"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
The parent alcohol of the tumor promoting compounds from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium).
A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
Esterases are hydrolase enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds, converting esters into alcohols and acids, playing crucial roles in various biological processes including metabolism and detoxification.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).
Diglycerides are a type of glyceride, specifically a form of lipid, that contains two fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol molecule by ester bonds.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
'Ketones' are organic compounds with a specific structure, characterized by a carbonyl group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen atom) and two carbon atoms, formed as byproducts when the body breaks down fats for energy due to lack of glucose, often seen in diabetes and starvation states.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Formic acid esters are organic compounds formed by the condensation of formic acid with alcohols, featuring an alkyl or aryl group bound to the carbonyl oxygen of the formic acid molecule.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Nitrophenols are organic compounds characterized by the presence of a nitro group (-NO2) attached to a phenol molecule, known for their potential use in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, but also recognized as environmental pollutants due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity.

Mechanistic alternatives in phosphate monoester hydrolysis: what conclusions can be drawn from available experimental data? (1/2031)

Phosphate monoester hydrolysis reactions in enzymes and solution are often discussed in terms of whether the reaction pathway is associative or dissociative. Although experimental results for solution reactions have usually been considered as evidence for the second alternative, a closer thermodynamic analysis of observed linear free energy relationships shows that experimental information is consistent with the associative, concerted and dissociative alternatives.  (+info)

Effects of 2 low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines on serum cholesterol concentrations as part of a low-fat diet in hypercholesterolemic subjects. (2/2031)

BACKGROUND: Full-fat sitostanol ester-containing margarine reduces serum total and LDL cholesterol, but the effect of plant stanol ester-containing margarine as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the cholesterol-lowering effects of 2 novel, low-fat stanol ester-containing margarines as part of a low-fat diet recommended for hypercholesterolemic subjects. DESIGN: In a parallel, double-blind study, 55 hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly assigned after a 4-wk high-fat diet (baseline) to 3 low-fat margarine groups: wood stanol ester-containing margarine (WSEM), vegetable oil stanol ester-containing margarine (VOSEM), and control margarine (no stanol esters). The groups consumed the margarines for 8 wk as part of a diet resembling that of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Step II diet. The daily mean total stanol intake was 2.31 and 2.16 g in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. RESULTS: During the experimental period, the reduction in serum total cholesterol was 10.6% (P < 0.001) and 8.1% (P < 0.05) greater and in LDL cholesterol was 13.7% (P < 0.01) and 8.6% (P = 0.072) greater in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively, than in the control group. Serum campesterol concentrations decreased 34.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001) in the WSEM and VOSEM groups, respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol, sitostanol, campestanol, beta-carotene, and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations did not change significantly from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the low-fat, plant stanol ester-containing margarines are effective cholesterol-lowering products in hypercholesterolemic subjects when used as part of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. They offer an additional, clinically significant reduction in serum cholesterol concentrations to that obtained with a low-fat diet alone.  (+info)

High-affinity binding of very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters to the peroxisomal non-specific lipid-transfer protein (sterol carrier protein-2). (3/2031)

Binding of fluorescent fatty acids to bovine liver non-specific lipid-transfer protein (nsL-TP) was assessed by measuring fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the single tryptophan residue of nsL-TP and the fluorophore. Upon addition of pyrene dodecanoic acid (Pyr-C12) and cis-parinaric acid to nsL-TP, FRET was observed indicating that these fatty acids were accommodated in the lipid binding site closely positioned to the tryptophan residue. Substantial binding was observed only when these fatty acids were presented in the monomeric form complexed to beta-cyclodextrin. As shown by time-resolved fluorescence measurements, translocation of Pyr-C12 from the Pyr-C12-beta-cyclodextrin complex to nsL-TP changed dramatically the direct molecular environment of the pyrene moiety: i.e. the fluorescence lifetime of the directly excited pyrene increased at least by 25% and a distinct rotational correlation time of 7 ns was observed. In order to evaluate the affinity of nsL-TP for intermediates of the beta-oxidation pathway, a binding assay was developed based on the ability of fatty acyl derivatives to displace Pyr-C12 from the lipid binding site as reflected by the reduction of FRET. Hexadecanoyl-CoA and 2-hexadecenoyl-CoA were found to bind readily to nsL-TP, whereas 3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA and 3-ketohexadecanoyl-CoA bound poorly. The highest affinities were observed for the very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA esters (24:0-CoA, 26:0-CoA) and their enoyl derivatives (24:1-CoA, 26:1-CoA). Binding of non-esterified hexadecanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid (24:0) was negligible.  (+info)

Preparation of isolated intestinal villi useful for studying hydrolysis rates of penicillin and cephalosporin esters. (4/2031)

A method for the preparation of freeze-dried intestinal villi from hamsters and mice is described. The villi, consisting largely of epithelial cells rich in esterase activity, are useful for hydrolysis studies of penicillin and cephalosporin esters.  (+info)

Amplification of the antibody response by C3b complexed to antigen through an ester link. (5/2031)

Complement C3 has been described as playing an important role in the cell-mediated immune response. C3b has the capacity to covalently bind Ag and then to stimulate in vitro Ag presentation to T lymphocytes. To verify this observation in vivo, we prepared and purified covalent human C3b-Ag complexes using lysozyme (HEL) as Ag. The characterization of these HEL-C3b complexes indicates that they are representative of those susceptible to be generated in physiological conditions. Mice were immunized with 0.1 to 0.6 microgram of either free HEL, HEL + C3b, HEL-C3b, or HEL + CFA. Response was assessed after two i.p. injections by quantification of specific Ab production. Immunization with either HEL-C3b complexes or HEL + CFA leads to anti-HEL IgG production whereas free HEL or HEL + C3b was ineffective. Either HEL-C3b or HEL + CFA immunizations led to a similar Ig subclass patterns, including IgG1, IgG2a, IgA, and IgM. Our experiments provide the first evidence for modulation of specific Ab response by C3b when it is bound to Ag through a physiological-like link. Taken together with previous data concerning Ab response following recombinant HEL-C3d immunization, cellular events such as processing of C3b-Ag by APC and recognition by T lymphocytes, this present result underlines the importance of C3b and its fragments in stimulation of the immune system, through the multiplicity and complementarity of its interactions.  (+info)

Intermediates of myocardial mitochondrial beta-oxidation: possible channelling of NADH and of CoA esters. (6/2031)

Adult rat heart mitochondria were isolated and incubated with [U-14C]hexadecanoyl-CoA or unlabelled hexadecanoyl-CoA. The accumulating CoA and carnitine esters and [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio were measured by HPLC or tandem mass spectrometry. Despite minimal changes in the intramitochondrial [NAD+]/[NADH] ratio, 2, 3-unsaturated and 3-hydroxyacyl esters were observed as well as saturated acyl-CoA and acylcarnitine esters. In addition to acetylcarnitine, significant amounts of butyryl-, hexanoyl-, octanoyl- and decanoylcarnitines were detected and measured. Rat myocardial beta-oxidation is subject to control at the level of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase but this control is not due to a simple lack of oxidised NAD. We hypothesise a pool of NAD in contact between the trifunctional protein of beta-oxidation and complex I of the respiratory chain, the turnover of which is responsible for some of the control of beta-oxidation flux. In addition, short- and medium-chain acylcarnitine esters were detected whereas only small amounts of long-chain acylcarnitines were present. This may imply the presence of a mitochondrial carnitine octanoyl transferase or may reflect channelling of long-chain CoA esters so that they are not available for carnitine palmitoyl transferase II activity.  (+info)

Serum sterols during stanol ester feeding in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population. (7/2031)

We investigated the changes of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterol metabolism during plant stanol ester margarine feeding in 153 hypercholesterolemic subjects. Rapeseed oil (canola oil) margarine without (n = 51) and with (n = 102) stanol (2 or 3 g/day) ester was used for 1 year. Serum sterols were analyzed with gas-liquid chromatography. The latter showed a small increase in sitostanol peak during stanol ester margarine eating. Cholestanol, campesterol, and sitosterol proportions to cholesterol were significantly reduced by 5-39% (P < 0.05 or less for all) by stanol esters; the higher their baseline proportions the higher were their reductions. The precursor sterol proportions were significantly increased by 10- 46%, and their high baseline levels predicted low reduction of serum cholesterol. The decrease of the scheduled stanol dose from 3 to 2 g/day after 6-month feeding increased serum cholesterol by 5% (P < 0. 001) and serum plant sterol proportions by 8-13% (P < 0.001), but had no consistent effect on precursor sterols. In twelve subjects, the 12-month level of LDL cholesterol exceeded that of baseline; the non-cholesterol sterol proportions suggested that stimulated synthesis with relatively weak absorption inhibition contributed to the non-responsiveness of these subjects. In conclusion, plant stanol ester feeding lowers serum cholesterol in about 88% of subjects, decreases the non-cholesterol sterols that reflect cholesterol absorption, increases the sterols that reflect cholesterol synthesis, but also slightly increases serum plant stanols. Low synthesis and high absorption efficiency of cholesterol results in the greatest benefit from stanol ester consumption.  (+info)

Oxidation of medium-chain acyl-CoA esters by extracts of Aspergillus niger: enzymology and characterization of intermediates by HPLC. (8/2031)

The activities of beta-oxidation enzymes were measured in extracts of glucose- and triolein-grown cells of Aspergillus niger. Growth on triolein stimulated increased enzyme activity, especially for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. No acyl-CoA oxidase activity was detected. HPLC analysis after incubation of triolein-grown cell extracts with decanoyl-CoA showed that beta-oxidation was limited to one cycle. Octanoyl-CoA accumulated as the decanoyl-CoA was oxidized. Beta-oxidation enzymes in isolated mitochondrial fractions were also studied. The results are discussed in the context of methyl ketone production by fungi.  (+info)

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

Cholesteryl esters are formed when cholesterol, a type of lipid (fat) that is important for the normal functioning of the body, becomes combined with fatty acids through a process called esterification. This results in a compound that is more hydrophobic (water-repelling) than cholesterol itself, which allows it to be stored more efficiently in the body.

Cholesteryl esters are found naturally in foods such as animal fats and oils, and they are also produced by the liver and other cells in the body. They play an important role in the structure and function of cell membranes, and they are also precursors to the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D.

However, high levels of cholesteryl esters in the blood can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Cholesteryl esters are typically measured as part of a lipid profile, along with other markers such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides.

NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) is not a medication, but rather a research chemical used in scientific studies. It is an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide, a molecule involved in the relaxation of blood vessels.

