Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms a lid-like structure which encloses the non-polar cavity of the chaperonin complex. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroES protein.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (1/18963)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (2/18963)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (3/18963)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (4/18963)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Role of DnaK in in vitro and in vivo expression of virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. (5/18963)

The dnaK gene of Vibrio cholerae was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a dnaK insertion mutant which was then used to examine the role of DnaK in expression of the major virulence factors of this important human pathogen. The central regulator of several virulence genes of V. cholerae is ToxR, a transmembrane DNA binding protein. The V. cholerae dnaK mutant grown in standard laboratory medium exhibited phenotypes characteristic of cells deficient in ToxR activity. Using Northern blot analysis and toxR transcriptional fusions, we demonstrated a reduction in expression of the toxR gene in the dnaK mutant strain together with a concomitant increase in expression of a htpG-like heat shock gene that is located immediately upstream and is divergently transcribed from toxR. This may be due to increased heat shock induction in the dnaK mutant. In vivo, however, although expression from heat shock promoters in the dnaK mutant was similar to that observed in vitro, expression of both toxR and htpG was comparable to that by the parental strain. In both strains, in vivo expression of toxR was significantly higher than that observed in vitro, but no reciprocal decrease in htpG expression was observed. These results suggest that the modulation of toxR expression in vivo may be different from that observed in vitro.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships of pathogenic clones of Vibrio cholerae by sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes. (6/18963)

Studies of the Vibrio cholerae population, using molecular typing techniques, have shown the existence of several pathogenic clones, mainly sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones. However, the relationship of the pathogenic clones to environmental V. cholerae isolates remains unclear. A previous study to determine the phylogeny of V. cholerae by sequencing the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene of V. cholerae showed that the sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones had very different asd sequences which fell into separate lineages in the V. cholerae population. As gene trees drawn from a single gene may not reflect the true topology of the population, we sequenced the mdh (malate dehydrogenase) and hlyA (hemolysin A) genes from representatives of environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae and found that the mdh and hlyA sequences from the three pathogenic clones were identical, except for the previously reported 11-bp deletion in hlyA in the sixth-pandemic clone. Identical sequences were obtained, despite average nucleotide differences in the mdh and hlyA genes of 1.52 and 3.25%, respectively, among all the isolates, suggesting that the three pathogenic clones are closely related. To extend these observations, segments of the recA and dnaE genes were sequenced from a selection of the pathogenic isolates, where the sequences were either identical or substantially different between the clones. The results show that the three pathogenic clones are very closely related and that there has been a high level of recombination in their evolution.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a novel Ibe10 binding protein that contributes to Escherichia coli invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells. (7/18963)

The molecular basis of Escherichia coli traversal of the blood-brain barrier in the development of E. coli meningitis is not well understood. We have previously shown that a novel Ibe10 protein found in cerebrospinal fluid isolates of E. coli is necessary for invasion of the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) that constitute the blood-brain barrier both in vitro and in a newborn rat model of hematogenous meningitis. Here we identified a novel Ibe10 binding molecule/receptor (Ibe10R) on both bovine BMEC (HBMEC) and human BMEC (HBMEC) that is responsible for invasion by E. coli. Ibe10R, an approximately 55-kDa protein, was purified from BBMEC by Ibe10-Ni-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Bovine Ibe10R, as well as polyclonal antibodies to Ibe10R, blocked E. coli invasion of BBMEC very effectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Ibe10R showed 75% homology to serum albumin. However, the amino acid sequence of an Ibe10R fragment generated by limited enzymatic digestion did not reveal homology to any other proteins, suggesting that Ibe10R represents a novel albumin-like protein. Immunocytochemical analysis of BBMEC using anti-Ibe10R antibody suggested that only a subset of cultured BBMEC express Ibe10R on their surface. Enrichment of Ibe10R-positive BBMEC by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with anti-Ibe10R antibody resulted in enhanced invasion by E. coli. The anti-Ibe10R antibody raised against bovine Ibe10R also blocked E. coli invasion of HBMEC very effectively. Interestingly, anti-Ibe10R antibody affinity chromatography of HBMEC membrane proteins revealed a smaller protein with an approximate molecular mass of 45 kDa. These results suggest that the Ibe10 of E. coli interacts with a novel BMEC surface protein, Ibe10R, for invasion of both BBMEC and HBMEC.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the dnaK gene of Campylobacter jejuni and antigenicity of heat shock protein 70. (8/18963)

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea throughout the world. In addition, there is growing evidence that Guillain-Barre syndrome, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, is frequently preceded by C. jejuni infection. In the present study, the hrcA-grpE-dnaK gene cluster of C. jejuni was cloned and sequenced. The dnaK gene consists of an open reading frame of 1,869 bp and encodes a protein with a high degree of homology to other bacterial 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSPs). The overall percentages of identity to the HSP70 proteins of Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Bacillus subtilis were calculated to be 78.1, 60.5, 57.2, and 53. 8%, respectively. Regions similar to the Escherichia coli sigma70 promoter consensus sequence and to a cis-acting regulatory element (CIRCE) are located upstream of the hrcA gene. Following heat shock, a rapid increase of dnaK mRNA was detectable, which reached its maximum after 20 to 30 min. A 6-His-tagged recombinant DnaK protein (rCjDnaK-His) was generated in E. coli, after cloning of the dnaK coding region into pET-22b(+), and purified by affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Antibody responses to rCjDnaK-His were significantly elevated, compared to those of healthy individuals, in about one-third of the serum specimens obtained from C. jejuni enteritis patients.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli are related pathotypes of bacteria that cause acute watery diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis, respectively, and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli can lead to a serious complication known as haemolytic uraemic syndrome. In both bacteria the global regulatory protein Ler controls virulence. The ler gene is found within the locus of enterocyte effacement, or LEE, encoding a type III secretion system necessary for injecting effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells and causing net secretory diarrhoea. The nucleoid-associated protein H-NS silences, whereas Ler serves as an anti-silencer of, multiple LEE operons. Although Ler has a higher affinity for DNA than does H-NS, the precise molecular mechanism by which Ler increases LEE transcription remains to be determined. In this report we investigate the oligomerization activity of Ler. In solution, Ler forms dimers and soluble aggregates of up to 5000 kDa molecular mass, and appears to oligomerize more
TY - JOUR. T1 - A gram-negative characteristic segment in Escherichia coli DnaK is essential for the ATP-dependent cooperative function with the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. AU - Sugimoto, Shinya. AU - Higashi, Chihana. AU - Saruwatari, Kozue. AU - Nakayama, Jiro. AU - Sonomoto, Kenji. PY - 2007/6/26. Y1 - 2007/6/26. N2 - We describe importance of the characteristic segment in ATPase domain of DnaK chaperone which is present in all gram-negative bacteria but is absent in all gram-positive bacteria. In vitro studies, ATPase activity, luciferase-refolding activity, and surface plasmon resonance analyses, demonstrated that a segment-deletion mutant DnaKΔ74-96 became defective in the cooperation with the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. In addition, in vivo complementation assay showed that expression of DnaKΔ74-96 could not rescue the viability of Escherichia coli ΔdnaK mutant at 43 °C. Consequently, we suggest evolutionary significance for this DnaK ATPase domain segment in gram-negative bacteria ...
In the study described here, we have taken steps to characterize the YjeE protein, an Escherichia coli protein of unknown function that is essential for bacterial viability. YjeE represents a protein family whose members are broadly conserved in bacteria, absent from eukaryotes and contain both Walker A and B motifs, characteristic of P-loop ATPases. We have revisited the dispensability of the yjeE gene in E. coli and describe efforts to probe the function of the YjeE protein with in vitro biochemistry. We have looked critically for ATPase activity in the recombinant E. coli protein and have made vigilant use of site-directed variants in the Walker A [K41A (Lys41→Ala) and T42A] and putative Walker B (D80Q) motifs. We noted that any hydrolysis of ATP by the wild-type E. coli protein might be attributed to background ATPase, since it was not appreciably different from that of the variants. To overcome potential contaminants, we turned to crystalline pure YjeE protein from Haemophilus influenzae ...
What is Escherichia coli?. Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. Still other kinds of E. coli are used as markers for water contamination-so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the water is contaminated. It does get a bit confusing-even to microbiologists.. What are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli? Some kinds of E. coli cause disease by making a toxin called Shiga toxin. The bacteria that make these toxins are called Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, or STEC for short. You might hear them called verocytotoxic E. coli (VTEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC); these all refer generally to the same group of bacteria. The most commonly identified STEC in North America is ...
AEEC - Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli. Looking for abbreviations of AEEC? It is Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli. Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli listed as AEEC
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of designed metal-binding sites to study helix proximity in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli. 2. Proximity of helix IX (Arg302) with helix X (His322 and Glu325). AU - He, Molly M.. AU - Voss, John C. AU - Hubbell, Wayne L.. AU - Ronald Kaback, H.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Engineering divalent metal-binding sites into the lactose permease of Escherichia coli by introducing bis-His residues has been utilized to confirm the proximity of helices VIII (Glu269→His) and X (His322) [Jung, K., Voss, J., He, M., Hubbell, W. L., & Kaback, H. R. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 6272] and helices VII (Asp237→His) and XI (Lys358→His) [He, M. M., Voss, J., Hubbell, W. L., & Kaback, H. R. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 00000-00000]. In this paper, the approach is used to confirm and extend the relationship between helices IX (Arg302) and X (His322 and Glu325) [Jung, K., Jung, H., Wu, J., Prive, G. G., & Kaback, H. R. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 12273]. Thus, mutants Arg302→His, Glu325→His, ...
Base Sequence, Binding Sites, Catalysis, Cations; Divalent, Endoribonucleases/genetics/*metabolism, Escherichia coli/*enzymology, Escherichia coli Proteins, Hydrolysis, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, RNA; Catalytic/genetics/*metabolism, RNA; Messenger/chemistry/*metabolism, RNA; Transfer/chemistry/metabolism, Ribonuclease P ...
BioAssay record AID 1077160 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Escherichia coli FabH expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) after 25 mins.
[Gastro-hemorrhagic Escherichia coli].: Groups of Escherichia coli enteropathogen are described, with special attention to Escherichia coli enterohaemorragic. S
Escherichia Coli news, clinical research studies and treatment articles dealing with e. coli infections for medical professionals to stay updated. Get our FREE app now.
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli associated with early-onset sepsis (EOS) have historically been antibiotic-susceptible and K1-encapsulated. In the era of emerging antibiotic resistance, however, the clonal makeup of E coli associated with EOS has not been well characterized. METHODS: Escherichia coli isolates were collected from 28 cases of EOS and early-onset meningitis (EOM)
Escherichia coli ATCC ® 700927D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Escherichia coli strain EDL 933 TypeStrain=False Application:
Escherichia coli ATCC ® 700927D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Escherichia coli strain EDL 933 TypeStrain=False Application:
BioAssay record AID 414701 submitted by ChEMBL: Resistance index, MIC for aminoglycosides-resistant Escherichia coli BL21 harboring pETSACG1 expressing APH(3)-3a enzyme to MIC for Escherichia coli BL21.
The hns gene is a member of the cold-shock regulon, indicating that the nucleoid-associated, DNA-binding protein H-NS plays an important role in the adaptation of Escherichia coli to low temperatures. We show here that the ability to cope efficiently with a cold environment (12 degrees C and 25 degr …
This protocol was developed in a project aimed to identify the inner membrane proteins localizing to cell poles in Escherichia coli (E. coli). By using a known polar protein Tar as a tag, we isolated pole-derived inner membrane vesicles by affinity capture. The specificity of the polar vesicle isolation was confirmed by mass spectrometry that identified more than one hundred proteins, most of which are known inner membrane proteins, including other known polar proteins. This protocol, or if adapted properly by choosing other affinity targets, is well suited to isolate other membrane domains of interest for identification of proteins or lipid composition.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of CTX-M steady-state mRNA, mRNA half-life and protein production in various STs of Escherichia coli. AU - Geyer, Chelsie N.. AU - Fowler, Randal C.. AU - Johnson, James R.. AU - Johnston, Brian. AU - Weissman, Scott J.. AU - Hawkey, Peter. AU - Hanson, Nancy D.. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Objectives: High levels of β-lactamase production can impact treatment with a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination. Goals of this study were to: (i) compare the mRNA and protein levels of CTX-M-15- and CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from 18 different STs and 10 different phylotypes; (ii) evaluate the mRNA half-lives and establish a role for chromosomal- and/or plasmid-encoded factors; and (iii) evaluate the zones of inhibition for piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam. Methods: Disc diffusion was used to establish zone size. RNA analysis was accomplished using real-time RT-PCR and CTX-M protein levels were evaluated by immunoblotting. Clinical ...
RseB from Escherichia coli has been crystallized and crystal structures were determined at 2.4 Å and at 2.8 Å resolution. The structure of cytoplasmic expressed RseB revealed that it consists of two domains; an N-terminal large and a C-terminal small domain. The large domain resembles an unclosed β-barrel that is structurally remarkably similar to a protein family (LolA, LolB) capable of binding the lipid anchor of lipoproteins. Detailed structural comparison of RseB and LolA led to the hypothesis that RseB might be a sensor for mislocalized lipoproteins. The small C-terminal domain, connected to the large domain by a partially unstructured loop, was identified to mediate interaction with RseA. A peptide comprised of a putative helix of RseA was shown to constitute the binding site for RseB. Structure based results presented in this thesis indicate a new role of RseB in acting as a sensor for periplasmic stress: it detects mislocalized lipoproteins in the periplasm and propagates the signal ...
Escherichia Coli or E. Coli is a bacterium commonly found in the human intestine. These bacteria consist of several types and most of them are harmless. That means that only a handful of types of E. Coli bacteria can harm health. One of the dangerous E. coli bacteria is E. coli O157: H7. These bacteria can cause food poisoning and infections that are quite serious. E. coli O157: H7 can produce poisons that can damage the walls of the small intestine and cause stomach cramps, diarrhea mixed with blood, and vomiting ...
The AcrAB system of Escherichia coli is a multidrug efflux system composed of an RND-type transporter AcrB and a periplasmic accessory protein AcrA, and pumps out a wide variety of lipophilic and amphiphilic inhibitors directly into the medium, presumably through the TolC outer membrane channel. Acr …
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You searched for: Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject RNA Remove constraint Subject: RNA Subject Escherichia coli Remove constraint Subject: Escherichia coli ...
You searched for: Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Escherichia coli Remove constraint Subject: Escherichia coli Subject RNA Remove constraint Subject: RNA ...
The structure of the Escherichia coli chromosome is inherently dynamic over the duration of the cell cycle. Genetic loci undergo both stochastic motion around their initial positions and directed motion to opposite poles of the rod-shaped cell during segregation. We developed a quantitative method to characterize cell-cycle dynamics of the E. coli chromosome to probe the chromosomal steady-state mobility and segregation process. By tracking fluorescently labeled chromosomal loci in thousands of cells throughout the entire cell cycle, our method allows for the statistical analysis of locus position and motion, the step-size distribution for movement during segregation, and the locus drift velocity. The robust statistics of our detailed analysis of the wild-type E. coli nucleoid allow us to observe loci moving toward midcell before segregation occurs, consistent with a replication factory model. Then, as segregation initiates, we perform a detailed characterization of the average segregation velocity of
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The mechanism of transport of KP-736, a novel cephalosporin with a 1,5-dihydroxy-4-pyridone moiety at the C-7 position, into the Escherichia coli K-12 cell was investigated by determining the susceptibilities of iron transport mutants to KP-736. The tonB mutant showed a higher degree of resistance to KP-736, indicating that KP-736 was incorporated into E. coli cells via the tonB-dependent iron transport system. The product of the exbB gene was also necessary for the maximal antibacterial potency of KP-736. Cir-lacking and Fiu-lacking mutants showed a moderate level of resistance to KP-736. However, mutants lacking any one of the proteins FepA, FecA, FhuA, and FhuE did not show any increased resistance to KP-736. Two types of spontaneous mutants (e.g., KT1004 and KT1011) could be isolated from cir and fiu mutants by selection for KP-736 resistance and showed the same level of resistance to KP-736 as a tonB mutant. KT1004 showed tonB phenotypes, resistance to phage phi 80, and loss of FecA, ...
Abstract : Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are the major health concern, as it causes infections in human mainly in urinarytract, ear, and wound infections. The present study evaluates the impact of biofield energy treatment on E. coli regardingantimicrobial sensitivity assay, biochemical study and biotype number. Four multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs)of E. coli (LS 12, LS 13, LS 42, and LS 51) were taken in two groups i.e. control and treated. After treatment, above mentionedparameter were evaluated on day 10 in control and treated samples using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The antimicrobialsensitivity assay was reported with 46.67% alteration (14 out of 30 tested antimicrobials) in treated group of MDR E. coli isolates.The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study showed the alteration in MIC values of about 34.37% (11 out of 32) testedantimicrobials, after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of E. coli. Piperacillin/tazobactam was reported with ...
