Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Thermometers: Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Shivering: Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heat-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive heat. Responses include synthesis of new proteins and regulation of others.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Thermometry: Measurement of the temperature of a material, or of the body or an organ by various temperature sensing devices which measure changes in properties of the material that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELDS; or LUMINESCENCE.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Heat Stroke: A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Rewarming: Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Cold-Shock Response: A constellation of responses that occur when an organism is exposed to excessive cold. In humans, a fall in skin temperature triggers gasping, hypertension, and hyperventilation.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Remote Sensing Technology: Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Housing, AnimalAir Movements: The motion of air currents.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Present day Mars habitability analogue environments on Earth
Temperature. Nowhere on Earth reproduces the extreme changes in temperature that happen within a single day on Mars. Dry ice. ... The air temperatures are comparable to the McMurdo dry valleys, range -15 °C to -20 °C (for the McMurdo dry valleys -15 °C to - ... On Earth, although temperatures on Earth briefly get cold enough for dry ice to form in the Antarctic interior at high ... The water from the springs has a temperature of between -4 °C and 7 °C. A variety of minerals precipitate out of the springs ...
Phil Jones (climatologist)
He has also published papers on the temperature record of the past 1000 years. He is known for maintaining a time series of the ... "Temperature". Climatic Research Unit. Retrieved 2009-11-23. "Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis". UNEP/ ... Home page BBC article on the temperature record of the past 1000 years controversy BBC article: Climate crisis: All change in ... P. D. Jones, T. J. Osborn, and K. R. Briffa (1997). "Estimating Sampling Errors in Large-Scale Temperature Averages". Journal ...
Cold and heat adaptations in humans
The temperature that requires the least amount of energy investment is 21 °C (69.8 °F). The body controls its temperature ... Body temperature varies in every individual, but the average internal temperature is 37.0 °C (98.6 °F). Stress from extreme ... Hyperthermia results when the core body temperature rises above 37.5-38.3 °C (99.5-100.9 °F). These temperatures commonly ... The first is shivering, which occurs in an unclothed person when the ambient air temperature is under 25 °C (77 °F). It is ...
Surface weather observation
Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of a sample of matter. Temperature is the unique physical property that ... Temperature. Retrieved on 2008-04-06. Glossary of Meteorology. Air Temperature. Retrieved on 2008-04-06. Glossary of ... Temperature, within meteorology, is measured with thermometers exposed to the air but sheltered from direct solar exposure. In ... When the dew point temperature falls below freezing it is called the frost point, as the water vapor no longer creates dew but ...
Thermal neutral zone
Hence, if the body were perfectly insulated, core temperature would continue to increase until lethal core temperatures were ... Below the thermal neutral zone there is the zone of LCT (lower critical temperature) and above there is the zone of UCT (upper ... Hence a comfortable temperature within a controlled environment like an air-conditioned building will be more like 18 - 22 ... The endotherm does not have to use large amounts of energy to control its temperature within the thermal neutral zone, the ...
Susitna River Bridge
As the low temperature of the water (35 deg. F. in November) and the large area (2,277 sq.ft.) made it impracticable to place ... 18, 1920, when temperatures ranged from -12 deg. to -(-34 deg. F. The pit was kept unwatered, and the concrete was placed from ... 4. temperature. A large sheet of canvas was prepared in one piece, sufficient to entirely cover the bottom area and extend ... 11, 1920, during which time temperature readings ranged from -2 deg. to -j-48 deg. F. At the north pier, containing 1,520 cu.yd ...
On 7 February 1973, Ruatoria had the highest ever air temperature recorded in the North Island (39.2 °C or 102.6 °F), the same ... Temperature. Retrieved 12 May 2012. "Detailed history of district since 1950". Gisborne Herald website. Retrieved 20 July 2012 ... day the nation's highest temperature was recorded in the South Island town of Rangiora (42.4 °C or 108.3 °F). The principal ...
Biogenic sulfide corrosion
This temperature stands as the highest ambient air temperature ever recorded at the surface of the Earth. (A report of a ... "Temperature". General Climate Summary. Desert Research Institute. Retrieved 8 June 2009. WRCC. "Temperature". General Climate ... Moving masses of super-heated air blow through the valley creating extremely high temperatures. The hottest air temperature ... Some meteorologists dispute the accuracy of the 1913 temperature measurement. The hottest surface temperature ever recorded in ...
Atmospheric conditions are commonly referred to as ambient temperatures and pressures. That is to say temperatures of -20 °C to ... High surface temperature. This can be the result of milling, grinding, rubbing, mechanical friction in a stuffing box or ... Temperature. The ATEX as an EU directive finds its US equivalent under the HAZLOC standard. This standard given by the ... a high pressure steam pipe may be above the autoignition temperature of some fuel/air mixtures. Electrostatic discharge. Static ...
The mean temperature is approximately 10 °C (50 °F) and shows a seasonal and a diurnal variation, but because of the modifying ... "Temperature". South-west England. Met Office. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-15. "Sunshine ... January is the coldest month with mean minimum temperatures between 1 °C (34 °F) and 2 °C (36 °F). July and August are the ...
... s may not be able to dissipate heat if the ambient temperature is too high; they use saliva to cool themselves in extreme ... They generally drop their body temperature in this state to 6-30 °C (43-86 °F), and may reduce their energy expenditure by 50 ... During hibernation, bats enter a torpid state and decrease their body temperature for 99.6% of their hibernation period; even ... Torpor, a state of decreased activity where the body temperature and metabolism decreases, is especially useful for microbats, ...