Therefore, L-NAME is often used in experiments to investigate the role of nitric oxide in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. It is important to note that the use of L-NAME in humans is not approved for therapeutic purposes due to its potential side effects, which can include hypertension, decreased renal function, and decreased cerebral blood flow.

Cholesteryl ester transfer proteins (CETP) are a group of plasma proteins that play a role in the transport and metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, between different lipoprotein particles in the bloodstream. These proteins facilitate the transfer of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), while simultaneously promoting the transfer of triglycerides in the opposite direction, from VLDL and LDL to HDL.

The net effect of CETP activity is a decrease in HDL cholesterol levels and an increase in LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels. This shift in lipoprotein composition can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, as lower HDL cholesterol levels and higher LDL cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk for these conditions.

Inhibition of CETP has been investigated as a potential strategy for increasing HDL cholesterol levels and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, clinical trials with CETP inhibitors have shown mixed results, and further research is needed to determine their safety and efficacy in preventing cardiovascular events.

Carboxylic ester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohols and carboxylates. This group includes several subclasses of enzymes such as esterases, lipases, and thioesterases. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and signal transduction. They are widely used in industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients.

Tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) is defined as a pharmacological agent that is a derivative of the phorbol ester family. It is a potent tumor promoter and activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation. TPA has been widely used in research to study PKC-mediated signaling pathways and its role in cancer development and progression. It is also used in topical treatments for skin conditions such as psoriasis.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Esterification is a chemical reaction that involves the conversion of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid into an ester, typically through the removal of a molecule of water. This reaction is often catalyzed by an acid or a base, and it is a key process in organic chemistry. Esters are commonly found in nature and are responsible for the fragrances of many fruits and flowers. They are also important in the production of various industrial and consumer products, including plastics, resins, and perfumes.

Phorbols are a type of chemical compound that is commonly found in certain plants. They are classified as diterpenes, meaning they are made up of four isoprene units. Phorbols are known for their ability to activate protein kinase C (PKC), a group of enzymes that play a role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, proliferation, and differentiation.

Phorbol esters, which are derivatives of phorbols, have been widely used in scientific research to study the functions of PKC and other signaling pathways. One of the most well-known phorbol esters is phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which is a potent activator of PKC. However, it's important to note that phorbols and their derivatives can also have harmful effects on cells, including promoting cancer and inflammation.

I believe you may be asking for a medical explanation or examples of substances that are referred to as "waxes." Waxes are not a specific medical term, but they can refer to various natural or synthetic esters that are insoluble in water and have a soft, waxy consistency. In a medical context, the term "waxes" might refer to:

1. Cerumen (Earwax): A yellowish waxy substance produced by glands in the ear canal. Cerumen helps protect the ear by trapping dirt, dust, and other particles and preventing them from entering the inner ear.
2. Sebaceous Waxes: These are esters found in sebum, an oily substance produced by sebaceous glands in the skin. Sebum helps keep the skin and hair moisturized and protected.
3. Cutaneous Waxes: These are lipid-rich substances secreted by specialized sweat glands called eccrine glands. They help to waterproof and protect the skin.
4. Histological Waxes: Paraffin or other waxes used in histology for tissue processing, embedding, and microtomy to prepare thin sections of tissues for examination under a microscope.

These are some examples of substances that can be referred to as "waxes" in a medical context.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

A sterol esterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sterol esters, which are fatty acid esters of sterols (such as cholesterol) that are commonly found in lipoproteins and cell membranes. Sterol esterases play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by breaking down sterol esters into free sterols and free fatty acids, which can then be used in various biochemical processes.

There are several types of sterol esterases that have been identified, including:

1. Cholesteryl esterase (CE): This enzyme is responsible for hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters in the intestine and liver. It plays a critical role in the absorption and metabolism of dietary cholesterol.
2. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL): This enzyme is involved in the hydrolysis of sterol esters in adipose tissue, as well as other lipids such as triacylglycerols. It is regulated by hormones such as insulin and catecholamines.
3. Carboxylesterase (CES): This enzyme is a broad-specificity esterase that can hydrolyze various types of esters, including sterol esters. It is found in many tissues throughout the body.

Sterol esterases are important targets for drug development, as inhibiting these enzymes can have therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Phenylethyl Alcohol is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C8H10O. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used as a fragrance ingredient in cosmetics and personal care products due to its rose-like odor.

In a medical context, Phenylethyl Alcohol may be mentioned in relation to its potential antimicrobial properties or as a component of certain pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not a medication or treatment on its own. It is important to note that while Phenylethyl Alcohol has been studied for its potential health benefits, more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

Caffeic acids are a type of phenolic compounds that contain a catechol structure and a carboxylic acid group. They are found in various plants, including coffee, tea, fruits, and vegetables. The most common caffeic acid is caffeic acid itself, which is abundant in coffee. Caffeic acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

Esterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in esters, producing alcohols and carboxylic acids. They are widely distributed in plants, animals, and microorganisms and play important roles in various biological processes, such as metabolism, digestion, and detoxification.

Esterases can be classified into several types based on their substrate specificity, including carboxylesterases, cholinesterases, lipases, and phosphatases. These enzymes have different structures and mechanisms of action but all share the ability to hydrolyze esters.

Carboxylesterases are the most abundant and diverse group of esterases, with a wide range of substrate specificity. They play important roles in the metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics, and lipids. Cholinesterases, on the other hand, specifically hydrolyze choline esters, such as acetylcholine, which is an important neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Lipases are a type of esterase that preferentially hydrolyzes triglycerides and plays a crucial role in fat digestion and metabolism. Phosphatases are enzymes that remove phosphate groups from various molecules, including esters, and have important functions in signal transduction and other cellular processes.

Esterases can also be used in industrial applications, such as in the production of biodiesel, detergents, and food additives. They are often produced by microbial fermentation or extracted from plants and animals. The use of esterases in biotechnology is an active area of research, with potential applications in biofuel production, bioremediation, and medical diagnostics.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL) are a type of lipoprotein that play a crucial role in the transportation and metabolism of cholesterol in the body. They are often referred to as "good" cholesterol because they help remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport.

HDLs are composed of a lipid core containing cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, surrounded by a shell of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, primarily apoA-I. The size and composition of HDL particles can vary, leading to the classification of different subclasses of HDL with varying functions and metabolic fates.

Elevated levels of HDL have been associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, while low HDL levels increase the risk. However, it is essential to consider that HDL function and quality may be more important than just the quantity in determining cardiovascular risk.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

Carboxylesterase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohol and carboxylate products. These enzymes are widely distributed in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and plasma. They play important roles in detoxification, metabolism, and the breakdown of xenobiotics (foreign substances) in the body.

Carboxylesterases can also catalyze the reverse reaction, forming esters from alcohols and carboxylates, which is known as transesterification or esterification. This activity has applications in industrial processes and biotechnology.

There are several families of carboxylesterases, with different substrate specificities, kinetic properties, and tissue distributions. These enzymes have been studied for their potential use in therapeutics, diagnostics, and drug delivery systems.

Chromatography, gas (GC) is a type of chromatographic technique used to separate, identify, and analyze volatile compounds or vapors. In this method, the sample mixture is vaporized and carried through a column packed with a stationary phase by an inert gas (carrier gas). The components of the mixture get separated based on their partitioning between the mobile and stationary phases due to differences in their adsorption/desorption rates or solubility.

The separated components elute at different times, depending on their interaction with the stationary phase, which can be detected and quantified by various detection systems like flame ionization detector (FID), thermal conductivity detector (TCD), electron capture detector (ECD), or mass spectrometer (MS). Gas chromatography is widely used in fields such as chemistry, biochemistry, environmental science, forensics, and food analysis.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and found in the digestive system of most organisms. Its primary function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of fats (triglycerides) into smaller molecules, such as fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be absorbed by the intestines and utilized for energy or stored for later use.

In medical terms, lipase levels in the blood are often measured to diagnose or monitor conditions that affect the pancreas, such as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), pancreatic cancer, or cystic fibrosis. Elevated lipase levels may indicate damage to the pancreas and its ability to produce digestive enzymes.

Tosylarginine Methyl Ester (TAME) is not a medication or a therapeutic agent, but it is a research compound used in scientific studies. It is a synthetic molecule that is often used as a control or a reference standard in enzyme inhibition assays. TAME is an esterified form of the amino acid arginine, with a tosyl group (p-toluenesulfonyl) attached to the nitrogen atom.

TAME is specifically used as a selective and reversible inhibitor of the enzyme called butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which is involved in the breakdown of certain neurotransmitters in the body. By inhibiting BChE, TAME can help to increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, making it a useful tool for studying the mechanisms of this enzyme and its role in various physiological processes.

It's important to note that while TAME is used in research settings, it is not approved for use as a drug or therapeutic agent in humans or animals.

Diacylglycerols (also known as diglycerides) are a type of glyceride, which is a compound that consists of glycerol and one or more fatty acids. Diacylglycerols contain two fatty acid chains bonded to a glycerol molecule through ester linkages. They are important intermediates in the metabolism of lipids and can be found in many types of food, including vegetable oils and dairy products. In the body, diacylglycerols can serve as a source of energy and can also play roles in cell signaling processes.

Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad cholesterol," are a type of lipoprotein that carry cholesterol and other fats from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to the buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of proteins (apolipoproteins) and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids) that are responsible for transporting fat molecules around the body in the bloodstream. LDL is one type of lipoprotein, along with high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and chylomicrons.

LDL particles are smaller than HDL particles and can easily penetrate the artery walls, leading to the formation of plaques that can narrow or block the arteries. Therefore, maintaining healthy levels of LDL in the blood is essential for preventing cardiovascular disease.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) is a group of enzymes that catalyze the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. There are three distinct isoforms of NOS, each with different expression patterns and functions:

1. Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS or NOS1): This isoform is primarily expressed in the nervous system and plays a role in neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory processes.
2. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS or NOS2): This isoform is induced by various stimuli such as cytokines, lipopolysaccharides, and hypoxia in a variety of cells including immune cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. iNOS produces large amounts of NO, which functions as a potent effector molecule in the immune response, particularly in the defense against microbial pathogens.
3. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS or NOS3): This isoform is constitutively expressed in endothelial cells and produces low levels of NO that play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasodilation, inhibiting platelet aggregation, and preventing smooth muscle cell proliferation.

