Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Buchnera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Keto AcidsPhenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Histidinol: The penultimate step in the pathway of histidine biosynthesis. Oxidation of the alcohol group on the side chain gives the acid group forming histidine. Histidinol has also been used as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Bromus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is an extrahepatic enzyme that plays a role in metabolism as the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Zein: A group of alcohol-soluble seed storage proteins from the endosperm of corn.KynurenineBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Cryptophyta: A class of EUKARYOTA (traditionally algae), characterized by biflagellated cells and found in both freshwater and marine environments. Pigmentation varies but only one CHLOROPLAST is present. Unique structures include a nucleomorph and ejectosomes.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Saccharopine Dehydrogenases: Amine oxidoreductases that use either NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.7) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.8) as an acceptor to form L-LYSINE or NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.9) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.10) as an acceptor to form L-GLUTAMATE. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERLYSINEMIAS.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Tryptophan Oxygenase: A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Amino Acids, SulfurInfant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.
Starch, simple sugars, oxalic acid, and some amino acids tend to increase the rate of absorption of chromium(III). This is a ... Chromium has been identified as an essential nutrient in maintaining normal blood glucose levels and as such, it is proposed to ... Organic sources tend to absorb better as they have ligands which are more lipophilic and usually neutralize the charge of the ... In contrast, calcium, magnesium, titanium, zinc, vanadium, and iron reduce the rate of absorption. Presumably, these ions ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids. The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral. Many ultratrace elements have been ... ISBN 0-935702-72-5. Ashmead, H. DeWayne (1993). The Roles of Amino Acid Chelates in Animal Nutrition. Westwood: Noyes ... such as calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, etc.) or magnesium (as magnesium oxide, etc.), or iron (as ferrous ...
... each plant provides an amount of all the essential amino acids. However, the relative abundance of the essential amino acids is ... Calcium is not the only ion that neutralizes the sulphate from protein metabolism, and overall buffering and renal acid load ... Jewell, Jenna L.; Guan, Kun-Liang (2013). "Nutrient signaling to mTOR and cell growth". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 38 (5 ... also includes anions such as bicarbonate, organic ions, phosphorus and chloride as well as cations such as ammonium, ...
... an omega-6 fatty acid). Vitamins are organic molecules essential for an organism that are not classified as amino acids or ... there are 17 important nutrients for plants: the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), ... An essential amino acid is an amino acid that is required by an organism but cannot be synthesized de novo by it, and therefore ... Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid ( ...
Other essential nutrients not classed as vitamins include essential amino acids (see above), essential fatty acids (see above ... and acid-base balance. In addition to calcium, it is important in the regulation of neuromuscular activity. Food sources ... Gowland Hopkins recognized "accessory food factors" other than calories, protein and minerals, as organic materials essential ... amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These compounds consist of elements such ...
The tubers have a high protein content of 9.0% and also have a high amino acid content. The tubers of cassava, for example, ... Furthermore, there would be a build-up in organic matter, which would be beneficial for soils which are poor in nutrients. The ... The concentration of sulphur-containing amino acids is high as well (with a lysine content of 5.0% and a methionine content of ... Waterlogging is indeed an issue - leading to root rot - and a well drained sandy loam is preferred, but not essential. ...
Nitrogen is a component of molecules critical to life on earth, such as DNA and amino acids. Nitrates occur in some plants,due ... Arsenic has been shown to be helpful in metabolizing the amino acid arginine. There are 7 milligrams of arsenic in a typical 70 ... Elemental arsenic is toxic, as are many of its inorganic compounds; however some of its organic compounds can promote growth in ... Nitrogen in the form of ammonia a nutrient critical to most plants' survival. Phosphorus is used in matches and incendiary ...
... even when the active ingredients were essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals or amino acids. This has been a result of ... The term "essential fatty acid" refers to fatty acids required for biological processes but does not include the fats that only ... A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound ( ... "Adequate calcium throughout life, as part of a well-balanced diet, may reduce the risk of osteoporosis." "Adequate calcium as ...