The genes (cps) involved in the synthesis of the colanic acid capsular polysaccharide in Escherichia coli K-12 are transcriptionally regulated by numerous proteins. Two of these, RcsB and RcsC, share homology with two-component regulatory elements that respond to environmental stimuli. Osmotic shock by sucrose or NaCl transiently increased transcription of a cpsB::lacZ fusion. RcsC and RcsB were essential for osmotic induction of colanic acid synthesis. In contrast to observations in some other osmotically regulated systems, addition of glycine betaine enhanced the osmotic induction of cps::lacZ by both sucrose and NaCl but had no effect alone. ...
Inhibition of disulfide bond formation in Escherichia coli implicates an intricate collaboration of proteins which comprise the glutathione and thioredoxin reducing pathways. Bioengineers have successfully engineered E. coli possessing mutated reducing pathways that promote, rather than inhibit, disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm. The transcriptome of six such mutant E. coli strains have been characterized using Microarray technology. We find that all mutant strains, exhibit a unique response to oxidative stress, not observed in wild type. Statistical analyses revealed the expression of more than 200 genes that are affected by mutations within the reducing pathways. Significantly up-regulated biological processes include cysteine biosynthesis, histidine biosynthesis, NADH Dehydrogenase I biosynthesis, sugar catabolic processes, and activation of stress responses . The second part of this work describes the construction of an E. coli strain that promotes the complete conversion of ...
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Nucleotide sequences of translated regions of the trp operon in 12 wild strains of Escherichia coli reveal striking uniformity among eight strains (suggesting recent common ancestry and supporting the importance of periodic selection in natural populations) and clustered substitutions in four strains (implicating events affecting runs of nucleotides).
The ability of salt to rescue division in an FtsEX null mutant is enigmatic if FtsEX is needed for proper assembly or stability of the septal ring. Presumably, the downstream essential division proteins, FtsK through FtsN, all of which are required for division even on media containing salt, have some ability to localize in the absence of FtsEX. Consistent with this, RG60 is sensitive to β-lactams that target FtsI (D. Weiss, unpublished data) and we observed localization of FtsN, which is a late recruit to the division site (1), when RG60 was grown under permissive conditions. It is tempting to speculate that the ability of downstream proteins to localize independently of FtsEX is why we observed some residual localization of FtsK, FtsQ, and FtsI in filaments depleted of FtsEX in LB with no salt, but we cannot exclude the less interesting possibility that there is residual FtsEX in these filaments. Our depletion strains express ftsEX from a multicopy plasmid, so we sought to reduce the ...
Slipped-strand mispairing (SSM) has not been identified as a mechanism of phase variation in Escherichia coli. Using a reporter gene, we show that sequences that cause phase variation by SSM in Haemophilus influenzae also lead to phase variation when introduced onto the chromosome of E. coli, and the frequencies of switching are in the biologically relevant range. Thus, the absence of SSM-mediated phase variation in E. coli does not appear to be due to a mechanistic constraint. ...
The bacterium Escherichia coli is making rounds around the world. The bacteria, previously considered far less harmeless has come under in recent months. To be fair, most of the bacteria is commonly found among humans and animals alike. However, its contact with people with antibacterial resistance can lead to severe illnesses. These include cases of blood poisoning or even resulting in septic shocks. The recent breakout of these illnesses due to anti-bacterial resistance lead researchers to look a bit closer. The outbreak of E.Coli happens as some people may eat bad case of raw meat or a poor personal hygiene. If one doesnt wash his hands after visiting a restroom, they are more likely to be at risk from possible infections. This lead scientists to ask which one is more dangerous as a source of infection. Researchers from University of East Anglia in United Kingdom started this discovery on an unclear note. They were puzzled as the healthy bacteria lives in the intestine of most individuals. ...
SUMMARY: Four mutants of Escherichia coli K12 were isolated on the basis of their sensitivity to pH 5.4. Under non-permissive conditions their growth was reversibly inhibited. At pH 7.0 these mutants showed a highly pleiotropic phenotype, which included altered phage and detergent sensitivities and leakage of periplasmic proteins. The findings suggest a defect in the outer membrane, perhaps in lipopolysaccharide. Two mutants mapped in or near the rfa locus, while the other two were remote from this region.
Birkenbihl, R.P.; Vielmetter, W., 1989: Cosmid derived map of escherichia coli strain bhb2600 in comparison to the map of strain w3110
Bekijk Stockfoto van Escherichia Coli Cell With Disrupted Cell Envelope Due To Phage Release After The Phage Replicate Within Host Cells They Must Be Released From The Host Cell This Often Occurs By Lysing The Cell Sem X3500. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
The Ffh-4.5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) and FtsY from Escherichia coli are homologous to essential components of the mammalian signal recognition particle (SRP) and SRP receptor, respectively. The ability of these E. coli components to function in a bona fide co-translational targeting pathway remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Ffh-4.5S RNP and FtsY can efficiently replace their mammalian counterparts in targeting nascent secretory proteins to microsomal membranes in vitro. Targeting in the heterologous system requires a hydrophobic signal sequence, utilizes GTP and, moreover, occurs co-translationally. Unlike mammalian SRP, however, the Ffh-4.5S RNP is unable to arrest translational elongation, which results in a narrow time window for the ribosome nascent chain to interact productively with the membrane-bound translocation machinery. The highly negatively charged N-terminal domain of FtsY, which is a conserved feature among prokaryotic SRP receptor homologs, is important for ...
Synonyms for Escherichia coli infections in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Escherichia coli infections. 1 synonym for Escherichia coli: E. coli. What are synonyms for Escherichia coli infections?
How is Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli abbreviated? DNAa stands for Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli. DNAa is defined as Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli very rarely.
The intimin gene eae, located within the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island, distinguishes enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and some Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains from all other pathotypes of diarrheagenic E. coli. EPEC is a leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, and intimin-positive STEC isolates are typically associated with life-threatening diseases such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome and hemorrhagic colitis. Here we describe the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay that reliably differentiates all 11 known intimin types (α1, α2, β, γ, κ, ɛ, η, ι, λ, θ, and ζ) and three new intimin genes that show less than 95% nucleotide sequence identity with existing intimin types. We designated these new intimin genes Int-μ, Int-ν, and Int-ξ. The PCR-RFLP assay was used to screen 213 eae-positive E. coli isolates derived from ovine, bovine, and human sources comprising 60 serotypes. Of these, 82 were
Abstract: This work reports for the first on the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in beef sold in the Tamale Metropolis. The conventional method was used to isolate Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. from beef samples sold at the Tamale Metropolis. Seventy beef samples were obtained from seven different locations where meat is popularly sold in the Tamale Metropolis and analyzed microbiologically for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. by following procedures in the Bacteriological Analytical Manuel of the FDA-USA. The average prevalence of Escherichia coli was 56% and was highest in Location G (100%), followed by Location C (80%), Locations D and F (60%), Location B (50%) and Location E (40%). Escherichia coli was not isolated from Location A. The overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. in the beef samples was 31%. The location with the highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was Location F (90%), followed by Location D (50%), Location E (30%) and Location C (20%). Locations A, ...
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions that damage intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity to form A/E lesions is encoded mainly by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Tir, Map, EspF, EspG are known LEE-encoded effector proteins secreted via the type III secretion system, which is also LEE-encoded, into the host cell. EPEC and EHEC Tirs link the extracellular bacterium to the cell cytoskeleton. Map and EspF are involved in mitochondrion membrane permeabilization. EspG interacts with tubulins and stimulates microtubule destabilization. LEE-encoded adhesin or intimin (Eae) is exported via the general secretory pathway to the periplasm, where it is inserted into the outer membrane. In addition to Tir, two potential host cell-carried intimin receptors, beta1 integrin (ITGB1) ...
Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections [DS:H00278 H00277] is induction of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions that damage intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity to form A/E lesions is encoded mainly by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Tir, Map, EspF, EspG are known LEE-encoded effector proteins secreted via the type III secretion system, which is also LEE-encoded, into the host cell. EPEC and EHEC Tirs link the extracellular bacterium to the cell cytoskeleton. Map and EspF are involved in mitochondrion membrane permeabilization. EspG interacts with tubulins and stimulates microtubule destabilization. LEE-encoded adhesin or intimin (Eae) is exported via the general secretory pathway to the periplasm, where it is inserted into the outer membrane. In addition to Tir, two potential host cell-carried intimin receptors, beta1 integrin (ITGB1) ...
Looking for Escherichia coli infections? Find out information about Escherichia coli infections. common bacterium that normally inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, but can cause infection in other parts of the body, especially the... Explanation of Escherichia coli infections
Pathogenic Escherichia coli are known to be a common cause of diarrheal disease - a common cause of frequently occurring bacterial infections in children and adults in developing countries. It poses a significant problem in Latin America. Pathogenic Escherichia coli in Latin America presents current information on understanding pathogenic E. coli in Latin America and outlines prospects for future research in this region. It features a unique, comprehensive analysis of the most common categories of E. coli associated with diarrheal illness in Latin America. The aim of this book is to help epidemiologists in this region to learn about molecular mechanisms of E. coli pathogenesis along with its diagnosis, host immune responses, animal reservoirs and epidemiology. In addition, the authors discuss the current situation of E. coli in representative countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru ...
Escherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. A hydrophobic region between the amino acid residues 238 and 410 in the N-terminal half of HlyA has previously been suggested to form hydrophobic and/or amphipathic α-helices and has been shown to be important for hemolytic activity and pore formation in biological and artificial membranes. The structure of the HlyA transmembrane channel is, however, largely unknown. For further investigation of the channel structure, we deleted in HlyA different stretches of amino acids that could form amphipathic β-strands according to secondary structure predictions (residues 71-110, 158-167, 180-203, and 264-286). These deletions resulted in HlyA mutants with strongly reduced hemolytic activity. Lipid bilayer measurements demonstrated that HlyAΔ71-110 and HlyAΔ264-286 formed channels with much smaller single-channel conductance than wildtype HlyA, whereas their channel-forming activity was virtually
TY - JOUR. T1 - The structure of Escherichia coli heat‐stable enterotoxin b by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism. AU - Sukumar, M.. AU - Rizo-Rey, Jose. AU - Wall, M.. AU - Dreyfus, L. A.. AU - Kupersztoch, Y. M.. AU - Gierasch, L. M.. PY - 1995/9. Y1 - 1995/9. N2 - The heat‐stable enterotoxin b (STb) is secreted by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli that cause secretory diarrhea in animals and humans. It is a 48‐amino acid peptide containing two disulfide bridges, between residues 10 and 48 and 21 and 36, which are crucial for its biological activity. Here, we report the solution structure of STb determined by two‐ and three‐dimensional NMR methods. Approximate interproton distances derived from NOE data were used to construct structures of STb using distance‐geometry and simulated annealing procedures. The NMR‐derived structure shows that STb is helical between residues 10 and 22 and residues 38 and 44. The helical structure in the region 10-22 is amphipathic and ...
Volunteer studies have shown that a 60-megadalton plasmid is required for full virulence of the human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strain E2348/69 (O127:H6). The plasmid, designated pMAR2, encodes localized adherence to HEp-2 cells in tissue culture via the adhesin known as the EPEC adherence factor (EAF). Using a DNA probe for the EAF, we have previously shown that these genes are specific for EPEC and are usually encoded on plasmids ranging from 55 to 65 megadaltons. In this study, Southern blot analysis and S1 nuclease homology determination reveal a high degree of sequence conservation among these plasmids, despite some variation in restriction maps. Phenotypic characterization of the prototype EAF plasmid pMAR2 reveals that the plasmid belongs to the group IncFII and is negative for alpha-hemolysin, colicin, and aerobactin synthesis, as well as biochemical markers and antibiotic resistance. Regions encoding adherence to HEp-2 cells were localized by Tn801 insertion mutagenesis. ...
FtsA is an essential cell division protein which is synthesized in minute amounts in Escherichia coli. To study the effects of overexpressing ftsA on the phenotype of E. coli cells, DNA fragments encoding the ftsA gene were subcloned downstream of a lac or a tac promoter in two plasmids. High-level expression of the ftsA gene from these promoters inhibited normal cell septation and caused the cells to become long, nonseptate filaments. Continued overexpression of ftsA resulted in the filaments developing spherical bulges up to 4 um in diameter. It is suggested that these bulges may emanate from septation sites because they were evenly spaced in relation to one another and to the cell poles. Observations of thin sections by electron microscopy demonstrated that these bulges contained small electron dense regions and large electron-lucent plate-like inclusions. A finding that the bulging filamentous cells contain more hexosamine per mass than control cells suggests that abnormal peptidoglycan synthesis
Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli that produce only heat-stable enterotoxin.: To determine the role of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) as a viru
ABSTRACT. Costa K.O., Alzamora Filho F., Costa J.N., Amorim C.R.N.,Yano T. & Conceição R.A. [Virulence factors of Escherichia coli isolated from calves with diarrhea in the region of Feira de Santana, Bahia.] Fatores de virulência das amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de bezerros com diarreia na região de Feira de Santana, Bahia. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(4):430-436, 2014. Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BR 116 norte, Km 3, Feira de Santana, BA 44032-560, Brasil. E-mail: [email protected] Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacterium most commonly isolated from intra and extraintestinal infections in both man and in other animals such as pigs and calves. Six distinct groups of E. coli can be identified by the type of toxin and the clinical signals they produce. Among these, E. coli enterotoxigenic (ETEC) is the most commonly found and produces two types of toxin: heat-labile (LT-I and LT-II) and heat-stable (STa and ...
Escherichia coli strains of nonenteropathogenic serogroups carrying eae but lacking the enteropathogenic E. coli adherence factor plasmid and Shiga toxin DNA probe sequences were isolated from patients (children, adults, and AIDS patients) with and without diarrhea in Brazil. Although diverse in phenotype and genotype, some strains are potentially diarrheagenic ...
Looking for Escherichia coli enteritis? Find out information about Escherichia coli enteritis. common bacterium that normally inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, but can cause infection in other parts of the body, especially the... Explanation of Escherichia coli enteritis
REFERENCES. ANDRADE, G. I. et al. Identification of virulence factors by multiplex PCR in Escherichia coli isolated from calves in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tropical Animal Health and Production, v.44, n.7, p.1783-1790, 2012. Available from: ,Available from: ,. Accessed: Nov. 20, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s11250-012-0139-8. [ Links ] BALDY-CHUDZIK, K. et al. Phylogenetic background, virulence gene profiles, and genomic diversity in commensal Escherichia coli isolated from ten mammal species living in one zoo. Veterinary Microbiology, v.131, n.1-2, p.173-184, 2008. Available from: ,Available from: ,. Accessed: Nov. 20, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.02.019. [ Links ] BERALDO, L. G. et al. Detection of Shiga toxigenic (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli in dairy buffalo. Veterinary Microbiology, v.170, n.1-2, p.162-166, 2014. Available from: ,Available from: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genotipificación, evaluación toxigénica in vitro y sensibilidad a antibióticos de cepas de escherichia coli aisladas de casos diarreicos y fatales en alpacas neonatas. AU - Luna, E. Luis. AU - Maturrano, H. Lenin. AU - Rivera Geronimo, Hermelinda. AU - Zanabria, H. Víctor. AU - Rosadio, A. Raúl. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - Clinical rectal diarrheic swabs (n=27) and pathological intestinal contents (n=24) from 51 alpacas between 1 to 7 weeks of age were used to isolate and genotype Escherichia coli, and to test for antimicrobial sensibility. All the E. coli isolates, confirmed by the API system, were genotyped by Multiplex PCR to determine the presence of virulence genes: stx1 and stx2 (shigatoxin 1 and 2), eae (intimin), bfp (Bundle-Forming Pili), lt (heat-labile toxin), sta and stb (heat-stable toxin A and B), in enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC) or enterotoxigenic (ETEC) E. coli ...
No presente estudo, 47 amostras enteropatogênicas de Escherichia coli, previamente caracterizadas pelo sorotipo, fenótipo de aderência, habilidade de induzir a formação da lesão histopatológica e presença das seqüências genéticas eae, bfp e EAF, foram analisadas de acordo com o perfil de fragmentação do DNA cromossômico pela técnica de eletroforese em campo pulsado (PFGE), as variantes isoenzimáticas através da eletroforese de isoenzimas (MLEE) e a presença de seqüências específicas da região LEE (eae, espA, espB, tir) e respectivos alelos. A amplificação destas seqüências mostrou a presença de 18 padrões genéticos distintos. A tipagem do gene eae revelou que a maior parte das amostras apresentou intimina não-tipável (42%) seguida dos tipos alélicos beta (35%), gama e alfa (12% cada). A fragmentação do DNA cromossômico detectou um elevado polimorfismo genético entre as amostras estudadas e não foi observada uma correlação com os marcadores de virulência ...