Overall, NOS plays an essential role in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, immune response, cardiovascular function, and respiratory regulation. Dysregulation of NOS activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Medical Definition of Vitamin A:

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal vision, immune function, and cell growth. It is also an antioxidant that helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin A can be found in two main forms: preformed vitamin A, which is found in animal products such as dairy, fish, and meat, particularly liver; and provitamin A carotenoids, which are found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, and vegetable oils.

The most active form of vitamin A is retinoic acid, which plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness, dry skin, and increased susceptibility to infections. Chronic vitamin A toxicity can cause nausea, dizziness, headaches, coma, and even death.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Acyl Coenzyme A (often abbreviated as Acetyl-CoA or Acyl-CoA) is a crucial molecule in metabolism, particularly in the breakdown and oxidation of fats and carbohydrates to produce energy. It is a thioester compound that consists of a fatty acid or an acetate group linked to coenzyme A through a sulfur atom.

Acyl CoA plays a central role in several metabolic pathways, including:

1. The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle): In the mitochondria, Acyl-CoA is formed from the oxidation of fatty acids or the breakdown of certain amino acids. This Acyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle to produce high-energy electrons, which are used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main energy currency of the cell.
2. Beta-oxidation: The breakdown of fatty acids occurs in the mitochondria through a process called beta-oxidation, where Acyl-CoA is sequentially broken down into smaller units, releasing acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle.
3. Ketogenesis: In times of low carbohydrate availability or during prolonged fasting, the liver can produce ketone bodies from acetyl-CoA to supply energy to other organs, such as the brain and heart.
4. Protein synthesis: Acyl-CoA is also involved in the modification of proteins by attaching fatty acid chains to them (a process called acetylation), which can influence protein function and stability.

In summary, Acyl Coenzyme A is a vital molecule in metabolism that connects various pathways related to energy production, fatty acid breakdown, and protein modification.

A prodrug is a pharmacologically inactive substance that, once administered, is metabolized into a drug that is active. Prodrugs are designed to improve the bioavailability or delivery of a drug, to minimize adverse effects, or to target the drug to specific sites in the body. The conversion of a prodrug to its active form typically occurs through enzymatic reactions in the liver or other tissues.

Prodrugs can offer several advantages over traditional drugs, including:

* Improved absorption: Some drugs have poor bioavailability due to their chemical properties, which make them difficult to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract. Prodrugs can be designed with improved absorption characteristics, allowing for more efficient delivery of the active drug to the body.
* Reduced toxicity: By masking the active drug's chemical structure, prodrugs can reduce its interactions with sensitive tissues and organs, thereby minimizing adverse effects.
* Targeted delivery: Prodrugs can be designed to selectively release the active drug in specific areas of the body, such as tumors or sites of infection, allowing for more precise and effective therapy.

Examples of prodrugs include:

* Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is metabolized to salicylic acid in the liver.
* Enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat hypertension and heart failure, which is metabolized to enalaprilat in the liver.
* Codeine, an opioid analgesic, which is metabolized to morphine in the liver by the enzyme CYP2D6.

It's important to note that not all prodrugs are successful, and some may even have unintended consequences. For example, if a patient has a genetic variation that affects the activity of the enzyme responsible for converting the prodrug to its active form, the drug may not be effective or may produce adverse effects. Therefore, it's essential to consider individual genetic factors when prescribing prodrugs.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Acyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acyl group (a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydrogen atom) from one molecule to another. This transfer involves the formation of an ester bond between the acyl group donor and the acyl group acceptor.

Acyltransferases play important roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of lipids, fatty acids, and other metabolites. They are also involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) by catalyzing the addition of an acyl group to these compounds, making them more water-soluble and easier to excrete from the body.

Examples of acyltransferases include serine palmitoyltransferase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters between lipoproteins.

Acyltransferases are classified based on the type of acyl group they transfer and the nature of the acyl group donor and acceptor molecules. They can be further categorized into subclasses based on their sequence similarities, three-dimensional structures, and evolutionary relationships.

Lipoproteins are complex particles composed of multiple proteins and lipids (fats) that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules in the body. They consist of an outer shell of phospholipids, free cholesterols, and apolipoproteins, enclosing a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.

There are several types of lipoproteins, including:

1. Chylomicrons: These are the largest lipoproteins and are responsible for transporting dietary lipids from the intestines to other parts of the body.
2. Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL): Produced by the liver, VLDL particles carry triglycerides to peripheral tissues for energy storage or use.
3. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL): Often referred to as "bad cholesterol," LDL particles transport cholesterol from the liver to cells throughout the body. High levels of LDL in the blood can lead to plaque buildup in artery walls and increase the risk of heart disease.
4. High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Known as "good cholesterol," HDL particles help remove excess cholesterol from cells and transport it back to the liver for excretion or recycling. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a lower risk of heart disease.

Understanding lipoproteins and their roles in the body is essential for assessing cardiovascular health and managing risks related to heart disease and stroke.

Phthalic acids are organic compounds with the formula C6H4(COOH)2. They are white crystalline solids that are slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Phthalic acids are carboxylic acids, meaning they contain a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

Phthalic acids are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, and personal care products. They are also used as solvents and as starting materials for the synthesis of other chemicals.

Phthalic acids can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. They can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects. Some phthalates, which are compounds that contain phthalic acid, have been linked to reproductive and developmental problems in animals and are considered to be endocrine disruptors. As a result, the use of certain phthalates has been restricted in some countries.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group, which is a functional group made up of a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group. The general formula for a carboxylic acid is R-COOH, where R represents the rest of the molecule.

Carboxylic acids can be found in various natural sources such as in fruits, vegetables, and animal products. Some common examples of carboxylic acids include formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), propionic acid (C2H5COOH), and butyric acid (C3H7COOH).

Carboxylic acids have a variety of uses in industry, including as food additives, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals. They are also important intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds. In the body, carboxylic acids play important roles in metabolism and energy production.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Organosilicon compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain at least one organic group (a group of atoms composed mainly of carbon and hydrogen) bonded to a silicon atom. The organic group can be an alkyl group, aryl group, or any other group that is derived from a hydrocarbon.

The term "organosilicon" is used to describe the covalent bond between carbon and silicon atoms, which is a type of bond known as a "sigma bond." This bond is formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals between the carbon and silicon atoms. The resulting organosilicon compound can have a wide range of physical and chemical properties, depending on the nature of the organic group and the number of such groups attached to the silicon atom.

Organosilicon compounds are widely used in various industries, including electronics, coatings, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. They are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemical compounds. Some common examples of organosilicon compounds include silicones, which are polymers that contain repeating units of siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds, and organofunctional silanes, which are used as coupling agents to improve the adhesion of materials to surfaces.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and grapeseed oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other personal care products.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Succinimides are a group of anticonvulsant medications used to treat various types of seizures. They include drugs such as ethosuximide, methsuximide, and phensuximide. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures.

The name "succinimides" comes from their chemical structure, which contains a five-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms and a carbonyl group. This structure is similar to that of other anticonvulsant medications, such as barbiturates, but the succinimides have fewer side effects and are less likely to cause sedation or respiratory depression.

Succinimides are primarily used to treat absence seizures, which are characterized by brief periods of staring and lack of responsiveness. They may also be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and other types of seizures.

Like all medications, succinimides can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, and rash. More serious side effects, such as blood dyscrasias, liver toxicity, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, are rare but have been reported. It is important for patients taking succinimides to be monitored regularly by their healthcare provider to ensure safe and effective use of the medication.

Glycerides are esters formed from glycerol and one, two, or three fatty acids. They include monoglycerides (one fatty acid), diglycerides (two fatty acids), and triglycerides (three fatty acids). Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and they are a major form of energy storage in animals and plants. High levels of triglycerides in the blood, also known as hypertriglyceridemia, can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase (PCOAT, also known as Sterol O-Acyltransferase 1 or SOAT1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and is responsible for the transfer of acyl groups from phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol, forming cholesteryl esters. This enzymatic reaction results in the storage of excess cholesterol in lipid droplets, preventing its accumulation in the cell membrane and potentially contributing to the development of atherosclerosis if not properly regulated.

Defects or mutations in PCOAT can lead to disruptions in cholesterol homeostasis, which may contribute to various diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of this enzyme is essential for developing therapeutic strategies aimed at managing cholesterol-related disorders.

VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoproteins) are a type of lipoprotein that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fat molecules, known as triglycerides, in the body. They are produced by the liver and consist of a core of triglycerides surrounded by a shell of proteins called apolipoproteins, phospholipids, and cholesterol.

VLDL particles are responsible for delivering fat molecules from the liver to peripheral tissues throughout the body, where they can be used as an energy source or stored for later use. During this process, VLDL particles lose triglycerides and acquire more cholesterol, transforming into intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) and eventually low-density lipoproteins (LDL), which are also known as "bad" cholesterol.

Elevated levels of VLDL in the blood can contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease due to their association with increased levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol, as well as decreased levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are considered "good" cholesterol.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

In the context of medicine, "chemistry" often refers to the field of study concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as their reactions with one another. It is a fundamental science that underlies much of modern medicine, including pharmacology (the study of drugs), toxicology (the study of poisons), and biochemistry (the study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms).

In addition to its role as a basic science, chemistry is also used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, clinical chemistry involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine to detect and measure various substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, and electrolytes, that can provide important information about a person's health status.

Overall, chemistry plays a critical role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new treatments, and improving diagnostic tests and techniques.

Fatty alcohols, also known as long-chain alcohols or long-chain fatty alcohols, are a type of fatty compound that contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a long alkyl chain. They are typically derived from natural sources such as plant and animal fats and oils, and can also be synthetically produced.

Fatty alcohols can vary in chain length, typically containing between 8 and 30 carbon atoms. They are commonly used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including detergents, emulsifiers, lubricants, and personal care products. In the medical field, fatty alcohols may be used as ingredients in certain medications or topical treatments.

Chemical phenomena refer to the changes and interactions that occur at the molecular or atomic level when chemicals are involved. These phenomena can include chemical reactions, in which one or more substances (reactants) are converted into different substances (products), as well as physical properties that change as a result of chemical interactions, such as color, state of matter, and solubility. Chemical phenomena can be studied through various scientific disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, and physics.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Scavenger receptors, class B (SR-B) are a type of scavenger receptors that play a crucial role in the cellular uptake and metabolism of lipids, particularly modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and other lipid-soluble molecules. They are membrane-bound glycoproteins that contain an extracellular domain with a characteristic structure, including cysteine-rich repeats and transmembrane domains.