Factories Act 1961
"2001 temperature". TORRO. "1985 Temperature". MetOffice. Archived from the original on 2012-02-06. "Kinbrace 1971-2000 averages ... It is nonetheless one of the more frost prone locations in the country, with notable temperatures including a minimum of −21.7 ... C (−7.1 °F) during March 2001, and a daytime maximum of −10.5 °C (13.1 °F) during November 1985, when a temperature inversion ...
"color temperature". handprint. 2009-04-19. Retrieved 2011-06-09. Burchett, K. E. (2002). Color harmony. Color Research and ... Contrast the traditional warm-cool association of color with the color temperature of a theoretical radiating black body, where ... the association of color with temperature is reversed. For instance, the hottest stars radiate blue light (i.e., with shorter ...
Daylight saving time in Mexico
UMaine Deepwater Offshore Wind Test Site
East Malling's highest temperature of 37.4 °C (99.3 °F) was recorded in August 2003. The lowest temperature recorded is −17.8 ° ... The lowest temperature recorded in recent years was −10.7 °C (12.7 °F) on 20 December 2010. The Köppen Climate Classification ... "Coldest temperature". BBC. "2003 January". Met Office. "2010 December". Met Office. "Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". ...
2015 Buffalo Bulls football team
Temperature: 46 • Wind: W 9 MPH Game attendance: 12,697 Referee: Greg Sujack TV: ESPN3 Final Stats In their eighth game of the ... Temperature: 46 • Wind: 10-15 NW Game attendance: 14,301 Referee: A. Cannella TV: ESPN3 Final Stats In their sixth game of the ... Temperature: 55 • Wind: 7 SSW Game attendance: 17,128 Referee: Tim O'Dey TV: ASN/ESPN3 Final Stats In their seventh game of the ... Temperature: 80 • Wind: SW 5-10 Game attendance: 20,872 Referee: Tom Stapleton TV: ESPN3 Final Stats In their first game of the ...
"May Temperature". TORRO. "1893 Temperature". TORRO. "Fort Augustus 1971-2000". YR.NO. Retrieved 2 November 2011. "Fort Augustus ... That same low lying topography can also give rise to some high temperatures on occasion - Fort Augustus held the UK daily high ... As with much of the surrounding area, sunshine levels are low, around 1000 hours per annum, and temperatures unpredictable - ... also the latest point in run up to summer such a temperature has been recorded suggesting it can become a frost trap on calm ...
In high-ambient temperatures, dopaminergic manipulations clearly improve performance. The distribution of the power output ... Prolonged elevations of brain temperature above 40 °C likely promote the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in ... that allows the core temperature limit to increase in order to access a reserve capacity that is normally off-limits. At ... core body temperature ≥ 40 °C) is necessary for the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. ...
"1963 temperature". KNMI. "1976 temperature". KNMI. "Everton 1971-2000 averages". Met Office. Archived from the original on 19 ... The coldest recorded temperature in 43 years of records was −11.1 °C (12.0 °F) in January 1963. The highest locally recorded ... temperature was 33.5 °C (92.3 °F) in June 1976. The town's leisure amenities include several parks, a nine-hole golf course, a ...
Apparent temperature - Wikipedia
Apparent temperature is the temperature equivalent perceived by humans, caused by the combined effects of air temperature, ... The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) combines the effects of radiation, humidity, temperature and wind speed on the perception ... The measure is most commonly applied to the perceived outdoor temperature. Apparent temperature was invented by Robert Steadman ... "Online calculator: Apparent temperature". planetcalc.com. Retrieved 2020-04-07.. *^ Steadman, Robert G. (December 1984). "A ...
Temperature measurement - Wikipedia
Surface air temperature. See also: Instrumental temperature record. The temperature of the air near the surface of the ... See also: Temperature, Temperature scale, Thermoscope, Thermometer, and Pyrometer. Attempts at standardized temperature ... Temperature data logger. References. *^ a b T. J. Quinn (1983). Temperature. London: Academic Press.. .mw-parser-output ... if A and B are at the same temperature, and B and C are at the same temperature then A and C are at the same temperature. B, of ...
... To sign up for our monthly update of global temperature (Map and Graphs), please click here Additional ... Global Temperature in 2017 (2018/01/18) Figures in PDF *Global Temperature in 2016 (2017/01/18) Figures in PDF *A Better Graph ... Global Temperature in 2015 (2016/01/20) * Global Temperature Update (2015/08/24) * Global Warming Hole (2015/03/31) * Global ... Global Temperature Update Through 2012: Discussion of latest data. (2013/01/15) *Global Temperature in 2011, Trends, and ...
... data is collected daily from sources such as USGS and the US Army Corp of Engineers. Data are queried from ... Water temperature data is important in hydrologic forecasting for monitoring formation of ice on rivers and lakes in our ... NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Great Lakes Surface Temperatures. *US Army Corps of Engineers sites along ... the Mississippi River report water temperature that can be found at RiverGages.com ...
temperature | ScienceBlogs
In many turtles, warm temperatures during incubation create females. Cold temperatures, males. But no one understands why. A ... Temperature is a factor in determining whether the embryo will be male or female. If the eggs are incubated at 78.8 degrees F, ... High temperatures and dry conditions have caused the outbreak, increased intensity, and rapid spread of numerous wildfires in ... 1. It is not currently possible to resolve the temperature record that long ago to anything close to what we have today. 2. The ...
temperature - Wiktionary
temperature (countable and uncountable, plural temperatures) *A measure of cold or heat, often measurable with a thermometer. ... The boiling temperature of pure water is 100 degrees Celsius.. The temperature in the room dropped nearly 20 degrees; it went ... An elevated body temperature, as present in fever and many illnesses. You have a temperature. I think you should stay home ... How do you think their temperatures would change? […] if the temperature of the iron increased by 100 C°, the corresponding ...
