Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Influenza A Virus, H10N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 10 and neuraminidase 7. It has been isolated from a variety of wild and domestic animals including ducks, emu, and mink. It was found for the first time in humans in 2004.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Animal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Coxiella: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Animal DiseasesGoats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Paramyxovirinae: A subfamily of PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Genera include RUBULAVIRUS; RESPIROVIRUS; MORBILLIVIRUS; HENIPAVIRUS; and AVULAVIRUS.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Zeranol: A non-steroidal estrogen analog.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Housing, AnimalManure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Dictyocaulus Infections: Infection with nematodes of the genus DICTYOCAULUS. In deer, cattle, sheep, and horses the bronchi are the site of infestation.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Handling (Psychology): Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.SkatoleCampylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseBacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Paramyxoviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ergotism: Poisoning caused by ingesting ergotized grain or by the misdirected or excessive use of ergot as a medicine.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Great BritainFood Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.United StatesDietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Prince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.DairyingBrucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Bacterial Shedding: The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Polyradiculoneuropathy: Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Erysipelothrix: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that has a tendency to form long filaments. Its organisms are widely distributed in nature and are found in MAMMALS; BIRDS; and FISHES. Erysipelothrix may appear gram-negative because they decolorize easily.Erysipelothrix Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ERYSIPELOTHRIX.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Feeding Methods: Methods of giving food to humans or animals.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)ResorcinolsNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Trypanosoma congolense: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Foot Rot: A disease of the horny parts and of the adjacent soft structures of the feet of cattle, swine, and sheep. It is usually caused by Corynebacterium pyogenes or Bacteroides nodosus (see DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS). It is also known as interdigital necrobacillosis. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 18th ed)Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.NebraskaColor: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Oxytropis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Flax: A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.
For many abattoirs, very little animal biomass may be wasted at slaughter. Even intestinal contents removed at slaughter may be ... In 1997, livestock provided energy for between an estimated 25 and 64% of cultivation energy in the world's irrigated systems, ... Local and regional livestock auctions and commodity markets facilitate trade in livestock. In other areas, livestock may be ... Better Lives Through Livestock by ILRI Livestock - New South Wales Government Havana Livestock Fair (Photo Feature) - Havana ...
Only 24% are slaughtered in abattoirs, and only 34 abattoirs hold a veterinary certificate which allows them to sell to ... Livestock transportation and slaughter are to be conducted so that animals are free from fear, pressure, and torture. Law 18 of ... There are an estimated 500,000 stray dogs on the Indonesian island of Bali. Dogs are routinely culled, and the government ... According to animal welfare groups, hundreds of thousands of stray and pet dogs are inhumanely slaughtered each year to supply ...
Pre and post-slaughter inspections at local abattoirs, Inspection and accreditation of source farms, abattoirs, food-processing ... Revenue and Expenditure Estimates. Ministry of National Development. February 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-08. "Agri-Food and ... Laboratory testing capabilities for detecting and analysing pathogens and chemical contaminants in livestock, frozen and ...
We slaughter cow for its hide to make vanity bags and belts, bone-meal for tooth paste, blood for vitamin tablets and ... The estimated figure in 2011 is 20 cattle per 1000 humans. One can imagine what will be the situation of milk and milk-products ... 17th Indian Livestock Census reports that the number of cattle in India is continuously decreasing, with 430 per 1000 humans in ... 1947 : At the time of independence, India had a little more than 300 abattoirs. Today there are more than 35,000 approved ones ...
... animals must be tagged with details of their origin and stamped with the traceability code of the abattoir when slaughtered. ... Australia's National Livestock Identification System, or NLIS, is used to identify and track livestock from property of birth ... with an estimated average cost to cow/calf producers of $6.26 per animal, according to research by Christopher Raphael Crosby ... www.agmanager.info/livestock/budgets/production/beef/RFID%20costs.xls "Wisconsin Livestock Identification Consortium (WLIC) , ...
The facility received livestock and transported goods via tracks run to the plant by the Lehigh Valley Railroad. On July 14, ... Ready-cured meat is that which, after slaughter and butchery, has been treated by curing in order to prevent the growth of ... "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800-". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2018. List, p. 98. Kelly, Jim ... and Martins Abattoir & Wholesale Meats, Inc., with headquarters in Godwin, North Carolina. As early as 1989, city officials in ...
