Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Escherichia coli K12: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Chaperonin 10: A group I chaperonin protein that forms a lid-like structure which encloses the non-polar cavity of the chaperonin complex. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroES protein.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.ThymineMolecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Periplasmic Proteins: Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Peptide Elongation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.ArabinoseCarbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.UracilSpheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.PeptidoglycanMultienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (1/18963)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (2/18963)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (3/18963)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B. (4/18963)

The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described.  (+info)

Role of DnaK in in vitro and in vivo expression of virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae. (5/18963)

The dnaK gene of Vibrio cholerae was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a dnaK insertion mutant which was then used to examine the role of DnaK in expression of the major virulence factors of this important human pathogen. The central regulator of several virulence genes of V. cholerae is ToxR, a transmembrane DNA binding protein. The V. cholerae dnaK mutant grown in standard laboratory medium exhibited phenotypes characteristic of cells deficient in ToxR activity. Using Northern blot analysis and toxR transcriptional fusions, we demonstrated a reduction in expression of the toxR gene in the dnaK mutant strain together with a concomitant increase in expression of a htpG-like heat shock gene that is located immediately upstream and is divergently transcribed from toxR. This may be due to increased heat shock induction in the dnaK mutant. In vivo, however, although expression from heat shock promoters in the dnaK mutant was similar to that observed in vitro, expression of both toxR and htpG was comparable to that by the parental strain. In both strains, in vivo expression of toxR was significantly higher than that observed in vitro, but no reciprocal decrease in htpG expression was observed. These results suggest that the modulation of toxR expression in vivo may be different from that observed in vitro.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships of pathogenic clones of Vibrio cholerae by sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes. (6/18963)

Studies of the Vibrio cholerae population, using molecular typing techniques, have shown the existence of several pathogenic clones, mainly sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones. However, the relationship of the pathogenic clones to environmental V. cholerae isolates remains unclear. A previous study to determine the phylogeny of V. cholerae by sequencing the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene of V. cholerae showed that the sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones had very different asd sequences which fell into separate lineages in the V. cholerae population. As gene trees drawn from a single gene may not reflect the true topology of the population, we sequenced the mdh (malate dehydrogenase) and hlyA (hemolysin A) genes from representatives of environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae and found that the mdh and hlyA sequences from the three pathogenic clones were identical, except for the previously reported 11-bp deletion in hlyA in the sixth-pandemic clone. Identical sequences were obtained, despite average nucleotide differences in the mdh and hlyA genes of 1.52 and 3.25%, respectively, among all the isolates, suggesting that the three pathogenic clones are closely related. To extend these observations, segments of the recA and dnaE genes were sequenced from a selection of the pathogenic isolates, where the sequences were either identical or substantially different between the clones. The results show that the three pathogenic clones are very closely related and that there has been a high level of recombination in their evolution.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a novel Ibe10 binding protein that contributes to Escherichia coli invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells. (7/18963)

The molecular basis of Escherichia coli traversal of the blood-brain barrier in the development of E. coli meningitis is not well understood. We have previously shown that a novel Ibe10 protein found in cerebrospinal fluid isolates of E. coli is necessary for invasion of the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) that constitute the blood-brain barrier both in vitro and in a newborn rat model of hematogenous meningitis. Here we identified a novel Ibe10 binding molecule/receptor (Ibe10R) on both bovine BMEC (HBMEC) and human BMEC (HBMEC) that is responsible for invasion by E. coli. Ibe10R, an approximately 55-kDa protein, was purified from BBMEC by Ibe10-Ni-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Bovine Ibe10R, as well as polyclonal antibodies to Ibe10R, blocked E. coli invasion of BBMEC very effectively. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Ibe10R showed 75% homology to serum albumin. However, the amino acid sequence of an Ibe10R fragment generated by limited enzymatic digestion did not reveal homology to any other proteins, suggesting that Ibe10R represents a novel albumin-like protein. Immunocytochemical analysis of BBMEC using anti-Ibe10R antibody suggested that only a subset of cultured BBMEC express Ibe10R on their surface. Enrichment of Ibe10R-positive BBMEC by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with anti-Ibe10R antibody resulted in enhanced invasion by E. coli. The anti-Ibe10R antibody raised against bovine Ibe10R also blocked E. coli invasion of HBMEC very effectively. Interestingly, anti-Ibe10R antibody affinity chromatography of HBMEC membrane proteins revealed a smaller protein with an approximate molecular mass of 45 kDa. These results suggest that the Ibe10 of E. coli interacts with a novel BMEC surface protein, Ibe10R, for invasion of both BBMEC and HBMEC.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the dnaK gene of Campylobacter jejuni and antigenicity of heat shock protein 70. (8/18963)

