) Genitals (primary sexual characteristics - see diagram for the ...
Dubal, Dena B.; Shughrue, Paul J.; Wilson, Melinda E.; Merchenthaler, Istvan; Wise, Phyllis M. (1999-08-01). "Estradiol ... "Estradiol Protects against Ischemic Injury". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism. 18 (11): 1253-1258. doi:10.1097/ ... is a critical link in estradiol-mediated protection against brain injury". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 ...
Stanczyk FZ, Archer DF, Bhavnani BR (2013). "Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: ... It is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. Mestranol is a ... Leinung MC, Feustel PJ, Joseph J (2018). "Hormonal Treatment of Transgender Women with Oral Estradiol". Transgender Health. 3 ( ... 73-. ISBN 978-3-319-27449-2. Goldzieher JW, Brody SA (1990). "Pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and mestranol". American ...
Estrogen conjugate Lipoidal estradiol Michael Oettel; Ekkehard Schillinger (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens I: ... naturally occurring catechol estrogen and a minor metabolite of estradiol. It is estrogenic, similarly to many other ...
Synthetic estradiol, taken orally, splits when absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and delivers bioidentical estradiol to ... estradiol and estrone. Previous bioidential formulas had used only estradiol. This triple formula was based on a single ... Estradiol (a type of estrogen) is-in the case of naturally menopausal women-only recommended for use for the shortest period of ... All three estradiol products passed every test; however, two out of five progesterone products failed at least one test of ...
... (17α-estradiol) is distinguished from estradiol (17β-estradiol), the predominant sex hormone in females, only by ... In contrast to 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol, while it still binds to the estrogen receptor, has less or no feminizing ... It is a stereoisomer of the endogenous steroid hormone and estrogen 17β-estradiol (or simply estradiol). Alfatradiol is used in ... 17α-Estradiol (as the sodium salt of its sulfated form) is a minor component (. 10 μM). Alfatradiol is the generic name of the ...
... estradiol, or estradiol valerate) under a multitude of brand names throughout the world, including Alesse, Altavera, Alysena, ... Estradiol with levonorgestrel in the form of a skin patch is used under the brand name Climara Pro for hormone replacement ... It is used under the brand name Klimonorm as a combined oral tablet with estradiol valerate and under the brand name Climara ... "Climara Pro® (Estradiol/Levonorgestrel Transdermal System)" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. Mueck AO, Römer T (July 2018 ...
... a transdermal therapeutic estradiol drug. According to the company, Mohrus and Mohrus-Tape have the largest market share in ...
Stimmel BF, Grollman A, Huffman MN (June 1950). "The metabolism of 16-ketoestrone and 16-keto-estradiol in man". J. Biol. Chem ... Inano H, Tamaoki B (January 1983). "Affinity labeling of arginyl residues at the catalytic region of estradiol 17 beta- ... Huffman MN, Lott MH (January 1948). "16-Substituted steroids; 16-keto-alpha-estradiol and 16-ketoestrone". J. Biol. Chem. 172 ( ...
DHPA is used in combination with estradiol enantate (E2-EN) or estradiol benzoate butyrate (EBB) as a once-monthly combined ... Estradiol enantate/algestone acetophenide Estradiol benzoate butyrate/algestone acetophenide Sang GW (April 1994). " ... 120 mg DHPA and 10 mg estradiol enantate (brand names Unalmes, Yectuna) 75 mg DHPA and 10 mg estradiol enantate (brand name Ova ... 150 mg DHPA and 10 mg estradiol enantate (brand names Perlutal, Topasel, many others) 75 mg DHPA and 5 mg estradiol enantate ( ...
Chemical structures of estradiol and major estradiol esters Estradiol Estradiol acetate Estradiol benzoate Estradiol ... Other major estradiol esters that are or have been used in medicine include estradiol acetate, estradiol cypionate, estradiol ... dipropionate Estradiol valerate Estradiol cypionate Estradiol enantate Estradiol undecylate Polyestradiol phosphate ... as in estradiol sulfamate), phosphoric acid (as in estradiol phosphate), glucuronic acid (as in estradiol glucuronide, and ...
Defect is in the fumarate hydratase gene in the long arm of chromosome 1. Leiomyosarcoma Elagolix/estradiol/norethindrone ...
Estradiol valerate/gestonorone caproate Muller (19 June 1998). European Drug Index: European Drug Registrations, Fourth Edition ... SH-834 was a combination of 90 mg estradiol valerate and 300 mg gestonorone caproate for weekly intramuscular injection that ... "Pharmacokinetics of megestrol acetate in women receiving IM injection of estradiol-megestrol long-acting injectable ... of markedly suppressing the gonadal production and circulating levels of sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol. A ...
... estradiol 17β-decanoate) Estradiol diacetate Estradiol dioleate Estradiol dipalmitate Estradiol distearate Estradiol disulfate ... Estradiol glucuronide Estradiol sulfate glucuronide Estradiol linoleate Estradiol oleate Estradiol phosphate Estradiol ... Estradiol acetate benzoate Estradiol 17β-acetate Estradiol 17β-benzoate Estradiol acetylsalicylate (estradiol 3- ... ether of estradiol Estradiol 3-tetrahydropyranyl ether - the 3-(tetrahydropyran-2-yl) ether of estradiol Estradiol 17β- ...
Estradiol cypionate/medroxyprogesterone acetate (brand names Cyclofem, Lunelle; code name Cyclo-Provera), is a once-a-month ... contraceptive which contains 25 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate-the same ingredient in Depo Provera-and 5 mg of estradiol ...
Examples include the estradiol esters estradiol sulfamate (E2MATE; also a potent steroid sulfatase inhibitor) and EC508 ( ... Estradiol benzoate was synthesized in 1933 and was marketed for use the same year. Certain sulfur-based steroid esters have a ... Particle sizes of more than 300 μg in the case of estradiol benzoate by intramuscular injection have been found to be too ... Steroid esters may be naturally occurring/endogenous like DHEA sulfate or synthetic like estradiol valerate. Esterification is ...