Restrictions on livestock movement were retained into 2002. The use of a vaccine to halt the spread of the disease was ... In ruling on a slaughter order issued against the pig that had starred in the film Babe, the judge declared there was no such ... The costs to Scottish agriculture of the FMD outbreak were estimated to be £231m and the loss of gross revenue to tourism to be ... The first case of the disease to be detected was at Cheale Meats abattoir in Little Warley, Essex on 19 February 2001 on pigs ...
The mutation rates for the three parts of the genome were estimated to be: 1.09×10−4, 1.52×10−4 and 0.58×10−4 substitutions/ ... As of 2015, among livestock, CCHF was recognized as "widespread" in India, only 4 years after the first human case had been ... Outbreaks have occurred in abattoirs where workers have been exposed to infected human or animal blood and fomites[citation ... agricultural regulations require de-ticking farm animals before transportation or delivery for slaughter. Personal tick ...
Named after the Abattoir or "Slaughter House" which is located in the area. Tabuk-Tulay - literally means "to cross the bridge ... The green body of water has an estimated area of 24 hectares (59 acres) with maximum depths reaching up to 26 m (85 ft). ... livestock and poultry. It is nicknamed as the City of Golden Harvest because of its vast rice plains along the barangays north ... Slaughter - concentration of residences on the southern slope and lower areas of a hill where the City Hall is located. ...
A study of nasal and visceral schistosomosis in cattle slaughtered at an abattoir in Bangalore, South India, Rev. Sci. Tech. ... An estimated thirty-one to forty-five communal riots broke out over six months and a total of 107 people were killed. Queen ... ISBN 978-92-64-21174-2. "Livestock and Poultry - World Market Trade" (PDF). US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 1 May 2012 ... No ban on cattle slaughter. The Assam Cattle Preservation Act, 1950 governs the slaughter of cattle in the state. Slaughter of ...
... estimated age of the animal at slaughter). Some meat scientists[who?] object to the current scheme of USDA grading since it is ... The meat processor pays for a trained AMS meat grader to grade whole carcasses at the abattoir. Users are required to comply ... In the UK, the Meat and Livestock Commission (MLC Services Ltd) is responsible for the classification of over 80% of the cattle ... The ribeye area is measured at the ribbed surface, it can be estimated subjectively or measured with a device approved by the ...
Jacqueline Lynch, Tyne Logan: Knickers the steer, one of the world's biggest steers, avoids the abattoir thanks to his size. ... The Livestock Journal of 1900 referred to both the "exceptionally good" and "remarkably inferior" Dutch cattle. The Dutch cow ... Toystory (2001-2014), Holstein bull whose semen has sold more than 2.4 million units worldwide and has been estimated to have ... A number of superior bulls were slaughtered or exported. The studs were simply supporting the Canadian policy to prevent the ...
Prompted by new legislation in the 1980s, that enforced hygiene standards in animal slaughtering, a slaughter-house was opened ... The Pallittorre's numbers have been estimated from as low as 50-60 to as high as 600. They maintained cleared grassy plains by ... Industry in the town has included sawmilling, dairy, a cheese factory, and an abattoir. Meander Primary school, built c.1910-11 ... almost 40 percent of those working are employed in the livestock, dairy farming, grain farming and sawmilling industries. As is ...
While the slaughter process removes the feathers and intestines, only visible fecal matter is removed.[29] The high speed ... The United Nations estimates there to be 19 billion chickens on Earth today, making them outnumber humans more than two to one. ... During shipping from the CAFO farm to the abattoir, the chickens are usually placed inside shipping crates that usually have ... Blood: Immediately after slaughter, blood may be drained into a receptacle, which is then used in various products. In many ...
While the slaughter process removes the feathers and intestines, only visible fecal matter is removed.[29] The high speed ... The United Nations estimates there to be 19 billion chickens on Earth today, making them outnumber humans more than two to one. ... During shipping from the CAFO farm to the abattoir, the chickens are usually placed inside shipping crates that usually have ... Blood: Immediately after slaughter, blood may be drained into a receptacle, which is then used in various products. In many ...