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea throughout the world. In addition, there is growing evidence that Guillain-Barre syndrome, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, is frequently preceded by C. jejuni infection. In the present study, the hrcA-grpE-dnaK gene cluster of C. jejuni was cloned and sequenced. The dnaK gene consists of an open reading frame of 1,869 bp and encodes a protein with a high degree of homology to other bacterial 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSPs). The overall percentages of identity to the HSP70 proteins of Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Bacillus subtilis were calculated to be 78.1, 60.5, 57.2, and 53. 8%, respectively. Regions similar to the Escherichia coli sigma70 promoter consensus sequence and to a cis-acting regulatory element (CIRCE) are located upstream of the hrcA gene. Following heat shock, a rapid increase of dnaK mRNA was detectable, which reached its maximum after 20 to 30 min. A 6-His-tagged recombinant DnaK protein (rCjDnaK-His) was generated in E. coli, after cloning of the dnaK coding region into pET-22b(+), and purified by affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Antibody responses to rCjDnaK-His were significantly elevated, compared to those of healthy individuals, in about one-third of the serum specimens obtained from C. jejuni enteritis patients.  (+info)

Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli are related pathotypes of bacteria that cause acute watery diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis, respectively, and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli can lead to a serious complication known as haemolytic uraemic syndrome. In both bacteria the global regulatory protein Ler controls virulence. The ler gene is found within the locus of enterocyte effacement, or LEE, encoding a type III secretion system necessary for injecting effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells and causing net secretory diarrhoea. The nucleoid-associated protein H-NS silences, whereas Ler serves as an anti-silencer of, multiple LEE operons. Although Ler has a higher affinity for DNA than does H-NS, the precise molecular mechanism by which Ler increases LEE transcription remains to be determined. In this report we investigate the oligomerization activity of Ler. In solution, Ler forms dimers and soluble aggregates of up to 5000 kDa molecular mass, and appears to oligomerize more
TY - JOUR. T1 - A gram-negative characteristic segment in Escherichia coli DnaK is essential for the ATP-dependent cooperative function with the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. AU - Sugimoto, Shinya. AU - Higashi, Chihana. AU - Saruwatari, Kozue. AU - Nakayama, Jiro. AU - Sonomoto, Kenji. PY - 2007/6/26. Y1 - 2007/6/26. N2 - We describe importance of the characteristic segment in ATPase domain of DnaK chaperone which is present in all gram-negative bacteria but is absent in all gram-positive bacteria. In vitro studies, ATPase activity, luciferase-refolding activity, and surface plasmon resonance analyses, demonstrated that a segment-deletion mutant DnaKΔ74-96 became defective in the cooperation with the co-chaperones DnaJ and GrpE. In addition, in vivo complementation assay showed that expression of DnaKΔ74-96 could not rescue the viability of Escherichia coli ΔdnaK mutant at 43 °C. Consequently, we suggest evolutionary significance for this DnaK ATPase domain segment in gram-negative bacteria ...
In the study described here, we have taken steps to characterize the YjeE protein, an Escherichia coli protein of unknown function that is essential for bacterial viability. YjeE represents a protein family whose members are broadly conserved in bacteria, absent from eukaryotes and contain both Walker A and B motifs, characteristic of P-loop ATPases. We have revisited the dispensability of the yjeE gene in E. coli and describe efforts to probe the function of the YjeE protein with in vitro biochemistry. We have looked critically for ATPase activity in the recombinant E. coli protein and have made vigilant use of site-directed variants in the Walker A [K41A (Lys41→Ala) and T42A] and putative Walker B (D80Q) motifs. We noted that any hydrolysis of ATP by the wild-type E. coli protein might be attributed to background ATPase, since it was not appreciably different from that of the variants. To overcome potential contaminants, we turned to crystalline pure YjeE protein from Haemophilus influenzae ...
What is Escherichia coli?. Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless, others can make you sick. Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. Still other kinds of E. coli are used as markers for water contamination-so you might hear about E. coli being found in drinking water, which are not themselves harmful, but indicate the water is contaminated. It does get a bit confusing-even to microbiologists.. What are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli? Some kinds of E. coli cause disease by making a toxin called Shiga toxin. The bacteria that make these toxins are called "Shiga toxin-producing" E. coli, or STEC for short. You might hear them called verocytotoxic E. coli (VTEC) or enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC); these all refer generally to the same group of bacteria. The most commonly identified STEC in North America is ...
AEEC - Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli. Looking for abbreviations of AEEC? It is Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli. Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli listed as AEEC
Base Sequence, Binding Sites, Catalysis, Cations; Divalent, Endoribonucleases/genetics/*metabolism, Escherichia coli/*enzymology, Escherichia coli Proteins, Hydrolysis, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, RNA; Catalytic/genetics/*metabolism, RNA; Messenger/chemistry/*metabolism, RNA; Transfer/chemistry/metabolism, Ribonuclease P ...
BioAssay record AID 1077160 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of Escherichia coli FabH expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) after 25 mins.
Escherichia Coli news, clinical research studies and treatment articles dealing with e. coli infections for medical professionals to stay updated. Get our FREE app now.
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli associated with early-onset sepsis (EOS) have historically been antibiotic-susceptible and K1-encapsulated. In the era of emerging antibiotic resistance, however, the clonal makeup of E coli associated with EOS has not been well characterized. METHODS: Escherichia coli isolates were collected from 28 cases of EOS and early-onset meningitis (EOM)
Escherichia coli ATCC ® 700927D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Escherichia coli strain EDL 933 TypeStrain=False Application:
Escherichia coli ATCC ® 700927D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Escherichia coli strain EDL 933 TypeStrain=False Application:
BioAssay record AID 414701 submitted by ChEMBL: Resistance index, MIC for aminoglycosides-resistant Escherichia coli BL21 harboring pETSACG1 expressing APH(3)-3a enzyme to MIC for Escherichia coli BL21.