Buster JE, Koltun WD, Pascual MLG, Day WW, Peterson C: Low-dose estradiol spray to treat vasomotor symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 111 ... Buster, John E.; Koltun, William D.; Pascual, Maria Luz G.; Day, Wesley W.; Peterson, Craig (June 2008). "Low-Dose Estradiol ... Buster served as lead investigator in another study demonstrating the effectiveness of an estradiol mist, which has ... C18 and C19 steroids: estradiol, estriol, dihydro-epiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, ∆5androstenedione, ...
Detailed drug Information for estradiol Transdermal. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and ... Proper Use of estradiol. It is very important that you use estradiol only as directed by your doctor. Do not use more of it, do ... Uses For estradiol. Estradiol transdermal gel, patch, and spray are used to treat moderate to severe hot flashes and other ... Postmenopausal Symptoms estradiol, Premarin, Estrace, Prempro, Climara, More.... Atrophic Vaginitis estradiol topical, Premarin ...
Estradiol is additionally conjugated with an ester into lipoidal estradiol forms like estradiol palmitate and estradiol ... Main articles: Estradiol (medication), Pharmacodynamics of estradiol, and Pharmacokinetics of estradiol. Estradiol is used as a ... Estradiol is an estrane steroid.[79] It is also known as 17β-estradiol (to distinguish it from 17α-estradiol) or as estra-1,3,5 ... a b c d e f g h i j GPNotebook - reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on 27 September 2009 ...
Estradiol is additionally conjugated with an ester into lipoidal estradiol forms like estradiol palmitate and estradiol ... Estradiol is conjugated in the liver to form estrogen conjugates like estradiol sulfate, estradiol glucuronide and, as such, ... Though estradiol levels in males are much lower than in females, estradiol has important roles in males as well. Apart from ... Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone. It is involved in the ...
Estradiol. *Estradiol esters (e.g., estradiol acetate, estradiol benzoate, estradiol cypionate, estradiol enanthate, estradiol ... See also: Pharmacology of estradiol. Pharmacodynamics[edit]. Estradiol acetate is an estradiol ester, or a prodrug of estradiol ... Estradiol acetate is a synthetic estrane steroid and the C3 acetate ester of estradiol.[3] It is also known as estradiol 3- ... Main article: Estradiol (medication) § Side effects. The side effects of estradiol acetate are the same as those of estradiol. ...
Estradiol propionate (EP), also known as estradiol monopropionate or estradiol 17β-propionate and sold under the brand names ... Estradiol dipropionate Estradiol 3-propionate List of estrogen esters § Estradiol esters Elks J (14 November 2014). The ... For the following two groups we have chosen estradiol propionate (Akrofollin) in a dose of 3 X 5 mg. In each instance we ... It is the C17β propionate ester of estradiol. EP was provided in an oil solution and was administered by intramuscular ...
Doctors may order an estradiol test if a girl appears to be entering puberty earlier or later than expected, or to evaluate ... Estradiol is the most important form of the hormone estrogen. ... Análisis de sangre: estradiol. What It Is. An estradiol test ... that work together to stimulate the ovaries to make estradiol. Increased estradiol production is largely responsible for breast ... The estradiol blood test is considered a safe procedure. However, as with many medical tests, some problems can occur with ...
Estradiol. The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. ... and Hormone AntagonistsHormonesGonadal HormonesGonadal Steroid HormonesEstradiol CongenersEstradiol ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryPolycyclic CompoundsFused-Ring CompoundsSteroidsEstranesEstrenesEstradiol ... Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. ...
17β-estradiol (CHEBI:16469) is a 17β-hydroxy steroid (CHEBI:35343) 17β-estradiol (CHEBI:16469) is a estradiol (CHEBI:23965) ... 17β-estradiol 3-sulfate (CHEBI:4866) has functional parent 17β-estradiol (CHEBI:16469). 17β-estradiol 3-sulfate 17-(β-D- ... 17β-estradiol 6-O-(carboxymethyl)oxime (CHEBI:42319) has functional parent 17β-estradiol (CHEBI:16469). 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol ... 17β-estradiol 17-glucosiduronic acid (CHEBI:791) has functional parent 17β-estradiol (CHEBI:16469). 17β-estradiol 3-O- ...
... previously spelt oestradiol valerate in the UK), which is a naturally occuring form of the main female sex hormone, oestrogen. ... Climaval tablets contain the active ingredient estradiol valerate ( ... Climaval (estradiol). Climaval tablets contain the active ingredient estradiol valerate (previously spelt oestradiol valerate ... Climaval tablets contain the active ingredient estradiol valerate (previously spelt oestradiol valerate in the UK), which is a ...
... previously spelt oestradiol in the UK), which is a naturally occuring form of the main female sex hormone, oestrogen. ... Bedol (estradiol). Bedol tablets contain the active ingredient estradiol (previously spelt oestradiol in the UK), which is a ... Bedol tablets contain the active ingredient estradiol (previously spelt oestradiol in the UK), which is a naturally occuring ... Oestrogen (in this case in the form of estradiol) can be given as a supplement to replace the falling levels in the body and ...
Estradiol Topical: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Estradiol gel may catch fire. When you apply estradiol gel, do not smoke or go near a fire or open flame until the gel dries. ... To use estradiol gel, follow these steps: *Before you use your first dose of estradiol gel, remove the large cover of the pump ... Topical estradiol comes as a gel, a spray, and an emulsion to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once a day. Estradiol ...