... providing essential amino acids and calories. Just 100 g of seed daily provides essential fatty acid, amino acid and Vitamin E ... The seed contains every important macro and micro-nutrient in quantities ideal for nutrition. The amino acid content of egusi- ... Here the soils are rich in organic matter with a high rainfall of 1,400 mm distributed April-October. Propagation starts after ... Notable minerals include phosphorus, as the largest mineral component, with potassium, magnesium, manganese, sulfur, calcium, ...
... are condensed by fatty acid synthase to produce fatty acids. Fatty acid are essential components of lipid bilayers that form ... Enzymes in turn are composed of amino acids and often non-peptidic cofactors that are essential for enzyme function. The basic ... They are associated with essential cellular functions such as nutrient assimilation, energy production, and growth/development ... Within the field of organic chemistry, the definition of natural products is usually restricted to mean purified organic ...
As an essential amino acid, methionine is not synthesized de novo in humans and other animals, who must ingest methionine or ... and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 589-768. "National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference ... Methionine is allowed as a supplement to organic poultry feed under the US certified organic program. Methionine can be used as ... "Redox modulation of cellular signaling and metabolism through reversible oxidation of methionine sensors in calcium regulatory ...
... as well as fatty acids including linolenic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acids, and 19 amino acids.[dubious - discuss] Maca ... Maca is rich in the dietary minerals calcium and potassium (with low content of sodium), and contains the essential trace ... The harvest is done manually, with the leaves left on the field as livestock feed or organic fertilizer. The yield for a ... fertilizer application could prevent soils from depleting in nutrients. Weeding or pesticide application usually is not ...
... essential fatty acids, and essential amino acids.[4] The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, ... amino acids, organic acids, etc.) improves the bioavailability of the supplemented mineral.[36] ... Ashmead, H. DeWayne (1993). The Roles of Amino Acid Chelates in Animal Nutrition. Westwood: Noyes Publications.. ... such as calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, etc.) or magnesium (as magnesium oxide, etc.), or iron (as ferrous ...
Other essential nutrients not classed as vitamins include essential amino acids (see above), essential fatty acids (see above ... and acid-base balance. In addition to calcium, it is important in the regulation of neuromuscular activity. Food sources ... as organic materials essential to health but which the body cannot synthesize. In 1907 Stephen M. Babcock and Edwin B. Hart ... amino acids (found in proteins), fatty acids (found in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). These compounds are composed ...
... lack all amino acid synthesis and take their amino acids directly from their hosts. All amino acids are synthesized from ... The most important ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate and the organic ion bicarbonate. The ... but mammals can only synthesize eleven nonessential amino acids, so nine essential amino acids must be obtained from food. Some ... For example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals. The speed of metabolism ...
... is known to contain nutrients including essential fatty acids, active enzymes, vitamins, amino acids, minerals, proteins, ... pantothenic acid, and B12 (cobalamin). Aphanizomenon flos-aquae contains minerals and trace minerals (including calcium, ... Organic certification can be a lengthy and complicated process, and it is achieved only through strict compliance with ... essential fatty acids (including omega 3 fatty acids), beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycocyanin, active enzymes, amino acids, ...
Other essential nutrients not classed as vitamins include essential amino acids (see above), choline, essential fatty acids ( ... As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are ... such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells). Some are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such ... and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules. The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe ...
... α-linolenic acid cannot be synthesized in mammalian tissues, and are therefore essential fatty acids and must be obtained from ... The "fat-soluble" vitamins (A, D, E and K) - which are isoprene-based lipids - are essential nutrients stored in the liver and ... involved in calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C;[76] the prostaglandins, which are one type of fatty-acid derived ... a sphingoid base backbone that is synthesized de novo from the amino acid serine and a long-chain fatty acyl CoA, then ...
As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet. Excess amino acids are ... minerals Essential minerals Dietary supplements Evolution of dietary antioxidants Essential nutrients Fat Essential fatty acids ... In 1790, George Fordyce recognized calcium as necessary for the survival of fowl. In the early 19th century, the elements ... animal and plant protein are the same and that humans do not create organic compounds). With a reputation as the leading ...