Attaching and effacing (A/E) intestinal lesions are produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and RDEC-1, a pathogen of weanling rabbits. We recently identified a chromosomal locus (eae[E. coli A/E]) which is required for A/E activity in a wild-type EPEC strain. Sequences homologous to those of an eae gene probe were detected in EPEC, RDEC-1, and EHEC isolates. We report here that the eae gene is chromosomally encoded in all EPEC and EHEC strains tested and in RDEC-1. In addition, the eae probe was found to be 100% sensitive and 98% specific in detecting E. coli of EPEC serogroups that demonstrate A/E activity. Ten percent of E. coli of EPEC serogroups that hybridized with the eae probe and produced A/E activity did not hybridize with the EAF (EPEC adherence factor) probe, a plasmid-associated diagnostic probe which is currently used to identify EPEC. In addition to A/E factors, plasmid-associated adhesins also contribute to the pathogenesis of EPEC ...
Summary Strains of Escherichia coli from sporadic cases of diarrhoea and belonging to serotypes O44:H18, O55:H7, O111ab:H21 O111ab:H25 or O126:H25 or O126:H27 were examined for virulence properties. With the exception of O111ab:H25 these are considered to be classical enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serotypes. The strains had been isolated in Britain from the faeces of children |3 years old. Of the serotypes examined, 7 of 13 O44:H18 strains, all of 10 O111ab:H21 strains and 13 of 21 O126:H27 strains belonged to the enteroaggregative class of E. coli (EAggEC) that attached to HEp-2 cells in the characteristic aggregative pattern and hybridised with the EAggEC probe. They also caused mannose-resistant haemagglutination of rat erythrocytes, a property which may be a useful marker for their identification. Strains of O44:H18 with similar properties were also isolated from three small outbreaks in Britain, one of which involved elderly patients. EAggEC have not been considered previously as aetiological
TY - JOUR. T1 - Draft genome sequences of Escherichia coli strains isolated from septic patients. AU - Dunitz, Madison I.. AU - Coil, David A.. AU - Jospin, Guillaume. AU - Eisen, Jonathan A. AU - Adams, Jason Yeates. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - We present the draft genome sequences of six strains of Escherichia coli isolated from blood cultures collected from patients with sepsis. The strains were collected from two patient sets, those with a high severity of illness, and those with a low severity of illness. Each genome was sequenced by both Illumina and PacBio for comparison.. AB - We present the draft genome sequences of six strains of Escherichia coli isolated from blood cultures collected from patients with sepsis. The strains were collected from two patient sets, those with a high severity of illness, and those with a low severity of illness. Each genome was sequenced by both Illumina and PacBio for comparison.. UR - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of YAC-end sequences through complementation of an Escherichia coli pyrF mutation. AU - Wright, David A.. AU - Park, Sei Kyoung. AU - Wu, Dongying. AU - Phillips, Gregory J.. AU - Rodermel, Steven R.. AU - Voytas, Daniel F.. PY - 1997/7/1. Y1 - 1997/7/1. N2 - We have developed a genetic means to recover sequences from YAC-ends near the yeast selectable marker URA3. This strategy is based on the ability of URA3 to complement mutations in pyrF, an Escherichia coli gene required for pyrimidine biosynthesis. We have developed an E. coli strain with a non-reverting allele of pyrF that is also suitable for cloning (recA-, hsdR-). We demonstrate the utility of this complementation strategy to obtain right-end clones from three YACs containing Arabidopsis thaliana DNA.. AB - We have developed a genetic means to recover sequences from YAC-ends near the yeast selectable marker URA3. This strategy is based on the ability of URA3 to complement mutations in pyrF, an Escherichia coli ...
α-helical membrane proteins constitute 20-30% of all proteins in a cell and are involved in many essential cellular functions. The structure is only known for a few hundred of them, which makes structural models important. The most common structural model of a membrane protein is the topology which is a two-dimensional representation of the structure.. This thesis is focused on three different aspects of membrane protein structure: improving structural predictions of membrane proteins, improving the level of detail of structural models and the concept of dual topology.. It is possible to improve topology models of membrane proteins by including experimental information in computer predictions. This was first performed in Escherichia coli and, by using homology, it was possible to extend the results to 225 prokaryotic organisms. The improved models covered ~80% of the membrane proteins in E. coli and ~30% of other prokaryotic organisms.. However, the traditional topology concept is sometimes too ...
Eenteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. The hallmark of EPEC/EHEC infections is induction of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions that damage intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity to form A/E lesions is encoded mainly by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. Tir, Map, EspF, EspG are known LEE-encoded effector proteins secreted via the type III secretion system, which is also LEE-encoded, into the host cell. EPEC and EHEC Tirs link the extracellular bacterium to the cell cytoskeleton. Map and EspF are involved in mitochondrion membrane permeabilization. EspG interacts with tubulins and stimulates microtubule destabilization. LEE-encoded adhesin or intimin (Eae) is exported via the general secretory pathway to the periplasm, where it is inserted into the outer membrane. In addition to Tir, two potential host cell-carried intimin receptors, beta1 integrin (ITGB1) and nucleolin ...
LAMPRECHT, Corne et al. Escherichia coli with virulence factors and multidrug resistance in the Plankenburg River. S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2014, vol.110, n.9-10, pp.01-06. ISSN 1996-7489. Escherichia coli is a natural inhabitant of the gut and E. coli levels in water are considered internationally to be an indication of faecal contamination. Although not usually pathogenic, E. coli has been linked to numerous foodborne disease outbreaks, especially those associated with fresh produce. One of the most common ways through which E. coli can be transferred onto fresh produce is if contaminated water is used for irrigation. In this study, a total of 81 confirmed E. coli strains were isolated from the Plankenburg River as part of three separate studies over 3 years. During sampling, E. coli levels in the river were above the accepted levels set by the World Health Organization and the South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry for safe ...
DksA is a global regulatory protein that, together with the alarmone ppGpp, is required for the stringent response to nutrient starvation in the gammaproteobacterium Escherichia coli and for more moderate shifts between growth conditions. DksA modulates the expression of hundreds of genes, directly or indirectly. Mutants lacking a DksA homolog exhibit pleiotropic phenotypes in other gammaproteobacteria as well. Here we analyzed the DksA homolog RSP2654 in the more distantly related Rhodobacter sphaeroides, an alphaproteobacterium. RSP2654 is 42% identical and similar in length to E. coli DksA but lacks the Zn finger motif of the E. coli DksA globular domain. Deletion of the RSP2654 gene results in defects in photosynthetic growth, impaired utilization of amino acids, and an increase in fatty acid content. RSP2654 complements the growth and regulatory defects of an E. coli strain lacking the dksA gene and modulates transcription in vitro with E. coli RNA polymerase (RNAP) similarly to E. coli ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of glycerol-utilizing Escherichia coli strain for the production of bioethanol. AU - Thapa, Laxmi Prasad. AU - Lee, Sang Jun. AU - Yoo, Hah Young. AU - Choi, Han Suk. AU - Park, Chulhwan. AU - Kim, Seung Wook. PY - 2013/8/15. Y1 - 2013/8/15. N2 - production of bioethanol was studied using recombinant Escherichia coli with glycerol as a carbon source. Glycerol is an attractive feedstock for biofuels production since it is generated as a major byproduct in biodiesel industry; therefore, we investigated the conversion of glycerol to bioethanol using E. coli BL21 (DE3) which harbors several genes in ethanol production pathway of Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190. Fermentation was carried out at 34 °C for 42. h, pH 7.6, using defined production medium. Under optimal conditions, bioethanol production by the recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3), strain pEB, was two-fold (3.01. g/L) greater than that (1.45. g/L) by the wild-type counterpart. The results obtained in this study will ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An nad synthetic reaction bypasses the lipoate requirement for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli strains blocked in succinate catabolism. AU - Hermes, Fatemah A.. AU - Cronan, John E.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - The lipoate coenzyme is essential for function of the pyruvate (PDH) and 2-oxoglutarate (OGDH) dehydrogenases and thus for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. LipB catalyzes the first step in lipoate synthesis, transfer of an octanoyl moiety from the fatty acid synthetic intermediate, octanoyl-ACP, to PDH and OGDH. E. coli also encodes LplA, a ligase that in presence of exogenous octanoate (or lipoate) can bypass loss of LipB. LplA imparts ΔlipB strains with a leaky growth phenotype on aerobic glucose minimal medium supplemented with succinate (which bypasses the OGDH-catalyzed reaction), because it scavenges an endogenous octanoate pool to activate PDH. Here we characterize a ΔlipB suppressor strain that did not require succinate supplementation, but did ...
RecA is important for recombination, DNA repair, and SOS induction. In Escherichia coli, RecBCD, RecFOR, and RecJQ prepare DNA substrates onto which RecA binds. UvrD is a 3-to-5 helicase that participates in methyl-directed mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair. uvrD deletion mutants are sensitive to UV irradiation, hypermutable, and hyper-rec. In vitro, UvrD can dissociate RecA from single-stranded DNA. Other experiments suggest that UvrD removes RecA from DNA where it promotes unproductive reactions. To test if UvrD limits the number and/or the size of RecA-DNA structures in vivo, an uvrD mutation was combined with recA-gfp. This recA allele allows the number of RecA structures and the amount of RecA at these structures to be assayed in living cells. uvrD mutants show a threefold increase in the number of RecA-GFP foci, and these foci are, on average, nearly twofold higher in relative intensity. The increased number of RecA-green fluorescent protein foci in the uvrD mutant is ...
Escherichia coli Hsp31, encoded by hchA, is a heat-inducible molecular chaperone. We found that Hsp31 undergoes a conformational change via temperature-induced unfolding, generating a high molecular weight (HMW) form with enhanced chaperone activity. Although it has previously been reported that some subunits of the Hsp31 crystal structure show structural heterogeneity with increased hydrophobic surfaces, Hsp31 basically forms a dimer. We found that a C-terminal deletion (C Delta 19) of Hsp31 exhibited structurally and functionally similar characteristics to that of the HMW form. Both the C Delta 19 and HMW forms achieved a structure with considerably more p-sheets and less a-helices than the native dimeric form, exposing a portion of its hydrophobic surfaces. The structural alterations were determined from its spectral changes in circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan residues, and fluorescence of bis-ANS binding to a hydrophobic surface. Interestingly, during thermal ...
Principal Investigator:SUGAI Motoyuki, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Bacteriology (including Mycology)
The Tat system transports folded proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Substrates are targeted to the Tat pathway by signal peptides containing a pair of consecutive arginine residues. The membrane proteins TatA, TatB and TatC are the essential components of this pathway in Escherichia coli. The complexes that these proteins form at native levels of expression have been investigated by the use of affinity tag-coding sequences fused to chromosomal tat genes. Distinct TatA and TatBC complexes were identified using size-exclusion chromatography and shown to have apparent molecular masses of approximately 700 and 500 kDa, respectively. Following in vivo expression, the Tat substrate protein SufI was found to copurify with the TatBC, but not the TatA, complex. This binding required the SufI signal peptide. Substitution of the twin-arginine residues in the SufI signal peptide by either twin lysine or twin alanine residues abolished export. However
Attaching and effacing (AE) adhesion is associated with the pathogenesis of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and rabbit diarrheogenic E. coli (RDEC-1). Although RDEC-1 provides an animal model for investigating pathophysiology of EPEC infection, RDEC-1 does not adhere to human cell lines, thereby limiting in vitro investigation. Therefore, transformed RDEC-1 strains expressing adhesins derived from human diarrheogenic E. coli were studied. These adhesins promoted AE adhesion of RDEC-1 and led to the accumulation of alpha-actinin aggregates in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Furthermore, these strains induced host signal transduction pathways, resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of host proteins and an intracellular elevation of calcium. These results demonstrate that RDEC-1 and EPEC stimulate similar signal transduction pathways in infected epithelial cells, thus lending additional support for the use of RDEC-1 as a model for the study of human EPEC infection.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphoryl transfer from α-D-glucose 1-phosphate catalyzed by Escherichia coli sugar-phosphate phosphatases of two protein superfamily types. AU - Wildberger, Patricia. AU - Pfeiffer, Martin. AU - Brecker, Lothar. AU - Rechberger, Gerald N.. AU - Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth. AU - Nidetzky, Bernd. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The Cori ester α-D-glucose 1-phosphate (αGlc 1-P) is a high-energy intermediate of cellular carbohydrate metabolism. Its glycosidic phosphomonoester moiety primes αGlc 1-P for flexible exploitation in glucosyl and phosphoryl transfer reactions. Two structurally and mechanistically distinct sugar-phosphate phosphatases from Escherichia coli were characterized in this study for utilization of αGlc 1-P as a phosphoryl donor substrate. The agp gene encodes a periplasmic αGlc 1-P phosphatase (Agp) belonging to the histidine acid phosphatase family. Had13 is from the haloacid dehydrogenase-like phosphatase family. Cytoplasmic expression of Agp (in E. coli Origami ...
Introduction. Escherichia coli, better known as E. coli, are Gram negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Escherichia species are also included in the group of genera referred to as the coliforms.. Not all E. coli cause disease: the species is found as part of the normal, healthy human gut flora as well as in the environment. Therefore the presence of E. coli in processed food products can indicate faecal contamination. For this reason E. coli is widely used as an indicator organism for the presence of potentially more dangerous bacteria, such as Salmonella.. Although most strains of E. coli do not cause illness, some have been associated with human infections resulting in diarrhoea, or occasionally more severe illness. There are at least six different groups of diarrhoea-causing E. coli, but only two types are associated with foodborne disease.. 1. Verocytotoxin-producing (VTEC), sometimes referred to as Shiga-like toxin-producing (STEC). This group includes ...
Escherichia coli (/ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlɪ/ Anglicized to /ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes are pathogenic and can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls. E. coli are also responsible for a majority of cases of urinary tract infections. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine. E. coli and related bacteria constitute about 0.1% of gut flora, and fecal-oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them ideal indicator organisms to test ...
in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (1999), 473. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching and effacing lesions. The genes responsible for this lesion are clustered on the chromosome forming a 35.5 kilobase pathogenesis island called ... [more ▼]. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produce attaching and effacing lesions. The genes responsible for this lesion are clustered on the chromosome forming a 35.5 kilobase pathogenesis island called LEE. The LEE was identified, characterized and completely sequenced from the human EPEC strain E2348/69. The LEE carries genes coding for: a type III secretion system (genes esc and sep), the translocated intimin receptor (gene tir), the outer membrane protein intimin (gene eae) and the E. coli secreted proteins EspA, EspB, and EspD (genes esp). In addition to man and farm animals, EPEC are also isolated from dogs and cats. We studied structurally and functionally the LEE of dog and cat EPEC. First, we used four probes ...
The increase in antibiotic resistance has become a major health concern in recent times. It is therefore essential to identify novel antibacterial targets as well as discover and develop new antibacterial agents. FtsZ, a highly conserved bacterial protein, is responsible for the initiation of cell division in bacteria. The functions of FtsZ inside cells are tightly regulated and any perturbation in its functions leads to inhibition of bacterial division. Recent reports indicate that small molecules targeting the functions of FtsZ may be used as leads to develop new antibacterial agents. To identify small molecules targeting FtsZ and inhibiting bacterial division, we screened a U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drug library of 800 molecules using an independent computational, biochemical and microbial approach. From this screen, we identified doxorubicin, an anthracycline molecule that inhibits Escherichia coli division and forms filamentous cells. A fluorescence-binding assay ...
Biofilms are communities of surface-adherent bacteria surrounded by secreted polymers known as the extracellular polymeric substance. Biofilms are harmful in many industries, and thus it is of great interest to understand their mechanical properties and structure to determine ways to destabilize them. By performing single particle tracking with beads of varying surface functionalization it was found that charge interactions play a key role in mediating mobility within biofilms. With a combination of single particle tracking and microrheological concepts, it was found that Escherichia coli biofilms display height dependent charge density that evolves over time. Statistical analyses of bead trajectories and confocal microscopy showed inter-connecting micron scale channels that penetrate throughout the biofilm, which may be important for nutrient transfer through the system. This methodology provides significant insight into a particular biofilm system and can be applied to many others to provide ...