This protocol was developed in a project aimed to identify the inner membrane proteins localizing to cell poles in Escherichia coli (E. coli). By using a known polar protein Tar as a tag, we isolated pole-derived inner membrane vesicles by affinity capture. The specificity of the polar vesicle isolation was confirmed by mass spectrometry that identified more than one hundred proteins, most of which are known inner membrane proteins, including other known polar proteins. This protocol, or if adapted properly by choosing other affinity targets, is well suited to isolate other membrane domains of interest for identification of proteins or lipid composition.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of CTX-M steady-state mRNA, mRNA half-life and protein production in various STs of Escherichia coli. AU - Geyer, Chelsie N.. AU - Fowler, Randal C.. AU - Johnson, James R.. AU - Johnston, Brian. AU - Weissman, Scott J.. AU - Hawkey, Peter. AU - Hanson, Nancy D.. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Objectives: High levels of β-lactamase production can impact treatment with a β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination. Goals of this study were to: (i) compare the mRNA and protein levels of CTX-M-15- and CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from 18 different STs and 10 different phylotypes; (ii) evaluate the mRNA half-lives and establish a role for chromosomal- and/or plasmid-encoded factors; and (iii) evaluate the zones of inhibition for piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam. Methods: Disc diffusion was used to establish zone size. RNA analysis was accomplished using real-time RT-PCR and CTX-M protein levels were evaluated by immunoblotting. Clinical ...
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The mechanism of transport of KP-736, a novel cephalosporin with a 1,5-dihydroxy-4-pyridone moiety at the C-7 position, into the Escherichia coli K-12 cell was investigated by determining the susceptibilities of iron transport mutants to KP-736. The tonB mutant showed a higher degree of resistance to KP-736, indicating that KP-736 was incorporated into E. coli cells via the tonB-dependent iron transport system. The product of the exbB gene was also necessary for the maximal antibacterial potency of KP-736. Cir-lacking and Fiu-lacking mutants showed a moderate level of resistance to KP-736. However, mutants lacking any one of the proteins FepA, FecA, FhuA, and FhuE did not show any increased resistance to KP-736. Two types of spontaneous mutants (e.g., KT1004 and KT1011) could be isolated from cir and fiu mutants by selection for KP-736 resistance and showed the same level of resistance to KP-736 as a tonB mutant. KT1004 showed tonB phenotypes, resistance to phage phi 80, and loss of FecA, ...
Abstract : Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are the major health concern, as it causes infections in human mainly in urinarytract, ear, and wound infections. The present study evaluates the impact of biofield energy treatment on E. coli regardingantimicrobial sensitivity assay, biochemical study and biotype number. Four multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs)of E. coli (LS 12, LS 13, LS 42, and LS 51) were taken in two groups i.e. control and treated. After treatment, above mentionedparameter were evaluated on day 10 in control and treated samples using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The antimicrobialsensitivity assay was reported with 46.67% alteration (14 out of 30 tested antimicrobials) in treated group of MDR E. coli isolates.The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study showed the alteration in MIC values of about 34.37% (11 out of 32) testedantimicrobials, after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of E. coli. Piperacillin/tazobactam was reported with ...
Inhibition of disulfide bond formation in Escherichia coli implicates an intricate collaboration of proteins which comprise the glutathione and thioredoxin reducing pathways. Bioengineers have successfully engineered E. coli possessing mutated reducing pathways that promote, rather than inhibit, disulfide bond formation in the cytoplasm. The transcriptome of six such mutant E. coli strains have been characterized using Microarray technology. We find that all mutant strains, exhibit a unique response to oxidative stress, not observed in wild type. Statistical analyses revealed the expression of more than 200 genes that are affected by mutations within the reducing pathways. Significantly up-regulated biological processes include cysteine biosynthesis, histidine biosynthesis, NADH Dehydrogenase I biosynthesis, sugar catabolic processes, and activation of stress responses . The second part of this work describes the construction of an E. coli strain that promotes the complete conversion of ...
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Nucleotide sequences of translated regions of the trp operon in 12 wild strains of Escherichia coli reveal striking uniformity among eight strains (suggesting recent common ancestry and supporting the importance of periodic selection in natural populations) and clustered substitutions in four strains (implicating events affecting runs of nucleotides).
The ability of salt to rescue division in an FtsEX null mutant is enigmatic if FtsEX is needed for proper assembly or stability of the septal ring. Presumably, the downstream essential division proteins, FtsK through FtsN, all of which are required for division even on media containing salt, have some ability to localize in the absence of FtsEX. Consistent with this, RG60 is sensitive to β-lactams that target FtsI (D. Weiss, unpublished data) and we observed localization of FtsN, which is a late recruit to the division site (1), when RG60 was grown under permissive conditions. It is tempting to speculate that the ability of downstream proteins to localize independently of FtsEX is why we observed some residual localization of FtsK, FtsQ, and FtsI in filaments depleted of FtsEX in LB with no salt, but we cannot exclude the less interesting possibility that there is residual FtsEX in these filaments. Our depletion strains express ftsEX from a multicopy plasmid, so we sought to reduce the ...