From about three billion years ago, prokaryotic selenoprotein families drive the evolution of selenocysteine, an amino acid. ... In living systems, selenium is found in the amino acids selenomethionine, selenocysteine, and methylselenocysteine. In these ... Some analytical techniques are capable of distinguishing organic from inorganic forms of the element. Both organic and ... It was discovered to be essential for mammalian life in 1957. In the 1970s, it was shown to be present in two independent sets ...
... has suboptimal amounts of the essential amino acids tryptophan and lysine, which accounts for its lower status as a ... pantothenic acid (B5) and folate (right table for raw, uncooked kernels, USDA Nutrient Database). In moderate amounts, they ... Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = ... The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground, where it usually is left to become organic ...
... is not an essential nutrient for humans, since it can be synthesized in the body from the amino acids L-cysteine, L ... Glutathione has been found to bind to and activate ionotropic receptors that are different from any other excitatory amino acid ... Glutathione is also able to activate the purinergic P2X7 receptor from Müller glia, inducing acute calcium transient signals ... In high concentrations, the organic molecule diethyl maleate fully depleted GSH levels in cells. However, in low concentrations ...
... is a source of calcium, manganese, the amino acid methionine, and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.[unreliable source?] ... "Nutrient data for 12198, Seeds, sesame butter, tahini, from raw and stone ground kernels". "Nutrient data for 12166, Seeds, ... This is particularly true among makers of raw, organic tahini, who will often prepare their tahini at low temperatures and ship ... A Book of Essential Ingredients with Over 150 Authentic Recipes, p.146, Hippocrene Books Mariposa, Hollywood Glamour Cook Book ...
Other effects of a diet lacking in this essential amino acid are dilated cardiomyopathy and reproductive failure in females. ... Taurine is unusual among biological molecules in being a sulfonic acid, while the vast majority of biologically occurring acids ... Taurine (/ˈtɔːriːn/), or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. It is ... KNOPF,, Karen (2011). "Taurine: An Essential Nutrient for the Cat" (PDF). The Journal of Nutrition. 108: 773-778 - via Primo. " ...
They rely on their Buchnera endosymbiotic population for essential amino acids, supplying in exchange nutrients as well as a ... Depending on the species, the exoskeleton may be hard, based on calcium carbonate, or soft and proteinaceous. Over many ... supply of organics, acceleration of mineralization, carbon cycling, and salt tolerance. The hologenome theory is debated. A ... typically as inactivated hormone conjugates to which a glucuronic acid or sulfate has been attached, through the endocrine and ...
Proteins are necessary in an animal's diets, since animals cannot make all the amino acids they need (they can make most of them). They must get certain amino acids from food. These are called the essential amino acids. Through digestion, animals break down ingested protein into free amino acids. The amino acids are then used in metabolism to make the enzymes and structures the body needs. There are nine essential amino acids for humans, which are obtained from food. The nine essential amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, ...
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet. The nine amino acids humans cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and histidine (i.e., F V T W M L I K H). Six other amino acids are considered conditionally essential in the human diet, meaning their synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress. These six are arginine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline, and tyrosine (i.e., R C G Q P Y). Five amino ...
If one of the essential amino acids is less than needed for an individual the utilization of other amino acids will be hindered and thus protein synthesis will be less than what it usually is, even in the presence of adequate total nitrogen intake.[2]. Protein deficiency has been shown to affect all of the body's organs and many of its systems, including the brain and brain function of infants and young children; the immune system, thus elevating risk of infection; gut mucosal function and permeability, which affects absorption and vulnerability to systemic disease; and kidney function.[2] The physical signs of protein deficiency include edema, failure to thrive in infants and children, poor musculature, dull skin, and thin and fragile hair. Biochemical changes reflecting protein deficiency include low serum albumin and low serum transferrin.[2]. The amino ...