Estradiol News and Research. RSS Estradiol is a sex hormone. Mislabelled the "female" hormone, it is also present in males; it ... Estradiol has not only a critical impact on reproductive and sexual functioning, but also affects other organs including the ... Older men tend to have lower biological age if they have higher levels of sex hormones, particularly the estradiol form of ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Annovera (segesterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol vaginal system), which ...
Find out what health conditions may be a health risk when taken with Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral ... WebMD provides common contraindications for Norethindrone-Ethinyl Estradiol Oral. ... Drugs & MedicationsNorethindrone-Ethin Estradiol Tablet. Who should not take Norethindrone-Ethin Estradiol Tablet?. The ...
Estradiol Transdermal Patch: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Transdermal estradiol comes as a patch to apply to the skin. Transdermal estradiol is usually applied once or twice a week, ... Before using transdermal estradiol,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to any brand of transdermal estradiol ... Talk to your doctor about the risks of using transdermal estradiol.. Transdermal estradiol may cause growth to slow or stop ...
I have been on the estradiol patch for 5 weeks! I was on the .725 dose. I have gained about 8 pounds and I am freaking out! I ...
estradiol - Prescribed for Atrophic Vaginitis, Postmenopausal Symptoms, Atrophic Urethritis, Hypoestrogenism, Breast Cancer - ... Alora, Climara, Delestrogen, Depo-Estradiol, Divigel, Elestrin, Estra Pellets, Estrace, Estraderm,... more ...
... estradiol; 17«alpha»-Ethinylestradiol; 17«alpha»-Ethynylestradiol; 17-Ethinyl-3,17-estradiol; 17-Ethinylestradiol; 17- ... oestradiol; 17«alpha»-Ethynylestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17«beta»-diol; 17«alpha»-Ethynylestradiol-l7«beta»; 17«alpha»- ... 17-oestradiol; 17-Ethynyl-3-17-dihydroxy-1,3,5-oestratriene; 17-Ethynyloestra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17«beta»-diol; 17- ... Estradiol, 17-ethynyl-; Thiuram E; Thiuranide; 17-Ethynylestradiol ram; component of Desogen; component of Estostep; component ...
Title: Resultado do exame de sangue estradiol, Author: johnfbfco, Name: Resultado do exame de sangue estradiol, Length: 7 pages ... Resultado do exame de sangue estradiol Toronto State of North Dakota resultado do exame de sangue estradiol artigo 147 eca ... Resultado Do Exame De Sangue Estradiol New York Huntsville Resultado do exame de sangue estradiol Burnaby State of Kansas ... curso de grafologia bauru Resultado do exame de sangue estradiol Rhode Island Miramichi Resultado do exame de sangue estradiol ...
ESTRADIOL (UNII: 4TI98Z838E) (ESTRADIOL - UNII:4TI98Z838E) ESTRADIOL. 0.1 mg in 1 g. ... Do not use estradiol vaginal cream, 0.01% for conditions for which it was not prescribed. Do not give estradiol vaginal cream, ... How should I use Estradiol Vaginal Cream, 0.01%? Estradiol vaginal cream, 0.01% is a cream that you place in your vagina with ... Each gram of estradiol vaginal cream, USP, 0.01% contains 0.1 mg estradiol in a nonliquefying base containing purified water, ...
What are estradiol vaginal inserts? Estradiol vaginal inserts are a medicine that contains estradiol (an estrogen hormone) in a ... Estradiol vaginal inserts, USP: One vaginal insert contains 10.3 mcg of estradiol hemihydrate equivalent to 10 mcg of estradiol ... Are allergic to estradiol vaginal inserts or any of its ingredients See the list of ingredients in estradiol vaginal inserts at ... Estradiol (ess-tra-DYE-ole) Vaginal Inserts Read this PATIENT INFORMATION before you start using estradiol vaginal inserts and ...
Evamist (estradiol transdermal spray) is an estrogen indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due ... FDA Drug Safety Communication: Ongoing safety review of Evamist (estradiol transdermal spray) and unintended exposure of ... FDA Drug Safety Podcast for Healthcare Professionals: Ongoing safety review of Evamist (estradiol transdermal spray) and ...
Rate your experience with estradiol vaginal on - WebMD including the side effects, drug interactions, effectiveness, ease of ...
Depo-Estradiol; Divigel; Elestrin; Estrace; Estrasorb; Estrogel; Evamist; Femring; Menostar; Minivelle; Vivelle; Vivelle-Dot), ... estradiol, Alora, Climara, Delestrogen, Depo-Estradiol, Divigel, Elestrin, Estrace, and Others. *What is estradiol, and how ... What is the dosage for estradiol?. The dose of estradiol can vary depending on the condition that is being treated. Estradiol ... What else should I know about estradiol?. What preparations of estradiol are available?. Estradiol is available in several ...
... estradiol cream), including warnings and precautions, directions, and the names of other drugs and products that include the ...
Estradiol is additionally conjugated with an ester into lipoidal estradiol forms like estradiol palmitate and estradiol ... Main articles: Estradiol (medication), Pharmacodynamics of estradiol, and Pharmacokinetics of estradiol. Estradiol is used as a ... Estradiol is an estrane steroid.[74] It is also known as 17β-estradiol (to distinguish it from 17α-estradiol) or as estra-1,3,5 ... Oestradiol; E2; 17β-Estradiol; Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol; 17β-Oestradiol ...
Estradiol tablets: Generic equivalent of Estrace tablets. New approved drug details including side effects, uses and general ... Durameds estradiol tablets were approved for hormone replacement in 0.5mg, 1mg, and 2mg strengths. It is the generic ... Estradiol tablets. The following drug information is obtained from various newswires, published medical journal articles, and ...
Information about this estradiol-transdermal-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. X. Studies in animals or ... Estradiol is an estrogen hormone. The hormone from the patch, gel, and spray is absorbed through your skin into your body. It ... Estradiol transdermal gel, patch, and spray are used to treat moderate to severe hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause or ... Use of estradiol transdermal patch, gel, and spray is not indicated in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not ...