Colour temperature explained | Adobe
Learn about the science behind colour temperatures impact in filmmaking to ensure youre capturing the proper colours in your ... What is colour temperature and why is it important?. Colour temperature describes the warmth or coolness of visible light and ... The temperature of light affects the colour that light gives off. Understand the science behind colour temperature in ... The lower temperatures correspond to red, orange and yellow colours: the warmer spectrum. Higher temperatures correspond to ...
Earth's Temperature Tracker
NASA scientist James Hansen has tracked Earths temperature for decades, and he is confident the global warming trend of 0.9 ... 2006). Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere. Accessed April 13, 2007.. *U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). ... If greenhouse gases are to blame then why did Earths average temperature cool from 1940-1970? And why has the rate of global ... This map shows the difference in surface temperature in 2006 compared to the average from 1951 to 1980. Most of the globe is ...
Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies provides high-temperature alloy metal materials for use in its automotive stamped gaskets ... Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies provides high-temperature alloy (HTA) metal materials for use in its automotive stamped ... HTA alloys are made from a high nickel-content metal with extreme temperature and fatigue cracking resistance. Alloys are ...
Temperature | Encyclopedia.com
TEMPERATURE CONCEPT Temperature is one of those aspects of the everyday world that seems rather abstract when viewed from the ... temperature scale in which the temperature difference between two reference t… Effective Temperature , effective temperature ... Absolute temperature scale: A temperature scale that has the lowest possible temperature-at which all molecular motion ceases- ... The temperatures of such objects are identical.. Thermometer. -A device for obtaining temperature by measuring a temperature ...
Temperature Computers | SpringerLink
Luteinizing Hormone Time Slot Temperature Computer Cervical Mucus Serum Luteinizing Hormone These keywords were added by ... Loewit K., Kraft H.G., Ortlieb A., Wolfram G. (1988) Temperature Computers. In: Eicher W., Kokott G., Vogt HJ., Herms V., Wille ... to detect the onset of the infertile period by basal body temperature measurements. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 91: 565-573Google ... reported the use of basal body temperature (BBT) (Münz 1987) and 3.9% the use of natural family planning (NFP), with 14% ...
ENSO impacts - temperature
... The increased cloudiness and rainfall associated with La Niña periods ... The maps show mean maximum and minimum temperature deciles, where blue tones indicate below-average temperatures and orange to ... temperatures across Australia are shown below in composite maps combining temperature data from 12 of the strongest classic ... The temperature effect of El Niño events are felt most strongly during winter and spring, while the effects of La Niña events ...
Ideal Room Temperature
admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 This post is designed to help you find the best solution for you immediately, so ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 04.11.2015 Neon Nettle spoke to Phuket Cleanse, a highly regarded detox retreat based in ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 Please visit Sleep Source often for updates and news regarding the ever-changing ... admin , Ideal Room Temperature , 03.11.2015 To that end, weve debunked common myths, uncovered global bedtime rituals and ...
Ocean temperatures over the last 2.5 million years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18; I got this ... If the temperature goes up another 1°C, itll be the hottest its been in the last 1.35 million years! Temperatures over the ... Greenland temperatures over the last 130,000 years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18 in an ice core ... Greenland temperatures over the last 20,000 years These temperatures are estimated by the amount of oxygen-18 in an ice core ...
Introduction to Low Temperature Soldering
Temperature Over Time - Google Sheets
Curie temperature | Encyclopedia.com
The temperature at which thermal vibrations prevent quantum-mechanical coupling between atoms, thereby destroying any ... ferromagnetism (in the wide sense). Source for information on Curie temperature: A Dictionary of Earth Sciences dictionary. ... Curie temperature (Curie point) The temperature at which thermal vibrations prevent quantum-mechanical coupling between atoms, ... Curie temperature A Dictionary of Earth Sciences © A Dictionary of Earth Sciences 1999, originally published by Oxford ...
low-temperature physics | Infoplease
... and with various phenomena that occur only at such temperatures. The temperature scale used in low-temperature physics is the ... science concerned with the production and maintenance of temperatures much below normal, down to almost absolute zero, ... The temperature scale used in low-temperature physics is the Kelvin temperature scale , or absolute temperature scale, which is ... low-temperature physics. low-temperature physics, science concerned with the production and maintenance of temperatures much ...
Methanol Preignition Temperature Behavior
Specifically, the preignition threshold (or minimum) temperature for a hot spot other than the firing spark plug is determined ... coolant temperature, and intake charge temperature and degree of vaporization. These experimental results are quantitatively ... Methanol Preignition Temperature Behavior 912414. The preignition behavior of neat methanol in the four-stroke, naturally ... Specifically, the preignition threshold (or minimum) temperature for a hot spot other than the firing spark plug is determined ...
Sea Surface Temperature & Chlorophyll
Land Surface Temperature. Land Surface Temperature Anomaly. Net Primary Productivity. Net Radiation. Sea Surface Temperature. ... These sea surface temperature maps are based on observations by the MODIS sensors on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The ... Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly. Snow Cover. Total Rainfall. Vegetation. Water Vapor. Show Related Maps. ... In this map, the coolest waters appear in blue (approximately -2 degrees Celsius), and the warmest temperatures appear in pink- ...
Underground Temperature - Scientific American
I The temperature at 1,100 feet was 69'9", and hy combining , this with tlie surface temperature of 49'9° observed at ... the soil temperature, instead of assuming,. as Prof. Phillips does, thilt the temperature 100 feet deep is identical willi the ... This was the warmest part of the tunnel, and had a temperature of 85'1° F. Tlie mean air temperature at the crest overhead ... These observations point to an excess of sur face temperature above air temperature, ranging from half a degree to nearly two ...