SlyA is a member of the MarR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators. Previously, SlyA has been shown to directly regulate only two operons in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, fimB and hlyE (clyA). In both cases, SlyA activates gene expression by antagonizing repression by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. Here, the transcript profiles of aerobic glucose-limited steady-state chemostat cultures of E. coli K-12 MG1655, slyA mutant and slyA over-expression strains are reported. The transcript profile of the slyA mutant was not significantly different from that of the parent; however, that of the slyA expression strain was significantly different from that of the vector control. Transcripts representing 27 operons were increased in abundance, whereas 3 were decreased. Of the 30 differentially regulated operons, 24 have previously been associated with sites of H-NS binding, suggesting that antagonism of H-NS repression is a common feature of SlyA-mediated transcription regulation. Direct binding of
Risk Assessment of Escherichia coli Infection from Use of Interactive Waterscape Facilities - Escherichia coli;Exposure;Interactive fountain;Risk assessment;
TY - JOUR. T1 - Shotgun optical maps of the whole Escherichia coli 0157. T2 - H7 genome. AU - Lim, Alex. AU - Dimalanta, Eileen T.. AU - Potamousis, Konstantinos D.. AU - Yen, Galex. AU - Apodoca, Jennifer. AU - Tao, Chunhong. AU - Lin, Jieyi. AU - Qi, Rong. AU - Skiadas, John. AU - Ramanathan, Arvind. AU - Perna, Nicole T.. AU - Plunkett, Guy. AU - Burland, Valerie. AU - Mau, Bob. AU - Hackett, Jeremiah. AU - Blattner, Frederick R.. AU - Anantharaman, Thomas S.. AU - Mishra, Bhubaneswar. AU - Schwartz, David C.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - We have constructed Nhel and Xhol optical maps of Escherichia coli O157:H7 solely from genomic DNA molecules to provide a uniquely valuable scaffold for contig closure and sequence validation. E. coli O157:H7 is a common pathogen found in contaminated food and water. Our approach obviated the need for the analysis of clones, PCR products, and hybridizations, because maps were constructed from ensembles of single DNA molecules. Shotgun sequencing of bacterial ...
We have found that temperature can have a striking effect upon protein export in Escherichia coli, suggesting that there is a cold-sensitive step in the protein export pathway. Cs mutations comprise the largest class of mutations affecting the membrane-localized Sec proteins SecD, SecE, SecF and SecY. Although some of these mutations could encode cold-labile proteins, this is unlikely to account for the Cs phenotype of most export mutants, as mutations which simply produce lower amounts of SecE protein have the same phenotype. Certain signal sequence mutations affecting maltose binding protein are also cold sensitive for export. These effects appear to arise by a specific interaction of cold with certain export defects. We believe that the Cs sec mutations are representative of a large class of conditional lethal mutations, whose conditional phenotype reflects an underlying thermal sensitivity of the process in which they are involved. ...
Proteins containing iron-sulfur clusters play essential roles in electron-transfer, catalysis and other biochemical processes [1, 2]. In eubacteria and in many eukaryotes, general iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis is mediated by the multi-component ISC assembly system. Extensive biochemical and genetic studies [3-9] have shown that this process occurs through the assembly of a cluster on the scaffold protein IscU (Isu in yeast) followed by its transfer to a recipient apo-protein. The efficiency of the second step is greatly increased in the presence of HscA and HscB (Ssq1 and Jac1, respectively, in yeast), but the precise role of this chaperone system is not well understood [9-12].. HscB is a 20 kDa J-type co-chaperone protein that regulates the ATP hydrolysis activity of HscA and targets IscU to its substrate-binding domain. The crystal structures of HscB from Escherichia coli [13], Homo sapiens [14], and Vibrio cholerae [Osipiuk, Gu, Papazisi, Anderson, and Joachimiak unpublished data, PDB ID: ...
"The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (3): 285-90. doi:10.1038/nbt. ... Bartel PL, Roecklein JA, SenGupta D, Fields S (1996). "A protein linkage map of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7". Nat. Genet ... Protein function prediction[edit]. Protein interaction networks have been used to predict the function of proteins of unknown ... The yeast interactome, i.e. all protein-protein interactions among proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been estimated to ...
"Cyclization recombinase [Escherichia coli] - Protein - NCBI". Sternberg N, Hamilton D (August 1981). "Bacteriophage P1 site- ... Protein-protein interactions drive and direct strand exchange. Energy is not compromised, since the protein-DNA linkage makes ... Cre recombinase proteins bind to the first and last 13 bp regions of a lox site forming a dimer. This dimer then binds to a ... The total protein has 343 amino acids. The C domain is similar in structure to the domain in the Integrase family of enzymes ...
Protein microarrays usually use Escherichia coli to produce proteins of interest; whereas peptide microarrays use the SPOT ... and reverse-phase protein arrays. Functional protein arrays display folded and active proteins and are used for screening ... A protein microarray consists of a protein library immobilized on a substrate chip, usually glass, silicon, polystyrene, PVDF, ... Analytical or capture protein arrays display antigens and antibodies to profile protein or antibody expression in serum. These ...
Goldstein J, Pollitt NS, Inouye M (January 1990). "Major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... Brandi A, Spurio R, Gualerzi CO, Pon CL (March 1999). "Massive presence of the Escherichia coli 'major cold-shock protein' CspA ... untranslated region of the cold shock cspA mRNA of Escherichia coli". J. Bacteriol. 181 (20): 6284-6291. PMC 103761. PMID ... cspA protein is then produced in significantly higher quantities, making up over 2% of the cell's proteome during cold shock. ...
... and characterization of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase-B from Escherichia coli". Protein Expression and Purification. 47 (2): 607 ... "Complete set of ORF clones of Escherichia coli ASKA library (a complete set of E. coli K-12 ORF archive): unique resources for ... A series of experiments have been conducted to assess the distribution of promiscuous enzyme activities in E. coli. In E. coli ... coli protein (using a pooled set of plasmids of the ASKA collection[17]). The mechanisms by which the noncognate ORF could ...
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli uses a N-glycosyltransferase called EtpC to modify the EtpA protein, which is orthologous to ... and later in other bacterial species such as Escherichia coli. N-glycosyltransferases usually target adhesin proteins, which ... "A biosynthetic route for polysialylating proteins in Escherichia coli". Metabolic Engineering. 44: 293-301. doi:10.1016/j.ymben ... The N-glycosyltransferases are subdivided into two functional classes, the first (e.g several Yersinia, Escherichia coli and ...
Foster, D. L.; Boublik, M.; Kaback, H. R. (1983). "Structure of the lac carrier protein of Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. ... Guan, L; Weinglass, AB; Kaback, HR (7 September 2001). "Helix packing in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli: localization ... "Site-directed sulfhydryl labeling of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli: helices IV and V that contain the major ... "The electrochemical gradient of protons and its relationship to active transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles". Proc. ...
Foster DL, Boublik M, Kaback HR (January 1983). "Structure of the lac carrier protein of Escherichia coli". The Journal of ... Yin Y, He X, Szewczyk P, Nguyen T, Chang G (May 2006). "Structure of the multidrug transporter EmrD from Escherichia coli". ... Västermark A, Lunt B, Saier M (2014). "Major facilitator superfamily porters, LacY, FucP and XylE of Escherichia coli appear to ... "Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli". Science. 301 (5633): 610-5. Bibcode:2003Sci...301..610A. ...
"Heat shock protein 90 from Escherichia coli collaborates with the DnaK chaperone system in client protein remodeling. Proc Natl ... S. Wickner (1978) "DNA Replication Proteins of Escherichia coli." Annu Review of Biochem. 78: 1163-1191. A. N. Kravats, S. M. ... coli and chaperone function in yeast." Mol. Cell. 49(3):464-473. S. M. Doyle, O. Genest, and S. Wickner (2013) "Protein rescue ... and break down proteins. She has been a major contributor to the understanding of molecular chaperones, proteins that regulate ...
Milkman R (Apr 1994). "An Escherichia coli homologue of eukaryotic potassium channel proteins". Proceedings of the National ... Jiang Y, Pico A, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (Mar 2001). "Structure of the RCK domain from the E. coli K+ channel and ... or may be through an additional calcium binding protein such as calmodulin. Knowing the structure of these channels can provide ... "Gating of the TrkH ion channel by its associated RCK protein TrkA". Nature. 496 (7445): 317-22. Bibcode:2013Natur.496..317C. ...
... prismane protein') from Escherichia coli. Characterization of the hybrid-cluster protein, redox properties of the [2Fe-2S] and ... Protein engineering of the CODH/ACS in M.thermoacetica revealed that mutating residues, so as to functionally block the tunnel ... Role of a 22-kDa iron-sulfur protein in mediating electron transfer between carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase". The ... van den Berg WA, Hagen WR, van Dongen WM (February 2000). "The hybrid-cluster protein (' ...
Hengen, Paul N (1995). "Purification of His-Tag fusion proteins from Escherichia coli". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 20 (7 ... For example, even when a recombinant protein forcibly expressed in E. coli produces an inclusion body and can not be obtained ... are often used for affinity purification of polyhistidine-tagged recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and other ... For proteins with a single hexahistidine tag, 75 mM imidazole enables elution from Ni-NTA, whereas for proteins with two ...
Milkman R (April 1994). "An Escherichia coli homologue of eukaryotic potassium channel proteins". Proceedings of the National ... The HVCN1 and Putative tyrosine-protein phosphatase proteins do not contain an expected ion conduction pore domain, but rather ... The proteins with only two transmembrane helices (Pfam PF07885) are most commonly found in bacteria. This also includes the 2- ... Jiang Y, Pico A, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (March 2001). "Structure of the RCK domain from the E. coli K+ channel and ...
Alternatively expression in Escherichia coli of whole or truncated proteins can also be performed.[2][3] Therefore, microsomes ... "Heterologous expression of human cytochromes P450 2D6 and CYP3A4 in Escherichia coli and their functional characterization". ... Because of the need for a multi-part protein-system, microsomes are necessary to analyze the metabolic activity of CYPs. These ... they provide a way for scientists to figure out how proteins are being made on the ER in a cell by reconstituting the process ...
Nordlund P, Eklund H (July 1993). "Structure and Function of the Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase Protein R2". J. Mol ... Climent I, Sjöberg BM, Huang CY (May 1991). "Carboxyl-terminal peptides as probes for Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase ... Protein Eng. 11 (3): 219-24. doi:10.1093/protein/11.3.219. PMID 9613846. Cosentino G, Lavallée P, Rakhit S, Plante R, Gaudette ... For example, E. coli have both class I and class III RNR. The mechanism that is currently accepted for the reduction of ...
The acyl carrier protein of lipid synthesis donates lipoic acid to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Escherichia coli and ... Morris TW, Reed KE, Cronan JE (June 1994). "Identification of the gene encoding lipoate-protein ligase A of Escherichia coli. ... Lipoate-protein ligase (EC, LplA, lipoate protein ligase, lipoate-protein ligase A, LPL, LPL-B) is an enzyme with ... "Crystal structure of lipoate-protein ligase A from Escherichia coli. Determination of the lipoic acid-binding site". The ...
Choi JH, Lee SY (June 2004). "Secretory and extracellular production of recombinant proteins using Escherichia coli". Appl. ... Joseleau-Petit D, Liébart JC, Ayala JA, D'Ari R (September 2007). "Unstable Escherichia coli L Forms Revisited: Growth Requires ... such as Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli. This is done by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis with antibiotics or treating ... Here, the absence of a cell wall can allow production of large amounts of secreted proteins that would otherwise accumulate in ...
It is commonly used for protein production in Escherichia coli. Two hybrid promoters functional in Escherichia coli were ... "Tightly regulated tac promoter vectors useful for the expression of unfused and fused proteins in Escherichia coli". Gene. 69 ( ... This makes it suitable for high-efficiency protein production of a recombinant protein. The strong repression of expression in ... For example, the PTAC system is used for fusion protein expression within the PMAL-C2X expression. de Boer, H. A.; Comstock, L ...
"rnc - Ribonuclease 3 - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - rnc gene & protein". UniProt Consortium. Retrieved 5 ... "Lethal double-stranded RNA processing activity of ribonuclease III in the absence of SuhB protein of Escherichia coli". ... Among the RNases III in the class are the rnc from E. coli. Typically, class I enzymes possess a single RNase III domain (RIIID ... The Human Protein Atlas. Retrieved 5 November 2016. This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro: ...
Escherichia coli FimH provides an example of conformation specific immune response which enhances impact on the protein. By ... Schembri MA, Klemm P (May 1998). "Heterobinary adhesins based on the Escherichia coli FimH fimbrial protein". Appl. Environ. ... the adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Work with E. coli stems from observations of human acquired immunity. ... Escherichia coli strains most known for causing diarrhea can be found in the intestinal tissue of pigs and humans where they ...
"The protein interaction network of bacteriophage lambda with its host, Escherichia coli". J. Virol. 87 (23): 12745-55. doi ... Synthesis of proteins and nucleic acid[edit]. Within minutes, bacterial ribosomes start translating viral mRNA into protein. ... Several attempts have been made to map Protein-protein interactions among phage and their host. For instance, bacteriophage ... An example of a bacteriophage known to follow the lysogenic cycle and the lytic cycle is the phage lambda of E. coli.[34] ...
Erni B, Zanolari B, Kocher HP (April 1987). "The mannose permease of Escherichia coli consists of three different proteins. ... The cIII protein acts to protect the cII protein from proteolysis by FtsH (a membrane-bound essential E. coli protease) by ... Bacteriophage Lambda binds to an E. coli cell by means of its J protein in the tail tip. The J protein interacts with the ... "Adsorption of bacteriophage lambda on the LamB protein of Escherichia coli K-12: point mutations in gene J of lambda ...
Raabe T, Manley JL (1992). "A human homologue of the Escherichia coli DnaJ heat-shock protein". Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (23): ... 1999). "Identification of CHIP, a novel tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein that interacts with heat shock proteins and ... and hdj-1 have distinct roles in recognition of a non-native protein and protein refolding". EMBO J. 15 (12): 2969-79. doi: ... a novel tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein that interacts with heat shock proteins and negatively regulates chaperone ...
Waugh, David S. (2016). "The remarkable solubility-enhancing power of Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein". Postepy ... Between 70% and 80% of recombinant proteins expressed E. coli are contained in inclusion bodies (i.e., protein aggregates). The ... and highly hydrophobic protein is more prone to lead to accumulation as inclusion bodies in E. coli. In the case of proteins ... bodies are dynamic structures formed by an unbalanced equilibrium between aggregated and soluble proteins of Escherichia coli. ...
OA-5D5 is produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. It is composed of murine variable domains for the heavy and ... The protein possesses tyrosine kinase activity. The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to ... c-Met, also called tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a protein that in humans is ... PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a tumor suppressor gene encoding a protein PTEN, which possesses lipid and protein ...
"MECHANOSENSITIVE CHANNELS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI: The MscL Gene, Protein, and Activities". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 59: 633-57. doi: ... The gene encoding MscL protein is trkA and it is located in the inner membrane of the E. coli. The protein is 17 KDa, and ... Within the channel there are ankyrins, which are structural proteins that mediate protein-protein interactions, and are thought ... Levina, N.; Totemeyer, S.; Stokes, N. R.; Louis, P.; Jones, M. A.; Booth, I. R. (1999). "Protection of Escherichia coli cells ...
"Crystal structure of the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase precursor protein from Escherichia coli. Structural changes upon ... "Crystal structures of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase from Escherichia coli, a key enzyme in glutathione metabolism, and its ... L-glutamate This protein also acts as enzyme EC (gamma-glutamyltransferase). Hanigan MH, Ricketts WA (June 1993). " ...
Ryu, Y; Schultz, PG (Apr 2006). "Efficient incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in Escherichia coli". Nat ... The structures of the Staphylococcus aureus YARS and of a truncated version of Escherichia coli YARS have also been solved. A ... "Thiobacillus ferrooxidans tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase functions in vivo in Escherichia coli". Journal of Bacteriology. 176 (14): ... The structure shows that the group I intron binds across the two subunits of the homodimeric protein with a newly evolved RNA- ...
1993). "Expression of human metallothionein-II fusion protein in Escherichia coli". Biochem. Int. 28 (3): 451-60. PMID 1339282 ... Metallothionein-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MT2A gene. Metallothionein 2A has been shown to interact with ... Protein kinase D1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000125148 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center ...
Escherichia coli. 大腸桿菌 4,600,000 4,400 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 釀酒酵母 12,000,000 5,538 ... non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying that the genome contains many ...
... sehingga menghentikan sintesis protein.[1] Sumber bakteri ini contohnya adalah daging yang belum masak, seperti daging ... Escherichia coli (biasa disingkat E. coli) adalah salah satu jenis spesies bakteri Gram negatif. Pada umumnya, bakteri yang ... Inggris) Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc). *(Inggris) The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in ... Kebanyakan E. Coli tidak berbahaya, tetapi beberapa, seperti E. Coli tipe O157:H7, dapat mengakibatkan keracunan makanan yang ...
A similar phenomenon has since been described in the bacterium Escherichia coli, which gives rise to morphologically similar ... Cell development involves many such proteins working together. Fig#1 shows how TipN interact with two other polar proteins : ... The DnaA protein acts at the origin of replication to initiate the replication of the chromosome. The CtrA protein, in contrast ... These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ...