Coat-A-Count Estradiol is,,,a no-extraction, solid-phase 125I,,,radioimmunoassay designed for in vitro,,,diagnostic use in the ... quantitative,,,measurement of estradiol in serum, for the,,,differential diagnosis of amenorrhea and,,,for monitoring of ... 3rd Generation Estradiol RIA Test. 3. Estradiol EIA Test. 4. 3rd Generation Estradiol EIA. 5. Estradiol RIA Test. 6. Estradiol ... Estradiol EIA kit. 9. BioCheck Estradiol (E2) Enzyme Immunoassay. 10. Double Antibody Estradiol RIA. 11. Estradiol ELISA. ...
Find treatment reviews for Estradiol from other patients. Learn from their experiences about effectiveness, side effects and ... Showing 3 of 13 patient evaluations for Estradiol Previous page 1 2 3 4 5 Next page ...
  • Estradiol transdermal gel , patch , and spray are used to treat moderate to severe hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause or low amounts of estrogen. (drugs.com)
  • Estradiol is an estrogen hormone. (drugs.com)
  • Estradiol ( E2 ), also spelled oestradiol , is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone . (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol acetate , sold under the brand names Femtrace , Femring , and Menoring , is an estrogen medication which is used in hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] [9] It is an estrogen ester and a prodrug of estradiol in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Because estradiol acetate is a prodrug of estradiol, it is considered to be a natural and bioidentical form of estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol plays an important role in sexual development: It's the most important form of the hormone estrogen. (kidshealth.org)
  • citation needed] In baboons, blocking of estrogen production leads to pregnancy loss, suggesting estradiol has a role in the maintenance of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • ent-Estradiol (ent-E2), or 1-estradiol (1-E2), is an estrogen and the 1-enantiomorph of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a so-called "short-acting" or "impeded" estrogen, similarly to estriol, 17α-estradiol, and dimethylstilbestrol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol is in a class of medications called estrogen hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Older men tend to have lower biological age if they have higher levels of sex hormones, particularly the estradiol form of estrogen, a large new study from Australia finds. (news-medical.net)
  • Most brands of estradiol transdermal patches are also sometimes used as a source of estrogen in young women who do not produce enough estrogen naturally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Evamist (estradiol transdermal spray) is an estrogen indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due to menopause. (fda.gov)
  • Estradiol is a form of estrogen, a female sex hormone that regulates many processes in the body. (cigna.com)
  • A surprising finding was that 37 percent of patients had elevated estradiol levels at baseline, which could be potentially be explained, in part, by the use of estrogen-containing supplements. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estradiol is the most common form of a type of hormone known as estrogen. (livestrong.com)
  • Estradiol is a drug used to treat postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency. (upi.com)
  • DELESTROGEN® (estradiol valerate injection, USP) contains estradiol valerate, a long-acting estrogen in sterile oil solutions for intramuscular use. (rxlist.com)
  • Estradiol is an estrogen supplement that is used as a treatment in various different situations. (wisegeek.com)
  • Estradiol is an estrogen supplement that may be used as a treatment for osteoporosis. (wisegeek.com)
  • The gel contains the progestin Nestorone® and estradiol, a form of estrogen, that is identical to the estrogen made by a woman's body. (popcouncil.org)
  • Previous research indicates that the transdermal use of a natural estrogen (such as estradiol) may result in fewer side effects than experienced with ethinyl estradiol currently used in oral contraceptives. (popcouncil.org)
  • If approved by regulatory authorities, Nestorone/estradiol gel would be the first-of-its-kind transdermal contraception using the natural estrogen estradiol. (popcouncil.org)
  • The use of estradiol-which closely resembles natural estrogen-combined with a non-oral delivery system may have the potential to minimize safety factors related to oral hormonal contraceptives that use ethinyl estradiol. (popcouncil.org)
  • Beta-estradiol is one of the 3 types of estrogen made by the human body. (ewg.org)
  • SEASONALE (levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) is an extended-cycle combination oral contraceptive consisting of 84 pink active tablets each containing 0.15 mg of levonorgestrel, a synthetic progestin and 0.03 mg of ethinyl estradiol, an estrogen , and 7 white inert tablets (without hormones). (rxlist.com)
  • What is the difference between estradiol and estrogen? (reference.com)
  • According to WebMD, there are three forms of estrogen hormones: estradiol, estriol and estrone. (reference.com)
  • According to Healthline, estradiol is a form of estrogen that is found in a woman's bloodstream during puberty, during a woman's menstrual cycle and during menopause. (reference.com)
  • Chapter Two discusses estradiol signaling pathways and how deficiency of estrogen, in the postmenopausal period, would cause CVS diseases and the potential therapeutic effect of estrogen for preventing cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. (novapublishers.com)
  • Estradiol is a medication that contains a form of the hormone estrogen . (wisegeek.com)
  • People may use topical or oral forms of estradiol to treat some symptoms associated with the loss of estrogen due to menopause or as a hormonal replacement when the ovaries stop working or are removed. (wisegeek.com)
  • Estradiol is a naturally occurring steroidal estrogen that occurs as small, white or creamy white crystals or as a crystalline powder. (uspharmacist.com)
  • A mixture of estradiol or other estrogen and an uncrosslinked, water-insoluble vinylpyrrolidone copolymer provides a matrix which gradually releases the medicament upon application to the skin of a patient in the form of an ointment, gel or film. (google.es)
  • Estradiol, the endogenous counterpart of ethinyl estradiol (EE), is the principal, most potent estrogen hormone produced by the ovaries and is vital to the maintenance of fertility and secondary sexual characteristics in females. (cancer.gov)
  • This test measures the level of Estradiol, a form of estrogen, in the blood. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • Estradiol is actually a type of estrogen, which is the major female reproductive hormone. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Estradiol is the primary type of estrogen, and it is produced in your ovaries. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Estradiol (a form of estrogen) and progesterone are female hormones. (uofmhealth.org)
  • SEASONALE® (levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets) is indicated for use by females of reproductive potential to prevent pregnancy. (rxlist.com)
  • Take the first pink tablet (0.15 mg of levonorgestrel and 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol) on the first Sunday after the onset of menstruation. (rxlist.com)
  • Ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel is a combination birth control pill containing female hormones that prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary). (healthwise.net)
  • Ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel is used to prevent pregnancy. (healthwise.net)
  • Ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (healthwise.net)