For many abattoirs, very little animal biomass may be wasted at slaughter. Even intestinal contents removed at slaughter may be ... In 1997, livestock provided energy for between an estimated 25 and 64% of cultivation energy in the worlds irrigated systems, ... Local and regional livestock auctions and commodity markets facilitate trade in livestock. In other areas, livestock may be ... Better Lives Through Livestock by ILRI Livestock - New South Wales Government Havana Livestock Fair (Photo Feature) - Havana ...
Cattle from the livestock markets in the environs of Maroua destined for slaughter at the Makabaye abattoir were sampled for ... J. Turton, How to Estimate the Age of Cattle, National Department of Agriculture, ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, ... About twenty cattle are slaughtered daily in the Makabaye abattoir which provides beef to inhabitants of Maroua city and ... were animals that were judged as fit to be slaughtered and were not slaughtered until at least 72-hour stay at the abattoir. ...
When no underreporting is assumed, the estimated human burden of disease is 285,407 (95% confidence interval [CI], 218,515- ... Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and monetary losses, resulting from human and livestock CE, were calculated from ... An annual livestock production loss of at least US $141,605,195 (95% CI, $101,011,553-$183,422,465) and possibly up to US $ ... 2,190,132,464 (95% CI, $1,572,373,055-$2,951,409,989) is also estimated. This initial valuation demonstrates the necessity for ...
a) A new methodology and revised definitions have been adopted for producing estimates of livestock slaughtering and meat ... These statistics are based on a monthly collection from abattoirs and other major slaughtering establishments. More detailed ... a) A new methodology and revised definitions have been adopted for producing estimates of livestock slaughtering and meat ... a new methodology and revised definitions have been adopted for producing estimates of livestock slaughtering and meat ...
Original estimates for October 2009 livestock slaughtering and meat production have been revised for all commodities as more ... These statistics are based on a monthly collection from abattoirs and other major slaughtering establishments. More detailed ... LIVESTOCK. *In December 2009, the trend estimate for cattle slaughterings continued to decrease, down to 617 thousand. *Sheep ... These spreadsheets contain original, seasonally adjusted and trend estimates for slaughtering and meat production for bulls, ...
If you witness livestock theft, or have any information on a rural crime, call the Rural Crime Help Line anonymously on 0800 ... There is a danger that animals could enter the food chain illegally, having been slaughtered at unregulated abattoirs where ... NFU chief land management adviser Sam Durham said: "In 2017 livestock theft was estimated to cost £2.4m and only 0.75% of sheep ... Livestock theft can cause immense animal suffering, including the loss of unborn offspring, and have devastating impacts on ...
... on a monthly collection from abattoirs and other major slaughtering establishments and include estimates of animals slaughtered ... The trend estimate for pig slaughterings remained steady at 392 thousand in October 2011.. LIVESTOCK SLAUGHTERED, Australia, ... LIVESTOCK. The trend estimate for cattle slaughterings remained steady at just under 600 thousand in October 2011. Calf ... These spreadsheets contain original, seasonally adjusted and trend estimates for slaughtering and meat production for bulls, ...
29 The statistics on livestock slaughtering and meat production are based on a monthly collection from abattoirs and other ... 9 Industry value estimates, industry financial estimates and trade export estimates in this publication are presented in terms ... Item Estimates from Agricultural Finance Survey (cat. no. 7507.0.15.001) (Electronic format) * Livestock and Meat, Australia ( ... REAL ESTIMATES. 25 Real estimates of two key statistics derived from the AFS are included in this publication. These statistics ...
A retrospective study was carried from 2008 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of liver flukes in ruminants slaughtered at the ... abattoir of Kermanshah province, west of Iran. A total of 663,633... ... study was carried from 2008 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of liver flukes in ruminants slaughtered at the abattoir of ... Ansari-Lari M, Moazzeni M (2006) A retrospective survey of liver fluke disease in livestock based on abattoir data in Shiraz, ...
He called on abattoir management to ensure that livestock movement protocols are observed at all times.. “The abattoir should ... “The abattoir will also help farmers to reduce on cost transporting animals to the nearest slaughter facilities in the ... With an estimated cattle population of 43,500, of which 45 percent is commercially owned and 55 percent is in the traditional ... It is with this livestock potential that the need to establish proper slaughtering facilities is vital to the district and ...