Evans PR, Hellinga HW (1987). „Mutations in the active site of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase". Nature. 327 (6121): 437- ... 2011). „Dynamic dissociating homo-oligomers and the control of protein function.". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 519 (2): 131-43. PMC ... Ovaj protein može da koristi morfeinski model alosterne regulacije.[4] ...
Matsushita, K., Ohnishi, T. e Kaback, H. R. (1987): "NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases of the Escherichia coli aerobic ... NCBI Protein procura É o maior complexo da cadea respiratoria; nos mamíferos consta de 45 cadeas polipeptídicas, das cales sete ...
Reactions catalyzed by 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylases from Escherichia coli and Gallus gallus: a case for ... Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 изд.). Wiley- ... Nicholas C. Price; Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Branden C; Tooze J. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8153-2305-0.. ...
Un exemplo de artigo de predición de xenes en Escherichia coli aplicando HMM é o de Krogh, A., et al. (1993) A Hidden Markov ... "A structural perspective on protein-protein interactions" (PDF). Current Opinion in Structural Biology 14. Páxs. 313-324. ... e en 1997 co xenoma de Escherichia coli (4,7 Mbps),[65] en 1998 co primeiro xenoma dun organismo multicelular (as 97 Mbp do ... Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli" (PDF). Proceedings of ...
... random conical tilt series applied to the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli". Journal of Microscopy. 146 (Pt 2): 113-36 ... This bacterial protein complex is a machine for folding other proteins, which get trapped within the shell. Fatty acid synthase ... Proteins in vitreous ice usually adopt a random distribution of orientations (or viewing angles), allowing a fairly isotropic ... Important information on protein synthesis, ligand binding and RNA interaction can be obtained using this novel technique at ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... One drawback to butanol production in E. coli remains the high cost of nutrient rich media, however, recent work has ... demonstrated E. coli can produce butanol with minimal nutritional supplementation.[37] Biodiesel[edit]. Main article: Biodiesel ...
NCBI Protein. search. Eksoribonukleaza II (EC, ribonukleaza II, ribonukleaza Q, BN ribonukleaza, Escherichia coli ekso ... I. Escherichia coli ribonuclease II". J. Biol. Chem. 243: 913-922. PMID 4867942. ... Schmidt, F.J. and McClain, W.H. (1978). "An Escherichia coli ribonuclease which removes an extra nucleotide from a biosynthetic ... "Specific ribonucleases involved in processing of tRNA precursors of Escherichia coli. Partial purification and some properties ...
೯೬.೦ ೯೬.೧ Juhas, M; Reuß, DR; Zhu, B; Commichau, FM (November 2014). "Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes ... Jacob F; Monod J (June 1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J Mol Biol. 3 (3): 318-56. doi: ... Salgado, H.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Smith, T.; Collado-Vides, J. (2000). "Operons in Escherichia coli: Genomic analyses and ... "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection.". Molecular systems biology ...
Bacterial keratitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus viridans, Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Pseudomonas, ... There may also be signs of anterior uveitis, such as miosis (small pupil), aqueous flare (protein in the aqueous humour), and ... Proper nutrition, including protein intake and Vitamin C are usually advised. In cases of Keratomalacia, where the corneal ...
"Prevalent positive epistasis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic networks". Nature Genetics. 42 (3): 272 ... Similarly, at the protein level, proteins that function as dimers may form a heterodimer composed of one protein from each ... This occurs when the amino acids within a protein interact. Due to the complexity of protein folding and activity, additive ... are separate components of a multi-component protein (such as the ribosome), inhibit each other's activity, or if the protein ...
Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A. *Hepatitis E ... Food proteins[edit]. Main article: Protein (nutrient). Proteins compose over 50% of the dry weight of an average living cell[ ... Nuts, grains and legumes provide vegetable sources of protein, and protein combining of vegetable sources is used to achieve ... Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Protein and Amino Acids, page 685, from ...
There have been many outbreaks of disease from bacterial contamination, often by salmonella, listeria, and Escherichia coli, of ... Beans are high in protein, complex carbohydrates, folate, and iron.[23] Beans also have significant amounts of fiber and ... This figure shows the grams of fiber and protein per 100 gram serving of each legume. The size of the circle is proportional to ... Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.[18] ...
... de Escherichia coli, se son destinadas a ir á mitocondria.[20][22] Así, poden xerarse células viables que carecen de ADN ligase ... Nash RA, Caldecott KW, Barnes DE, Lindahl T (April 1997). "XRCC1 protein interacts with one of two distinct forms of DNA ligase ... interaction between DNA polymerase beta and the XRCC1 protein". EMBO J. 15 (23): 6662-70. PMC 452490. PMID 8978692.. ... "Interactions of the DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 complex with DNA ends and the DNA-dependent protein kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (34): ...
"Expression in Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes for human insulin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Bakteri yang dihasilkan, bernama Mycoplasma laboratorium, dapat mereplikasi dan menghasilkan protein.[40][41] Empat tahun ... circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the ... menciptakan organisme transgenik pertama dengan memasukkan gen resistensi antibiotik ke dalam plasmid bakteri Escherichia coli. ...
Ovaj enzim je izolovan iz bakterija Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Escherichia coli i Bacillus subtilis. ... Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 изд.). Wiley- ... El Ghachi, M., Bouhss, A., Blanot, D. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D. (2004). „The bacA gene of Escherichia coli encodes an ... Tatar, L.D., Marolda, C.L., Polischuk, A.N., van Leeuwen, D. and Valvano, M.A. (2007). „An Escherichia coli undecaprenyl- ...
Neu, Harold C.; Heppel, Leon A. (September 1, 1965). "The release of enzymes from Escherichia coli by osmotic shock and during ... Yeast cells are normally protected by a thick cell wall which makes extraction of cellular proteins difficult. Enzymatic ... "The Effect of Spheroplast Formation on the Transformation Efficiency in Escherichia coli DH5α". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-05 ... Martinac, B., Buechner, M., Delcour, A. H., Adler, J., and Kung, C. (1987) Pressure-sensitive ion channel in Escherichia coli. ...
In contrast, bacteria such as Escherichia coli may be grown on solid or in liquid media. ... and sulfur to allow the bacteria to synthesize protein and nucleic acids ... Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli unable to synthesize it were commonly used by ...
Escherichia coli [online]. [Cit. 2010-02-03]. Dostupné online. (po česky). *↑ JENSEN, Mari N.. Caulerpa, The World's Largest ... The complement of protein kinases of the microsporidium Encephalitozoon cuniculi in relation to those of Saccharomyces ... bunka baktérie Escherichia coli.[12] Iné eukaryotické bunky, napríklad niektoré mnohojadrové bunky vo vnútri tiel veľkých ...
Selection of Escherichia coli[edit]. Puromycin is poorly active on E. coli. Puromycin-resistant transformants are selected in ... As puromycin inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, researchers were able to show that injections of this drug will ... But use of puromycin for E. coli selection requires precise pH adjustment and also depends on which strain is selected. For ... Starck SR, Green HM, Alberola-Ila J, Roberts RW (2004). "A general approach to detect protein expression in vivo using ...
Brown, E.D. & Wood, J.M. (1992). „Redesigned purification yields a fully functional PutA protein dimer from Escherichia coli". ... Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 изд.). Wiley- ... Nicholas C. Price; Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... Branden C; Tooze J. Introduction to Protein Structure. New York, NY: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8153-2305-0.. ...
Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A. *Hepatitis E ... The harmful proteins are those that do not break down due to the strong bonds of the protein. IgE antibodies bind to a receptor ... Many food allergies are caused by hypersensitivities to particular proteins in different foods. Proteins have unique properties ... Are the transferred proteins resistant to digestion - a trait shared by many allergenic proteins?[115] Genes approved for ...
Genome evolution and adaptation in a long-term experiment with Escherichia coli". Nature. 461 (7268): 1243-7. doi:10.1038/ ... In the light of directed evolution: pathways of adaptive protein evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli". Proceedings of ... Phenotypic and genomic evolution during a 20,000-generation experiment with the bacterium Escherichia coli". Plant Breeding ...
... and acts as a potent anti-microbial against certain pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (e.g., the O157:H7 strain) at ... it reduces neuron firing rate and triggers protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, resulting in DAT ... "ß-Phenylethylamine as a novel nutrient treatment to reduce bacterial contamination due to Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef meat ... On beef meat pieces, PEA reduced the bacterial cell count by 90% after incubation of the PEA treated and E. coli contaminated ...
During an outbreak of shigellosis in 1917, German professor Alfred Nissle isolated a strain of Escherichia coli from the feces ... and ammonia from the digestion of proteins. According to Metchnikoff, these compounds were responsible for what he called " ... "The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 interferes with invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells by different ... They observed the disappearance of the pathogenic protist Balantidium coli as well as of other gas-producing bacteria.[57] ...
DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. Histone proteins are made up ... "Genome-wide mapping of methylated adenine residues in pathogenic Escherichia coli using single-molecule real-time sequencing". ...
... and Escherichia coli B/r: an integrative theoretical approach. Microbiology. 2004, roč. 150, čís. Pt 5, s. 1413-26. Dostupné ... delivered as naked DNA or recombinant protein. Journal of Immunology. 2004, roč. 172, čís. 12, s. 7618-28. PMID 15187142.. ...
Escherichia coli • Haemophilus influenzae • Helicobacter Pylori • Klebsiella oxytoca • Klebsiella pneumoniae • Legionella • ... Tenovuo J (January 2002). "Clinical applications of antimicrobial host proteins lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and lactoferrin in ...
The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
... coli. The model is based on a set of proteins reported to... ... Prediction of protein solubility in Escherichia coli using ... We describe a statistical model that uses binomial logistic regression for predicting the solubility of heterologous proteins ... Predicting the Solubility of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli. In: García-Fruitós E. (eds) Insoluble Proteins. Methods ... Heterologous protein solubility prediction Escherichia coli Binomial logistic regression model This is a preview of ...
... proteins. A total of 79 ABC proteins makes this the largest paralogous family of proteins in E. coli. These 79 proteins include ... The Escherichia coli ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins.. Linton KJ1, Higgins CF. ... The recent completion of the Escherichia coli genome sequence (Blattner et al., 1997) has permitted an analysis of the ... Of the 12 systems that are not obviously transport related, the function of only one, the excision repair protein UvrA, is ...
Colicins are toxic exoproteins produced by bacteria of colicinogenic strains of Escherichia coli and some related species of ... An α-helical hydrophobic hairpin as a specific determinant in protein-protein interaction occurring inEscherichia coli colicin ... Application of the pColDF13 bacteriocin release protein in the release of the heterologous proteins ofEscherichia coli: ... Wooldridge K.G., Williams P.H.: Sensitivity ofEscherichia coli to cloacin DF13 involves the major outer membrane protein OmpF.J ...
Major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli. J Goldstein, N S Pollitt, and M Inouye ... When exponentially growing Escherichia coli cell cultures were transferred from 37 degrees C to 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C, ... The rate of CS7.4 production reached 13% of total protein synthesis within 1-1.5 hr after a shift to 10 degrees C and ... Regulation of CS7.4 expression was very strict, such that synthesis of the protein was undetectable at 37 degrees C. We have ...
PHOSPHOTRIESTERASE HOMOLOGY PROTEIN. A, B. 291. Escherichia coli. Mutation(s): 0 Find proteins for P45548 (Escherichia coli ( ... Biochemical characterization and crystallographic structure of an Escherichia coli protein from the phosphotriesterase gene ... Biochemical Characterization and Crystallographic Structure of an Escherichia Coli Protein from the Phosphotriesterase Gene ... Phosphotriesterase homology protein (PHP) is a member of a recently discovered family of proteins related to phosphotriesterase ...
Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Escherichia coliImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR036938 P_ ...
Proteins induced by anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Proteins induced by anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli.. M W Smith, F C Neidhardt ... We assessed this contribution by measuring the levels of 170 individual polypeptides produced by Escherichia coli K-12 in cells ... and nitrate antagonized the anaerobic induction of all of the proteins except one. The time course of synthesis of the proteins ...
The FtsZ protein is a GTPase that is essential for cell division in Escherichia coli. During cytokinesis, FtsZ localizes to a ... GTP-dependent polymerization of Escherichia coli FtsZ protein to form tubules Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... GTP-dependent polymerization of Escherichia coli FtsZ protein to form tubules. D Bramhill and C M Thompson ... Mutant FtsZ84 protein polymerized inefficiently, suggesting that polymerization is important for the cellular role of FtsZ in ...
... system is required for biogenesis of membrane proteins and contains two essential proteins: the SRP subunit Ffh and the SRP- ... With FtsY, we show that it is specifically required for expression of membrane proteins. Since no changes in mRNA levels or ... Scattered in vivo studies have raised the possibility that expression of membrane proteins is inhibited in cells depleted of ... Surprisingly, although FtsY and Ffh function in the same pathway, depletion of Ffh did not affect membrane protein expression ...
tr,A0A3G4QTL1,A0A3G4QTL1_ECOLX Fimbrial protein (Fragment) OS=Escherichia coli OX=562 GN=fimH PE=4 SV=1 ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR036937 ...
Escherichia coli is one of the best known and most often used host organisms for economical protein production. However, upon ... Such active protein particles can be further used for the isolation of pure proteins or as whole active protein particles in ... Until recently IBs formation represented a bottleneck in protein production as they were considered as deposits of inactive ... IBs composed from properly folded and biologically active recombinant proteins can be prepared. ...
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PROTEIN (REPLICATION-TERMINATOR PROTEIN). C [auth A]. 309. Escherichia coli B. Mutation(s): 0 ... ESCHERICHIA COLI REPLICATION TERMINATOR PROTEIN (TUS) COMPLEXED WITH DNA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1ECR/pdb ... The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli replication-terminator protein (Tus) bound to terminus-site (Ter) DNA has been ... The crystal structure of the Escherichia coli replication-terminator protein (Tus) bound to terminus-site (Ter) DNA has been ...
F41 and F18 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Immunization of sows with adhesins is important to stimulate the ... The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune response of the sows immunized with recombinant ETEC proteins (F4, F5, ... and F18 in the sows vaccinated with the recombinant proteins compared with the control group. The colostrum IgG titers for all ... F6, F18 and F41). The immune response of the sows immunized with the recombinant proteins was compared with a commercial ...
Optimizations to achieve high-level expression of cytochrome P450 proteins using Escherichia coli expression systems. Protein ... Overcoming heterologous protein interdependency to optimize P450-mediated Taxol precursor synthesis in Escherichia coli. ... Overcoming heterologous protein interdependency to optimize P450-mediated Taxol precursor synthesis in Escherichia coli ... 2007) Engineering Escherichia coli for production of functionalized terpenoids using plant P450s. Nat Chem Biol 3(5):274-277. ...
Protein Components in the 40S Ribonucleoprotein Particles in Escherichia coli Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... The 40S ribonucleoprotein particle in Escherichia coli cells, accumulated in the presence of a low concentration of ... by exposing the 50S ribosomal subunit to a concentrated lithium chloride solution may also be deficient in the same protein ... chloramphenicol, lacks at least four ribosomal structural protein components which are present in the mature 50S ribosomal ...
... has been cloned into Escherichia coli. The molecule produced by Escherichia coli is slightly larger than the M protein isolated ... Expression of streptococcal M protein in Escherichia coli Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... the molecule synthesized by Escherichia coli has the same type-specific determinants as the streptococcal M protein. ... The structural gene for group A streptococcal M protein, the fibrillar surface molecule enabling the organism to resist ...
Escherichia coli K-12). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
Species about Experts and Doctors on escherichia coli proteins in Germany ... Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655*Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. Sakai ... iron sulfur proteins*carbohydrate epimerases*maltose*cyclic amp receptor protein*periplasmic proteins*host factor 1 protein* ... Structural basis for the interaction of Escherichia coli NusA with protein N of phage lambda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004; ...
... are known to induce the synthesis of specific proteins. Here, we report the induction in Escherichia coli of a protein elicited ... are known to induce the synthesis of specific proteins. Here, we report the induction in Escherichia coli of a protein elicited ... Glucokinase of Escherichia coli: induction in response to the stress of overexpressing foreign proteins Arch Biochem Biophys. ... coli proteins, function in the stabilization of newly synthesized proteins. ...
... Arifuzzaman M., Maeda M., Itoh A., ... Protein-protein interactions play key roles in protein function and the structural organization of a cell. A thorough ... A large-scale comprehensive pull-down assay was performed using a His-tagged Escherichia coli ORF clone library. Of 4339 bait ... i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or ...
The mutagenicity of DNA double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli is controlled by DNA-damage (SOS) and general (RpoS) ... Roles of Nucleoid-Associated Proteins in Stress-Induced Mutagenic Break Repair in Starving Escherichia coli Genetics. 2015 Dec; ... The mutagenicity of DNA double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli is controlled by DNA-damage (SOS) and general (RpoS) ... Here we discovered that most small basic proteins that compact the genome, nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), promote or ...