  • What is the most important information I should know about ethinyl estradiol and ethynodiol diacetate? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Ethinyl estradiol and ethynodiol diacetate contains a combination of female hormones that prevent ovulation (the release of an egg from an ovary). (cardiosmart.org)
  • Ethinyl estradiol and ethynodiol diacetate are used as contraception to prevent pregnancy. (cardiosmart.org)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking ethinyl estradiol and ethynodiol diacetate? (cardiosmart.org)
  • How should I take ethinyl estradiol and ethynodiol diacetate? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Estradiol acetate comes in the form of 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 mg oral tablets (Femtrace) and in the form of 12.4 or 24.8 mg vaginal rings that release 50 or 100 μg/day estradiol for 3 months (Femring, Menoring). (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol acetate is relatively recent to the market, having been first approved in a vaginal ring formulation as Menoring in the United Kingdom in 2001, [12] followed by a vaginal ring formulation as Femring in the United States in 2002, [1] and finally as an oral preparation as Femtrace in the United States in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before you begin using topical estradiol, tell your doctor if you have or have ever had cancer and if you have abnormal or unusual vaginal bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your doctor immediately if you have abnormal or unusual vaginal bleeding during your treatment with topical estradiol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Estradiol topical gel is also used to treat vaginal dryness, itching, and burning in women who are experiencing menopause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Before you begin using transdermal estradiol, tell your doctor if you have or have ever had cancer and if you have unusual vaginal bleeding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ESTRADIOL VAGINAL INSERTS safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • See full prescribing information for ESTRADIOL VAGINAL INSERTS. (nih.gov)
  • Estradiol injection is used to treat certain symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, burning, or irritation. (cigna.com)
  • In a new study published online by JAMA Oncology , Michelle E. Melisko, M.D., of the University of California, San Francisco, and colleagues conducted a randomized clinical trial (funded in full by AstraZeneca) to evaluate the safety of intravaginal testosterone cream (IVT) and a hormonal estradiol-releasing vaginal ring in patients with early-stage breast cancer receiving an AI. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The authors report persistent estradiol elevation was observed in none of the women using the vaginal ring and in four of the 34 (12 percent) of the women who used the intravaginal testosterone cream. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estradiol and norethindrone is a combination medicine used to treat menopause symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal changes, and to prevent osteoporosis (bone loss) in menopausal women. (rexhealth.com)
  • Estradiol vaginal solution has been used for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis, atrophic dystrophy of the vulva, menopausal symptoms, female hypogonadism, and mild-to-severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. (uspharmacist.com)
  • [10] The major pathway involves the formation of androstenedione , which is then converted by aromatase into estrone and is subsequently converted into estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of estradiol, together with estrone and estriol, in pregnancy is less clear. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the body, estradiol is reversibly oxidized to estrone, and both estradiol and estrone can be converted to estriol. (uspharmacist.com)
  • These are estrone and estradiol. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • According to mayo clinic labs , estradiol is up to five times more potent biologically then estrone. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • Estradiol is also used to treat certain conditions in women before menopause if their ovaries do not make enough estrogens naturally, and prevent osteoporosis after menopause. (drugs.com)
  • Upon menopause in women, production of estrogens by the ovaries stops and estradiol levels decrease to very low levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of secondary sex characteristics in women is driven by estrogens, to be specific, estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The effect of estradiol (and estrogens in general) upon male reproduction is complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a large study, women who took estrogens (a group of medications that includes estradiol) by mouth with progestins had a higher risk of heart attacks, strokes, blood clots in the lungs or legs, breast cancer, and dementia (loss of ability to think, learn, and understand). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Estradiol is one of the main types of estrogens. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • 4. An adhesive-coated sheet material according to claim 1, wherein the amount of estradiol in said adhesive coating is about 1 to 5 percent by weight of said adhesive coating. (google.es)
  • The amount of estradiol in a woman's blood changes from day to day as her monthly menstruation cycle progresses. (ehow.co.uk)
  • An unknown amount of Estradiol present in the sample and a fixed amount of Estradiol conjugated with horseradish peroxidase compete for the binding sites of a polyclonal Estradiol antiserum coated onto the wells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In men, a small amount of estradiol is mainly released by the testes. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • The amount of estradiol in your blood on Day 3 can also indicate whether or not your FSH test was accurate or not. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Because it is secreted by your ovarian follicles, the amount of estradiol can indicate how far along you are in your follicular cycle. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Estradiol is produced especially within the follicles of the ovaries , but also in other tissues including the testicles , the adrenal glands , fat, liver , the breasts, and the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • and follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH) that work together to stimulate the ovaries to make estradiol. (kidshealth.org)
  • Estradiol levels also give important information on the functioning of the ovaries. (kidshealth.org)
  • In women with active menstrual cycles, the ovaries produce between 70 and 500 micrograms of estradiol daily. (medicinenet.com)
  • Long-term use of estradiol may increase your risk of cancer of the breast, uterus, or ovaries. (cigna.com)
  • Estradiol is primarily produced by the ovaries and the adrenal gland. (livestrong.com)
  • Low levels of estradiol can be due to genetic factors (such as Turner's Syndrome), or due to the shutting down of the ovaries (either as a result of menopause or as a result of premature ovarian failure). (livestrong.com)
  • According to the fertility website Shared Journey, estradiol is a type of oestrogen naturally produced by the ovaries and is secreted in the follicles that grow in the ovaries. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Produced mainly in our ovaries and testes, estradiol is formed from testosterone. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • In women, most estradiol is released from the ovaries and adrenal glands. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • Side effects of estradiol acetate include breast tenderness , breast enlargement , nausea , headache , and fluid retention . (wikipedia.org)
  • The side effects of estradiol acetate are the same as those of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the side effects of estradiol? (medicinenet.com)