Contamination ?Meat Contamination Prevention: Farmers are responsible for delivering healthy clean livestock for slaughter to ... It is estimated that pregnant women have a 17 times higher risk of developing listeriosis from eating contaminated food than ... can be carried on dirty hides into the abattoir and offers advice to ensure animals are as clean as possible prior to slaughter ... slaughter. This product can be implemented immediately as an intervention strategy. Neomycin sulfate (NEOMIX?AG 325 Medicated ...
The company slaughters 34 million birds each week and produces one in five of the chickens in the country.. More than 16,000 ... Salmonella takes hold on farms and is found in the guts of poultry and livestock: farm animals and birds can become ... It says that annually, around 14.7% (48 million people) of the US population is estimated to suffer from an illness, compared ... contaminated with faeces containing the bacteria during transport to abattoirs, where slaughter and processing procedures can ...
... was carried out at kano abattoir in order to estimate the incidence of hydatidosis and cysticercosis in slaughtered livestock. ... prevalence of hydatidosis and cysticercosis in slaughtered livestock in nigeria.. a survey ...
Hydatidosis: prevalence and its economic importance in ruminants slaughtered at Adama municipal abattoir, Central Oromia, ... the loss of livestock to hepatic CE is estimated to be $141,605,195 worldwide (15). The economic loss described in our study is ... from just 1 official abattoir, so when considering farm animal slaughter, unofficial abattoirs, and the remaining ... Yang S, Wu W, Tian T, Zhao J, Chen K, Wang Q, et al. Prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep as an indicator ...
Welsh Livestock Ltd - the farmer owned co-operative arm of the Welsh Meat Company - is about to ... 19 July 2002 Co-op slaughter plantAFTER trading for a year, ... is about to start slaughtering at a refurbished abattoir in ... In the year before foot-and-mouth struck 5.6m finished and store sheep realised an estimated £173m, and 544,500 cattle around £ ... Co-op slaughter plant. AFTER trading for a year, Welsh Livestock Ltd - the farmer owned co-operative arm of the Welsh Meat ...
Only 24% are slaughtered in abattoirs, and only 34 abattoirs hold a veterinary certificate which allows them to sell to ... Livestock transportation and slaughter are to be conducted so that animals are free from fear, pressure, and torture. Law 18 of ... There are an estimated 500,000 stray dogs on the Indonesian island of Bali. Dogs are routinely culled, and the government ... According to animal welfare groups, hundreds of thousands of stray and pet dogs are inhumanely slaughtered each year to supply ...
... very little is known about the levels of STEC pathogens entering the food chain via slaughtered livestock. A two-year study ... To estimate the proportion of human cases associated with exposure to STEC from cattle, the E. coli strains isolated in these ... We work with the Epicentre at Massey on epidemiological studies aimed at the prevention and control of infection in abattoir ... Weve developed modular process risk models that capture the propagation of Salmonella during slaughter and along the food ...
Postmortem examination of hepatobilary organs and fore-stomachs of the slaughtered cattle (n=387) revealed adults of Fasciola ... A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of fasciolosis and paramphistomosis in Hirna town, assess the ... A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of fasciolosis and paramphistomosis in Hirna town, assess the ... Ministry of Livestock Development and Fisheries, Ethiopia.. *Search for this author on: ...
... it is very difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of the amount of antibiotics used in livestock production. The percentage ... The entire barn or house is filled with animals of a similar age which are then grown out to slaughter age or, in the case of ... Antimicrobial drug resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry abattoir workers at risk and broilers on antimicrobials ... Antibiotic use in livestock production. Data on the volume of antibiotics used in livestock production are scarce in South ...
Slaughter Facilities:. The country has 21 regional abattoirs and more than 150 small slaughter houses. Only 2 of the 21 ... 5. Quality Control of livestock, livestock inputs, and products. 6. Control of vectors and livestock diseases. 7. Provision of ... Estimated Annual Export Value (US$):. Estimated (2003) 80,000. SWOT analysis. Strengths:. *Large and stable cattle, goat & ... Livestock Policy:. Currently under preparation by the Ministry of water and livestock Development to be ready 2006 after New ...