The best-characterized member of this class is SR-B1 (also known as CD36b, SCARB1), which is widely expressed in various tissues, such as the liver, steroidogenic organs, macrophages, and endothelial cells. SR-B1 selectively binds to HDL and facilitates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL particles into cells while allowing HDL to maintain its structural integrity and continue its function in reverse cholesterol transport.

SR-B1 has also been implicated in the uptake and degradation of oxidized LDL, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. Additionally, SR-B1 is involved in several other cellular processes, including innate immunity, inflammation, and angiogenesis.

Other members of class B scavenger receptors include SR-BI, SR-B2 (also known as CLA-1 or LIMPII), SR-B3 (also known as CD36c or SCARB2), and SR-B4 (also known as CXorf24). These receptors have distinct expression patterns and functions but share structural similarities with SR-BI.

In summary, scavenger receptors, class B, are a group of membrane-bound glycoproteins that facilitate the cellular uptake and metabolism of lipids, particularly modified LDL and HDL particles. They play essential roles in maintaining lipid homeostasis and have implications in various pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis and inflammation.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Phytosterols are a type of plant-derived sterol that have a similar structure to cholesterol, a compound found in animal products. They are found in small quantities in many fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, and vegetable oils. Phytosterols are known to help lower cholesterol levels by reducing the absorption of dietary cholesterol in the digestive system.

In medical terms, phytosterols are often referred to as "plant sterols" or "phytostanols." They have been shown to have a modest but significant impact on lowering LDL (or "bad") cholesterol levels when consumed in sufficient quantities, typically in the range of 2-3 grams per day. As a result, foods fortified with phytosterols are sometimes recommended as part of a heart-healthy diet for individuals with high cholesterol or a family history of cardiovascular disease.

It's worth noting that while phytosterols have been shown to be safe and effective in reducing cholesterol levels, they should not be used as a substitute for other lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, smoking cessation, and weight management. Additionally, individuals with sitosterolemia, a rare genetic disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of plant sterols in the body, should avoid consuming foods fortified with phytosterols.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Drug receptors are specific protein molecules found on the surface of cells, to which drugs can bind. These receptors are part of the cell's communication system and are responsible for responding to neurotransmitters, hormones, and other signaling molecules in the body. When a drug binds to its corresponding receptor, it can alter the receptor's function and trigger a cascade of intracellular events that ultimately lead to a biological response.

Drug receptors can be classified into several types based on their function, including:

1. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are the largest family of drug receptors and are involved in various physiological processes such as vision, olfaction, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. They activate intracellular signaling pathways through heterotrimeric G proteins.
2. Ion channel receptors: These receptors form ion channels that allow the flow of ions across the cell membrane when activated. They are involved in rapid signal transduction and can be directly gated by ligands or indirectly through G protein-coupled receptors.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors have an intracellular domain that functions as an enzyme, activating intracellular signaling pathways when bound to a ligand. Examples include receptor tyrosine kinases and receptor serine/threonine kinases.
4. Nuclear receptors: These receptors are located in the nucleus and function as transcription factors, regulating gene expression upon binding to their ligands.

Understanding drug receptors is crucial for developing new drugs and predicting their potential therapeutic and adverse effects. By targeting specific receptors, drugs can modulate cellular responses and produce desired pharmacological actions.

Sterols are a type of organic compound that is derived from steroids and found in the cell membranes of organisms. In animals, including humans, cholesterol is the most well-known sterol. Sterols help to maintain the structural integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play important roles as precursors for the synthesis of various hormones and other signaling molecules. Phytosterols are plant sterols that have been shown to have cholesterol-lowering effects in humans when consumed in sufficient amounts.

Bryostatins are a class of naturally occurring marine-derived macrolide lactones that have been isolated from the Bugula neritina, a species of bryozoan. These compounds have attracted significant interest in the medical community due to their potent bioactivities, particularly their ability to modulate various signaling pathways involved in cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

One of the most notable properties of bryostatins is their capacity to act as protein kinase C (PKC) agonists. PKC is a family of enzymes that play critical roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. By activating PKC, bryostatins can induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of certain types of cancer cells, making them promising candidates for anti-cancer therapy.

In addition to their effects on PKC, bryostatins have also been shown to modulate other signaling pathways, such as the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Akt pathways, which are involved in inflammation and cell survival. These pleiotropic effects make bryostatins interesting targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for a range of diseases.

Despite their promising potential, the clinical application of bryostatins has been limited by their low natural abundance and challenging chemical synthesis. Nevertheless, ongoing research efforts continue to explore new methods for large-scale production and optimization of these compounds, with the ultimate goal of harnessing their unique biological activities for medical benefit.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

Ketones are organic compounds that contain a carbon atom bound to two oxygen atoms and a central carbon atom bonded to two additional carbon groups through single bonds. In the context of human physiology, ketones are primarily produced as byproducts when the body breaks down fat for energy in a process called ketosis.

Specifically, under conditions of low carbohydrate availability or prolonged fasting, the liver converts fatty acids into ketone bodies, which can then be used as an alternative fuel source for the brain and other organs. The three main types of ketones produced in the human body are acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone.

Elevated levels of ketones in the blood, known as ketonemia, can occur in various medical conditions such as diabetes, starvation, alcoholism, and high-fat/low-carbohydrate diets. While moderate levels of ketosis are generally considered safe, severe ketosis can lead to a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in people with diabetes.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in human plasma. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism and transport of lipids, particularly cholesterol, within the body. ApoA-I facilitates the formation of HDL particles, which are involved in the reverse transport of cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. This process is known as reverse cholesterol transport and helps maintain appropriate cholesterol levels in the body. Low levels of ApoA-I or dysfunctional ApoA-I have been associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and peanut oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a slight odor. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have various health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other industrial products.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Scavenger receptors are a class of cell surface receptors that play a crucial role in the recognition and clearance of various biomolecules, including modified self-molecules, pathogens, and apoptotic cells. These receptors are expressed mainly by phagocytic cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, but they can also be found on other cell types, including endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.

Scavenger receptors have broad specificity and can bind to a wide range of ligands, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), polyanionic molecules, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The binding of ligands to scavenger receptors triggers various cellular responses, such as phagocytosis, endocytosis, signaling cascades, and the production of cytokines and chemokines.

Scavenger receptors are classified into several families based on their structural features and ligand specificity, including:

1. Class A (SR-A): This family includes SR-AI, SR-AII, and MARCO, which bind to oxLDL, bacteria, and apoptotic cells.
2. Class B (SR-B): This family includes SR-BI, CD36, and LIMPII, which bind to lipoproteins, phospholipids, and pathogens.
3. Class C (SR-C): This family includes DEC-205, MRC1, and LOX-1, which bind to various ligands, including apoptotic cells, bacteria, and oxLDL.
4. Class D (SR-D): This family includes SCARF1, which binds to PAMPs and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).
5. Class E (SR-E): This family includes CXCL16, which binds to chemokine CXCR6 and phosphatidylserine.

Scavenger receptors play a critical role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by removing damaged or altered molecules and cells, modulating immune responses, and regulating lipid metabolism. Dysregulation of scavenger receptor function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, inflammation, infection, and cancer.

Acylation is a medical and biological term that refers to the process of introducing an acyl group (-CO-) into a molecule. This process can occur naturally or it can be induced through chemical reactions. In the context of medicine and biology, acylation often occurs during post-translational modifications of proteins, where an acyl group is added to specific amino acid residues, altering the protein's function, stability, or localization.

An example of acylation in medicine is the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu), for the treatment and prevention of influenza. These drugs work by inhibiting the activity of the viral neuraminidase enzyme, which is essential for the release of newly formed virus particles from infected cells. Oseltamivir is administered orally as an ethyl ester prodrug, which is then hydrolyzed in the body to form the active acylated metabolite that inhibits the viral neuraminidase.

In summary, acylation is a vital process in medicine and biology, with implications for drug design, protein function, and post-translational modifications.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced by the body. Its chemical formula is C16:0, indicating that it contains 16 carbon atoms and no double bonds. Palmitic acid is found in high concentrations in animal fats, such as butter, lard, and beef tallow, as well as in some vegetable oils, like palm kernel oil and coconut oil.

In the human body, palmitic acid can be synthesized from other substances or absorbed through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy storage, membrane structure formation, and signaling pathways regulation. However, high intake of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases due to its potential to raise low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood.

It is essential to maintain a balanced diet and consume palmitic acid-rich foods in moderation, along with regular exercise and a healthy lifestyle, to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Sulfuric acid esters, also known as sulfate esters, are chemical compounds formed when sulfuric acid reacts with alcohols or phenols. These esters consist of a organic group linked to a sulfate group (SO4). They are widely used in industry, for example, as detergents, emulsifiers, and solvents. In the body, they can be found as part of various biomolecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and steroid sulfates. However, excessive exposure to sulfuric acid esters can cause irritation and damage to tissues.

Lactones are not a medical term per se, but they are important in the field of pharmaceuticals and medicinal chemistry. Lactones are cyclic esters derived from hydroxy acids. They can be found naturally in various plants, fruits, and some insects. In medicine, lactones have been used in the synthesis of drugs, including certain antibiotics and antifungal agents. For instance, the penicillin family of antibiotics contains a beta-lactone ring in their structure, which is essential for their antibacterial activity.

Lipoprotein receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells that play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipoproteins, which are complex particles composed of lipids and proteins. These receptors bind to specific lipoproteins in the bloodstream, facilitating their uptake into the cell for further processing.

There are several types of lipoprotein receptors, including:

1. LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor is responsible for recognizing and internalizing LDL particles, which are rich in cholesterol. Once inside the cell, LDL particles release their cholesterol, which can then be used for various cellular functions or stored for later use. Defects in the LDL receptor can lead to elevated levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood and an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
2. HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor is involved in the clearance of HDL particles from the bloodstream. HDL particles are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver, where it can be processed and eliminated from the body.
3. VLDL (Very Low-Density Lipoprotein) Receptor: This receptor recognizes and internalizes VLDL particles, which are produced by the liver and carry triglycerides and cholesterol to peripheral tissues. VLDL particles are subsequently converted into LDL particles in the bloodstream.
4. LRP (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein) Family: This family of receptors includes several members, such as LRP1 and LRP2, that play roles in various cellular processes, including lipid metabolism, protein trafficking, and cell signaling. They can bind to a variety of ligands, including lipoproteins, proteases, and extracellular matrix components.

In summary, lipoprotein receptors are essential for maintaining proper lipid metabolism and homeostasis by facilitating the uptake, processing, and elimination of lipoproteins in the body.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Formic acid esters are chemical compounds formed by the reaction between formic acid and alcohols. This reaction, known as esterification, results in the formation of an ester group where the hydroxyl group (-OH) of the alcohol was. The general formula for a formic acid ester is:

R-O-CO-CHO

Where R represents the alkyl or aromatic group derived from the alcohol.