  • Side effects of estradiol may include heartburn. (wisegeek.com)
  • Nausea and stomach pain are common side effects of estradiol. (wisegeek.com)
  • Because human sex hormones work so closely with one another, doctors often perform the estradiol test with tests for LH, FSH, testosterone (the male sex hormone - but teen and adult females produce some, too), and progesterone (the hormone that prepares the body for pregnancy). (kidshealth.org)
  • In the luteal phase, estradiol, in conjunction with progesterone, prepares the endometrium for implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actions of estradiol are required before the exposure of progesterone in the luteal phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both estradiol and progesterone (which lets you know that you ovulated) are at great levels! (medhelp.org)
  • These tablets contain estradiol and norethisterone, forms of the female sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone. (healthexpress.co.uk)
  • Photo-induced electron emission from 17beta-estradiol and progesterone and possible biological consequences. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Estradiol and progesterone is a combination medicine used to treat moderate to severe hot flashes caused by menopause. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Estradiol and progesterone is not for use in a woman who is pregnant or breast-feeding. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Any doctor or surgeon who treats you should know that you are using estradiol and progesterone. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Self-examine your breasts for lumps on a monthly basis and have a mammogram every year while using estradiol and progesterone. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What should I avoid while taking estradiol and progesterone? (uofmhealth.org)
  • The 4-hydroxy metabolite of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) has been implicated in the carcinogenicity of this hormone. (pnas.org)
  • Shoreline Trc Mobile Home Park purchases water from Zion which is required to test for 17-beta-estradiol. (ewg.org)
  • 17 beta Estradiol is a steriod hormone that is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex. (abcam.com)
  • How should I take estradiol and norethindrone? (rexhealth.com)
  • Pregnant woman should not take estradiol because it can increase a child's risk of developing abnormalities in the urinary and genital systems, as well as certain cancers later in life. (wisegeek.com)
  • If you have not had a hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus), you should be given another medication called a progestin to take with topical estradiol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not use topical estradiol alone or with a progestin to prevent heart disease, heart attacks, or strokes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have an allergy to estradiol, levonorgestrel, or any other part of this drug. (mskcc.org)
  • Women who use topical estradiol alone or with progestins may also have a higher risk of developing these conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You can take steps to decrease the risk that you will develop a serious health problem while you are using topical estradiol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Use the lowest dose of topical estradiol that controls your symptoms and only use topical estradiol as long as needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor every 3-6 months to decide if you should use a lower dose of topical estradiol or should stop using the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor may tell you to stop using topical estradiol 4-6 weeks before the surgery or bedrest to decrease the risk that you will develop blood clots. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor regularly about the risks and benefits of using topical estradiol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Topical estradiol comes as a gel, a spray, and an emulsion to apply to the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What is the most important information I should know about estradiol topical? (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Estradiol topical is absorbed through the skin and can cause side effects in a child who comes into contact with the skin where you have applied the medicine. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • What is estradiol topical? (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before using estradiol topical? (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Estradiol topical should not be used to prevent heart disease, stroke, or dementia. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • How should I use estradiol topical? (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Do not allow a child to come into contact with the skin where you have applied estradiol topical. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Self-examine your breasts for lumps on a monthly basis, and have regular mammograms while using estradiol topical. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Estradiol topical may be flammable. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Children should never be exposed to estradiol unless it is prescribed by a medical professional, and care should be taken when topical forms are used to avoid accidentally getting the medication onto other people. (wisegeek.com)
  • People who use topical estradiol may experience redness or irritation where the medication is applied. (wisegeek.com)
  • Estradiol acetate is used as a component of menopausal hormone therapy to treat and prevent menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and osteoporosis in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing estradiol levels also can be used to monitor the progression of a pregnancy, fertility treatments, or to evaluate menopause symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • Oestrogen (in this case in the form of estradiol valerate) can be given as a supplement to replace the falling levels in the body and help reduce these distressing symptoms of the menopause. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Some forms of estradiol injection are used in men to treat the symptoms of prostate cancer. (cigna.com)
  • Estradiol treats only the symptoms of prostate cancer but does not treat the cancer itself. (cigna.com)
  • Low estradiol can also cause sexual symptoms. (livestrong.com)
  • Sudden drops in estradiol can also cause symptoms as the body adjusts to lower levels of the hormone. (livestrong.com)
  • Estradiol is indicated for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis, atrophic dystrophy of the vulva, menopausal symptoms, female hypogonadism, ovariectomy (oophorectomy), primary ovarian failure, inoperable breast cancer, inoperable prostatic cancer, and mild-to-severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Estradiol is responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as the breasts , widening of the hips , and a feminine pattern of fat distribution in women and is important in the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues such as the mammary glands , uterus , and vagina during puberty , adulthood , and pregnancy . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the female, estradiol acts as a growth hormone for tissue of the reproductive organs, supporting the lining of the vagina , the cervical glands, the endometrium , and the lining of the fallopian tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • estradiol is absorbed from the vagina into the bloodstream. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • Headaches are a common side effect of estradiol. (wisegeek.com)
  • Breast tenderness is a common side effect of estradiol. (wisegeek.com)