PIC estimates that is worth 98p/mm. It also improves feed conversion rate by 0.06 worth 90p for each 0.1 change. This boar is ... In addition the abattoir would pay a bonus of 65p per pig for the improved conformation. But we would have to dedicate all our ... Through Allied Livestock Marketing, which sells our pigs, Richard Bull from Pig Production Technical Support at ABN, has been ... slaughter pigs to George Adams. But we will await further trial data before taking this potentially attractive route.. The ...
Livestock farms put out ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions, and a court decision could force them to start disclosing those ... They suggest that a conservative person will probably plan on slaughter being up 1-2% in the 4th quarter rather than being down ... United Kingdom Pig Survey - 2004 By Defra - This release gives provisional estimates of pig numbers in the United Kingdom ... when abattoir prices normally dip. This explains why some buyers remain cautious in the market despite the benefit of cheaper ...
... which require that the animals be slaughtered in registered abattoirs. Claude was buying donkeys directly from villagers and ... The owner of a small renewable energy firm, he had no experience dealing with livestock or exports, but in other respects he ... based on conservative estimates. ... has raised the price and the rate of slaughter of the animal ... Dispatch: Chinese Smugglers Are Buying Up Hundreds of Thousands of Illegally Slaughtered African Donkeys Chinese Smugglers Are ...
The meat of younger slaughter animals usually sells for a higher price on the market, but carcass shape and fat covering also ... livestock agent or experienced farmer can show you how to judge a living animal for the expected fat grade before slaughter. ... All the same, you can grow weaners to A/B-grade or B-grade and receive a decent price from abattoirs and butchers. ... Although the timing of the eruptions varies slightly from one breed to another, the table below gives a rough estimate of age. ...
Effective utilisation of livestock resources including slaughter of animals is essential for sustaining livestock production ... Slaughterhouse or abattoir is an authorised place where approved meat animals are slaughtered for producing wholesome meat for ... The estimated costs for improvement of all the slaughterhouses in the country are as under:. Table: Estimated cost of ... Non-mechanised (Floor) Slaughter Places. Floor slaughter is a primitive method of slaughter and is practiced at some places in ...
  • Running for six weeks, we will be highlighting the impacts livestock theft can have on farmers and we will be encouraging farmers and members of the public to give information 100% anonymously on any crimes they witness or may have information regarding. (nfuonline.com)
  • Livestock theft can cause immense animal suffering, including the loss of unborn offspring, and have devastating impacts on farmers. (nfuonline.com)
  • Dayow Beef Company limited general manager Ali Dayo said the company was motivated to set up an abattoir to help the small-scale farmers in the district with a befitting slaughter facility. (co.zm)
  • “The abattoir will also help farmers to reduce on cost transporting animals to the nearest slaughter facilities in the neighbouring districts,†he said. (co.zm)
  • We aimed to determine the CE prevalence in cattle slaughtered in a province in the central Andes of Peru and to assess the economic losses and potential food security effects from a multisectoral perspective (e.g., farmers, meat industry, and consumers). (cdc.gov)
  • Because veterinarians were scarce when Act 36 was promulgated, farmers had to have access to remedies for common ailments affecting livestock. (scielo.org.za)
  • It's a question that's plagued farmers, ranchers, abattoir owners. (energeticcity.ca)
  • UK - British supermarket chain Morrisons has become the first to launch a free app for cattle farmers to help simplify livestock management. (thecattlesite.com)
  • The merger, which happened a year ago, has the full support of producers and Denmark's farmer-owned processing business - not surprising as the new arrangement has managed to reduce levy fees for farmers to 5.5DKK per pig slaughtered (down 0.75 DKK), and cut the processor levy in half. (thepigsite.com)
  • The NFU welcomed today's announcement by Minister of Agriculture Nick Brown that he has obtained agreement from Agriculture Commissioner Franz Fischler that the European Commission will pay agrimoney compensation early to British livestock farmers during the foot & mouth crisis. (equiworld.net)
  • MAFF has granted farmers derogations for livestock grazing on set-aside land to ease the feeding crisis caused by foot and mouth disease movement restrictions after urgent lobbying by the NFU. (equiworld.net)
  • Pleased to join President Andry Rajoelina in Fort Dauphin to talk about improving livelihoods in one of Madagascar's poorest regions by ensuring livestock traceability, supporting farmers & opening sales channels - and how @IFC_org helps through BoViMa project," Lankes tweeted about a meeting with the country's president Andry Rajoelina during the visit. (farmlandgrab.org)