Formic acid esters are used in various applications, including as solvents, flavorings, and fragrances. Some examples of formic acid esters include methyl formate (methyl methanoate), ethyl formate (ethyl methanoate), and propyl formate (propyl methanoate).

In a medical context, formic acid esters have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses. For instance, sodium formate has been used as a treatment for methanol poisoning, as it helps to metabolize the toxic alcohol and reduce its harmful effects on the body. However, formic acid esters are not commonly used in mainstream medical treatments or therapies.

Apolipoproteins are a group of proteins that are associated with lipids (fats) in the body and play a crucial role in the metabolism, transportation, and regulation of lipids. They are structural components of lipoprotein particles, which are complexes of lipids and proteins that transport lipids in the bloodstream.

There are several types of apolipoproteins, including ApoA, ApoB, ApoC, ApoD, ApoE, and others. Each type has a specific function in lipid metabolism. For example, ApoA is a major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), often referred to as "good cholesterol," and helps remove excess cholesterol from cells and tissues and transport it to the liver for excretion. ApoB, on the other hand, is a major component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad cholesterol," and plays a role in the delivery of cholesterol to cells and tissues.

Abnormal levels of apolipoproteins or dysfunctional forms of these proteins have been linked to various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Therefore, measuring apolipoprotein levels in the blood can provide valuable information for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

Chylomicrons are a type of lipoprotein that are responsible for carrying dietary lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, from the intestines to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system and bloodstream. They are the largest lipoproteins and are composed of an outer layer of phospholipids, free cholesterol, and apolipoproteins, which surrounds a core of triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Chylomicrons are produced in the intestinal mucosa after a meal containing fat, and their production is stimulated by the hormone cholecystokinin. Once in the bloodstream, chylomicrons interact with other lipoproteins and enzymes to deliver their lipid cargo to various tissues, including muscle and adipose tissue, where they are used for energy or stored for later use.

Alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. They are often found in plants, and are known for their complex ring structures and diverse pharmacological activities. Many alkaloids have been used in medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and therapeutic properties. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, quinine, nicotine, and caffeine.

Sitosterols are a type of plant sterol or phytosterol that are structurally similar to cholesterol, a steroid lipid found in animals. They are found in small amounts in human diets, primarily in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, and avocados. Sitosterols are not synthesized by the human body but can be absorbed from the diet and have been shown to lower cholesterol levels in the blood when consumed in sufficient quantities. This is because sitosterols compete with cholesterol for absorption in the digestive tract, reducing the amount of cholesterol that enters the bloodstream. Some margarines and other foods are fortified with sitosterols or other phytosterols to help reduce cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.

HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. It is a type of lipoprotein that helps remove excess cholesterol from cells and carry it back to the liver, where it can be broken down and removed from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol have been associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Stearic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. It is a saturated fatty acid with the chemical formula C18H36O2. Stearic acid is commonly found in various foods such as animal fats and vegetable oils, including cocoa butter and palm oil.

In a medical context, stearic acid might be mentioned in relation to nutrition or cosmetics. For example, it may be listed as an ingredient in some skincare products or medications where it is used as an emollient or thickening agent. It's also worth noting that while stearic acid is a saturated fat, some studies suggest that it may have a more neutral effect on blood cholesterol levels compared to other saturated fats. However, this is still a topic of ongoing research and debate in the medical community.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but margarine is not typically defined in medical terms. It's a type of food product, specifically a spread often used as a substitute for butter. Margarines are usually made from vegetable oils that have been hydrogenated to make them solid at room temperature. While there can be nutritional differences between margarine and butter, margarine is not a medical or healthcare term. If you have any questions about dietary choices or substitutes from a health perspective, I'd recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Calcimycin is a ionophore compound that is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces chartreusensis. It is also known as Calcineurin A inhibitor because it can bind to and inhibit the activity of calcineurin, a protein phosphatase. In medical research, calcimycin is often used to study calcium signaling in cells.
It has been also used in laboratory studies for its antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on certain types of cancer cells. However, it is not approved for use as a drug in humans.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Diterpenes are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are composed of four isoprene units, which is a type of hydrocarbon. They are synthesized by a wide variety of plants and animals, and are found in many different types of organisms, including fungi, insects, and marine organisms.

Diterpenes have a variety of biological activities and are used in medicine for their therapeutic effects. Some diterpenes have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, and are used to treat a range of conditions, including respiratory infections, skin disorders, and cancer.

Diterpenes can be further classified into different subgroups based on their chemical structure and biological activity. Some examples of diterpenes include the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD, and the paclitaxel, a diterpene found in the bark of the Pacific yew tree that is used to treat cancer.

It's important to note that while some diterpenes have therapeutic potential, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so it is essential to use them under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.

Nitrophenols are organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to a phenyl ring (aromatic hydrocarbon) and one or more nitro groups (-NO2). They have the general structure R-C6H4-NO2, where R represents the hydroxyl group.

Nitrophenols are known for their distinctive yellow to brown color and can be found in various natural sources such as plants and microorganisms. Some common nitrophenols include:

* p-Nitrophenol (4-nitrophenol)
* o-Nitrophenol (2-nitrophenol)
* m-Nitrophenol (3-nitrophenol)

These compounds are used in various industrial applications, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. However, they can also be harmful to human health and the environment, as some nitrophenols have been identified as potential environmental pollutants and may pose risks to human health upon exposure.