  • For instance, by using the skin as the site of delivery, the combination of estradiol with Nestorone in a gel may help bypass the liver (and help prevent toxicity/safety concerns), while still suppressing ovulation. (popcouncil.org)
  • Transdermal estradiol is also used to prevent osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break easily) in women who are experiencing or have experienced menopause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For other conditions, such as osteoporosis , the oral estradiol dosage is only 0.5 mg per day. (wisegeek.com)
  • High serum estradiol levels are not detrimental to in vitro fertilization outcome. (newswire.ca)
  • Serum estradiol and risk of stroke in elderly men. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Sexually mature males have much lower blood levels of estradiol, which are produced by the testes and adrenal glands. (kidshealth.org)
  • He explained that while there have been no human studies to determine the effect that this could have on humans, in animal studies estradiol, when exposed to males, has been shown to damage the sperm-forming mechanism in the testes. (whale.to)
  • The higher the dose of estradiol, the more likely blood clots are to form. (medicinenet.com)
  • Using estradiol can increase your risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. (cigna.com)
  • The dose of estradiol can vary depending on the condition that is being treated. (medicinenet.com)
  • The equivalent of half a glass of wine doubled estradiol blood levels, while three glasses' worth more than tripled the effective dose of Estrace. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • For most conditions, the oral dose of estradiol is no more than 2 milligrams (mg) per day. (wisegeek.com)
  • A) 120 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate and 24 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 6 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol) per implant dose. (cornell.edu)
  • B) 120 mg trenbolone acetate and 24 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each of 6 pellets containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (cornell.edu)
  • C) 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 10 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 2 mg estradiol) per implant dose. (cornell.edu)
  • E) 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 11 pellets, each of 10 pellets containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 2 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (cornell.edu)
  • A) 140 mg trenbolone acetate and 14 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 2 mg estradiol) per implant dose for use as in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. (cornell.edu)
  • B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate and 14 mg estradiol (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each of 7 pellets containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate and 2 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose for use as in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. (cornell.edu)
  • estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose for use as in paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. (cornell.edu)
  • The mean +/- SEM values for the extent of extradiol metabolism at these three specific sites for the extent of estradiol metabolism at these three specific sites were 76.9 +/- 5.3%, 31.1 +/- 4.0%, and 9.3 +/- 0.8%, respectively in normal subjects. (pnas.org)
  • OCs: no negative effect on endogenous estradiol metabolism? (springer.com)
  • Generally, estradiol is not used orally owing to extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism. (uspharmacist.com)
  • During the menstrual cycle , estradiol produced by the growing follicles triggers, via a positive feedback system, the hypothalamic-pituitary events that lead to the luteinizing hormone surge, inducing ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coat-A-Count Estradiol is a no-extraction, solid-phase 125I radioimmunoassay designed for in vitro diagnostic use in the quantitative measurement of estradiol in serum, for the differential diagnosis of amenorrhea and for monitoring of ovulation induction with and without stimulation in assisted reproductive technology (ART). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Can someone please tell me what is a normal estradiol level for a HCG trigger and ovulation? (medhelp.org)
  • Repletion of testosterone (T) in older men drives Growth Hormone secretion after its aromatization to estradiol (E2) by potentiating endogenous GH drive. (mayo.edu)
  • Though estradiol levels in men are much lower compared to those in women, estradiol has important roles in men as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who need to use transdermal estradiol for more than one of these reasons can benefit most from the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Estradiol is also the active ingredient in Climara, Estraderm, and Vivelle skin patches, which are prescribed primarily to menopausal women. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • The three dominant oxidative biotransformations of estradiol were examined in 10 normal women and 33 females with breast cancer by using a recently devised radiometric method. (pnas.org)
  • In this cross-sectional study, low estradiol increased the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women who had vitamin D deficiency," JoAnn Pinkerton, executive director at North American Menopause Society, said in a press release. (upi.com)
  • In the past, some researchers thought giving estradiol to women who have been postmenopausal less than six years. (upi.com)
  • The Access Sensitive Estradiol assay is commonly used to detect estradiol levels in women, children and men, and features low-end precision and state-of-the-art sensitivity to help laboratories deliver more accurate results for patients seeking answers to reproductive health questions. (newswire.ca)
  • The new Access Sensitive Estradiol assay offers improved measurement of low levels of estradiol, such as those typically found in men, pediatric populations and postmenopausal women. (newswire.ca)
  • Measured via a blood test, estradiol is found primarily in women who are past puberty but are not pregnant, as well as in post-menopausal women. (reference.com)
  • Women who use estradiol may notice breast growth and tenderness. (wisegeek.com)
  • In older women, β-carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with estradiol. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Most women undergoing fertility treatments will receive the estradiol test. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Women have particular levels of estradiol during different stages of their menstrual cycle. (sharedjourney.com)
  • All women undergoing fertility treatment can benefit from the estradiol test. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Resultado do exame de sangue estradiol Glasgow Mont-Joli, Oxford, Ch�teauguay, Kentucky normas da abnt 2018 programa para baixar Manchester clinica para exames em osasco Scarborough, art 6 inciso viii do codigo de defesa do consumidor ap spanish literature and culture practice exam pdf Birmingham multa do artigo 496 da clt, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Winnipeg Resultado do exame de sangue estradiol Leicester Portland. (issuu.com)
  • cursos em joinville 2018 resultado do exame de sangue estradiol Cambridge saiba os artigos 194 e 195 da constituição federal Billings. (issuu.com)
  • BREA, Calif. , June 20, 2018 /CNW/ -- Beckman Coulter Diagnostics announced today its Sensitive Estradiol assay is now licensed by Health Canada, giving laboratories and clinicians in the country access to the accurate and sensitive diagnostic test that aids in patient reproductive health management. (newswire.ca)
  • Estradiol acetate is a synthetic estrane steroid and the C3 acetate ester of estradiol . (wikipedia.org)