Slipped-strand mispairing (SSM) has not been identified as a mechanism of phase variation in Escherichia coli. Using a reporter gene, we show that sequences that cause phase variation by SSM in Haemophilus influenzae also lead to phase variation when introduced onto the chromosome of E. coli, and the frequencies of switching are in the biologically relevant range. Thus, the absence of SSM-mediated phase variation in E. coli does not appear to be due to a mechanistic constraint. ...
The bacterium Escherichia coli is making rounds around the world. The bacteria, previously considered far less harmeless has come under in recent months. To be fair, most of the bacteria is commonly found among humans and animals alike. However, its contact with people with antibacterial resistance can lead to severe illnesses. These include cases of blood poisoning or even resulting in septic shocks. The recent breakout of these illnesses due to anti-bacterial resistance lead researchers to look a bit closer. The outbreak of E.Coli happens as some people may eat bad case of raw meat or a poor personal hygiene. If one doesnt wash his hands after visiting a restroom, they are more likely to be at risk from possible infections. This lead scientists to ask which one is more dangerous as a source of infection. Researchers from University of East Anglia in United Kingdom started this discovery on an unclear note. They were puzzled as the healthy bacteria lives in the intestine of most individuals. ...
Birkenbihl, R.P.; Vielmetter, W., 1989: Cosmid derived map of escherichia coli strain bhb2600 in comparison to the map of strain w3110
Bekijk Stockfoto van Escherichia Coli Cell With Disrupted Cell Envelope Due To Phage Release After The Phage Replicate Within Host Cells They Must Be Released From The Host Cell This Often Occurs By Lysing The Cell Sem X3500. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
Heterologous Expression of Mycobacterial Esx Complexes in Escherichia coli for Structural Studies Is Facilitated by the Use of Maltose Binding Protein Fusions. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 1fft: The Structure of Ubiquinol Oxidase From Escherichia Coli
The efficient redesign of bacteria for biotechnological purposes, such as biofuel production, waste disposal or specific biocatalytic functions, requires a quantitative systems-level understanding of energy supply, carbon and redox metabolism. The measurement of transcript levels, metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes per se gives an incomplete picture. An appreciation of the interdependencies between the different measurement values is essential for systems-level understanding. Mathematical modeling has the potential to provide a coherent and quantitative description of the interplay between gene expression, metabolite concentrations and metabolic fluxes. Escherichia coli undergoes major adaptations in central metabolism when the availability of oxygen changes. Thus, an integrated description of the oxygen response provides a benchmark of our understanding of carbon, energy and redox metabolism. We present the first comprehensive model of the central metabolism of E. coli that describes steady
Bacterial adhesion to other bacteria, to eukaryotic cells, and to extracellular matrix proteins is frequently mediated by cell surface-associated polymers (fimbriae) consisting of one or more subunit proteins. We have found that polymerization of curlin to fimbriae-like structures (curli) on the surface of Escherichia coli markedly differs from the prevailing model for fimbrial assembly in that it occurs extracellularly through a self-assembly process depending on a specific nucleator protein. The cell surface-bound nucleator primes the polymerization of curlin secreted by the nucleator-presenting cell or by adjacent cells. The addition of monomers to the growing filament seems to be driven by mass action and guided only by the diffusion gradient between the source of secreted monomer and the surface of monomer condensation.. ...
Nitric oxide (NO) is a by-product of normal metabolic processes in some bacteria, and part of the arsenal of toxic compounds mammalian cells use to kill invading pathogens. In self-defense, Escherichia coli synthesizes several enzymes that detoxify it. In some cases, these enzymes are made only in cells that have been exposed to NO. Several NO-sensitive regulatory proteins in E. coli have been previously characterized. Now Diane Bodenmiller and Stephen Spiro of Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta describe a new NO-responsive regulator, of previously unknown function, which switches off gene expression in the absence of NO.
The tRNA substrates of TrmJ in Escherichia coli. (A) The cloverleaf structures of six E. coli tRNAs with a 2′-O-methylated ribose in position 32 from the MODO
EINLEITUNG Der Zusammenhang von veränderten intestinalen Mikrobiota und chronisch entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen (CED) wird seit langem diskutiert. Neben einer verringerten bakteriellen Diversität konnte auch die Zunahme einzelner Bakteriengruppen diesen Erkrankungen zugeordnet werden. Die Rolle einer möglicherweise kolitogenen Mikrobiota ist in diesem Zusammenhang jedoch weiter unklar. Kürzlich konnte gezeigt werden, dass α-Hämolysin (HlyA)-produzierende Escherichia coli (E. coli) an einem Enterozytenzellmodell Läsionen, so genannte Focal Leaks, induzieren können. Daher sollte in dieser Arbeit eine intestinale Kolonisation mit HlyA-produzierenden Bakterien in einem in vivo Modell untersucht und ihr möglicher Einfluss auf CED geprüft werden. METHODEN Mukosa-assoziierte, Mukus-assoziierte und intraepitheliale Bakterien, die aus Kolonbiopsien von Patienten mit CED und Darmgesunden gewonnen wurden, wurden mittels Bakterienkultur untersucht. In der quantitativen real-time PCR ...