Category:en:Temperature - Wiktionary
Category:Temperature - Wikimedia Commons
English: Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of "hot" and "cold"; something that ... temperature physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold ... Media in category "Temperature". The following 103 files are in this category, out of 103 total. ... Temperature indicator mounted in gimbals for marine work-Tracts vol 10 p53.jpg 984 × 1,472; 476 KB. ...
Temperature Level | The BMJ
Hazardous Weather Outlook - Temperature
... Weather.gov , Miami - South Florida , Hazardous Weather Outlook - Temperature ... Ambient temperature below 32 degrees or apparent temperature 110 or greater possible. ... Unusually warm temperatures and continued dry conditions will again result in critical fire weather conditions over portions of ... Apparent temperature less than 35 degrees or 105 to 109 degrees possible. ...
temperature sun - Wolfram|Alpha
Cropico Temperature Measurement Brochure
A Guide to Temperature Measurement Tel: +44 (0)191 490 1547 Fax: +44 (0)191 477 5371 Email: [email protected] ... Absolute temperature = Temperature A + Temperature B For an accurate absolute temperature measurement it is very important that ... 2. Contents Introduction Temperature Temperature Scales International Practical Temperature Scale Temperature Measurement ... Not only is it difficult to measure temperature without the sensor intruding and changing the temperature, temperature is not a ...
Climate - Temperature | Britannica.com
Temperature: Global variations of average surface-air temperatures are largely due to latitude, continentality, ocean currents ... The effect of latitude is evident in the large north-south gradients in average temperature that occur at middle and high ... A broad area of the tropical ocean, by contrast, shows little temperature variation. Continentality is a measure of the ... Temperature. Global variation of mean temperature. Global variations of average surface-air temperatures are largely due to ...
A glass of water at room temperature is often considered too warm for drinking while coffee at room temperature is too cold for ... Someone came into my office recently and said Its really hot in here. I responded, Its room temperature. ... There is also a lot of variance in the temperature of rooms. Some of the rooms in my house are quiet chilly in the winter, some ... ROOM TEMPERATURE. One of many reasons that communication often breaks down is that we apply general expressions to specific ...
Ember Temperature Control Mug - Apple (IE)
The Ember Mug and its companion app on your iPhone or Apple Watch allow you to set and maintain a precise drinking temperature ... The temperature drops and 145 becomes the max. Plus that temperature only seems to be at the bottom of the mug. The top cools ... The maximum temperature the mug provides is 145 degrees. It will register the temperature of the coffee when you first pour it ... Battery life will vary depending on pour temperature, ambient temperature, and desired temperature. ...
KelvinRoom TemperatureThermometersAnomalyFahrenheitSunlightWarmestOccursAnomaliesCelsiusExtreme temperaturesNorth AmericaSurface2019ExtremesColdestWarm temperaturesThermalVariesEarth'sColdCPUsNASA GISS201898.6Warmer than normalRangeEvaporationColderCoolerGlobalIdeal TemperatureActual temperatureClimateRectalHeatCool temperaturesMeasureDaytimeMainFeverOutdoor temperatureDataInvention relates
- The temperature scale used in low-temperature physics is the Kelvin temperature scale , or absolute temperature scale, which is based on the behavior of an idealized gas (see gas laws kinetic-molecular theory of gases ). (infoplease.com)
- Since that time, however, most English-speaking countries have officially adopted the Celsius scale Kelvin Kelvin temperature scale is the base unit of thermodynamic temperature measurement in the International System (SI) of measurement. (slideshare.net)
- ︉Most scientists use the kelvin instead of Fahrenheit to describe extremely cold temperatures, so we'll be doing that here, too. (popularmechanics.com)
- Inside the sun, where nuclear fusion occurs, temperatures can swell to 15 million kelvin. (popularmechanics.com)
- Pluto's surface temperature reaches about 40 kelvin. (popularmechanics.com)
- Last year, scientists measured the depths of a dark crater on the surface of our moon and found that temperatures dropped to about 33 kelvin, according to New Scientist . (popularmechanics.com)
- Within near and distant galaxies, the mesh of dust and clouds that weaves between the stars has been observed at temperatures between between 10 and 20 kelvin. (popularmechanics.com)
- There may be pockets of the universe where temperatures drop to 1 Kelvin above absolute zero, Sowell notes, but so far, the closest measurement to absolute zero has only been observed in laboratories here on Earth. (popularmechanics.com)
- Manufactured by Deutsche Nanoschicht, a subsidiary of BASF New Business, high-temperature superconductors conduct electricity at temperatures close to the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 Kelvin / minus 196°C) with no resistance. (basf.com)
- The Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale referenced to absolute zero. (calculator.com)
- The kelvin is a unit of measurement for temperature. (calculator.com)
- The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the standardization of the kelvin in the International System of Units, it has subsequently been redefined in terms of the equivalent fixing points on the Kelvin scale, and so that a temperature increment of one degree Celsius is the same as an increment of one kelvin, though they differ by an additive offset of 273.15. (wikipedia.org)
- Many scientific measurements use the Kelvin temperature scale (unit symbol: K), named in honor of the Scottish physicist who first defined it. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, the expression 'Room temperature. (tcnj.edu)
- If you are just sitting in a room talking with friends, room temperature is fine. (tcnj.edu)
- A glass of water at room temperature is often considered too warm for drinking while coffee at room temperature is too cold for drinking. (tcnj.edu)
- Immersing yourself in a bathtub full of water that is room temperature would be a horrible experience. (tcnj.edu)
- But each is at room temperature. (tcnj.edu)
- What was the ambient room temperature? (tomshardware.com)
- The most misunderstood wine 'fact' is that red wine must be served at room temperature but temperature affects the final taste of wine long before it is poured. (bellaonline.com)