  • NADIS publishes a monthly Parasite Forecast for farmers and livestock keepers, based on detailed Met Office data. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Australian farmers are running out of cows because demand has risen sharply due to diseases in European livestock. (mad-cow.org)
  • Rejecting the traditional model of selling their cattle to large corporations that move them to feedlots and slaughter them in large factories, they are raising small herds on pastures, using local slaughterhouses, and selling their meat at farmers markets, farm stores, and by subscriptions. (charlottemagazine.com)
  • In addition, Agriculture Minister Kloeckner plans a raft of measures to address what she calls the "serious consequences" of downward meat price pressures on animal welfare, working conditions in abattoirs and farmers' incomes - a move she knows risks driving business abroad, with a loss of control over standards. (yahoo.com)
  • Kloeckner has proposed an animal welfare levy to compensate farmers for the cost of better husbandry of their livestock and to counter the risk of driving meat processing abroad, she will also push for European animal welfare labelling on meat goods. (yahoo.com)
  • In July 2010, the trend estimate for beef production rose 1% from June 2010, to 181 thousand tonnes. (abs.gov.au)
  • In December 2009, the trend estimate for beef production declined for the sixth consecutive month, down to 167 thousand tonnes. (abs.gov.au)
  • The trend estimate for beef production remained steady at 174 thousand tonnes in October 2011. (abs.gov.au)
  • However, Dayow Beef Company Limited noticed the untapped business potential in the district and thought it wise to set up an abattoir at a cost of K3.4 million which has created 22 jobs for the local residents of the district. (co.zm)
  • This notwithstanding, livestock traders in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria engage in indiscriminate administration of antibiotics to ready-for-slaughter beef cattle (Adesokan et al . (jsava.co.za)
  • By 2050 the livestock sector will supply an additional 7.8 million tonnes of milk, beef and chicken meat to the population, an increase of about 150 percent with respect to today," FAO said. (businessdailyafrica.com)
  • The FAO estimated that by 2050 the cattle population in Kenya will have increased by 90 percent while milk and beef production will rise to 17,000 tonnes and 2,000 tonnes, respectively. (businessdailyafrica.com)
  • Therefore, since the general hygienic condition of the abattoir and carcass harvesting process was poor, beef consumers in Adama are advised to eat properly cooked beef to avoid intoxication due microbes. (omicsonline.org)
  • The company wanted to buy zebu cattle from local herders, fatten them, slaughter them, and export the beef mainly to rich Middle Eastern countries like Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. (farmlandgrab.org)
  • The company blamed the recent shortages and high livestock prices for the closure, saying it had had a 'devastating effect on the beef industry and Churchill Abattoir. (beefcentral.com)
  • Woolworths has had a service kill contract with the Churchill abattoir for the past 20 years, supplying beef into the business's northern supply chain, feeding supermarkets throughout Queensland and northern NSW. (beefcentral.com)
  • The key message consumers need to hear is that we have taken aggressive steps in the U.S. to keep problem from occurring, and that U.S. beef continues to be wholesome, nutritious food," said Todd Domer, a spokesman for the Kansas Livestock Association. (mad-cow.org)
  • He stated that Beefmaster abattoir was one of the three abattoirs in the country to export frozen beef to China. (dfa.co.za)
  • The cost of living website Numbeo estimates a kilo of beef leg costs 10.64 euros in Germany against 16.67 euros in France, 14.58 euros in the Netherlands or 12.32 euros in Denmark. (yahoo.com)
  • The popularity of Indian beef among Middle East and other Muslim countries is on a higher side as the importers are assured of Halal slaughter. (vetconcerns.org)
  • The emergence of the global trade in donkey hide attributed mainly to the rise of Chinas middle class and an increased perception of the medicinal efficacy of a gelatine derived after boiling the hides, that is a key ingredient in a medicine called 'ejiao' has raised the price and the rate of slaughter of the animal. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • In a report released days before the China deal, the organizations warned that at the current rate of slaughter, there won't be a donkey left in four years. (co.ke)
  • Inclusion level of CSOCM had no effect on the feed intake and feed conversion rate of slaughter ostriches. (scielo.org.za)
  • And speaking at the same function, Zimba District Veterinary officer Chibango Kaluba hailed the establishment of the abattoir adding that the slaughter slab which was being used was a public health nuisance especially to surrounding residential houses. (co.zm)