... also named sucrose esters or sugar esters). The attribution of HLB values to sucrose esters emulsifiers at the origin is ... esters\ blend}{Total\ mass\ of\ the\ sucrose\ ester\ blend}}\right)} For example, for a sucrose ester mixture containing 80% of ... Sucrose esters' HLB values can range from 1-16. Low HLB (3.5-6.0) sucrose esters act as a water-in-oil emulsifier while high ... Sucrose esters are off-white powders. Though produced from sucrose, sucrose esters do not have a sweet taste, but are bland or ...
... can stimulate PKC in a similar way to diglycerides. Phorbol esters are known for their ability to promote tumors ... Chemically, they are ester derivatives of the tetracyclic diterpenoid phorbol. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a phorbol ester ... Plants that contain phorbol esters are often poisonous. Goel, G; Makkar, H. P.; Francis, G; Becker, K (2007). "Phorbol esters: ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Phorbol esters, Diterpenes, Carboxylate esters, ...
Pentafluorophenyl (PFP) esters are chemical compounds with the generic formula RC(O)OC6F5. They are active esters derived from ... Pentafluorophenyl esters produce amide bonds as effectively as succinimidyl esters and various similar agents do, but PFP ... Esters, Pentafluorophenyl compounds, Phenol esters, Reagents for organic chemistry). ... pentafluorophenol (HOC6F5). PFP esters are useful for attaching fluorophores such as fluorescein or haptens to primary amines ...
Trimethyl borate, B(OCH3)3, is used as a precursor to boronic esters for Suzuki couplings: Unsymmetrical borate esters are ... Borate esters are volatile and can be purified by distillation. This procedure is used for analysis of trace amounts of borate ... Borate esters form spontaneously when treated with diols such as sugars and the reaction with mannitol forms the basis of a ... Metaborate esters show considerable Lewis acidity and can initiate epoxide polymerization reactions. The Lewis acidity of ...
Esters' sister, Cheraya, who is also queer, credits Esters with giving her the safety and strength to come out. Esters lived ... to mental health counselor Laura Pelkus-Esters and clinical psychologist Joshua Peter Esters. In her late teens, Esters ... Esters was a drummer. She studied interrelated media at MassArt. When she was 18, Esters began using drugs. After a couple of ... Aubri Esters (May 11, 1985 - June 4, 2020) was an American activist for the rights of drug users. Esters was born in Beverly, ...
Once the aspartic ester is formed, it is basically a sterically hindered diamine and thus in polymer science terms is a Chain ... Polyaspartic ester chemistry was first introduced in the early 1990s making it a relatively new technology. The patents were ... The rate of reaction of polyaspartic esters can be manipulated, thus extending the pot-life and controlling the cure rate of ... Polyaspartic esters (PAE) initially found use in conventional solvent-borne two-component polyurethane coatings. To manufacture ...
... are a class of local anesthetics. They are named for their ester bond and are unlike amide local anaesthetics. ... Structurally, amino esters consist of three molecular components: a lipophilic part (ester) an intermediate aliphatic chain a ... Allergy is more likely to occur with ester-type agents, as opposed to amide-type. Amino ester-type include: Cocaine Procaine ( ... Amino esters, in reference to anesthetic agents, are rapidly metabolized in the plasma by butyrylcholinesterase to para- ...
TFP esters are stable for several hours at basic pH, far outlasting succinimidyl esters. Pentafluorophenyl esters (PFP) " ... such as succinimidyl esters (SE, Hydroxysuccinimide- or NHS-ester), but TFP esters are less susceptible to spontaneous ... Tetrafluorophenyl (TFP) ester chemistry is typically used to attach fluorophores or haptens to the primary amines of ...
With an average ethoxylation value of 120, it is known as jojoba wax PEG-120 esters or PEG-120 jojoba. Jojoba wax esters are ... Jojoba wax esters are polyethylene glycol derivatives of the acids and alcohols obtained from the saponification of jojoba oil ... With an average ethoxylation value of 80, it is known as jojoba wax PEG-80 esters or PEG-80 jojoba. ...
... or H in the case of esters of formic acid. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology ... Analogues derived from oxygen replaced by other chalcogens belong to the ester category as well (i.e. esters of acidic −SH, − ... with monomers linked by ester moieties. Esters of carboxylic acids usually have a sweet smell and are considered high-quality ... In chemistry, an ester is a compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which the hydrogen atom (H) of at least one ...
... are organic compounds with the formula NaO3SCH(CO2R')CH2CO2R where R and R' can be H or alkyl ...
This is a list of corticosteroid esters, including esters of steroidal glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Desoxycortone ... Steroid ester List of corticosteroid cyclic ketals List of corticosteroids List of steroid esters J. Elks (14 November 2014). ... a corticosteroid 21-acetate ester) Cloticasone propionate Deflazacort (a corticosteroid 21-acetate ester) Deprodone propionate ... Corticosteroid esters, Corticosteroids, Steroid esters, Glucocorticoids, Prodrugs). ...
This is a list of estrogen esters, or ester prodrugs of estrogens. It includes esters, as well as ethers, of steroidal ... Many esters of estradiol have been marketed, including the following major esters: Estradiol acetate (Femring, Femtrace, ... the 3-benzoate ester of ethinylestradiol Ethinylestradiol N,N-diethylsulfamate (J271) - the 3-(N,N-diethyl)sulfamate ester of ... an estriol ester in polymeric form) The following ester of estriol was never marketed: Estriol dihexanoate Estriol dipropionate ...
List of progestogens List of androgen esters List of estrogen esters List of corticosteroid esters J. Elks (14 November 2014). ... This is a list of progestogen esters, or esters of progestogens. Unlike the case of testosterone and estradiol, progesterone ... only some and not all progestogen esters act as prodrugs. Esters of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and 19-norprogesterone derivatives ... with the exception of esters of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone like hydroxyprogesterone caproate, are esters of progestins (synthetic ...
... are fatty acid derivatives formed of one fatty acid, a 3'-phospho-AMP linked to phosphorylated ... Long-chain acyl-CoA esters are substrates for a number of important enzymatic reactions and play a central role in the ... Then, the acyl CoA esters are transported in mitochondria. They are converted to fatty acyl carnitine by carnitine ...
A few esters of the synthetic AAS trenbolone have been marketed, including the following esters: Trenbolone acetate (Revalor, ... This is a list of androgen esters, including esters (as well as ethers) of natural androgens like testosterone and ... stanozolol List of androgens/anabolic steroids List of estrogen esters List of progestogen esters List of corticosteroid esters ... chlorphenacyl DHT ester) is a nitrogen mustard ester of DHT that was developed as a cytostatic antineoplastic agent but was ...
... may refer to: List of androgen esters - androgen esters List of estrogen esters - estrogen esters List ... of progestogen esters - progestogen esters List of corticosteroid esters - corticosteroid esters List of steroids List of sex- ... Steroid esters, Chemistry-related lists, Lists of lists). ...
... plastics made of polymeric ester Oligoester, a polymeric ester made of small number of ester monomers Polyolester, an ester ... Esters with β-hydrogen atoms can be converted to alkenes in ester pyrolysis. A direct conversion of esters to nitriles. Pairs ... An uncommon class of esters are the orthoesters. One of them are the esters of orthocarboxylic acids. Those esters have the ... Phosphorous acid forms two kinds of esters: phosphite esters, e.g. triethyl phosphite (P(OCH2CH3)3), and phosphonate esters, e. ...
Omega-3-acid ethyl esters are a mixture of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid and ethyl docosahexaenoic acid, which are ethyl esters ... Omtryg is another brand of omega-3-acid ethyl esters developed by Trygg Pharma, Inc. and was approved by the FDA in 2004. As of ... Omega-3 acid ethyl esters have not been tested in pregnant women and are rated pregnancy category C; it is excreted in breast ... Omega-3-acid ethyl ester medicines were approved for medical use in the European Union in 2000 and in the United States in 2004 ...
In 1927, Josef Esters and Hermann Lange commissioned the design of two adjoining houses to the architect Ludwig Mies van der ... "The Haus Esters and Haus Lange in Krefeld". Retrieved 2008-11-24. Cohen 1996, p. 50. Kleinman & Van Duzer 2005, p. 18. Lange ... Ten years later, in 1978, the Haus Esters was in turn sold to the city of Krefeld. Transformed into museums of contemporary art ... Haus Lange and Haus Esters are two residential houses designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in Krefeld, Germany, for German ...
List of progestogen esters Steroid ester Estrogen ester Androgen ester List of steroid esters List of progestogens Fraser, Ian ... The first progestogen esters were not introduced until the mid-1950s, and were esters of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (which, unlike ... A progestogen ester is an ester of a progestogen or progestin (a synthetic progestogen). The prototypical progestogen is ... orally active progesterone ester. The effort met with but limited success. One promising ester, [17α-hydroxyprogesterone ...
Sveriges Television produced and broadcast the movie Ester - om John Bauers hustru ("Ester - About John Bauer's Wife). Ester ... Lindqvist, Gunnar (1991). John och Ester, makarna Bauers konst och liv [John and Ester, life and art of the Bauers] (in Swedish ... ISBN 978-91-630-5234-7. "Ester - om John Bauers hustru (1986)" [Ester - about John Bauers wife (1986)]. www.sfi.se. Swedish ... Ruth "Ester" Elisabet Ellqvist (4 October 1880 - 20 November 1918) was a Swedish artist, model and wife of John Bauer, who was ...
Ester Rachel Fuchs (born August 14, 1951) is an American academic. She is Professor of Public Affairs and Political Science at ... "NASPAA Honors Professor Ester Fuchs and Alumnus Todd Miner". Columbia University SIPA. SIPA News. Retrieved 3 March 2020. v t e ... "Ester R. Fuchs". Columbia University. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015. Robbins, Nina (27 ... "ESTER FUCHS IS HONORED BY BELLA ABZUG LEADERSHIP INSTITUTE". Columbia School of International and Public Affairs. Retrieved 3 ...
The Ester Mountains (German: Estergebirge) are a small mountain range in Bavaria. They are classified either as part of ... As a result the Ester Mountains are relatively quiet with the exception of the Wank mountain (1,780 m) which is accessible by ... basque Ezterenzubi, occitan Esterel). The most important summits in the Ester range are the Krottenkopf (2,086 m), the Bischof ... Risskopf Platteneck Klaffen Wallgauer Eck The Ester Mountains offer various trekking and mountaineering possibilities both in ...
Instead Ester found success in the Copa Libertadores Femenina with Santos in 2009 and 2010. Ester was part of a Brazilian ... Ester Aparecida dos Santos (born 9 December 1982), commonly known mononymously as Ester, is a Brazilian former footballer. She ... After her retirement from football Ester settled in Arapongas and worked as a businesswoman. Ester was called up to the Brazil ... "Ester" (in Portuguese). UOL Esporte. Retrieved 24 February 2013. "Ester Biography and Statistics". Sports Reference. Archived ...
"Ester Textorius". Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2015. Filmdatabas -Ester Textorius Archived ... Ester worked with the administration at the same time. In 1939, Textorius became a widow and had her final stage performance in ... Ester Vilhelmina Pettersson was born in Västerås, Sweden, on 22 August 1883. In 1904 she married the actor Oskar Textorius ( ... Ester Vilhelmina Textorius (22 August 1883 - 13 February 1972) was a Swedish actress and opera singer, known for her comedic ...
Ester Ledecka at Olympics.com Ester Ledecka at OlympicChannel.com (archived) Ester Ledecka at Olympic.org (archived) Ester ... Ester Ledecká at Olympedia Ester Ledecká at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com (archived) Ester Ledecká on Facebook Portals: ... Ester Ledecka at the International Ski and Snowboard Federation (as snowboarder) Ester Ledecka at the International Ski and ... "Ester Ledecka: Two sports, two golds, same Olympics". BBC. 24 February 2018. McGee, Paul (27 July 2019). "Ester Ledecká ...
... Sologuren (24 December 1914 - March 2001) was a Chilean writer and illustrator. Using the nickname Rita Cosani, ... "Cosani Ester". Qué de Libros (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017. Peña Muñoz, ...
... at World Aquatics Laura Ester at Olympics.com Laura Ester at Olympedia v t e v t e (Use dmy dates from July 2023, ... Laura Ester Ramos (born 22 January 1990) is a Spanish water polo goalkeeper. At the 2012 Summer Olympics, she competed for the ... "Laura Ester". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 18 April 2020. Retrieved 9 ... "Laura Ester". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 21 November 2016. Evans, Hilary; Gjerde, Arild; Heijmans, Jeroen; ...
Ester's official site Web site about the books written by Sofia Ester Interview with Sofia Ester Article about Sofia Ester ( ... Sofia Ester was born in 1978, in Lisbon. Her first book, Adozinda, was published in 1995. Sofia Ester finished writing this ... Ester wrote two more books about Adozinda: Adozinda e Zulmiro - A magia da adolescência Adozinda - A Faculdade de Ciências ... Ocultas Ester also wrote the book Carta de Amor a Luís de Camões. António Garcia Barreto, Dicionário de Literatura Infantil ...
The use of organophosphate esters (OPEs) as flame retardants, which has increased over the past two decades, raises concerns ... Childhood urinary organophosphate esters and cognitive abilities in a longitudinal cohort study Zana Percy 1 , Aimin Chen 2 , ... Childhood urinary organophosphate esters and cognitive abilities in a longitudinal cohort study Zana Percy et al. Environ Res. ... Early-life exposure to a mixture of organophosphate esters and child behavior. Percy Z, Chen A, Sucharew H, Yang W, Vuong AM, ...