- Even the most casual wine drinker has heard that red wine must be drunk at room temperature but few understand that this warned that it shouldn't be served cold immediately after being brought up from a maturation cellar. (bellaonline.com)
- Ideally, a room temperature neutron moderator is used for this process. (wikipedia.org)
- The development of today's thermometers and temperature scales began in the early 18th century, when Gabriel Fahrenheit produced a mercury thermometer and scale, both developed by Ole Christensen Rømer . (wikipedia.org)
- Such thermometers are usually calibrated so that one can read the temperature simply by observing the level of the fluid in the thermometer. (wikipedia.org)
- The theoretical basis for thermometers is the zeroth law of thermodynamics which postulates that if you have three bodies, A, B and C, if A and B are at the same temperature, and B and C are at the same temperature then A and C are at the same temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- Thermometers measure temperature by a number of means, including the expansion that takes place in a medium such as mercury or alcohol. (encyclopedia.com)
- Plastic strip thermometers change color to show the temperature. (medlineplus.gov)
- Keep track of yours and your family member's temperature manually and automatically with multiple MedM Connected thermometers. (microsoft.com)
- Below are maps of the mean surface temperature anomaly for the past month, the past three months, and the past 12 months. (columbia.edu)
- When researching global climate changes and temperature data, you will often read about the "temperature anomaly. (cotf.edu)
- a negative anomaly indicates that the temperature was cooler than normal. (cotf.edu)
- He invented the mercury thermometer (first practical, accurate thermometer ) and Fahrenheit scale (first standardized temperature scale to be widely used). (wikipedia.org)
- In 1724, he introduced the temperature scale that bears his name - Fahrenheit Scale. (slideshare.net)
- Fahrenheit temperature scale is a scale based on 32 for the freezing point of water and 212 for the boiling point of water. (slideshare.net)
- The Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), who proposed it in 1724. (calculator.com)
- This increased exposure to sunlight could partially account for the increase in surface temperature that Mischenko and Hansen observed over the same time span. (nasa.gov)
- Where phytoplankton grow depends on available sunlight, temperature, and nutrient levels. (nasa.gov)
- This solution uses thermal blankets and temperature-controlled vehicles to protect shipments from high and low external temperatures, direct sunlight, rain, and humidity. (fedex.com)
- without sunlight, temperatures can't rise much! (amnh.org)
- Some human activities may remove shade trees from the area which will allow more sunlight to reach the water, causing the water temperature to rise. (vernier.com)
- The present temperature level is the highest in the time series and the period 2001-2010 was the warmest decade since records began. (dmi.dk)
- While all top 10 values by mean annual temperature change were recorded in the northern hemisphere, 2019 was the warmest year for forty countries, all located in the Southern hemisphere except for Poland. (fao.org)
- The combined global land and ocean surface temperature was the warmest on record for May, March-May (Northern Hemisphere spring-Southern Hemisphere autumn), and the period January-May according to NOAA. (noaa.gov)
- Worldwide average land surface temperature for May and March-May was the warmest on record while the global ocean surface temperatures for both May and March-May were second warmest on record, behind 1998. (noaa.gov)
- The May worldwide ocean temperature was the second warmest on record, behind 1998. (noaa.gov)
- Continentality is a measure of the difference between continental and marine climates and is mainly the result of the increased range of temperatures that occurs over land compared with water. (britannica.com)
- When thawing or exposure to elevated temperatures occurs, whether inadvertent or deliberate, positive visible evidence thereof is provided by the device of the present invention. (google.com)
- High temperatures promote faster chemical reactions, and so the overall degradation of organic materials occurs more quickly. (amnh.org)
- In the chart in the lower right we show the 2013-2018 global land-ocean temperature anomalies. (columbia.edu)
- In every year since 1993 and including 2019, no country recorded colder than usual mean annual temperatures, i.e., years with mean annual temperature anomalies below two standard deviations, relative to the climate normal. (fao.org)
- Trends in mean annual temperature change over land expressed as anomalies by country. (fao.org)
- Statistics are available for monthly, seasonal and annual mean temperature anomalies, i.e., temperature change with respect to a baseline climatology, corresponding to the period 1951-1980. (fao.org)
- Using anomalies, the departure from an "average," allows more accurate descriptions over larger areas than actual temperatures and provides a frame of reference that allows easier analysis. (cotf.edu)
- The table lists temperature anomalies for different environments (land, ocean, and land and ocean combined) globally and for the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. (cotf.edu)
- Do the temperature anomalies tend to be positive (warmer than normal) or negative (cooler than normal)? (cotf.edu)
- Celsius The Celsius temperature scale is also referred to as the 'centigrade' scale. (slideshare.net)
- Celsius devised the centigrade scale or 'Celsius scale' of temperature in 1742. (slideshare.net)
- The Celsius scale (also known as centigrade) is a temperature scale named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who developed a similar scale. (calculator.com)
- No extreme temperatures. (weather.gov)
- Extreme temperatures observed in different parts of the world are listed in the table. (britannica.com)
- Humans are actually pretty good at creating extreme temperatures," Alasdair Gent, a graduate student in astroparticle physics also of the Georgia Institute of Technology, tells Popular Mechanics . (popularmechanics.com)
- Of all the transitions brought about on the Earth's surface by temperature change, the melting of ice into water is the starkest. (wiktionary.org)
- Ocean surface temperatures worldwide shot up by 5-8°C for a few thousand years - but in the Arctic, it heated up even more, to a balmy 23°C (73°F). This caused a severe dieoff of little ocean critters called foraminifera , and a drastic change of the dominant mammal species. (ucr.edu)