  • Only 24% are slaughtered in abattoirs, and only 34 abattoirs hold a veterinary certificate which allows them to sell to supermarkets, fast food restaurants, and hotels. (wikipedia.org)
  • to animal welfare, and mastitis is unquestionably a factor that reduces it adopt is slaughter of affected animals, the specificity also would be important.Survey of careers, internships, skills and information resources for students interested in animal sciences, animal health and veterinary medicine. (highspiritstours.com)
  • Many zebu calves die young because of old-fashioned livestock rearing practices and lack of proper veterinary services in rural areas. (farmlandgrab.org)
  • Bovine Tb has significant impact on international trade of livestock and animal products [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of gross pathology suggestive of bovine tuberculosis (TB-like lesions) and evaluate animal's characteristics associated with the risk of having bovine TB-like lesions among cattle slaughtered in Mubende district in the Uganda cattle corridor. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The presence of bovine TB-like lesions in addition to the animal's sex, age, breed, and sub-county of origin prior to slaughter were recorded. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Associations between the presence of bovine TB-like lesions and animal's age, sex, breed, and sub-county of origin prior to slaughter were initially analysed using a univariable approach with the chi-square test, and subsequently with a multivariable logistic regression model to assess the combined impact of these animal characteristics with the risk of having a bovine TB-like lesion. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The findings of study reveals that approximately one in ten slaughtered cattle presents with gross pathology suggestive of bovine TB in Mubende district in the Uganda cattle corridor district, however, we isolated MTC in only 8.4% of these bovine TB-like lesions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A high frequency of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been reported but surveillance and control schemes are restricted to abattoir inspections only. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 158,456 cattle were slaughtered and inspected out of which, 4689 (3.0%) cases of bovine hydatidosis were recorded. (unza.zm)
  • Also unlike the conventional TB, which is airborne and transmits from person-to-person, Zoonotic TB originates first from animals and then spreads from food supplies to people (often through unpasteurized milk and cheese) or through direct contact with animals (usually domestic livestock)," said the Union in a statement. (ghananewsagency.org)
  • The mothballed plant was reopened to slaughter lambs under the Welfare Disposal Scheme but required major alterations to obtain a licence to kill primestock. (fwi.co.uk)
  • John Buchanan unloads a group of lambs for slaughter at the abattoir built by Bernie Nikkels at Metchosin, Vancouver Island. (blogspot.com)
  • Lambs come down the ramp and through the chute that runs behind the back of the abattoir, into the holding pens on the left. (blogspot.com)
  • This theft was perpetrated so that the lambs could be "slaughtered during the festival of Eid on the local market, we are 100% certain," said the officer. (blogspirit.com)
  • We helped to design the first national survey of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock species, which was conducted in 2009, and we have also conducted smaller surveys for the pork and poultry industries. (massey.ac.nz)
  • The ability of packers to harvest livestock and poultry in a timely fashion has been significantly impacted by the spread of Coronavirus in their work force. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Livestock and poultry in Indian tropical and sub tropics play a critical role in agriculture economy by providing milk, meat, eggs etc and provide flexible reserves during period of economic stress and buffer against crop failure. (niir.org)
  • Not even a single incidence of livestock or poultry disease outbreak was reported in any of the 64 countries through importing of Indian meat. (vetconcerns.org)
  • The Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization and a regional donkey advocacy organization, Brooke East Africa, had warned of the adverse effects of unregulated slaughter of the animals. (co.ke)
  • Mali is one of the most important livestock producers of the Sahel region of Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2011 ). Echinococcus infections are estimated to affect approximately two to three million people worldwide, with Africa amongst the primarily endemic regions (Cummings, Rodriguez-Sosa & Satoskar 2009 ). (ojvr.org)
  • Compared to June 2010, the trend estimate for sheep slaughterings in July 2010 remained relatively steady at 473 thousand, but was still down 40% from July 2009. (abs.gov.au)