டிரிப்டோபான் (Tryptophan) [குறுக்கம்: Trp (அ) W[2]] என்னும் அமினோ அமிலம் ஒரு அத்தியாவசிய அமினோ அமிலமாகும். இது விலங்குகளினால்/மனிதர்களால் தயாரிக்கப்படுவதில்லை. எனவே, நாம் உண்ணும் புரதங்களிலிருந்தே இது பெறப்படுகிறது. ஆதலினால் இது இன்றியமையா அமினோ அமிலங்கள் (Essential Amino Acid) என்ற பிரிவினுள் அடங்கும். இதனுடைய வாய்பாடு: C11H12N2O2. மரபுக்குறியீட்டில் (Genetic code), இந்த டிரிப்டோபானுக்குரிய முக்குறியம் (Codon) UGG ...
A low-sulfur diet is a diet with reduced sulfur content. Sulfur containing compounds may also be referred to as thiols or mercaptans. Important dietary sources of sulfur and sulfur containing compounds may be classified as essential mineral (e.g. elemental sulfur), essential amino acid (methionine) and semi-essential amino acid (e.g. cysteine). Sulfur is an essential dietary mineral primarily because amino acids contain it. Sulphur is thus considered fundamentally important to human health, and conditions such as nitrogen imbalance and protein-energy malnutrition may result from deficiency. Methionine cannot be synthesized by humans, and cysteine synthesis requires a steady supply of sulfur.[citation needed] The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of ...
... is an essential component of all living cells. It is either the seventh or eighth most abundant element in the human body by weight, about equal in abundance to potassium, and slightly greater than sodium and chlorine. A 70 kg (150 lb) human body contains about 140 grams of sulfur. In plants and animals, the amino acids cysteine and methionine contain most of the sulfur, and the element is present in all polypeptides, proteins, and enzymes that contain these amino acids. In humans, methionine is an essential amino acid that must be ingested. However, save for the vitamins biotin and thiamine, cysteine and all sulfur-containing compounds in the human body can be synthesized from methionine. The enzyme sulfite oxidase is needed for the metabolism of methionine and cysteine in humans and animals. Disulfide ...
... (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sauld for medical uise as Tryptan)[2] is ane o the 22 staundart amino acids an an essential amino acid in the human diet, as demonstratit bi its growth effects on rats. ...
As reports have indicated, feeding make-up the major cost in raising poultry animals as birds in general require feeding more than any other animals did particularly due to their faster growth rate and high rate of productivity. Feeding efficiency is reflected on the birds' performance and its products. According to National Research Council (1994), poultry required at least 38% components in their feed. The ration of each feed components, although differ for each different stage of birds, must include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins. Carbohydrates which is usually supply by grains including corn, wheat, barley, etc. serve as major energy source in poultry feeds. Fats usually from tallow, lard or vegetables oil are essentially required to provide important fatty acid in poultry feed for membrane integrity and hormone synthesis. Proteins are important to supply the essential amino ...
In most of Latin America, sweet corn is traditionally eaten with beans; each plant is deficient in an essential amino acid that happens to be abundant in the other, so together sweet corn and beans form a protein-complete meal.[6] In Brazil, sweet corn cut off from the cobs is generally eaten with peas (where this combination, given the practicality of steamed canned grains in an urban diet, is a frequent addition to diverse meals such as salads, stews, seasoned white rice, risottos, soups, pasta, and, most famously, whole sausage hot dogs).. Similarly, sweet corn in Indonesia is traditionally ground or soaked with milk, which makes available the B vitamin niacin in the corn, the absence of which would otherwise lead to pellagra; in Brazil, a combination of ground sweet corn and milk is also the basis of various well-known dishes, such as pamonha and the pudding-like dessert curau, while sweet corn eaten directly off the cobs tends to be ...