One thing that surprises me is how difficult it is to find an Escherichia coli strain that meets a certain set of specifications. For instance, I want a strain with the lactose permease knocked out and the arabinose permease under the control of a constitutive promoter so that I can get linear induction with both lactose and arabinose. I dont think one exists (if it does please email me!). I also cant find a strain that is lacIq and has the lactose permease deleted (again email me if you have this strain!). I find this situation mildly frustrating. I also find the nomenclature of Escherichia coli genotype information to be unnecessarily confusing but I am willing to let it slide as a historical artifact. (See the attempt to decipher the code.) However, in my mind what is truly astonishing is the dearth of information available on existing strains and the fact that some of this information is wrong! Case in point: I was interested in using a strain of Escherichia coli with the lacIq mutation. I ...
One thing that surprises me is how difficult it is to find an Escherichia coli strain that meets a certain set of specifications. For instance, I want a strain with the lactose permease knocked out and the arabinose permease under the control of a constitutive promoter so that I can get linear induction with both lactose and arabinose. I dont think one exists (if it does please email me!). I also cant find a strain that is lacIq and has the lactose permease deleted (again email me if you have this strain!). I find this situation mildly frustrating. I also find the nomenclature of Escherichia coli genotype information to be unnecessarily confusing but I am willing to let it slide as a historical artifact. (See the attempt to decipher the code.) However, in my mind what is truly astonishing is the dearth of information available on existing strains and the fact that some of this information is wrong! Case in point: I was interested in using a strain of Escherichia coli with the lacIq mutation. I ...
E. coli is an abbreviated form of the name Escherichia Coli. It is a naturally occurring bacterium that dwells inside a humans large intestine. In e...
Escherichia coli (abreujat E.coli) quei bactèri hèra estudiat e un deus èstes vius los mei coneguts per lòmi. Quei present dens lintestin de mantuns animaus e que ho descoberta en 1885 per Théodore Escherich dens la matèria fecau deu nenè. Per lòmi quei un comensau qui pòt estar patogèn. Que reageish negativament au test Gram (quei donc Gram -), anaerobia facultativa, ques maveish mercés aus sons flageus. ...
Escherichia coli jedna je od najčešće prisutnih bakterija u krvi bakteremične teladi. U radu su 22 izolata E. coli bila izdvojena iz krvi teško bolesne teladi. Izolati su pripadali serološkoj skupini O. Lančanom reakcijom...
Many Escherichia coli strains are covered in a layer of surface-associated polysaccharide called the capsule. Capsular polysaccharides represent a major surface antigen, the K antigen, and more than 80 distinct K serotypes result from structural diversity in these polymers. However, not all capsules …
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Die aerobe sn-Glycerin-3-Phosphat-Dehydrogenase (GlpD) aus Escherichia coli ist ein lösliches Enzym, das in vivo durch die Bindung an die cytoplasmatische Membran aktiviert wird. Diese Arbeit beschreibt den zugrunde liegenden molekularen Mechanismus der GlpD-Membran-Bindung.,br /,Durch Kompetitionsstudien wurde gezeigt, dass die Bindung von GlpD an eukaryontisches Calmodulin die GlpD-Membran Bindung widerspiegelt. Mittels C-terminal verkürzter GlpD-Fragmente und mittels in-vitro-Mutagenese wurde die CaM-Bindedomäne von GlpD auf den Bereich von Aminosäuren 355-370, einer basisch amphiphilen alpha-Helix, eingegrenzt. Punktmutationen, die elektropositive Aminosäuren gegen elektronegative im hydrophilen Teil dieser Helix austauschen, beeinträchtigten die CaM-Bindung.,br /,Direkte GlpD-Lipid Interaktion wurde auf zwei unterschiedlichen Wegen demonstriert. Mithilfe der Monolayer-Technik wurde die penetrative Kraft von GlpD gegenüber unterschiedlich zusammengesetzten Phospholipid-Monolayern ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies _gap_,48452 in Escherichia coli SE11. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of _gap_,48452.
Read "Reptation-Induced Coalescence of Tunnels and Cavities in Escherichia Coli XylE Transporter Conformers Accounts for Facilitated Diffusion, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Title: Biosynthesis of poly(2-hydroxyisovalerate-co-lactate) by metabolicallyengineered Escherichia coli Author: Yang, J.E., Kim, J.W., Oh, Y.H., Choi, S.Y., Lee, H., Park, A.-R.,Shin, J., Park, S.J., and Lee, S.Y. Journal: Biotechnol. J. , 11(12): 1
Bacterial persisters are rare phenotypic variants that temporarily tolerate high antibiotic concentrations. Persisters have been hypothesized to underlie the recalcitrance of biofilm infections, and strategies to eliminate these cells have the potential to improve treatment outcomes for many hospita …
Escherichia (ešeríchia) je důležitá skupina gramnegativních tyčinkovitých bakterií. Hlavním zástupcem této skupiny je Escherichia coli, která žije u člověka v tlustém střevě, a tvoří důležitou součást přirozeného střevního mikrobiomu. Escherichia coli může vyvolávat řadu střevních i mimostřevních infekcí, riziko roste zejména při přemnožení bakterií ...