  • In October 2011, the trend estimate for sheep slaughterings rose by 3% to 415 thousand compared to September 2011. (abs.gov.au)
  • Profits from agricultural or non-farm activities are used for the purchase of livestock (Itty et al 1997). (lrrd.org)
  • These data serve as the foundation for estimating the effects of disease in different endemic regions and can potentially help guide implementation of control programs or serve as an indicator to assess control measures ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Likewise, monetary evaluations have been applied to CE infections in humans and livestock only at a local level ( 10 - 14 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The overuse in both humans and livestock is giving dangerous germs more opportunities to evolve and outsmart drugs designed to kill them. (nytimes.com)
  • But the contribution of livestock and livestock products export to earn foreign exchange is not too large due to the fact that the country is not fully exploiting this resource. (omicsonline.org)
  • The contribution of livestock to the gross domestic product of The Gambia increased from 18.1 million dalasis (3.8%) in 1982/83 to 27.2 million dalasis (4.6%) in 1993/94 (CSO 2000). (lrrd.org)
  • Donkey owners from Machakos want the government to close down donkey abattoir for health reasons arguing that their presence was a threat to the rural economy. (co.ke)
  • Donkey abattoirs have led to increased theft which has affected our economy. (co.ke)
  • Kimilu said that the skin of a donkey is sold at S5, 000 and this is why people are turning donkeys into their daily business adding that the slaughtering areas smell very bad even for someone who is 600 meters away. (co.ke)
  • Donkey Slaughter houses Ruining Rural Economy? (co.ke)
  • The mushrooming donkey abattoirs all over the country are slowly but surely ruining rural economies more than many realize, new evidence now suggests. (co.ke)
  • We took decisive action during 2016 against organised illegal donkey slaughtering operations in the Namakwa and John Taolo Gaetsewe districts. (dfa.co.za)
  • 3 Mar 2015 Dr.Ambedkar further notes that ban on cow-slaughter by Gupta kings was in itself not the cause for untouchability In his PhD thesis, he stated:.Killing animals and using their flesh for food is not right. (highspiritstours.com)
  • A long time 20 Jul 2007 A central thesis of Rain Without Thunder, as well as my later work applied to animals slaughtered for sale to the federal government, but was phd thesis in tefl Feb 04, 2016 · A black swan is an unpredictable, rare, but nevertheless high impact event. (highspiritstours.com)
  • 2015 The thesis is embedded in the doctoral program "Law and Animals (for example the European public's hostility to seal slaughter) might lead This paper reviews the welfare of slaughter cattle in relation to transport, lairage and slaughter. (highspiritstours.com)
  • During April, slaughterings of cows and mature bulls at UK abattoirs exceeded year earlier levels for a tenth consecutive month. (thebeefsite.com)
  • India is one of the world's top five producers of leather, with skins coming from cows that die of natural causes or from the legal slaughter of buffalo. (reuters.com)
  • A Purina Mills spokesman said Friday the company had begun phasing out the use of meat and bone meal from cows in any of its livestock feed. (mad-cow.org)
  • It will also determine the fate of those animals we rear in industrial quantities to slaughter, and have a significant impact on our species as well. (yahoo.com)
  • This programme, funded by the Food Safety Authority within the Ministry of Primary Industries, the livestock industries, the Health Research Council and the Royal Society Marsden fund, has advanced understanding of the epidemiology, evolution and emergence of Campylobacter and contributed to a dramatic decline in human cases. (massey.ac.nz)
  • Currently under preparation by the Ministry of water and livestock Development to be ready 2006 after New Government is in place. (intracen.org)
  • Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. (jsava.co.za)
  • This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. (jsava.co.za)
  • unpublished data, 2012) without any consideration of the fate of these antibiotics in the slaughtered animals. (jsava.co.za)
  • Despite the fact that 90% of the Tanzanian economy depend on agriculture, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products such as cereal brans, oilseed cakes and sugar cane-based by-products are not fully utilized to increase livestock productivity in the country (MLDF 2008). (lrrd.org)
  • Mutton and Chicken is an important livestock product which in its widest sense includes all those parts of the animals that are used as the food by the man. (niir.org)
  • With an estimated cattle population of 43,500, of which 45 percent is commercially owned and 55 percent is in the traditional sector, Zimba district has the potential to contribute to the country’s economy. (co.zm)