வேதியியலில், அமினோ அமிலம் அல்லது அமினோக் காடி (amino acid) என்பது, அமைன் (-NH2), கார்பாக்சைல் (-COOH) ஆகிய இரண்டு வேதி வினைக்குழுக்கள் கொண்ட ஒரு மூலக்கூறு ஆகும். அமினோ அமிலத்தில் காணப்படும் முதன்மையான தனிமங்களாக கார்பன் (கரிமம்), ஐதரசன், ஆக்சிசன், நைதரசன் போன்றவை காணப்படுகின்றன, பிற சில தனிமங்கள், ஒரு சில அமினோ அமிலங்களின் பக்கச்சங்கிலிகளில் காணப்படுகின்றன. மரபுக்குறியீட்டில் 20 அமினோ ...
The α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis (synthesis of glutamate, glutamine, proline and arginine) begins with α-ketoglutarate, an intermediate in the Citric Acid Cycle. The concentration of α-ketoglutarate is dependent on the activity and metabolism within the cell along with the regulation of enzymatic activity. In E. coli citrate synthase, the enzyme involved in the condensation reaction initiating the Citric Acid Cycle is strongly inhibited by α-ketoglutarate feedback inhibition and can be inhibited by DPNH as well high concentrations of ATP.[5] This is one of the initial regulations of the α-ketoglutarate family of amino acid synthesis. The regulation of the synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate is subject to regulatory control of the Citric Acid Cycle as well as mass action dependent on the concentrations of reactants involved due to the reversible nature of the ...
... denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids, and the breakdown of proteins (and other large molecules) by catabolism. Dietary proteins are first broken down to individual amino acids by various enzymes and hydrochloric acid present in the gastro-intestinal tract. These amino acids are further broken down to α-keto acids which can be recycled in the body for generation of energy, and production of glucose or fat or other amino acids. This break-down of amino acids to α-keto acids occurs in the liver by a process known as transamination, which follows a bimolecular ping pong mechanism. Protein biosynthesis relies on ...
வேதியியலில், அமினோ அமிலம் அல்லது அமினோக் காடி (amino acid) என்பது, அமைன் (-NH2), கார்பாக்சைல் (-COOH) ஆகிய இரண்டு வேதி வினைக்குழுக்கள் கொண்ட ஒரு மூலக்கூறு ஆகும். அமினோ அமிலத்தில் காணப்படும் முதன்மையான தனிமங்களாக கார்பன் (கரிமம்), ஐதரசன், ஆக்சிசன், நைதரசன் போன்றவை காணப்படுகின்றன, பிற சில தனிமங்கள், ஒரு சில அமினோ அமிலங்களின் பக்கச்சங்கிலிகளில் காணப்படுகின்றன. மரபுக்குறியீட்டில் 20 அமினோ ...
Organic Selenium - selenium is an essential nutrient that plays a critical role in metabolism, healthy growth, reproductive ... total lipids and amino acid absorption. Yea Sacc®1026 improves milk availability to foals if administered for 3-4 weeks before ... are those that have been bonded to two or more amino acids. A mineral in this chelated state allows easy passage through the ... Yea Sacc®1026 increases fiber, phosphorus and calcium digestibility in mares, and increases digestible energy, ...
Enhanced with probiotics and fortified with B-vitamins plus bio-available trace minerals, essential amino acids and organic ... Organic Selenium - selenium is an essential nutrient that plays a critical role in metabolism, healthy growth, reproductive ... total lipids and amino acid absorption. Yea Sacc®1026 improves milk availability to foals if administered for 3-4 weeks before ... Each scoop contains min 4,261 mg/max 4,545 mg calcium, min 1,563 mg phosphorus, min 568 mg potassium, min 227 mg lysine, min 25 ...
Spirulina is easily digested and contains all nine essential amino acids and dozens of others. Spirulina also is antioxidant ... Necessary Nutrients contains organic Chia seeds and the following organic whole food powders: Spirulina, Barley Grass Juice, ... Dulse has abundant calcium, iodine, iron, magnesium, potassium, and folic acid. Dulse and has every known mineral and trace ... Flax also has nutritional benefits and is 40-60%omega 3 fatty acids and 15% linoleic and 15% oleic acids, which are essential ...