1990) Escherichia coli helicase II (UvrD) protein initiates DNA unwinding at nicks and blunt ends. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... 1994) A mutational study of the C-terminal zinc-finger motif of the Escherichia coli UvrA protein. J. Biol. Chem. 269:10771- ... In Escherichia coli, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is initiated by the action of the UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC proteins. The UvrA ... Role of the Escherichia coli Nucleotide Excision Repair Proteins in DNA Replication. Geri F. Moolenaar, Celine Moorman, Nora ...
... Gaochi Li, Kentaro ... Depletion of YhcB, an inner membrane protein of Escherichia coli, inhibited the growth of rodZ deletion mutant showing that the ... Furthermore, YhcB was demonstrated to interact with RodZ as well as several other proteins involved in cell shape maintenance ... and an inner membrane protein YciS of unknown function, using bacterial two-hybrid system. These observations seem to indicate ...
Wang, J. C., 1971 Interaction between DNA and an Escherichia coli protein omega. J. Mol. Biol. 55: 523-533. ... Luckey, M., and H. Nikaido, 1980 Specificity of diffusion channels produced by λ phage receptor protein of Escherichia coli. ... Parallel Changes in Global Protein Profiles During Long-Term Experimental Evolution in Escherichia coli. Ludovic Pelosi, ... Parallel Changes in Global Protein Profiles During Long-Term Experimental Evolution in Escherichia coli. Ludovic Pelosi, ...
Engineering Escherichia coli into a protein delivery system for mammalian cells.. [Analise Z Reeves, William E Spears, Juan Du ... coli or integrated into the E. coli chromosome. To provide flexible control over type 3 secretion and protein delivery, we ... Here, we report the reengineering of a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli with a tunable type 3 secretion system that can ... and delivers heterologous proteins into mammalian cells. This reengineered system thus provides a highly flexible protein ...
2004 The Escherichia coli DjlA and CbpA proteins can substitute for DnaJ in DnaK-mediated protein disaggregation. J. Bacteriol. ... Thomas, J., D. J. Rigden and J. E. Cronan, 2007 Acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase (AcpH) of Escherichia coli is a non- ... Oh, M. K., and J. C. Liao, 2000 DNA microarray detection of metabolic responses to protein overproduction in Escherichia coli. ... and C. T. Walsh, 2000 Holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase and phosphopantetheinyl transfer in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. ...
Escherichia coli CFT073). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ... Protein target information for KHG/KDPG aldolase ( ...
... Author(s). ... Regeneration of Fe-S clusters is proposed to improve protein folding and clusters is proposed to improve protein folding and ... The goal of this work is to better understand the effects of oxygen in order to improve this recombinant protein production ... Recombinant α₁AT has been shown to undergo oxygen-dependent degradation during production in E. coli, due in part to activation ...
  • Abstract: '[Investigators] carried out quantitative system-wide analyses of protein and mRNA expression in individual cells with single-molecule sensitivity using a newly constructed yellow fluorescent protein fusion library for Escherichia coli. (
  • article{90864db6-10df-4743-8950-6627e8f974b9, abstract = {The complex I subunits NuoL, NuoM and NuoN are homologous to two proteins, MrpA and MrpD, from one particular class of Na+/H+ antiporters. (
  • Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) belongs to a family of related bacterial pathogens, including enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 and other human and animal diarrheagenic pathogens that form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on host epithelial surfaces. (
  • The enteric attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and the invasive pathogens enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella encode type III secretion systems (T3SS) used to inject effector proteins into human host cells during infection. (
  • Secretion of extracellular proteins by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli via a putative type III secretion system. (
  • The rate of CS7.4 production reached 13% of total protein synthesis within 1-1.5 hr after a shift to 10 degrees C and subsequently dropped to a lower basal level. (
  • Regulation of CS7.4 expression was very strict, such that synthesis of the protein was undetectable at 37 degrees C. We have cloned the gene encoding this protein and have completed the nucleotide sequence analysis, which revealed that the gene encodes a hydrophilic protein of 70 amino acid residues. (
  • Cell-free protein synthesis is a versatile protein production system. (
  • Performance of the protein synthesis depends on highly active cytoplasmic extracts. (
  • Here, we report an active cell-free protein synthesis system derived from cells harvested at non-growth, stressed conditions. (
  • This simplified growth protocol has the potential to attract new entrants to cell-free protein synthesis and to broaden the pool of applications. (
  • Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems comprise a large repertoire of biochemical pathways that can easily be controlled and manipulated 9 . (
  • One method of small protein identification involves adding an epitope tag to the 3' end of a short open reading frame (sORF) on the chromosome, with synthesis confirmed by immunoblot assays. (
  • In this study, this strategy was used to identify new E. coli small proteins, tagging 80 sORFs in the E. coli genome, and assayed for protein synthesis. (
  • however, there was no correlation between current sORF annotation and protein synthesis. (
  • The possibility that tubules of FtsZ protein form a cytoskeleton involved in septum synthesis is consistent with our data. (
  • The time course of synthesis of the proteins after shifts in oxygen supply revealed at least three distinct temporal patterns. (
  • Altogether, this study establishes E. coli as a tractable host for P450 chemistry, highlights the potential magnitude of protein interdependency in the context of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, and points to a promising future for the microbial synthesis of complex chemical entities. (
  • Strain LH530, a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12, was reported by others to show increased outer membrane permeability, temperature-sensitive growth, and reduced synthesis of lipid A. The unmapped mutant gene was found to be suppressed by high-copy-number plasmids carrying the wild-type acpT gene, which encodes a protein that catalyzes a post-translational protein modification, the attachment of 4′-phosphopantetheine. (
  • A variety of stressful conditions, such as heat shock, ethanol, osmotic shock, glucose deprivation, and oxidative stress, are known to induce the synthesis of specific proteins. (
  • As expected, the most abundant proteins were those involved in protein synthesis, most notably ribosomal proteins. (
  • The multiprotein primosome (which includes the DnaB and DnaG proteins), defined biochemically on the basis of its requirement during bacteriophage phi X174 complementary-strand synthesis, could serve as the helicase-primase replication machine on the lagging-strand template. (
  • Dumas LB, Miller CA, Bayne ML. Rifampin inhibition of bacteriophage phiX174 parental replicative-form DNA synthesis in an Escherichia coli dnaC mutant. (
  • The observation that the original structure might have been solved with bound L-arabinose necessitated the synthesis of the heavy-atom analog, its structure consistent with the sugar-binding specificity of the protein. (
  • The higher proteolysis rate and declining synthesis rate are thought to be the reasons for the lower yields of the protein ZZT2 in the large-scale and scale-down cultivations. (
  • One mixture contained all twenty amino acids in quantities, which would be sufficient for a synthesis of a half of biomass proteins, including the ZZT2 protein. (
  • Initial analysis of the effect of secAts mutations on bulk envelope protein synthesis confirmed the key role of SecA in protein transport, including many proteins assembled into the inner membrane. (
  • In E.coli , synthesis of secretory proteins and translocation through the cytoplasmic membrane are not coupled. (
  • Apart from the genes that catalyze polymer biosynthesis, natural PHA producers have several genes for proteins involved in granule formation and/or with regulatory functions, such as phasins, that have been shown to affect polymer synthesis. (
  • The use of glycerol for microbial PHA synthesis has been studied in natural PHA producers, such as Methylobacterium rhodesianum and several Pseudomonas strains ( 26 ), and also in recombinant E. coli carrying the PHB synthesis genes from Streptomyces aureofaciens ( 14 ). (
  • In absence of glucose, cAMP concentration is high and cAMP binds to the catabolite activator protein (CAP), allowing the latter to bind to the promoter and initiate mRNA synthesis. (
  • Map position of two genes, prmA and prmB, governing methylation of proteins L11 and L3. (
  • Isono S, Isono K, Hirota Y (1978) Mutations affecting the structural genes and genes coding for modifying enzymes for ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli . (
  • Lindahl L, Yamamoto M, Nomura M, Kirschbaum JB, Allet B, Rochaix JD (1977) Mapping of a cluster of genes for components of the transcriptional and translational machineries of Escherichia coli . (
  • 100 nt upstream of genes in E. coli , as would be expected for any trinucleotide sequence. (
  • 100 nt upstream is not significantly higher than that for the set of all E. coli genes (Fisher's exact test, one tailed, P = 0.18) or the control set of 2,807 genes described by Nigam et al. (
  • In 2010, it was reported that the proportion of recombinant genes expressed in E. coli , compared with those expressed in all hosts had remained constant, at roughly 60% per year during the 15 year period 1995-2009 ( Sørensen, 2010 ). (
  • P.537 left column 4th paragraph: 'At the ensemble level, the mean mRNA abundances among these 137 genes range from 0.05 to 5 per cell, and are moderately correlated with the corresponding mean protein expression level at the gene-by-gene basis (correlation coefficient r = 0.77) (Fig. 3C). (
  • The cAMP response protein (CRP) is a transcription factor known to regulate many genes in Escherichia coli. (
  • The analysis also identifies many new E. coli binding sites and genes likely to be functional for CRP. (
  • Cysteine-substituted proteins encoded by mutagenized genes may be screened directly for disulfide formation within oligomers or, alternatively, different pools of genes may be randomly recombined to generate gene populations with substitutions in multiple regions. (
  • Although the data do not include measurements on all expressed genes (because the ability to measure protein expression profiles is limiting), the qual. (
  • av. mRNA and protein amplification factors for 77 and 52 genes coincided with the obsd. (
  • Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains commonly harbor genes involved in formation of fimbriae, such as the sfa(II) fimbrial gene cluster found in uropathogenic and newborn meningitis isolates. (
  • The three pha structural genes, phaBAC , were introduced in expression plasmids and used for the construction of recombinant E. coli strains that accumulate the polymer from different carbon sources ( 16 ). (
  • Bacteria, such as Escherichia coli , provide "simple" biological models due to a relatively small genome/proteome size (less than 5,000 genes/proteins) and are easy to culture. (
  • The operon model that they suggested [ 3 ] can be described as follows: In the absence of any regulation, the expression of three structural genes ( lacZ, lacY, lacA ) is inhibited by a repressor molecule, the protein product of lacI gene. (
  • lacZ) in aerobic and anaerobic conditions after the corresponding treatments we concluded that the function and the spatial structure of meAda and [(Cys−)2Fe+(NO+)2]Ada are identical and thus the nitrosylated protein represents an Ada regulon genes expression regulator during quasi-adaptation development. (
  • To address these concerns, expressions systems using multiple eukaryotic cells were developed for applications requiring the proteins be conformed as in, or closer to eukaryotic organisms: cells of plants (i.e. tobacco), of insects or mammalians (i.e. bovines) are transfected with genes and cultured in suspension and even as tissues or whole organisms, to produce fully folded proteins. (
  • Mutant FtsZ84 protein polymerized inefficiently, suggesting that polymerization is important for the cellular role of FtsZ in division. (
  • Depletion of YhcB, an inner membrane protein of Escherichia coli , inhibited the growth of rodZ deletion mutant showing that the loss of both YhcB and RodZ is synthetically lethal. (
  • isolated another E. coli mutant strain, strain LH530, that was hypersensitive to hydrophobic and large hydrophilic antibiotics and showed temperature-sensitive growth. (
  • It was found that the acetylase activity specific for protein L12 was negligible, when assayed in vitro, in the high-speed supernatant prepared from mutant cells. (
  • I. A mutant lacking the N-terminal acetylation of protein S5 exhibits thermosensitivity. (
  • Studies of a mutant lacking the N-terminal acetylation of protein S18. (
  • To investigate the role of EspA and EspB in EPEC pathogenesis, we constructed mutant strains in E. coli serotype O103. (
  • Induction of protein production at the onset of cultivation decreased growth rate and glucose consumption rate for both the WT and the mutant strains. (
  • This mutant HypB fully supports the production of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in E. coli . (
  • The versatile Escherichia coli facilitates protein expression with relative simplicity, high cell density on inexpensive substrates, well known genetics, variety of expression vectors, mutant strains, co-overexpression technology, extracytoplasmic secretion systems, and recombinant protein fusion partners. (
  • The poor expression in the cytoplasm was improved by several strategies, including coexpression of the cytoplasmic chaperone GroEL/ES, using a mutant E. coli host strain with an oxidative cytoplasm, and protein fusion technology. (
  • When added to the culture medium, the recombinant carbohydrate-free GM2-activator, carrying the hexahistidine tail, could be taken up efficiently and restored the degradation of ganglioside GM2 to normal rates in mutant fibroblasts with the AB variant of GM2-gangliosidosis, which is characterized by a genetic defect in the GM2-activator protein. (
  • We cloned a gene for a putative norfloxacin efflux protein from the chromosomal DNA of V. parahaemolyticus by using an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the major multidrug efflux system AcrAB as the host and sequenced the gene ( norM ). (
  • An immunosorbent method using antiglutaredoxin-Sepharose was developed for purification of glutaredoxin in high yield from a mutant strain of Escherichia coli K 12 lacking thioredoxin reductase (C 10-17). (
  • Möller W, Groene A, Terhorst C, Amons R (1972) 50S ribosomal proteins: Purification and partial characterization of two acidic proteins, A1 and A2, isolated from 50S ribosomes of Escherichia coli . (
  • Until now, detailed characterization of the SfaX(II) protein has been hampered by difficulties in obtaining large quantities of soluble protein. (
  • The comparison involved: 1) physical characterization of oxygen mass transfer efficiency and mixing intensity, 2) batch cultivation of Escherichia coli BL21 for comparison of growth characteristics, and 3) batch cultivation of recombinant E. coli BL21 expressing a clinical therapeutic, hCD83ext (the extracytoplasmic domain of human CD83). (
  • The substrate proteins identified in this study offer a rich source for determining their regulatory enzymes and for further characterization of the possible contributions of this modification to cellular physiology and human diseases. (
  • Colicins are toxic exoproteins produced by bacteria of colicinogenic strains of Escherichia coli and some related species of Enterobacteriaceae , during the growth of their cultures. (
  • Escherichia coli bacteria were transformed with a plasmid containing GFP gene. (
  • Therefore, YbbN may play a role in integrating the activities of different chaperone pathways in E. coli and related bacteria. (
  • Escherichia coli is a well-studied anaerobic bacteria which is able to regulate metabolic pathways depending on the type of sugar presented in the medium. (
  • In molecular biology the SeqA protein is found in bacteria and archaea. (
  • Commonly used protein production systems include those derived from bacteria, yeast,baculovirus/insect, mammalian cells, and more recently filamentous fungi such as Myceliophthora thermophila. (
  • For example, common hosts are bacteria (such as E.coli, B. subtilis), yeast (such as S.cerevisiae) or eukaryotic cell lines. (
  • Hence, multi-domain eukaryotic proteins expressed in bacteria often are non-functional. (
  • To combine the high yield/productivity and scalable protein features of bacteria and yeast, and advanced epigenetic features of plants, insects and mammalians systems, other protein production systems are developed using unicellular eukaryotes (i.e. non-pathogenic 'Leishmania' cells). (
  • Addition of IPTG (a lactose analog) activates the lac promoter and causes the bacteria to express the protein of interest. (
  • We first introduced a 31 kB region of Shigella flexneri DNA that encodes all of the information needed to form the secretion nanomachine onto a plasmid that can be directly propagated within E. coli or integrated into the E. coli chromosome. (
  • We then constructed a Gateway-compatible plasmid library of type 3 secretion sequences to enable rapid screening and identification of sequences that do not perturb function when fused to heterologous protein substrates and optimized their delivery into mammalian cells. (
  • The resulting protein, enriched in proline, was expressed from plasmid pGC139 in E. coli maxicells. (
  • The plasmid encodes a fusion protein with a hexahistidine tail and a Factor Xa cleavage site at its N-terminus. (
  • With the help of this plasmid the activity of the T7RNAP can be precisely set thereby avoiding saturation of the Sec translocon upon membrane protein over-expression. (
  • The plasmid vector harbored DNA encoding the SfaX(IIC70S) protein N-terminally fused with a six histidine (H6) sequence followed by a ZZ tag (a derivative of the Staphylococcus protein A) (H6-ZZ tag). (
  • Cells of E. coli transformed with a plasmid carrying the norM gene showed elevated energy-dependent efflux of norfloxacin. (
  • E. coli is one of the most widely used expression hosts, and DNA is normally introduced in a plasmid expression vector. (
  • For example, a DNA sequence for a protein of interest could be cloned or subcloned into a high copy-number plasmid containing the lac (often LacUV5) promoter, which is then transformed into the bacterium E. coli. (
  • The FtsZ protein is a GTPase that is essential for cell division in Escherichia coli. (
  • Background: The discovery of the autotransporter family has provided a mechanism for surface expression of proteins in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli. (
  • Furthermore, YhcB was demonstrated to interact with RodZ as well as several other proteins involved in cell shape maintenance and an inner membrane protein YciS of unknown function, using bacterial two-hybrid system. (
  • We mapped the strain LH530 mutation to a gene of unknown function, yejM , known to encode an inner membrane protein. (
  • The mechanism whereby overexpression of a specific cytosolic protein bypasses the essentiality of an inner membrane protein is unknown. (
  • Interaction of the cell division protein FtsZ with the Escherichia coli inner membrane. (
  • Chapter 2 A small fraction of the FtsZ molecules is tightly bound to the Escherichia coli inner membrane. (
  • Epigenetic regulation of the nitrosative stress response and intracellular macrophage survival by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli. (
  • Suppression by AcpT overexpression of the yejM nonsense mutants encoding the truncated proteins was specific to AcpT. (