- The satellites measure the temperature of the top millimeter of the ocean surface. (nasa.gov)
- In places where ocean currents cause upwelling, sea surface temperatures are often cooler than nearby waters, and chlorophyll concentrations are higher. (nasa.gov)
- Global variations of average surface-air temperatures are largely due to latitude, continentality, ocean currents , and prevailing winds. (britannica.com)
- More modern line of sight infrared-laser thermal imaging guns can give direct readings of surface or flame temperatures, and are more accurate. (answers.com)
- The FAOSTAT Temperature Change domain disseminates statistics of mean surface temperature change by country, with annual updates. (fao.org)
- Data are based on the publicly available GISTEMP data , the Global Surface Temperature Change data distributed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA-GISS) with information from the year 1880 onward. (fao.org)
- Annual and seasonal average sea surface temperature (SST) maps are available for the Australian region. (bom.gov.au)
- The average sea surface temperature maps can be used in conjunction with the trend maps to provide an indication of how a trend compares to the long-term average. (bom.gov.au)
- The sea surface temperature maps are calculated from the NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature Version 5 (ERSST v5) data provided by the NOAA/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from their Web site at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/ . (bom.gov.au)
- Another reason for Antarctica's extremely cold temperatures is its high albedo, the amount of solar radiation reflected from a surface. (amnh.org)
- Most of these react essentially to temperature at the surface of the package and are unsuitable for use ina supply system of the type mentioned since package surfaces frequently reach elevated temperatures without the contents being damaged. (google.com)
- The surface temperature record is so full of assumptions, corrections, differing equipment and station settings, changing technology, varying altitudes and more. (scienceblogs.com)
- And while it is true that differing weather station locations, from proximity to lakes or rivers to elevation above sea level, mean it probably is impossible to arrive at a meaningful figure for global average surface temperature, that is in fact not what we are really interested in. (scienceblogs.com)
- This is a thread to discuss the surface temperature records that were all released yesterday (Jan 18). (realclimate.org)
- A recent climatological analysis of the surface temperature of the city has revealed that the local temperature has been increasing over the neighboring vegetated areas at a rate of 0.06°C per year for the past 30 years.This is a trend that may be comparable to climate changes induced by global warming. (upenn.edu)
- Figure 1 shows that the daytime surface temperatures of a portion of San Juan at fi ve-meter resolution are as high as 60°C,and that differences between urbanized and limited vegetation areas are in excess of 30°C. (upenn.edu)
- Change in the surface temperature of the coastal plain of 1 to 2C and/or a 11 to 33% change in annual rainfall could dramatically alter the distribution of forest vegetation within the Luquillo Experimental Forest(LEF) of northeastern Puerto Rico. (upenn.edu)
- That's because the variability differs between the series, for example El Niño events show up about twice as strongly in the satellite data as compared to the surface temperatures. (realclimate.org)
- MadgeTech, Inc., the leader in affordable and reliable data logging solutions, announces the release of the MicroDisc surface temperature probe attachment, ideal for use with the LyoTemp Lyophilization Data Logger. (prweb.com)
- The MicroDisc probe attachment extends the user's data logging capability by enabling monitoring of the surface temperature of shelving and flat surfaces throughout the Lyophilization process. (prweb.com)
- The MicroDisc surface temperature probe attachment is priced at $25.00 USD. (prweb.com)
- Although the study was limited to summer, when near‐surface temperature inversions are rare, we identified average daily minimum temperature ( T min ) lapse rates shallower than −2 °C/km over five summers. (nps.gov)
- A temperature inversion is a condition of the lower part of the atmosphere in which the temperature increases with increase in height above the surface. (daviddarling.info)
- The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. (google.ca)
- The average temperature change in the current decade (2011-2019) was 1.26⁰C. (fao.org)
- Decadal-average mean annual temperature change was larger in the most recent decade (2011-2019) compared to the previous one (2001-2010) (Fig. 3). (fao.org)
- In 2019, more than 150 countries had mean annual temperature change 1.0⁰C higher than normal. (fao.org)
- In 2019, the largest mean annual temperature change was recorded in the Svalbard Islands (2.9⁰C), Poland (2.6⁰C), Belarus, Lithuania and Czechia (2.6⁰C) (Fig. 4). (fao.org)
- 2019 was only the second year, together with 2019, where temperature change records were observed in 40 countries. (fao.org)
- Countries and territories with record mean annual temperature change over land for the year 2019, with respect to the period 1961-2019. (fao.org)
- The coldest year so far was 1879, with a mean temperature of 5.9ºC, while the hottest recorded year was 2014, with 10.0ºC. (dmi.dk)
- Antarctica holds the world record for the coldest temperatures. (amnh.org)
- The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. (wikipedia.org)
- Its zero point, 0K, is defined to coincide with the coldest physically-possible temperature (called absolute zero). (wikipedia.org)
- In many turtles, warm temperatures during incubation create females. (scienceblogs.com)
- Unusually warm temperatures and continued dry conditions will again result in critical fire weather conditions over portions of California and the Plains. (weather.gov)
- Warm temperatures were present over most of the globe's land areas. (noaa.gov)
- What thermal comfort humans, animals and plants experience is related to more than temperature shown on a glass thermometer. (wikipedia.org)
- Mean radiant temperature also can affect thermal comfort. (wikipedia.org)
- Heat is internal thermal energy that flows from one body of matter to another - or, more specifically, from a system at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature. (encyclopedia.com)
- Two systems at the same temperature are said to be in a state of thermal equilibrium. (encyclopedia.com)