It contains many nutrients essential to human health, and comes complete with companion enzymes and amino acids necessary for ... The enzymes phosphatase, essential for the absorption of calcium; lipase, which aids in the digestion of fats; and lactase, ... and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). ... Amino acids, essential to the bodys ability to repair tissue, ... Milk from grass-fed cows is higher in Vitamins A and D and has more omega-3 fatty acids ("the good fats") ...
... providing amino acids: Glutamic acid, Aspartic acid, Arginine, Proline, Glycine, Threonine, Tyrosine, Histidine, Methionine, ... 12 Mushrooms (Organic).. * 40+ Antioxidant Sources.. Whole Body Nourishment with essential nutrients that help support:. * ... Folic Acid 400 mcg 100%. Vitamin B12 (as cyanocobalamin) 500 mcg 8,333%. Biotin 325 mcg 108%. Pantothenic Acid (as d-calcium ... Zinc (as amino acid chelate) 30 mg 200%. Selenium (as L-selenomethionine) 250 mcg 357%. Copper (as amino acid chelate) 4 mg 200 ...
Calcium Sulfate Dihydrate, Manganese Amino Acid Chelate, Copper Gluconate, Niacinamide, Calcium Pantothenate, Riboflavin, ... Not recognized as an essential nutrient by AAFCO Dog Food Nutrient Profiles. ... Plus, its unique balance of amino acids and complex b-vitamins maintains a healthy skin & coat, supports the immune system, ... Organic Alfalfa Meal, Gum Arabic, Natural Flavor (from oregano, flaxseed and plums), Salt, Vinegar, Fish Oil (Anchovy) Apple ...
... essential fatty acids, and an entire range of nutrients including all essential amino acids, calcium, potassium, B vitamins, ... It evaluated 62 organic American soyfood brands and rated them on 10 criteria including sourcing, stringency of organic ... Carob has a unique chocolate-like flavor that is free of caffeine, theobromine, and oxalic acid. It is a healthy alternative to ... It provides 4.5 grams of essential fatty acids (EFAs), omegas 3, 6, and 9. It is the ideal choice for those avoiding sweeteners ...
Including amino acid chelates and other organic mineral forms.. Iron Bisglycinate - a highly absorbable form of iron that is ... essential fatty acids and fibres to create our most complete multi nutrient formula ever. ... boric acid), Borage Seed Oil Powder, Sunflower Seed Oil Powder, Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5, as D-pantothenate, calcium), ... Delivers essential nutrients, including a broad spectrum of high-performing nutrients. *Free of gluten, wheat, dairy, yeast, ...
Organic Barley Grass Juice Powder provided by Biopro Chemicals Co., Ltd.. You may also find other latest (US warehouse) Organic ... US warehouse) Organic Barley Grass Juice Powder,complete details about (US warehouse) ... Barley grass juice also contains beneficial beta-sitosterol, chlorophyll, pectin, flavonoids and all the essential amino acids ... It contains beta carotene, vitamin C and several B-complex vitamins, along with the essential minerals calcium, iron, magnesium ...
... like addressing certain nutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin D, vitamin C and vitamin B12 deficiencies. ... like addressing certain nutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin D, vitamin C and vitamin B12 deficiencies. ... "Essential" amino acids such as tryptophan cannot be produced by your body, so you have to get them through your diet. ... Foods high in calcium include9 organic, grass fed raw milk and other dairy products, finely powdered organic egg shells, ...
Earth Source Multi Nutrient Formula includes natural plant compounds and combines them with highly bioavailable vitamins and ... Including amino acid chelates and other organic mineral forms. *Iron bisglycinate - a highly absorbable form of iron that is ... essential fatty acids and fibres to create our most complete multi nutrient formula ever. ... Vitamin C - calcium ascorbate with rose hips. Calcium ascorbate is buffered to be less acidic and gentler on the stomach than ...
L-citrulline is one of the many amino acids that the human body needs to survive. This amino acid helps to optimize the blood ... Essential nutrients for the body. There is no doubt that certain vitamins and nutrients are absolutely essential in order for ... Calcium contributes to 1.5% of the weight in the human body. The bones and the teeth consist of most of the calcium in the body ... Organic whey protein. There are many reasons why people may want to use a protein supplement. People who lift weights often or ...