  • Among mutants of E. coli selected for temperaturesensitive growth, four were found to possess alterations in ribosomal proteins L7/L12. (
  • Tryptic and thermolysin fingerprints of the protein L12 purified from the rimL mutants showed a profile indistinguishable from that of wild-type protein. (
  • These results indicated that the three mutants contain mutations in the gene rimL that codes for an acetylating enzyme specific for ribosomal protein L12. (
  • Isono K, Cumberlidge AG, Isono S, Hirota Y (1977) Further temperature-sensitive mutants of Escherichia coli with altered ribosomal proteins. (
  • In order to determine if this is the case, we have begun an investigation of the phenotypes of mutants with mutations priA, priB, and priC, which encode the primosomal proteins factor Y (protein n'), n, and n", respectively. (
  • I. Distinct classes of mutants in the pBR322 Escherichia coli factor Y DNA effector sequences. (
  • Gottesman S, Halpern E, Trisler P. Role of sulA and sulB in filamentation by lon mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. (
  • In this study, the export of the outer membrane protein TonA was used as a model system to examine the effect on protein translocation of two temperature sensitive secretion mutants, secA and secY. (
  • Mutants of the catabolite activator protein of Escherichia coli that are specifically deficient in the gene-activation function. (
  • Idicula-Thomas S, Balaji PV (2005) Understanding the relationship between the primary structure of proteins and its propensity to be soluble on overexpression in Escherichia coli. (
  • Here, we report the induction in Escherichia coli of a protein elicited in response to a hitherto unidentified stress condition, i.e., the overexpression of foreign proteins. (
  • Addgene: General co-expression vectors for the overexpression of heterodimeric protein complexes in Escherichia coli. (
  • The techniques for overexpression in E. coli are well developed and work by increasing the number of copies of the gene or increasing the binding strength of the promoter region so assisting transcription. (
  • Davis GD, Elisee C, Newham DM et al (1999) New fusion protein systems designed to give soluble expression in Escherichia coli. (
  • In this study, we have introduced the human beta-casein cDNA into vectors designed for expression in Escherichia coli. (
  • Marinus, M.G. / The LipB protein is a negative regulator of dam gene expression in Escherichia coli . (
  • Here, we report the reengineering of a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli with a tunable type 3 secretion system that can efficiently deliver heterologous proteins into mammalian cells, thereby circumventing the need for virulence attenuation. (
  • The model is based on a set of proteins reported to have been expressed in E. coli in either soluble or insoluble form. (
  • Schein CH, Noteborn MHM (1988) Formation of soluble recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is favored by lower growth temperature. (
  • To facilitate extraction of the overexpressed recombinant protein in soluble form and to maintain the biological activity, the protein is usually targeted to the periplasm. (
  • The trimethylamine N ‐oxide (TMAO) reductase of Escherichia coli is a soluble periplasmic molybdoenzyme. (
  • Although, the protocol is rather simple for soluble proteins, heterologous protein expression is frequently encountered by major technical limitations including inefficient translation, formation of insoluble inclusion bodies, lack of posttranslational modification mechanisms, degradation by host proteases, and impaired cell physiology due to host/protein toxicity, in achieving functional expression of stable, soluble, and bioactive protein. (
  • A portion of the expressed protein was soluble and functional in an assay for PPO activity. (
  • Batch production of GST-hCD83ext (glutathione S-transferase-hCD83ext fusion protein) resulted in similar soluble protein yields and inclusion body formation between bioreactors. (
  • Here, the recombinant production of a soluble, self-complemented construct of the LpfD protein of E. coli LF82 is reported and it is demonstrated that it forms the adhesive tip subunit of LPF. (
  • Enteric disorders in pigs are related to the fimbriae F4 (K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F41 and F18 of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). (
  • Nagy, B. and Fekete, P.Z. (2005) Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Veterinary Medicine. (
  • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. (
  • Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile. (
  • In an effort to characterize the effects of these stresses on the cell, DNA microarrays were used to monitor global gene expression of E. coli producing recombinant human αl-antitrypsin (α₁AT) during exposure to defined aeration conditions. (
  • The sfaX(II) gene, located at the distal end of the sfa(II) operon, was recently shown to play a role in controlling virulence-related gene expression in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). (
  • The obtained results were consistent with previously published gene expression data, with β-galactosidase being the most strongly induced protein during the diauxic shift. (
  • To reveal the mechanisms of quasi-adaptation and its association with the function of the regulatory protein Ada here we used a unique property of dual gene expression regulation of aidB1 gene, a part of Ada-regulon, namely its relative independence from Ada protein in anaerobic conditions. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. (
  • P450 enzymes are intransigent to functional heterologous expression, especially in Escherichia coli , leading many laboratories to abandon this organism when engineering P450-containing pathways. (
  • In this way, we provide both data and novel insights into the role of protein concentration in this model organism. (
  • On account of the wide range of molecular, genetic, and microbiological tools available, use of the well-studied model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , provides many opportunities to optimize the functional yields of a target protein. (
  • In contrast, Pichia pastoris , a relative new-comer as a host organism, is already becoming a popular choice, particularly because of the ease with which high biomass (and hence recombinant protein) yields can be achieved. (
  • Most studies of regulatory sRNAs have been carried out in E. coli and approximately 80 species of sRNAs have been identified in this organism. (
  • Proteomics aims to be comprehensive - quantifying "all" proteins present in an organism, tissue or cell. (
  • Engineering Escherichia coli into a protein delivery system for mammalian cells. (
  • Many Gram-negative pathogens encode type 3 secretion systems, sophisticated nanomachines that deliver proteins directly into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. (
  • Combining these elements, we found that coordinated expression of the type 3 secretion system and modified target protein substrates produces a nonpathogenic strain that expresses, secretes, and delivers heterologous proteins into mammalian cells. (
  • Several host systems are available for the production of recombinant proteins, ranging from Escherichia coli to mammalian cell-lines. (
  • A protein expressed by the mammalian cell system is of very high-quality and close to the natural protein. (
  • The yeast protein expression system serve as a eukaryotic system integrate the advantages of the mammalian cell expression system. (
  • E. coli, yeast, insect, or mammalian cell can be selected above to determine price. (
  • Colson C, Lhoest J, Urlings C (1979) Genetics of ribosomal protein methylation in Escherichia coli . (
  • While the passenger in some cases was successfully translocated, a major problem has been low levels of full-length protein on the surface due to proteolysis following export over the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • The aim of the present study was to increase the surface expression yield of the model protein SefA, a Salmonella enterica fimbrial subunit with potential for use in vaccine applications, by reducing this proteolysis through process design using Design of Experiments methodology. (
  • At the same time, the yield of full-length protein was increased by 300 %, indicating a 33 % reduction in proteolysis. (
  • Autotransporters have been used for surface expression of a variety of proteins, but the expression systems reported in literature have typically been inflexible and incapable of detecting proteolysis, thereby limiting surface expression yield. (
  • While proteolysis could not be eliminated completely, the work presented in this thesis is a major step towards a general system for surface expression of a wide range of proteins in varied applications. (
  • Proteolysis was shown to have a significant impact on the accumulation and the final yield of recombinant proteins. (
  • Much smaller intracellular concentrations of the proteins SpA and ZZT2 compared to their stable versions SpA-?galactosidase and ZZT0 were explained by their high proteolysis rate. (
  • Although in both cases feeding of amino acids improved the biomass yield and slightly reduced proteolysis rate, the concentration of recombinant protein ZZT2 was less than half compared to the control. (
  • Intracellular proteolysis has been recognized as one of the key factors limiting recombinant protein production, particularly for eukaryotic proteins heterologously expressed in the prokaryotic expression systems of E. coli. (
  • The goal of the present work was therefore to construct a vector containing elements that facilitates analysis of surface expression, especially for proteins that are sensitive to proteolysis or otherwise difficult to express. (
  • This economic loss is due to purchasing additional protein to supplement diets because of poor utilization of the nonprotein nitrogen products of proteolysis (ammonia, amino acids, and small peptides) by ruminant animals. (
  • By contrast, red clover ( Trifolium pratense ), a forage with protein content similar to alfalfa, has up to 90% less proteolysis than alfalfa during ensiling ( Papadopoulos and McKersie, 1983 ). (
  • Here, through a series of optimizations, we demonstrate E. coli as a viable host for P450-mediated oxidative chemistry, advancing Taxol's biosynthesis through a fivefold increase in oxygenated terpene titers. (
  • Welz D, Braun V. Ferric citrate transport of Escherichia coli: functional regions of the FecR transmembrane regulatory protein. (
  • In the last few years, advances have been made in understanding how a yeast cell responds to the stress of producing a recombinant protein and how this information can be used to identify improved host strains in order to increase functional yields. (
  • To study these diverse roles, it is necessary to be able to work with sufficient quantities (typically multi-milligram) of suitably stable and functional protein samples. (
  • The minimal set of proteins constituting a functional translocase complex comprises SecA, SecY, SecE and SecG, which mediate the ATP‐ and proton motive force‐dependent translocation across the membrane ( Schatz and Dobberstein, 1996 ). (
  • In a functional assay, the GM2-activator thus generated from Escherichia coli and renatured, with or without the hexahistidine tail, was as active as the native GM2-activator protein that was purified from human tissue. (
  • Since their natural abundance is usually very low, most membrane proteins have to be over-expressed for functional and structural studies. (
  • This includes the transcription of the recombinant DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA), the translation of mRNA into polypeptide chains, which are ultimately folded into functional proteins and may be targeted to specific subcellular or extracellular locations. (
  • Combined with previous observations that YbbN enhances the DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperone system, we propose that YbbN coordinately regulates the activities of these two prokaryotic chaperones, thereby helping to direct client protein traffic initially to DnaK. (
  • T7 RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) based Escherichia coli strains, like BL21(DE3), are very popular protein production hosts. (
  • With the new protocol I have studied the effects of the expression of membrane proteins, including the human KDEL receptor, on BL21(DE3) and its derivatives, C41(DE3) and C43(DE3) (a.k.a. the Walker strains). (
  • The protein was produced in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells grown in autoinduction culture media. (
  • Batch growth characteristics of E. coli BL21 were similar in each system, although acetate accumulation was significant in the 1D RB. (
  • E. coli strain BL21 and BL21(DE3) are two strains commonly used for protein production. (
  • We found a downshift of ribosomes and proteins. (
  • Site of action of a Vero toxin (VT2) from Escherichia coli O157:H7 and of Shiga toxin on eukaryotic ribosomes. (
  • To provide flexible control over type 3 secretion and protein delivery, we generated plasmids expressing master regulators of the type 3 system from either constitutive or inducible promoters. (
  • Bacterial secreted Esp proteins and a type III secretion system are conserved among these pathogens and trigger host cell signal transduction pathways and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and mediate intimate bacterial adherence to epithelial cell surfaces in vitro. (
  • At least three secreted proteins, EspA (( 21 )), EspB (( 22 )) and EspD (( 23 )), encoded by espA , espB , and espD , are secreted via the type III secretion pathway. (
  • The yeast protein expression system is the most economical and efficient eukaryotic system for secretion and intracellular expression. (
  • Proteins which are exported from the cytoplasm are thought to interact with a complex cellular machinery and a number of mutations affecting this secretion machinery have been isolated. (
  • Secretion of extracellular proteins via a type III secretion apparatus is necessary for the formation of attaching and effacing lesions by EPEC. (
  • The human pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC), as well as the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium encode type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins to promote their survival in the infected host. (
  • The mutation is a yejM nonsense mutation that produces a truncated protein lacking the predicted periplasmic domain. (
  • Genetic analyses have revealed that the mutation responsible for this alteration maps at a locus around 34 min of the current E. coli genetic map, which is clearly different from the location for the structural gene for protein L7/L12 which is situated at 89 min. (
  • The MI values show a significant correlation with mutation data under stress but not with spontaneous mutations in E. coli . (
  • By a rational modeling approach, we engineered a Cys70Ser mutation, which successfully improved solubility of the protein. (
  • Afamily of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) 1 causes diarrhea in humans and animals (( 1 )), yet the mechanism by which they cause disease in vivo has not been defined. (
  • Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) infections result in attaching and effacing lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • A new colicin that adsorbs to the outer membrane protein Tsx but is dependent on the tonB instead of the tolQ membrane transport system. (
  • Consistent with a coupling between translocation across the SecYEG translocon and folding by periplasmic chaperones, a lack of PpiD retards the release of a translocating outer membrane protein into the periplasm. (
  • The C-terminal signal was successfully fused to a hybrid protein containing a few residues of ss-galactosidase and the majority of E. coli outer membrane protein OmpF lacking its own NH2-terminal signal sequence. (
  • Transporters of the RND family consist of several subunits (usually three), and an outer membrane protein(s) is involved in the drug transport. (
  • We have investigated the inhibition by SulA of the assembly of Escherichia coli FtsZ. (
  • In association with browning, leaf proteins remain undegraded during ensiling, presumably due to PPO-generated o -quinone inhibition of leaf proteases. (
  • The effect of DksA protein on the susceptibility of E. coli towards the ANHP NPs was investigated via the plate counting technique and the zone of inhibition test. (
  • The C-terminal linker of Escherichia coli FtsZ functions as an intrinsically disordered peptide. (
  • Consistent with these results, the cell division protein FtsZ failed to localize at the septum but diffused in the cytosol. (
  • Be aware that a NCBI nonredundant RefSeq protein (WP_) can be annotated on large numbers of bacterial genomes that encode that identical protein. (
  • All three encode proteins predicted to localize to the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. (
  • This article highlights the benefits of using yeast, especially for more challenging targets such as membrane proteins. (
  • Finally, the localisation of haemolysin and several outer membrane proteins synthesised in spheroplasts was also examined in the hope of gaining some further insight into the route taken by proteins which reach the outer membrane or the external medium. (
  • Membrane proteins fulfil a wide variety of essential functions in the cell and many are (potential) drug targets. (
  • Unfortunately, over-expression of membrane proteins in E. coli is usually toxic to the cells. (
  • Saturation of the Sec translocon, a cytoplasmic membrane associated protein conducting channel that mediates the insertion/biogenesis of membrane proteins, appeared to be the prime reason for the toxicity of membrane protein over-expression. (
  • In the present study, the recombinant bioactive FIP-fve protein with a His-tag in N -terminal of recombinant protein was expressed in transetta (DE3) at a high level under the optimized culturing conditions of 0.2 mM IPTG and 28 °C. The efficiency of the purification was improved with additional ultrasonication to the process of lysozyme lysis. (
  • This protocol can be adapted for the purification of other proteins. (
  • With modifications, this protocol may be used for the purification of other proteins. (
  • The purification of fusion proteins by GST fusion system has been widely applied in various biochemical and structural studies (Harper and Speicher, 2011). (
  • Arai K, McMacken R, Yasuda S, Kornberg A. Purification and properties of Escherichia coli protein i, a prepriming protein in phi X174 DNA replication. (
  • The secreted EHEC proteins are recognized by rabbit antiserum raised against the proteins secreted from EPEC and by human serum from a patient infected with an EHEC O157:H7 strain. (
  • PDF] Binding of adenine to Stx2, the protein toxin from Escherichia coli O157:H7. (
  • Kaltschmidt E, Wittmann HG (1970) Ribosomal proteins. (
  • Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for fingerprinting of ribosomal proteins. (
  • Li K, Subramanian AR (1975) Selective separation procedure for determination of ribosomal proteins L7 and L12. (
  • Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12. (
  • Stimulation of the potassium sensor KdpD kinase activity by interaction with the phosphotransferase protein IIA(Ntr) in Escherichia coli. (
  • Lipoprotein NlpI of Escherichia coli is involved in the cell division, virulence, and bacterial interaction with eukaryotic host cells. (
  • The interaction of Escherichia coli replication factor Y with complementary strand origins of DNA replication. (
  • This expression system provides a simple way to obtain a large amount of the biologically active recombinant protein, to study structure-function relationships of the rat kallikrein-binding protein and its interaction with its target enzymes. (
  • In particular these data indicate that SecA and SecY may interact sequentially to promote protein export and that SecA may be required to maintain preTonA in a translocationally competent form prior to interaction with SecY. (
  • Consequently, it is necessary to maintain precursor proteins in an export‐competent conformation prior to the interaction with the translocase. (
  • A variety of proteins in E. coli interact with YbbN, including multiple ribosomal protein subunits and a strong interaction with GroEL. (