- Curie temperature ( Curie point ) The temperature at which thermal vibrations prevent quantum-mechanical coupling between atoms, thereby destroying any ferromagnetism (in the wide sense). (encyclopedia.com)
- This section outlines your responsibilities as an employer, and suggests some ways you can manage the temperature in your workplace for the 'thermal comfort' of your employees. (hse.gov.uk)
- These results reveal the warming of a tropical coastal city that is significantly higher than typical temperatures in vegetated areas.This may be the first set of high-resolution thermal images taken in a tropical coastal city. (upenn.edu)
- Thermal pollution caused by human activities is one factor that can affect water temperature. (vernier.com)
- The term temperature is used, since hot, thermal and cold neutrons are moderated in a medium with a certain temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- The following is a detailed classification: A thermal neutron is a free neutron with a kinetic energy of about 0.025 eV (about 4.0×10−21 J or 2.4 MJ/kg, hence a speed of 2.2 km/s), which is the most probable energy at a temperature of 290 K (17 °C or 62 °F), the mode of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for this temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- Most of these rely on measuring some physical property of a working material that varies with temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- Superconductivity is the vanishing of all electrical resistance in certain substances when they reach a transition temperature that varies from one substance to another this effect can be used to produce powerful superconducting magnets. (infoplease.com)
- Actual cooling duration varies depending on external temperatures. (fedex.com)
- Cold temperatures, males. (scienceblogs.com)
- You may require specific advice for your workplace if you are working in very high or low temperatures, for example on heat stress , dehydration or cold stress . (hse.gov.uk)
- Cold" metal and "warm" wood may be the same temperature. (exploratorium.edu)
- Our cold shipping package is a patented, temperature-controlled system for shipping sensitive products. (fedex.com)
- Roses need a little more attention to care, however, especially if you live in areas where cold temperatures can threaten tender plants or where hot temperatures call for additional watering of these water-hungry plants. (ehow.com)
- While cold storage is a good preservation technique for some types of unstable collections and most collections would benefit from cooler temperatures than normally used in museums, temperatures that are too cold could cause embrittlement, hazing and cracks in other types of specimens. (amnh.org)
- One way water can be cooled is by cold air temperatures. (vernier.com)
- When the water temperature becomes too hot or too cold, organisms become stressed, lowering their resistance to pollutants, diseases, and parasites. (vernier.com)
- Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. (wikipedia.org)
Warmer than normal1
- The range of preignition threshold temperatures measured is 1020 to 1220K. (sae.org)
- The diurnal range of temperature generally increases with distance from the sea and toward those places where solar radiation is strongest-in dry tropical climates and on high mountain plateaus (owing to the reduced thickness of the atmosphere to be traversed by the Sun's rays). (britannica.com)
- The device records 24 time stamps and durations when temperature leaves the range specified by the trip points. (makezine.com)
- This rugged probe accessory has a small, sleek and durable design, made of C46400 Brass and provides solid contact with flat surfaces and shelving with a temperature operating range of -60 °C to +177 °C (-75 °F to +350 °F). (prweb.com)
- We also identified positive effects of solar radiation on both T min and T avg , variation in T min and T avg lapse rates across a range of synoptic temperature conditions, and variation in T min lapse rates across terrain convergence values. (nps.gov)
- When temperatures outside the permissible range are expected, contact the SKF application engineering service. (skf.com)
- Water temperatures outside the "normal" range for a stream or river can cause harm to the aquatic organisms that live there. (vernier.com)
- Most materials expand with temperature increase, but some materials, such as water, contract with temperature increase over some specific range, and then they are hardly useful as thermometric materials. (wikipedia.org)
- The greatest temperature changes occur for dry, sandy soils, because they are poor conductors with very small effective heat capacities and contain no moisture for evaporation. (britannica.com)
- High temperatures accelerate the rate of deterioration of specimens and the rate of evaporation of ethanol, whereas low temperatures may cause fats and lipids to solidify, leaving deposits on specimens. (amnh.org)
- The wind chill factor makes the weather feel colder under windy conditions than calm conditions even though a glass thermometer shows the same temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- Each bar in each year represents the number of countries and territories in FAOSTAT where the mean annual temperature was within the 1951-1980 climate normal (grey bars), warmer than usual (red bars), or colder than usual (blue bars). (fao.org)
- Safe temperatures are 5°C or colder, or 60°C or hotter. (foodstandards.gov.au)
- The temperature should fall from 60°C to 21°C in less than two hours and be reduced to 5°C or colder in the next four hours. (foodstandards.gov.au)
- Although potentially hazardous food should be kept at 5°C or colder or 60°C or hotter wherever possible, this food can be safely between 5°C and 60°C provided it is between these temperatures for less than four hours . (foodstandards.gov.au)
- a) Our traditional graph of the annual and 5-year running means of the global temperature, and (b) 12-month and 132-month (to minimize the effect of the 11-year solar cycle) running means on the right. (columbia.edu)
- In addition to greenhouse gas emissions, human emissions of particulate matter are another significant influence on global temperature. (nasa.gov)
- As the global temperature shows the temperatures for Denmark shows a clear increase in the annual mean temperature in the last decades. (dmi.dk)
- Linear trends in global mean annual temperature change over land for World, Annex I countries (developed, according to the climate convention) and non-Annex I countries (developing). (fao.org)