  • The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol , an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. (nih.gov)
  • The ovarian steroid hormone 17β-estradiol acts on central substrates to preserve nerve cell energy stability brain-wide, thereby providing neuroprotection against bio-energetic insults such as neurodegenerative diseases and acute brain ischemia. (springer.com)
  • For its use as a medication, see Estradiol (medication) . (wikipedia.org)
  • for information on estradiol as a medication, see the estradiol (medication) article. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol tablets are given daily or they can be prescribed to be taken in a cyclic regimen, wherein estradiol is given daily for 3 weeks followed by 1 week of no medication, after which the cycle resumes. (medicinenet.com)
  • Estradiol injection may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • The estradiol assay shows significant cross-reactivity with fulvestrant, a medication used to treat breast cancer. (uiowa.edu)
  • Most of the guidelines for use of this medication suggest it be used for shortest possible time periods to reduce the chances of developing many of the more serious estradiol side effects. (wisegeek.com)
  • Early research findings have indicated that the Nestorone/estradiol gel is well tolerated with no serious adverse events, which may increase a woman's ability and desire to continue using the method. (popcouncil.org)
  • A simple blood test, the estradiol test is performed in order to determine a woman's ovarian reserve. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Climaval tablets contain the active ingredient estradiol valerate (previously spelt oestradiol valerate in the UK), which is a naturally occuring form of the main female sex hormone, oestrogen. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In young girls, estradiol levels are normally low. (kidshealth.org)
  • Though estradiol levels in males are much lower than in females, estradiol has important roles in males as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low levels of estradiol may also predict fractures, with the highest risk occurring particularly in men with low total and high sex hormone binding globulin protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intervention was to be considered unsafe if more than 25 percent of patients had persistent elevation in estradiol levels, which were measured at baseline and at weeks four and 12. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Limitations of the study include its small size and the high percentage of patients with elevated estradiol levels at baseline before any intervention. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Low levels of estradiol cause irregularities in the menstrual cycle. (livestrong.com)
  • In the case of menopause, estradiol levels plummet dramatically, leading to a cessation of menstrual periods. (livestrong.com)
  • Low estradiol levels in adolescents can lead to delayed puberty, resulting in menstrual periods not beginning until later in life. (livestrong.com)
  • The lower estradiol levels can also cause mood swings, thinning of the hair and increased abdominal fat. (livestrong.com)
  • Alcohol can raise circulating levels of estradiol significantly. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • Blood levels of estradiol rose 40 percent after alcohol consumption. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • Estradiol levels also get a boost from grapefruit. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • I think the estradiol levels usually are about 200 per mature follicle. (medhelp.org)
  • What Are Normal Estradiol Levels in IVF? (ehow.co.uk)
  • Normal estradiol levels during an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle can vary from woman to woman. (ehow.co.uk)
  • According to Advanced Fertility Center of Chicago, peak estradiol levels in IVF are usually between 1,000 and 4,000 pg/ml. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Age can be a factor when it comes to estradiol levels. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Even in people without hypothyroidism, long-term use of estradiol may reduce thyroid hormone levels to below normal readings. (wisegeek.com)
  • To Explore the Relationship of Remission and Response to the Subjects' Serum Levels of Estradiol. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Higher estradiol levels are associated with gynecomastia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The estradiol test is a diagnostic procedure used to measure the levels of estradiol in your blood stream. (sharedjourney.com)
  • High estradiol levels can have an impact on your infertility. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Elevated levels of estradiol tend to indicate a problem with ovarian reserve. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Hypoestrogenism and atrophic vaginitis also benefit from estradiol. (wisegeek.com)
  • [3] Another common ester of estradiol in use for oral administration is estradiol valerate , which is a C17β ester of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placebo patches and pills that are identical to transdermal estradiol and oral sertraline, respectively, will be used. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Duramed's estradiol tablets were approved for hormone replacement in 0.5mg, 1mg, and 2mg strengths. (centerwatch.com)
  • The Estradiol ELISA kit is based on the competition principle and the microplate separation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Estradiol -17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. (nih.gov)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with estradiol? (medicinenet.com)
  • Estradiol may interact with prescription drugs such as theophylline and beta blocker blood pressure pills. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • The hypothesis was tested that estradiol (E2) from the ovarian follicles controls time of luteolysis. (bioone.org)
  • As they grow and develop, your egg follicles secrete estradiol, helping to trigger the rest of the reproductive cycle. (sharedjourney.com)
  • What is the dosage for estradiol? (medicinenet.com)
  • What Factors Affect Estradiol Dosage? (wisegeek.com)
  • Dosage of estradiol is affected by many different factors, the most important two being the condition the drug is being used to treat and the method of application. (wisegeek.com)
  • The most important factor that affects estradiol dosage is the condition that the drug is being used to treat. (wisegeek.com)
  • Estradiol dosage for palliative breast cancer is much more, at 10 mg administered three times daily. (wisegeek.com)
  • Another key factor in determining the correct estradiol dosage is the method of application of the drug. (wisegeek.com)
  • The sheet material is useful for systemic treatment of conditions associated with estradiol deficiency. (google.es)
  • said sheet material being further characterized in that over a prolonged period it adheres suitably to skin and provides for substantially continuous transdermal delivery of estradiol to a subject in an amount which is therapeutically effective for treating a condition associated with estradiol deficiency. (google.es)
  • 8. A method of treating a condition associated with estradiol deficiency wherein an adhesive-coated sheet material according to claim 1 is applied and adhered to the skin of a mammal to permit systemic delivery of estradiol to said mammal. (google.es)
  • Males with certain sex chromosome genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, will have a higher level of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The materials underwent 2 freeze-thaw cycles and are within the range of total estradiol commonly observed in males and females in most adult populations. (cdc.gov)
  • Estradiol is also found in males. (reference.com)