... also named sucrose esters or sugar esters). The attribution of HLB values to sucrose esters emulsifiers at the origin is ... esters\ blend}{Total\ mass\ of\ the\ sucrose\ ester\ blend}}\right)} For example, for a sucrose ester mixture containing 80% of ... Sucrose esters HLB values can range from 1-16. Low HLB (3.5-6.0) sucrose esters act as a water-in-oil emulsifier while high ... Sucrose esters are off-white powders. Though produced from sucrose, sucrose esters do not have a sweet taste, but are bland or ...
ceraphyl™ esters chemistry: emollient esters. INCI/chemical name: various - Quaternium. SDS Link , Ceraphyl™ esters are a broad ... These esters are typically surface-active and find use in the household, institutional and industrial; plastics; textiles; ... family of water insoluble esters and hydroxyesters and are available with a range of properties, including liquids and waxy ...
Are fumaric acid esters safe and effective for the treatment of psoriasis? This Cochrane review examines the best available ... Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) are licensed for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis in Germany, and are used off-label in ... Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) are licensed for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis in Germany but are also used off- ... Oral Fumaric Acid Esters for Psoriasis. Abridged Cochrane Systematic Review Including GRADE Assessments. ...
How can phosphate ester flame retardants affect children?. *How can families reduce the risk of exposure to phosphate ester ... What are phosphate ester flame retardants?. *What happens to phosphate ester flame retardants when they enter the environment? ... What are phosphate ester flame retardants?. Phosphate ester flame retardants are human-made chemicals that are typically ... How might I be exposed to phosphate ester flame retardants?. *Most foods contain small amounts of phosphate esters and you may ...
You have to enable JavaScript in your browsers settings in order to use the eReader.. Or try downloading the content offline. DOWNLOAD ...
Background on the esters, including their physical properties ... What are esters?. Esters are derived from carboxylic acids. A ... A common ester - ethyl ethanoate. The most commonly discussed ester is ethyl ethanoate. In this case, the hydrogen in the -COOH ... INTRODUCING ESTERS. This page explains what esters are and looks at their simple physical properties such as solubility and ... Fats and oils as big esters. Esters can be made from carboxylic acids and alcohols. This is discussed in detail on another page ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Tessie Esters son, Henry Tobias, shows her coat embossed with the words, "C.E.O. Tessie Ester.". Another participant, Lottie ... Tessie Ester. On Jan. 10, I did a reading of my novel, "White Knight, or how one man came to believe that he was the one who ... "C.E.O. Tessie Ester". *"White Knight; or how one man came to believe that he was the one who caused the San Francisco City Hall ... One of the characters in my novel was based on Tessie Ester (Cali Robinson in the book), a woman I met back in the 70s when ...
The Fatty Esters market in the U.S. is estimated at US$745.3 Million in the year 2022. China, the world`s second largest ... The global market for Fatty Esters estimated at US$2.1 Billion in the year 2022, is projected to reach a revised size of US$3 ... strong,Global Fatty Esters Market to Reach $3 Billion by 2030,/strong,,br,,br, ... Global Fatty Esters Market to Reach $3 Billion by 2030. The global market for Fatty Esters estimated at US$2.1 Billion in the ...
Determination of ester value. Status : Withdrawn This standard has been revised by ISO 709:2001 ... Hydrolysis of the esters by heating, under given conditions, with a standard volumetric potassium hydroxide ethanolic solution ...
Hos Adlibris hittar du miljontals böcker och produkter inom ester herlin-karnell + engelska Vi har ett brett sortiment av ...
Phosphate Ester Flame Retardants and the Body. Currently, we do not know much about phosphate ester flame retardants and the ... Phosphate Ester Flame Retardants and Children. Children may be exposed to phosphate ester flame retardants in similar ways as ... Phosphate Ester Flame Retardants Overview. Phosphate ester flame retardants are human-made chemicals added to consumer and ... Phosphate Ester Flame Retardants and the Environment. Phosphate ester flame retardants are released to the environment from ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
... hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and ... Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal ... and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length ... we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ...
Ester Ledecka won her first World Cup victory on the ski side, finishing first in the womens season-opening downhill ... Czech Republic racer Ester Ledecka, who also competes in snowboarding, made a charge from late in the field for her first World ... Ester Ledecka celebrates on the podium following victory in the womens World Cup downhill ski race.. ...
Student, Section of Mechanical Engineering - Bachelor semester 3 ...
omega-3 acid ethyl esters (USP) 1000 MG Oral Capsule. SCD. 3. 577208. omega-3 acid ethyl esters 1 GM (at least 900 MG) Oral ... Who should not take omega-3-acid ethyl esters capsules? Do not take omega-3-acid ethyl esters capsules if you are allergic to ... How should I take omega-3-acid ethyl esters capsules? •. Take omega-3-acid ethyl esters capsules exactly as your healthcare ... How should I store omega-3-acid ethyl esters capsules? •. Store omega-3-acid ethyl esters capsules at room temperature between ...
Shop Vitamin C 1000 mg Tablets and read reviews at Walgreens. Pickup & Same Day Delivery available on most store items.
ACETIC AND FATTY ACID ESTERS OF GLYCEROL, MIXED; MIXED ACETIC AND TARTARIC ACID ESTERS OF MONO- AND DIGLYCERIDES OF FATTY ACIDS ... INS No. 472e: DIACETYLTARTARIC ACID ESTERS OF MONO- AND DIGLYCERIDES; DATEM; INS No. 472f: TARTARIC, ... R (AT THE FIFTY-FIRST MEETING (1998), THE 1997 SPECIFICATIONS FOR TARTARIC, ACETIC AND FATTY ACID ESTERS OF GLYCEROL, MIXED ... See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol (JECFA Food Additives Series 48) ...
Ester Grass Vergara doesnt need much to create an arresting visual: just a subject and a background. Her main focus is on ... Ester Grass Vergara Lets Her Subject Speak for Themselves. Vasiliki Marapas - October 29, 2014 - Fashion ... Ester Grass Vergara - Ester Grass Vergara doesn ...
Testing Status of Phosphate ester:NCP EMTDP46. Testing Status of Phosphate ester:NCP EMTDP46. CASRN: EMTDP-46. Related: EMTDP45 ...
Phenylboronic acid MIDA ester 0.95; CAS No.: 109737-57-7; Synonyms: 6-Methyl-2-phenyl-1,3,6,2-dioxazaborocane-4,8-dione; Linear ...
The report "Phosphate Ester Market by Type (Triaryl Phosphate Esters, Trialkyl Phosphate Esters, Alkyl Aryl Phosphate Ester), ... "Phosphate Ester Market by Type (Triaryl Phosphate Esters, Trialkyl Phosphate Esters, Alkyl Aryl Phosphate Ester), Application ... The triaryl phosphate esters segment is expected to be the fastest-growing segment of the phosphate esters market in 2017. ... The lubricants segment is estimated to be the largest application segment of the phosphate esters market. Phosphate esters are ...
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Prescription omega-3 fatty acids such as omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza, Omytrg), icosapent ethyl esters (Vascepa), and ...
Human Performance Optimization: Ketone Esters for Optimization of Operator Performance in Hypoxia. Award Information ... Exogenous ketone ester supplementation allows for rapid (, 30 mins) and significant elevation of blood ketone levels without ... We hypothesize that ketone ester supplementation will attenuate hypoxia-induced deterioration of operator cognitive performance ... proposes a study to investigate the effects of consuming an FDA-approved ketone ester food on operationally relevant cognitive ...
Local Anesthetics, Esters. Class Summary. These agents are used in procedures where rapid and short-acting topical ophthalmic ...
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about phosphate ester flame retardants. (cdc.gov)
  • The general population is primarily exposed to phosphate ester flame retardants by eating contaminated food. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphate ester flame retardants are human-made chemicals that are typically liquids at room temperature, although some are solids. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphate esters are added to consumer and industrial products in order to reduce flammability. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to phosphate ester flame retardants when they enter the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Some phosphate esters will deposit on wet and dry surfaces and others will be broken down by water. (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to phosphate ester flame retardants? (cdc.gov)
  • Most foods contain small amounts of phosphate esters and you may be exposed by eating contaminated food. (cdc.gov)
  • Drinking water may contain phosphate esters due to leakage from plastics or industrial waste water discharge. (cdc.gov)
  • How can phosphate ester flame retardants affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • How likely are phosphate ester flame retardants to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • There is not enough information available to determine with certainty whether or not phosphate ester flame retardants produce cancer in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the EPA have not classified the carcinogenic potential of the phosphate esters. (cdc.gov)
  • No studies have been conducted to examine the toxicity of phosphate ester flame retardants in children. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to phosphate ester flame retardants? (cdc.gov)
  • Avoid food that is high in phosphate ester content. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoid installation or use of materials that are known to contain phosphate esters-based flame retardants in indoor environments to minimize exposure via air. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphate ester flame retardants are human-made chemicals added to consumer and industrial products for the purpose of reducing flammability. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphate ester flame retardants are composed of a group of chemicals with similar properties but slightly different structures. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphate ester flame retardants are released to the environment from industrial sources and disposal of consumer products containing flame retardants. (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphate ester flame retardants can change chemical composition in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Generally, most phosphate esters are poorly soluble in water and adsorb strongly to soils. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingesting food contaminated with phosphate esters is the primary source of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Most foods have been found to contain trace amounts of phosphate ester flame retardants due to their wide use in plastics and presence in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydraulic fluid is the primary source of phosphate esters in outdoor air. (cdc.gov)
  • Indoor air can contain phosphate ester flame retardants from certain plastics, adhesives, foams, or electronics. (cdc.gov)
  • Drinking water contaminated with phosphate esters due to leaching from plastics or industrial waste water discharge is another potential exposure route. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydraulic fluid spills or industrial waste water used for agriculture can result in the presence of phosphate esters in soil. (cdc.gov)
  • Young children may be at a higher risk of exposure since they are more likely to put phosphate ester flame retardant treated materials in their mouths. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently, we do not know much about phosphate ester flame retardants and the body. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no information on how these chemicals leave your body, but based on studies in animals, phosphate ester flame retardants may be broken down in the body and the breakdown product may be eliminated in the urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Neither phosphate ester flame retardants nor their breakdown products seemed to accumulate in the body based on studies in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Few studies have looked at the health effects of exposure to phosphate ester flame retardants. (cdc.gov)
  • This specification covers the requirements for phosphate ester based fire resistant fluids for use in turbine lubrication. (astm.org)
  • The use of this type of fluid is restricted to turbine systems that have been designed or modified to accommodate phosphate ester lubricants. (astm.org)
  • Fire tests shall be performed which measure and describe the properties of the phosphate esters in response to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions and should not be considered or used for the description or appraisal of the fire hazard of the fluids under actual fire conditions. (astm.org)
  • This section will examine the demand for various synthetic basestocks-PAO, Group III/III+, polyalkylene glycol (PAG), synthetic esters, phosphate esters, and polyisobutenes, among others-in various regions and end-use applications. (klinegroup.com)
  • How can we support you with Alcohol Ethoxylate Phosphate ester? (imcdgroup.com)
  • the hydrolysis of phosphate esters in McKeown procedures). (who.int)
  • This part of the article aims at disambiguating of the notion of HLB, "Hydrophile - Lipophile Balance", attributed to Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester surfactants (also named sucrose esters or sugar esters). (wikipedia.org)