18 Amino Acids, 12 Mushrooms (Organic), 40+ Anitoxidant Sources. WHOLE BODY NOURISHMENT with essential nutrients that help ... Bone Health: Boron, Calcium, Folic Acid, Magnesium, Manganese, Vitamins D & K. COLON HEALTH: Calcium, Folic Acid, Selenium, ... 1 MEGA Nutrient. - Vitamins & Minerals. - 26 Fruits & Vegetables - Green Foods. - Enzymes • Mushrooms • Amino Acids. - ... DAILY ENERGY: Magnesium, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Riboflavin, Thiamin, Vitamin B6. EYE HEALTH: Lutein, Vitamin A ( Beta ...
21 amino acids and 12 vitamins. Kelp also provides sources of nitrogen and potassium, micro-nutrients, carbohydrates and ... pantothenic acid, thiamine, calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6), folic acid, biotin, choline chloride, cobalt ... Whole Kelp (Organic Certified). Kelp is a type of marine seaweed. Seaweeds come in three different color varieties, red, green ... essential plant hormones. The regular use of Kelp as a feed supplement helps increase the utilization of all ingredients in a ...
Including nutrient dense foods in your diet is one of the most important things you can do to lose weight, get fit, increase ... Nutrient Dense Food #4 - Beef. Beef provides "complete" proteins that supply essential amino acids. Beef is an excellent source ... Both are legumes, which provide the essential amino acid lysine needed for a "complete" source of protein. ... relatively low-calorie food with a calcium-rich shell that can be ground and added to cooked eggs as a calcium supplement. ...
It contains eight essential amino acids, is a rich source of vitamin B12, natural fluoride and chlorophyll.. Organic Açaí is ... Calcium (Electrolyte) - Builds strong bones and aids in muscle action.. Magnesium (Electrolyte) - Maintains fluid and acid-base ... nutrients, amino acids, electrolytes and herbs. Fit N Lean Restore is available in 12 and 64 ounce shelf-stable bottles and ... Organic Kale is rich, calcium, and iron. Kale has seven times the beta-carotene of broccoli and ten times more lutein.. Organic ...
Grain-free recipe with organic chicken plus turkey, liver and shrimp. Added moisture hydrates the body and helps support a ... Copper Amino Acid Chelate, Manganese Amino Acid Chelate, Sodium Selenite, Niacin Supplement, d-Calcium Pantothenate, Pyridoxine ... OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS* (MIN.) 0.30%. * NOT RECOGNIZED AS AN ESSENTIAL NUTRIENT BY THE AAFCO CAT FOOD NUTRIENT PROFILES. ... The BEST partially organic available! The cost is less than Wellness and comparable to other premium brands. The companys ...
Experience the highly nutritious Spirulina Powder from Natural Health Organics that can detoxify, increase vitality and boost ... Its packed with all the essential amino acids; important fatty acids like GLA (gamma-linolenic acid); Vitamins A, B complex, C ... Nutrient-Rich Spirulina Powder for Your Well-Being. The presence of high levels of essential amino acids in Spirulina Powder ... D, E, and K,; and minerals like magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, and more. Known to have high beta-carotene and ...
... calcium, chromium, magnesium, selenium, zinc, essential fatty acids, and the amino acid, taurine. ... Obtain adequate amounts of essential nutrients including vitamin A, beta carotene, all B-complex vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E ... Avoid conventionally produced inorganic dairy products, choosing raw organic dairy whenever possible. ... Hydrochloric acid (HC1) may be useful as well.. *Useful herbal remedies include barberry, caprylic acid, citrus seed extract, ...