  • Here we use topological analysis of sRNA targets in terms of protein-protein interaction and transcription-regulatory networks in Escherichia coli to shed light on the global correlation between sRNA regulation and cellular control networks. (
  • In protein-protein interaction network, sRNA targets tend to occupy more central positions (higher closeness centrality, p-val = 0.022) and more cliquish (larger clustering coefficient, p-val = 0.037). (
  • As was found for the protein-protein interaction network, the targets that are regulated by the same sRNA also tend to be closely knit within the transcription-regulatory network (larger density, p-val = 0.036), and inward interactions between them are greater than the outward interactions (higher in-degree ratio, p-val = 0.023). (
  • Our results indicate that sRNA targeting tends to show a clustering pattern that is similar to the human microRNA regulation associated with protein-protein interaction network that was observed in a previous study. (
  • Namely, the sRNA targets show close interaction and forms a closely knit network module for both the protein-protein interaction and the transcription-regulatory networks. (
  • One of the few organisms where direct protein concentrations are available on a nearly proteome wide level is the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (
  • A protein expressed by yeast system could be modificated such as glycosylation, acylation, phosphorylation and so on to ensure the native protein conformation. (
  • Our proteins produced by yeast expression system has been used as raw materials for downstream preparation of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Tmp21, a type-I integral membrane protein and COPI-vesicle receptor involved in trans-Golgi network function, as an NleF-binding partner. (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • Proteins copurifying with hexahistidine-tagged baits on a Ni2+-NTA column were identified by MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry). (
  • Here, we describe an experimental scheme to maximize the coverage of proteins identified by mass spectrometry of a complex biological sample. (
  • The proteomics field and its key technology mass spectrometry are developing rapidly from qualitative towards quantitative measurements without the need for individual tagging of proteins. (
  • An N-terminal peptide containing all tentative phosphorylation sites was isolated from the recombinant protein and analyzed by mass spectrometry. (
  • and a two-dimensional protein electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry method for protein anal. (
  • We have studied the glucose-lactose shift in E. coli at the protein level using a recently developed mass spectrometry platform. (
  • Here we report the first proteomics screening of the PB-DOPA protein substrates and their sites in Escherichia coli and human mitochondria by nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC/MS/MS) and protein sequence alignment using the PTMap algorithm. (
  • When exponentially growing Escherichia coli cell cultures were transferred from 37 degrees C to 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C, the production of a 7.4-kDa cytoplasmic protein (CS7.4) was prominently induced. (
  • The movement of proteins within the cytoplasm must be constrained by a combination of viscosity, macromolecular crowding, and specific interactions of the protein with other cell components (e.g., other proteins, nucleic acids, and the cytoplasmic membrane). (
  • A wide variety of proteins which are synthesised in the cytoplasm of E. coli are subsequently directed either to non-cytoplasmic compartments or transported to the extracellular medium. (
  • The most intriguing observation is that translocation of the TMAO reductase across the cytoplasmic membrane is independent of the SecY, SecE, SecA and SecB proteins. (
  • However, both Sec‐dependent and Sec‐independent protein insertion into the E.coli cytoplasmic membrane have been reported. (
  • Colicin A unfolds during its translocation in Escherichia coli cells and spans the whole cell envelope when its pore has formed. (
  • Colicin cleavage by OmpT protease during both entry into and release from Escherichia coli cells. (
  • The contribution of protein induction and repression to the adaptation of cells to changes in oxygen supply is only poorly understood. (
  • We assessed this contribution by measuring the levels of 170 individual polypeptides produced by Escherichia coli K-12 in cells growing aerobically or anaerobically with and without nitrate. (
  • Within bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli , similar measurements are challenging because of the small dimensions of the cell. (
  • Nevertheless, studies of the mobility of fluorescently tagged proteins are starting to give powerful insights into the dynamics of processes occurring in living bacterial cells. (
  • All of these studies depend on the use of cells engineered to express fusion proteins in which the protein of interest is fused to a fluorescent protein tag, usually a variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP). (
  • Surface proteins of Escherichia coli K12 were identified by radiolabelling using 1,3,4,6 - tatrachloro, 3-alpha, 6-alpha - diphenylgycoluryl (Iodo-Gen) and /sup 131/I. Labelled proteins were localized in the outer membrane of the cells. (
  • Radiolabelling of E.coli cells inculbated at 42/sup 0/C showed that the syntheses of two surface proteins were temperature-inducible. (
  • Additionally we observe a significant correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. (
  • Proteins fulfill a wide variety of functions and are central to almost all processes in living cells. (
  • β-Glucuronidase from Escherichia coli has been used in the enzymatic cleavage and activation of glucuronide prodrugs in non-small cell lung cancer cells, U87 human glioblastoma cell line, in A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and KB (human oral squamous carcinoma). (
  • Tir (( 10 )), formerly Hp90 (( 16 )), is delivered to tissue culture cells, and requires the secreted proteins EspA and EspB for its translocation. (
  • These secreted proteins are essential for triggering of host signal transduction pathways in tissue culture cells. (
  • The feasibility of expressing repeated synthetic codons in bacterial cells was demonstrated by showing that repeated codons for proline were expressed in Escherichia coli. (
  • Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein expressed in E. coli, mammalien cells or by baculovirus infection. (
  • Quantifying E. coli proteome and transcriptome with single-molecule sensitivity in single cells. (
  • tools in the context of an environmental perturbation of Escherichia coli cells-the addn. (
  • The authors also tested the application of these tools to the study of a genetic perturbation of Escherichia coli cells-the ability of certain strains to hypersecrete the hemolysin protein. (
  • Cells of E. coli transformed with the cloned ydhE gene showed elevated resistance to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, acriflavine, and tetraphenylphosphonium ion, but not to ethidium, when MICs were measured. (
  • The number of small proteins (SPs) encoded in the Escherichia coli genome is unknown, as current bioinformatics and biochemical techniques make short gene and small protein identification challenging. (
  • There is a need for improved appreciation of the importance of genome-wide mRNA and protein expression measurements and their role in understanding translation and in relation to genome-wide math. (
  • Energy-coupled transport and signal transduction through the gram-negative outer membrane via the TonB-ExbB-ExbD dependent receptor proteins. (
  • Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ferric enterobactin receptor FepA, an integral membrane protein from Escherichia coli. (
  • Diffraction-quality crystals have been obtained of the integral membrane protein ferric enterobactin receptor (FepA) from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. (
  • This cooperativity among effector proteins explains how bacterial pathogens are able to effectively suppress innate immune defense mechanisms in response to diverse classes of immune receptor signaling complexes (RSCs) stimulated during infection. (
  • We have devised a generally applicable strategy for analysis of protein structure and have applied it to examine the structure of the transmembrane portion of the Tar receptor of Escherichia coli. (
  • Surface topology and sequence conservation in the adhesin domain hint at a putative receptor-binding pocket as found in the Klebsiella pneumoniae MrkD and E. coli F17-G (GafD) adhesins. (
  • LpfD binding was found to be resistant to treatment with O- or N-glycosidases, but was lost in collagenase-treated tissue sections, indicating the possible involvement of an intestinal matrix-associated protein as the LpfD receptor. (
  • Escherichia coli HypB binds nickel with sub-picomolar affinity, and the formation of the HypB-SlyD complex activates nickel release from the high-affinity site (HAS) of HypB. (
  • Leicester Research Archive: Mechanisms of protein translocation in Escherichia coli. (
  • These results strongly suggest that the translocation of the molybdoenzyme TMAO reductase into the periplasm uses a mechanism fundamentally different from general protein translocation. (
  • Genetic and biochemical investigations have shown that the SecYEG complex is the integral part of the general protein translocation apparatus and that this complex is required for all proteins to be translocated into the periplasm of E.coli . (
  • Extension of this technology could lead to improvement in the production of amino acids and to nutritional enrichment of single-cell protein. (
  • To confirm the fidelity of the expression, the N-terminal ten amino acids of the recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein were sequenced and were shown to match perfectly with those of the native rat kallikrein-binding protein. (
  • Two mixtures of amino acids were fed together with glucose in fed-batch cultures aiming to improve a biomass yield and a concentration of the ZZT2 protein. (
  • The other mixture contained only five socalled "protein amino acids", which were reported to be primarily incorporated into biomass: alanine, arginine, methionine, histidine and phenylalanine. (
  • The mixture of five "protein amino acids" in shake flask culture even inhibited the cellular growth, which is seen as an indicator of disturbed metabolism caused by added amino acids. (
  • Two amino acids, Leu149 and Val223, were identified as proteolytically sensitive when Pseudozyma antarctica lipase (PalB) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. (
  • Walter S, Buchner J (2002) Molecular chaperones-cellular machines for protein folding. (
  • Microcin plasmids: a group of extrachromosomal elements coding for low molecular weight antibiotics in Escherichia coli . (
  • For example, it is conceivable that macromolecules could form a molecular sieve imposing a distinct size limit on protein mobility ( 19 ). (
  • Thermodynamic analysis of a molecular chaperone binding to unfolded protein substrates. (
  • Molecular chaperones are a highly diverse group of proteins that recognize and bind unfolded proteins to facilitate protein folding and prevent nonspecific protein aggregation. (
  • β-Glucuronidase from Escherichia coli is similar to human glucuronidase enzyme and corresponds to molecular weight close to 69-71 kDa and has an pH optimum of 6.5-7.5. (
  • As a small-molecular-weight protein, FIPs have the advantage of easy modification and potential use in wide-ranging industrial applications [ 19 , 20 ]. (
  • Recent studies have identified several effector proteins from A/E pathogens and EIEC/ Shigella that are involved in suppression of NF-κB and have uncovered their cellular and molecular functions. (
  • It showed a molecular mass of 43 kDa and was recognized by polyclonal antibody to the native rat kallikrein-binding protein in Western-blot analysis. (
  • The study offers an alternative genetic strategy in molecular manipulation to enhance recombinant protein production in E. coli. (
  • In total the protein was deduced to have 85 residues corresponding to a molecular weight of 9674 for the reduced form of glutaredoxin, making it one of the smallest known enzymes (a glutathione-disulfide transhydrogenase). (
  • For example, the chemotaxis signal transducer CheY (14 kDa) was tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), producing a fusion protein of about 41 kDa ( 3 , 22 ) It remains an open question how much the addition of a substantial fluorescent tag might perturb the mobility of the protein of interest. (
  • The fusion protein production was induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and they were purified by Glutathione Sepharose 4B. (
  • The presence of the Myc- but not of the His(6)-tag on the cell surface during H:gm expression allowed us to confirm the hypothesis that this fusion protein was present on the surface and oriented towards the cell exterior. (
  • Modeling and Simulation of Production of Metallothionein and Red Fluorescent Fusion Protein by Recombinant Escherichia Coli Using Graphical Programming, Modeling, Programming and Simulations Using LabVIEW™ Software Riccardo De Asmundis, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/14091. (
  • This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. (
  • Both components of the fusion protein were detected using GM1-ganglioside-dependent enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. (
  • This suggested the fusion protein retained both its native antigenicity and the ability to form pentamers. (
  • In this thesis, model protein expression systems are used to address the technical issues for enhancing recombinant protein expression in E. coli. (
  • Heitman J, Zinder ND, Model P. Repair of the Escherichia coli chromosome after in vivo scission by the EcoRI endonuclease. (
  • Hiasa H, Sakai H, Komano T. Identification of single-strand initiation signals in the terC region of the Escherichia coli chromosome. (
  • The binding of SeqA protein to hemimethylated GATC sequences is important in the negative modulation of chromosomal initiation at oriC, and in the formation of SeqA foci necessary for Escherichia coli chromosome segregation. (
  • Anaerobic induction ratios ranged from 1.8- to 11-fold, and nitrate antagonized the anaerobic induction of all of the proteins except one. (
  • 1 ) identified 42 Escherichia coli proteins whose expression increased following induction of the MazF RNase toxin by nalidixic acid (NA). (
  • These results are discussed in the context of existing models for SOS induction and possible roles for the PriA protein at the replication fork in vivo. (
  • The production of the recombinant protein ZZT2 was highest in the lab-scale cultivation (50 mg/g), however in the large-scale the ZZT2 concentration declined 8 hours after induction from its highest value of 45 to a final value of 35 mg/g. (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • PHP, which has 28% sequence identity with phosphotriesterase, may belong to the family of proteins from which phosphotriesterase evolved. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (
  • Heiland I, Wittmann-Liebold B (1979) Amino acid sequence of the ribosomal protein L21 of Escherichia coli . (
  • the cloned sequence was expressed as a fusion to an ampicillinase protein. (
  • In order to increase yield of the recombinant protein, several strategies such as codon optimization, signal sequence tagging and bacterial strain engineering have been developed. (
  • The tool PERISCOPE is freely available for the researcher to predict the level of protein expressed based on the combination of signal sequence and amino acid sequence of a protein. (
  • Protein sequence diversity is preferred under stress but not under favorable conditions. (
  • Therefore, we evaluated the selection pressure on MI in terms of the protein sequence diversity for all the protein-coding sequences in E. coli . (
  • Our results suggest that the majority of protein-coding sequences have evolved to promote protein sequence diversity and to reduce gene knockout under stress. (
  • No reported drug efflux protein in the sequence databases showed significant sequence similarity with NorM. (
  • Here, with the ability to determine the absolute number of molecules per cell, [investigators] determined the ratio between the mean protein abundance and the mean mRNA abundance to range from 10^2 to 10^4. (
  • Specifically, enteral exposure of 2 wk-old mice to commensal E. coli for 24 h selectively increased both IFN-αA and GBP-1 mRNA expression and prevented staurosporine-induced epithelial apoptosis. (
  • Insights into the relation between mRNA and protein expression patterns: II. (
  • between mRNA and protein expression profiles. (
  • The purified recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein formed SDS- and heat-stable complexes with rat tissue kallikrein (rK1) and T-kininogenase (rK10) in vitro, but not with other enzymes in the rat kallikrein gene family, such as tonin (rK2) and S3 protein (rK9), which indicates enzyme-specific binding. (
  • The properties of the recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein including its size, charge, complex formation with target enzymes and immunological characteristics were compared with those of the native protein. (
  • More-recent approaches demonstrate the use of endogenous E. coli RNA polymerase and "housekeeping" σ 70 as a strong transcription unit to produce proteins in vitro 15 . (
  • Given these advantages, and their industrial importance in the production of biopharmaceuticals, I argue that S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris should be considered at an early stage in any serious strategy to produce proteins. (
  • Collectively, this study shows for the first time that the type III secreted proteins EspA and EspB are needed to form A/E lesions in vivo and are indeed virulence factors. (
  • The primary structure of the protein was determined by analyses of [14C]carboxymethylated glutaredoxin and its proteolytic fragments obtained by digestions with trypsin, clostripain, chymotrypsin and staphylococcal Glu-specific extracellular protease. (
  • Antonoaea R, Fürst M, Nishiyama K, Muller M. The periplasmic chaperone PpiD interacts with secretory proteins exiting from the SecYEG translocon. (
  • In this respect, a translation system originating from heat stressed, non-growing E. coli enabled an extension of endogenous transcription units. (
  • This setup allows for an expansion of transcription regulatory parts and has proven to be extremely suitable, with its application ranging from highly efficient protein production 16 to prototyping of gene circuits 17 . (
  • Proteins involved in energy metabolism as well as those with binding function were also found in high copy number while proteins annotated with the terms metabolism, transcription, transport, and cellular organization were rare. (
  • Elevation of NlpI expression enhanced the transcription and the outer membrane localization of the heat shock protein IbpA and IbpB. (
  • Therefore, selection might significantly influence protein-coding sequences in terms of the transcription-associated mutability per transcription event under stress to improve the survival of Escherichia coli . (
  • Nonrandom transcription-associated mutagenesis under stress should improve the survival of E. coli . (
  • The larger numbers of mutations on the nontranscribed strand are partly but not solely attributable to the activity of the transcription-coupled DNA repair system, which acts on the transcribed strand, in E. coli [6] . (
  • To resolve these problems, we have carried out a systematic study of the size dependence of protein diffusion coefficients in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm, using engineered GFP multimers (from 2 to 6 covalently linked GFP molecules). (
  • To resolve the question of the size dependence of protein diffusion in the E. coli cytoplasm, FRAP was used to measure diffusion coefficients ( D ) for a series of engineered GFP oligomers, ranging in size from 30 kDa (GFP monomers) to 165 kDa (six linked GFP molecules). (
  • Many proteins contain a thioredoxin (Trx)-like domain fused with one or more partner domains that diversify protein function by the modular construction of new molecules. (
  • Thus, it is possible to detect a variety of disulfide cross-links between and within individual protein molecules. (