  • Extending this work, immobilised lipases have novel capabilities in the synthesis of sugar esters. (researchgate.net)
  • Sucrose esters or sucrose fatty acid esters are a group of non-naturally occurring surfactants chemically synthesized from the esterification of sucrose and fatty acids (or glycerides). (wikipedia.org)
  • A class of sucrose esters with highly substituted hydroxyl groups, olestra, is also used as a fat replacer in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose monostearate Sucrose esters were first mentioned in 1880 by Herzfeld who described the preparation of sucrose octaacetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1950s, Foster Snell and his team conducted research on the production of several mono- and di-substituted sucrose esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose has 8 hydroxyl groups which can be reacted with fatty acid esters to produce sucrose esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical saturated fatty acids that are used to produce sucrose esters are lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and behenic acid, and typical unsaturated fatty acids are oleic acid and erucic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the hydrophilic property of sucrose and the lipophilic property of fatty acids, the overall hydrophilicity of sucrose esters can be tuned by the number of hydroxyl groups that are reacted with fatty acids and the identity of the fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose esters' HLB values can range from 1-16. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low HLB (3.5-6.0) sucrose esters act as a water-in-oil emulsifier while high HLB (8-18) sucrose esters act as an oil-in-water emulsifier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose esters are off-white powders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though produced from sucrose, sucrose esters do not have a sweet taste, but are bland or bitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The melting point of sucrose esters is between 40 °C and 60 °C depending on the type of fatty acids and the degree of substitution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose esters can be heated to 185 °C without losing their functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose esters are stable in the pH range of 4 to 8, so they can be used as an additive in most foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The attribution of HLB values to sucrose esters emulsifiers at the origin is unclear, since no bibliographic source can be found on how the attribution has been made. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Food Safety Authority has issued a positive safety opinion on sucrose esters produced by reacting sucrose and vinyl esters of fatty acids, which could open up new possibilities for improving the solubility of flavourings in drinks. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Sucrose esters of fatty acids are already permitted in the EU, after being assessed in 1992 and assigned the E-number E473. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The earlier approval relates to sucrose esters of fatty acids and sucroglycerides from palm oil, lard, and tallow fatty acids. (foodnavigator.com)
  • But Singaporean company Compass Foods applied in 2008 for approval to market sucrose esters from monoesters of lauric acid, mysteristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (foodnavigator.com)
  • These sucrose esters are produced via a different process, by reacting sucrose and vinyl esters of fatty acids. (foodnavigator.com)
  • EFSA was asked to assess the safety of the sucrose esters produced via this process by the European Commission - as well as whether the go-ahead to use the sucrose esters of fatty acids in water-based beverages would increase total intake levels beyond the current ADI of 40mg/kg. (foodnavigator.com)
  • It found that, as long as the ADI of 40mg/kg is not exceeded, the sucrose esters of fatty acids produced by the new process do not pose a safety issue. (foodnavigator.com)
  • However in Ireland, where sucrose esters of fatty acids are used more commonly as a glazing agent for fruits, some consumers could exceed the ADI. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Polyaniline/titanium dioxide nanorods functionalized carbon fibers for in-tube solid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters prior to high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. (bvsalud.org)
  • To improve extraction performance of carbon fibers (CFs) towards phthalate esters (PAEs), titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods array was in-situ grown on the surface of CFs, then polyaniline (PANI) was used to modify it. (bvsalud.org)
  • South Plainfield, NJ (USA), 9 October 2018 - At SEPAWA 2018 Lonza will present the latest research on polyglyceryl ester surfactants and showcase its Polyaldo ® brand. (lonza.com)
  • The Lonza Polyaldo ® polyglyceral esters (PGEs) are naturally derived surfactants that can be easily customized to suit the cleansing-formulation needs of the global personal care market. (lonza.com)
  • Petkov will present "Polyglyceryl Ester Based Surfactants - An Attractive Green Alternative to the Current Non-Ionic Surfactants Offering" at the Innovations Forum. (lonza.com)
  • A specific overview regarding synthetic methodologies and properties of 6′-lactose-based surfactants is presented herein, particularly all the synthetic approaches to this class of lactose esters, such as enzymatic and traditional organic syntheses. (researchgate.net)
  • Later, the concept of synthesizing sucrose ester from sucrose and fatty acids was patented in 1952. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fewer free hydroxyl groups and the more lipophilic fatty acids, the less hydrophilic the resulting sucrose ester becomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At pH higher than 8, saponification (hydrolysis of the ester bond to release the original sucrose and the salt of fatty acids) might occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of esters (and transesterification). (khanacademy.org)
  • at the mechanism of acid promoted ester hydrolysis. (khanacademy.org)
  • Dive into the research topics where Ester Barinaga is active. (lu.se)
  • Notably, the sucrose ester of lauric acid was not considered in the evaluation that led to this ADI. (foodnavigator.com)
  • In order for the new esters to be permitted, EFSA pointed out that the current specifications would have to be changed to include the sucrose ester of lauric acid. (foodnavigator.com)
  • at the end of the video, why is the methyl ester group a better leaving group than the butyl ester group? (khanacademy.org)
  • Emulsifiers are made from food grade Polyoxyethylene Sorbitan Monolauric Acid Ester. (mis-asia.com)
  • Both are sucrose fatty acid esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1939, Cantor, who patented a production route of sucrose fatty acid esters from starch factory by-products, claimed that the products could be used as emulsifying agents or fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is said to result in very tiny residues of vinyl esters of fatty acid, acetaldehyde, and p-methoxyphenol - but these were not seen to be at a level to raise concern for EFSA's panel. (foodnavigator.com)
  • If there is an excess of butanol in acid while there is only a limited amount of ester, you would see transesterification occur. (khanacademy.org)
  • By reacting sorbitan with ethylene, polyoxyeperethylene-sorbitan-monolauric-acid ester can be prepared. (mis-asia.com)
  • The polyoxyeperethylene-sorbitan-monolauric-acid ester is prepared by reacting sorbitan with ethylene oxide. (mis-asia.com)
  • Polyoxyethylene sorbitan Monolauric Acid Ester is available for purchase. (mis-asia.com)
  • Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolauric acid ester The weight of a barrel is 25 kg per bottle, 200 kg per barrel. (mis-asia.com)
  • Esters are created when alcohol and acid molecules interact and integrate with each other, which occurs during the fermentation, distillation and maturation processes. (whiskymag.com)
  • The consequence of yeast producing alcohol and acid is that molecules of each are present within yeast cells, where complex interactions between these molecules sees them integrating and being transformed into esters. (whiskymag.com)
  • Ethanol and short chain acids are the first to interact and create a group of short chain fatty acid esters, with these esters typically comprising around four units each. (whiskymag.com)
  • Consequently, ethanol and acid molecules interact within the wort, creating additional short chain esters. (whiskymag.com)
  • The level of long chain fatty acid esters can remain constant during maturation, though you won't necessarily detect them in the mature product, it all depends on the level. (whiskymag.com)
  • The experimental characterization of the time-dependent properties of fatty acid based vinyl ester resins with reduced styrene content and emissions was conducted and compared to that of various commercial vinyl ester resins. (aiche.org)
  • The fatty acid based vinyl ester resins were found to have similar or slightly inferior thermo-mechanical properties and a more pronounced viscoelastic response compared to the commercial resins. (aiche.org)
  • However, the research definitively demonstrates that the evaluated fatty acid vinyl ester resins are a viable replacement to commercial resins in certain applications with concomitant attractive environmental benefits. (aiche.org)
  • The optimised conditions for sugar fatty acid ester syntheses are 48 h at 2:1 of molar ratio of lactose sugar to capric acid at 55 °C. Furthermore, a high operational stability with half-lives of over 13 and 10 runs was achieved for NER-CRL and Amino-CRL, respectively, indicating the efficiency of the immobilisation process. (researchgate.net)
  • Ester Rada has signed on with the London-based international live music agency X-Ray Touring . (israel21c.org)
  • Polyglyceryl esters can be naturally sourced and have a wide range of solubility and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB ) numbers ," said Jordan Petkov, PhD, Head Global R&D, Consumer Product Ingredients (CPI), Lonza. (lonza.com)
  • This ester has many hydrophilic groupings. (mis-asia.com)
  • Maria Teresa Costa-Campi & José García-Quevedo & Ester Martínez-Ros, 2016. (repec.org)
  • Medium chain esters (typically comprising several units linked together) contribute richer fruityness, such as apples and pears. (whiskymag.com)
  • The lipophilic ester groups on ring C serve mainly as a steering element, affecting the orientation of the diterpenoid core into the ligand binding pocket, while the nature of the A,B ring junction plays an essential role in the Ca 2+ -dependence of the TRPV4 response. (acs.org)
  • Ethanol also reacts with medium and long chain acids (which are present in much smaller quantities) creating medium and long chain esters. (whiskymag.com)
  • Ester-C® is a breakthrough patented Vitamin C formula supported with naturally occurring metabolites. (ralphs.com)
  • Medium and long chain esters have a heavier molecular weight than short chain esters, and so are far less prone to loss through evaporation," says Jane Millar. (whiskymag.com)
  • During fermentation most esters are created by interaction that occurs within yeast cells. (whiskymag.com)
  • Binding of 4α-phorbol esters occurs in a loop in the TM3−TM4 domain of TRPV4 that is analogous to the capsaicin binding site of TRPV1, and the ester decoration of ring C and the A,B ring junction are critical for activity. (acs.org)
  • Biological applications with a focus on permeability enhancing, antimicrobial activity, and antibiofilm properties of 6′-lactose-based esters are also reported. (researchgate.net)
  • Meanwhile, the esters which have been formed during fermentation are pretty stable and are not modified by distillation. (whiskymag.com)
  • The Ester Cobb Pinnix/Alpha Delta Kappa Teachers Scholarship is available to education majors at the University of North Carolina, Greensboro who are public school teachers teaching in Rockingham County, North Carolina. (fastweb.com)
  • PhD candidate Ester Gonzalez Martin has been awarded a SPARK scholarship to attend this year's Deutsche Sommerschule am Pazifik. (umass.edu)
  • Through this scholarship, Ester Gonzalez Martin will be able to attend Portland State University's annual Deutsche Sommerschule am Pazifik, a week-long institute for German instructors. (umass.edu)
  • Czech director Ester Brym is ready to showcase her 2nd feature film called Autumn of Route 66. (filmfestivals.com)
  • Distillation creates a spread of short, medium and long chain esters, but at a slightly faster rate than during fermentation as the heat of distillation speeds up the rate of reactions between the alcohol and organic acids. (whiskymag.com)
  • Filmmaker Ester Brym shot the film interely on handheld Flip camera, which offers viewers the exceptional feeling of actually experiencing old Route 66 themselves. (filmfestivals.com)
  • The Committee agreed to defer its consideration of pentachlorophenol and its salts and esters until its eighth meeting and to include the draft decision on the substance in annex II to the present report, enclosed in square brackets to indicate a lack of consensus on certain items. (pops.int)
  • Fermentation is the source of over 90 per cent of ester production, with a smaller, complementary level of ester formation also occurring during distillation and aging in the cask," says Douglas Murray, process technology manager, Diageo. (whiskymag.com)
  • Enzyme immobilisation technology is an effective means to improve sugar ester production through the employment of biocatalysts. (researchgate.net)
  • At its seventh meeting, the Committee examined the proposal by the European Union and its member States parties to the Stockholm Convention to list pentachlorophenol and its salts and esters in Annexes A, B and/or C to the Convention and applied the screening criteria specified in Annex D to the Convention. (pops.int)