"Amino Acids \u0026 Vitamins","Brand_Grow-More","Enzymes","Growth Enhancers","Micro-Nutrients","Organic Nutrients","Price_$0.00 ... calcium, magnesium, DTPA\/EDDHA Iron, carbohydrates, amino acids and no artificial dyes or colorings. This Mendocino line ... Correct nutrient ratio to mobilize essential oils and resins for aromatic flowering plants. Developed for use in soilless, ... Fortified with six trace elements plus Humic Acid and Norwegian kelp extract to help produce heavy weight flowers and buds. ...
"Amino Acids \u0026 Vitamins","Brand_Grow-More","Enzymes","Growth Enhancers","Micro-Nutrients","Organic Nutrients","Price_$0.00 ... calcium, magnesium, DTPA\/EDDHA Iron, carbohydrates, amino acids and no artificial dyes or colorings. This Mendocino line ... Correct nutrient ratio to mobilize essential oils and resins for aromatic flowering plants. Developed for use in soilless, ... Use pH Down to lower pH of nutrient solution with phosphoric acid.. ...
CARNOSINE is a dipeptide (protein) compound, composed of two amino acid molecules. It occurs naturally in muscles, the brain, ... Alfalfa is a rich source of proteins, minerals and vitamins, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and calcium, and organic salts. ... GLUTATHIONE is a naturally occurring antioxidant from amino acids. It has attracted interest from anti-ageing specialists as ... The green leaf contains eight essential enzymes. It assists in the digestion of protein, fat, starch and sugar. ...
... featuring organic chicken, crab, eggs, carrots, red skinned potatoes and peas, covered in an appetizing sauce seasoned with ... Copper Amino Acid Chelate, Manganese Amino, Acid Chelate, Cobalt Amino Acid Chelate, Niacin Supplement, d-Calcium Pantothenate ... They are considered a complete protein source, providing essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals (vitamins A, B, E, K, ... Not recognized as an essential nutrient by the AAFCO dog food nutrient profiles. ...
Heat and acid-stable alpha-amylase enzymes having the following characteristics: (1) capable of retaining at least about 70% of ... In addition, the nutrient medium should contain the usual trace substances such as the inorganic salts which include calcium ... In addition, a small quantity of metallic salts, vitamins, amino acids, etc. can be used to promote the growth and productivity ... The nitrogen source in the nutrient medium may be of inorganic and/or organic nature. Suitable inorganic nitrogen sources ...
Casein is a remarkably efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the ... Mineral substances are found in milk in the form of salts of organic and inorganic acids. The ash in milk contains Ca, P, Na, K ... Milk is a major source of calcium and a good source of phosphorus. Low-fat and skim milk fortified with vitamins A and D have ... Lactic-acid products, butter, and ice cream are made from the milk of agricultural animals. Milk contains water, proteins, fat ...
  • Most of the structures that make up animals, plants and microbes are made from three basic classes of molecule: amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids (often called fats). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutrition is the key to looking and feeling your best so it's vital to choose the freshest and most nutrient dense foods to provide your body with lots of energy during the day and give you a boost to get through tough workouts. (shapefit.com)
  • An ancient nutritional powerhouse, liver is one of the most nutrient dense foods on the planet. (draxe.com)
  • The addition of alkalizing grasses, algae, and phytonutrient-packed fruits creates a wholesome, all-in-one, nutrient-dense shake. (fitppl.com)
  • The result is the highest quality, most nutrient dense Maca in the world, we guarantee it! (optimallyorganic.com)
  • The easiest way to get a rainbow of nutrient-dense veggies and alkaline greens into kids - every day! (organicsonabudget.com.au)
  • u003c\/span\u003e\u003c\/li\u003e\n\u003cli\u003e\u003cspan class=\"a-list-item\"\u003eCERTIFIED ORGANIC MORINGA -Moringa Capsules are Vegan, Vegetarian, Gluten Free, Non-GMO Project Verified, Kosher and Halal Certified. (zestofmoringa.com)
  • Calcium, in conjunction with phospholipids, plays a key role in the regulation of the permeability of cell membranes and consequently over the uptake of nutrients by the cell. (fao.org)
  • The uptake of nutrients by the roots is possible as long as the minerals are dissolved in the water. (cactusedintorni.com)