Published in Biochemistry, Volume 40, Issue 35, 2001, pages 10417-10423. © Biochemistry 2001, American Chemical Society. Outten, C. E., Tobin, D. A., Penner-Hahn, J. E., & OHalloran, T. V. (2001). Characterization of the metal receptor sites in Escherichia coli Zur, and ultrasensitive zinc(II) metalloregulatory protein. Biochemistry, 40(35), 10417-10423.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi0155448. ...
In modern industrial society, molybdenum is one of the important metals for development of the industry of rare metals. It is important to recycle the rare metals from wastes because they are technically and economically difficult to be dug and be purified, and they exist in only a few regions in the world. In this study, ModE protein derived from Escherichia coli, which is a molybdate-dependent t ...
We are starting a new series of experiments on a new organism, Escherichia coli, with the goal of mapping the complete gene network of this prokaryote. We just started to distribute a small set of workunits for testing the system. We already find some problems: the boinc client estimated time remaining seems completely wrong (too short, almost zero) although the progress bar is normally stepping up, we will see ...
Milkman R (Apr 1994). "An Escherichia coli homologue of eukaryotic potassium channel proteins". Proceedings of the National ... Jiang Y, Pico A, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (Mar 2001). "Structure of the RCK domain from the E. coli K+ channel and ... or may be through an additional calcium binding protein such as calmodulin. Knowing the structure of these channels can provide ... "Gating of the TrkH ion channel by its associated RCK protein TrkA". Nature. 496 (7445): 317-22. Bibcode:2013Natur.496..317C. ...
Milkman R (April 1994). "An Escherichia coli homologue of eukaryotic potassium channel proteins". Proceedings of the National ... Interestingly, the HVCN1 and Putative tyrosine-protein phosphatase proteins do not contain an expected ion conduction pore ... The proteins with only two transmembrane helices (Pfam PF07885) are most commonly found in bacteria. This also includes the 2- ... Jiang Y, Pico A, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (March 2001). "Structure of the RCK domain from the E. coli K+ channel and ...
Choi JH, Lee SY (June 2004). "Secretory and extracellular production of recombinant proteins using Escherichia coli". Appl. ... Joseleau-Petit D, Liébart JC, Ayala JA, D'Ari R (September 2007). "Unstable Escherichia coli L Forms Revisited: Growth Requires ... such as Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli. This is done by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis with antibiotics or treating ... Here, the absence of a cell wall can allow production of large amounts of secreted proteins that would otherwise accumulate in ...
"The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (3): 285-90. doi:10.1038/nbt. ... Some published virus interactomes include Bacteriophage Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7 ... Bartel PL, Roecklein JA, SenGupta D, Fields S (1996). "A protein linkage map of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7". Nat. Genet ... "Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins". PLoS Biol. 7 (4): e96. doi: ...
Goldstein J, Pollitt NS, Inouye M (January 1990). "Major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... Brandi A, Spurio R, Gualerzi CO, Pon CL (March 1999). "Massive presence of the Escherichia coli 'major cold-shock protein' CspA ... untranslated region of the cold shock cspA mRNA of Escherichia coli". J. Bacteriol. 181 (20): 6284-91. PMC 103761 . PMID ... cspA protein is then produced in significantly higher quantities, making up over 2% of the cell's proteome during cold shock. ...
Erni, B; Zanolari, B; Kocher, HP (Apr 1987). "The mannose permease of Escherichia coli consists of three different proteins. ... The cIII protein acts to protect the cII protein from proteolysis by FtsH (a membrane-bound essential E. coli protease) by ... Bacteriophage Lambda binds to an E. coli cell by means of its J protein in the tail tip. The J protein interacts with the ... "Adsorption of bacteriophage lambda on the LamB protein of Escherichia coli K-12: point mutations in gene J of lambda ...
Ryu, Y; Schultz, PG (Apr 2006). "Efficient incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins in Escherichia coli". Nat ... The structures of the Staphylococcus aureus YARS and of a truncated version of Escherichia coli YARS have also been solved. A ... "Thiobacillus ferrooxidans tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase functions in vivo in Escherichia coli". Journal of Bacteriology. 176 (14): ... The structure shows that the group I intron binds across the two subunits of the homodimeric protein with a newly evolved RNA- ...
"Method for enhancing solubility of the expressed recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli". BioTechniques. 37 (3): 418, 420, ... Glycylglycine has also been reported to be helpful in solubilizing recombinant proteins in E. coli. Using different ... The chemical composition of the proteins. Monographs on biochemistry. Part II (1st ed.). London: Longmans, Green and Co. p. 22 ... concentrations of the glycylglycine improvement in protein solubility after cell lysis has been observed. von Richter, Victor ( ...