- A recent temperature reconstruction of global annual temperature shows Early Holocene warmth followed by a cooling trend through the Middle to Late Holocene [Marcott SA, et al. (pnas.org)
- It is not possible to claim we know what the "global average temperature" is, much less determine any trend. (scienceblogs.com)
- In this case, all of the other various indicators of global temperature trends that are available unanimously agree. (scienceblogs.com)
- There are two interesting pieces of news on the global temperature evolution. (realclimate.org)
- First, today a paper by Grant Foster and Stefan Rahmstorf was published by Environmental Research Letters, providing a new analysis of the five available global (land+ocean) temperature time series. (realclimate.org)
- Current studies are for global temperature trends. (realclimate.org)
- Led by the TC Series, Autonics plans to take their new product line and go after all global temperature controller market. (prweb.com)
- Autonics will continue the generous investment on research and development for variety of temperature controllers and will continue to put efforts in order to become the undisputed global brand. (prweb.com)
- Lapse rates of average temperature ( T avg ) were steeper (−5.3 °C/km), but still did not approach the global average lapse rate of −6.5 °C/km. (nps.gov)
- A composite of all the major global temperature records going back to 1890 (the satellite records only begin in the late 20th century). (skepticalscience.com)
- The ideal temperature for 70% v/v ethanol is 70° F with minimal fluctuations. (amnh.org)
- Autonics economical PID temperature controllers - TC Series, one of the most cost effective temperature controlling solution having essential functions and improved performance, realizes ideal temperature controlling with newly developed PID control algorithm and 100ms high speed sampling. (prweb.com)
- Under some conditions heat from the measuring instrument can cause a temperature gradient, so the measured temperature is different from the actual temperature of the system. (wikipedia.org)
- If your organisation prepares, handles or sells any potentially hazardous food, it must have a thermometer which is accurate to ±1°C. This means that when the thermometer shows a temperature of 5°C, the actual temperature will be between 4°C and 6°C. The thermometer must be available for use when foods are being prepared, so you may need more than one if foods are prepared in different places. (foodstandards.gov.au)
- Sure paleoclimatology can give us a good idea of past climate change but if Gavin thinks that we can know the temperature of the globe 22,000 years ago to within 0.4 of a degree then I have a bridge I would like to sell him. (realclimate.org)
- For the first time, researchers at Ohio State University combined different climate models to estimate future temperature changes. (businessinsider.com)
- In such a case the measured temperature will vary not only with the temperature of the system, but also with the heat transfer properties of the system. (wikipedia.org)
- Heat and temperature , although different, are intimately related. (wiktionary.org)
- Thus, heat cannot be said to exist unless there is one system in contact with another system of differing temperature. (encyclopedia.com)
- In this case, if this object is not in contact with something else that has a different temperature, it "does not make a sound" - in other words, it transfers no internal energy, and, thus, there is no heat from the standpoint of physics. (encyclopedia.com)
- If both have the same temperature, there is no heat, only two objects with high levels of internal energy. (encyclopedia.com)
- Note that a vacuum was specified: assuming there was air around them, and that the air was of a lower temperature, both objects would then be transferring heat to the air. (encyclopedia.com)
- F. Mean rate of increase of temperature with depth, and mean upward flow of heat. (scientificamerican.com)
- A pyrometer or pyrometric cones are used to measure furnace and kiln temperatures resulting from radiant heat. (answers.com)
- If it is inserted into a gas pass it will give convective heat temperatures. (answers.com)
- Cook all food to these minimum internal temperatures as measured with a food thermometer before removing food from the heat source. (usda.gov)
- The measure is most commonly applied to the perceived outdoor temperature. (wikipedia.org)
- The modern scientific field has its origins in the works by Florentine scientists in the 1600s including Galileo constructing devices able to measure relative change in temperature, but subject also to confounding with atmospheric pressure changes. (wikipedia.org)
- 2 Temperature affects almost every process imaginable, yet it's difficult to measure accurately and reliably. (slideshare.net)
- What methods and instruments used to measure radiant temperature? (answers.com)
- What instrument is used to measure radiant temperature? (answers.com)
- Enabling the ADC allows you to measure the device temperature only once. (intel.com)
- Use a Vernier Temperature Probe to measure the temperature of the water at one site and at a second site upstream. (vernier.com)
- As the probe of the thermometer will be inserted into food, the probe must be cleaned and sanitised before it is used to measure the temperature of the food. (foodstandards.gov.au)
- This is especially important when the thermometer is used to measure the temperature of raw food and then ready-to-eat food, for example raw chicken and cooked chicken. (foodstandards.gov.au)
- A high temperature is a fever . (medlineplus.gov)
- Temperature regulation and the pathogenesis of fever. (medlineplus.gov)
- Best Fever log book MedM Temperature is your ideal companion during the fever. (microsoft.com)
- A temperature over 100.4°F (38°C) most often means you have a fever caused by an infection or illness. (medlineplus.gov)
- A temperature of 38C or more is usually considered a high temperature (fever). (www.nhs.uk)
- Water Temperature data is collected daily from sources such as USGS and the US Army Corp of Engineers. (weather.gov)
- Water temperature data is important in hydrologic forecasting for monitoring formation of ice on rivers and lakes in our regions. (weather.gov)
- The DS1921 included in this kit is a complete self contained temperature data logger measuring only 17.35mm wide and 5.89mm thick. (makezine.com)
- The datasets were compiled by Kelly O'Day and standardized by Benjamin Franz using the 1980-2010 average temperatures from each dataset, and the data are available in a single spreadsheet from here . (skepticalscience.com)
- Generally, describe how 2010 ranks out of 131 years of temperature data. (cotf.edu)