The Escherichia coli DcuA and DcuB proteins have very different expression patterns. DcuA is constitutively expressed; DcuB is ... "Construction and properties of Escherichia coli mutants defective in two genes encoding homologous membrane proteins with ... The two E. coli proteins, DcuA (TC# 2.A.13.1.1) and DcuB (TC# 2.A.13.1.2), of the Dcu family are involved in the transport of ... Zientz E, Bongaerts J, Unden G (October 1998). "Fumarate regulation of gene expression in Escherichia coli by the DcuSR (dcuSR ...
... gene of Escherichia coli encodes an exporter of leucine, and the Lrp protein regulates its expression". FEBS Letters. 579 (21 ... "The novel transmembrane Escherichia coli proteins involved in the amino acid efflux". FEBS Letters. 452 (3): 228-232. doi: ... coli. E. coli possesses five paralogues, and a large region of one of them (YahN of E. coli; TC# 2.A.76.1.3) exhibits ... Hundreds of sequenced proteins, derived from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as archaea, comprise the RhtB ...
Foster, D. L.; Boublik, M.; Kaback, H. R. (1983). "Structure of the lac carrier protein of Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. ... Guan, L; Weinglass, AB; Kaback, HR (7 September 2001). "Helix packing in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli: localization ... "Site-directed sulfhydryl labeling of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli: helices IV and V that contain the major ... "The electrochemical gradient of protons and its relationship to active transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles". Proc. ...
"Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli: advances and challenges". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5. doi:10.3389/fmicb. ... "Strategies for optimizing heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli". Trends in Biotechnology. 16 (2): 54-60. doi: ... Proteins that can result from the expression of recombinant DNA within living cells are termed recombinant proteins. When ... Circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the ...
Foster DL, Boublik M, Kaback HR (January 1983). "Structure of the lac carrier protein of Escherichia coli". The Journal of ... Yin Y, He X, Szewczyk P, Nguyen T, Chang G (May 2006). "Structure of the multidrug transporter EmrD from Escherichia coli". ... Västermark A, Lunt B, Saier M (2014). "Major facilitator superfamily porters, LacY, FucP and XylE of Escherichia coli appear to ... "Structure and mechanism of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli". Science. 301 (5633): 610-5. doi:10.1126/science.1088196. ...
The acyl carrier protein of lipid synthesis donates lipoic acid to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in Escherichia coli and ... Lipoate-protein ligase (EC 2.7.7.63, LplA, lipoate protein ligase, lipoate-protein ligase A, LPL, LPL-B) is an enzyme with ... "Crystal structure of lipoate-protein ligase A from Escherichia coli. Determination of the lipoic acid-binding site". J. Biol. ... "Identification of the gene encoding lipoate-protein ligase A of Escherichia coli. Molecular cloning and characterization of the ...
"rnc - Ribonuclease 3 - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - rnc gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. UniProt Consortium. Retrieved 5 ... "Lethal double-stranded RNA processing activity of ribonuclease III in the absence of SuhB protein of Escherichia coli". ... The Human Protein Atlas. Retrieved 5 November 2016. This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro ... Rnc (UniProtKB P0A7Y0) - E.Coli - this RNase III is involved in the processing of viral transcripts and some mRNAs through the ...
Escherichia coli FimH provides an example of conformation specific immune response which enhances impact on the protein. By ... Schembri MA, Klemm P (May 1998). "Heterobinary adhesins based on the Escherichia coli FimH fimbrial protein". Appl. Environ. ... the adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Work with E. coli stems from observations of human acquired immunity. ... Escherichia coli strains most known for causing diarrhea can be found in the intestinal tissue of pigs and humans where they ...
"Non-standard amino acid incorporation into proteins using Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis". Frontiers in Chemistry ... pair from Escherichia coli tRNALeu-LeuRS pair from Escherichia coli tRNAiMet from human and GlnRS from Escherichia coli ... In most E. coli K-12 strains (viz. Escherichia coli (molecular biology) for strain pedigrees) there are 314 UAG stop codons. ... "Biosynthesis of a protein containing a nonprotein amino acid by Escherichia coli: L-2-aminohexanoic acid at position 21 in ...
"Functions of potA and potD proteins in spermidine-preferential uptake system in Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (26): ... Saier MH Jr (1998). "Molecular phylogeny as a basis for the classification of transport proteins from bacteria, archaea and ...
Alternatively expression in Escherichia coli of whole or truncated proteins can also be performed. ca Therefore, microsomes are ... ISBN 0-471-19350-X. Heterologous expression of human cytochromes P450 2D6 and CYP3A4 in Escherichia coli and their functional ... Protein J. 2011 Dec;30(8):581-91 Co-expression of human cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) variants and human NADPH-cytochrome P450 ... Because of the need for a multi-part protein-system, microsomes are necessary to analyze the metabolic activity of CYPs. These ...
L. Yee, Harvey W. Blanch: Recombinant protein expression in high cell density fed-batch cultures of Escherichia coli. Bio/ ... Amulya K. Panda: Bioprocessing of therapeutic proteins from the inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli. Adv Biochem Eng ... Neubauer P, Winter J: Expression and fermentation strategies for recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli. In: Merten ... Paulina Balbás: Understanding the art of producing protein and nonprotein molecules in Escherichia coli. Molecular ...
"Affibody-beta-galactosidase immunoconjugates produced as soluble fusion proteins in the Escherichia coli cytosol". J. Immunol. ... The original Affibody protein scaffold was designed based on the Z domain (the immunoglobulin G binding domain) of protein A. ... Arora, P; Oas, T; Myers, J (2004). "Fast and faster: A designed variant of the B-domain of protein A folds in 3 μsec". Protein ... Ståhl, S; Nygren, P-A (1997). "The use of gene fusions to protein A and protein G in immunology and biotechnology". Pathol. ...
Raabe T, Manley JL (1992). "A human homologue of the Escherichia coli DnaJ heat-shock protein". Nucleic Acids Res. 19 (23): ... 1999). "Identification of CHIP, a novel tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein that interacts with heat shock proteins and ... and hdj-1 have distinct roles in recognition of a non-native protein and protein refolding". EMBO J. 15 (12): 2969-79. PMC ... a novel tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein that interacts with heat shock proteins and negatively regulates chaperone ...
OA-5D5 is produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. It is composed of murine variable domains for the heavy and ... The protein possesses tyrosine kinase activity. The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to ... c-Met, also called tyrosine-protein kinase Met or hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a protein that in humans is ... PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a tumor suppressor gene encoding a protein PTEN, which possesses lipid and protein ...
"MECHANOSENSITIVE CHANNELS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI: The MscL Gene, Protein, and Activities". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 59: 633-57. doi: ... The gene encoding MscL protein is trkA and it is located in the inner membrane of the E. coli. The protein is 17 KDa, and ... Within the channel there are ankyrins, which are structural proteins that mediate protein-protein interactions, and are thought ... Martinac B, Buechner M, Delcour AH, Adler J, Kung C: Pressuresensitive ion channel in Escherichia coli" Proc Natl Acad Sci USA ...
"Crystal structure of the γ-glutamyltranspeptidase precursor protein from Escherichia coli. Structural changes upon ... "Crystal structures of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase from Escherichia coli, a key enzyme in glutathione metabolism, and its reaction ... L-glutamate This protein also acts as enzyme EC 2.3.2.2 (gamma-glutamyltransferase). Hanigan, M.H.; Ricketts, W.A. (1993). " ...
Escherichia coli. 大腸桿菌 4,600,000 4,400 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 釀酒酵母 12,000,000 5,538 ... non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying that the genome contains many ...
The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
Major cold shock protein of Escherichia coli. J Goldstein, N S Pollitt, and M Inouye ... When exponentially growing Escherichia coli cell cultures were transferred from 37 degrees C to 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C, ... The rate of CS7.4 production reached 13% of total protein synthesis within 1-1.5 hr after a shift to 10 degrees C and ... Regulation of CS7.4 expression was very strict, such that synthesis of the protein was undetectable at 37 degrees C. We have ...
... coli. The model is based on a set of proteins reported to... ... Prediction of protein solubility in Escherichia coli using ... We describe a statistical model that uses binomial logistic regression for predicting the solubility of heterologous proteins ... Predicting the Solubility of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli. In: García-Fruitós E. (eds) Insoluble Proteins. Methods ... Heterologous protein solubility prediction Escherichia coli Binomial logistic regression model This is a preview of ...
... proteins. A total of 79 ABC proteins makes this the largest paralogous family of proteins in E. coli. These 79 proteins include ... The Escherichia coli ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins.. Linton KJ1, Higgins CF. ... The recent completion of the Escherichia coli genome sequence (Blattner et al., 1997) has permitted an analysis of the ... Of the 12 systems that are not obviously transport related, the function of only one, the excision repair protein UvrA, is ...
Colicins are toxic exoproteins produced by bacteria of colicinogenic strains of Escherichia coli and some related species of ... An α-helical hydrophobic hairpin as a specific determinant in protein-protein interaction occurring inEscherichia coli colicin ... Application of the pColDF13 bacteriocin release protein in the release of the heterologous proteins ofEscherichia coli: ... Wooldridge K.G., Williams P.H.: Sensitivity ofEscherichia coli to cloacin DF13 involves the major outer membrane protein OmpF.J ...
... encoded in the Escherichia coli genome is unknown, as current bioinformatics and biochemical techniques make short gene and ... One method of small protein identification involves adding an epitope tag to the 3 end of a short … ... Identifying New Small Proteins in Escherichia coli Proteomics. 2018 May;18(10):e1700064. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201700064. Epub 2018 ... coli small proteins, tagging 80 sORFs in the E. coli genome, and assayed for protein synthesis. The selected sORFs represent ...
Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Escherichia coliImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR036938 P_ ...
The FtsZ protein is a GTPase that is essential for cell division in Escherichia coli. During cytokinesis, FtsZ localizes to a ... GTP-dependent polymerization of Escherichia coli FtsZ protein to form tubules Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... GTP-dependent polymerization of Escherichia coli FtsZ protein to form tubules. D Bramhill and C M Thompson ... Mutant FtsZ84 protein polymerized inefficiently, suggesting that polymerization is important for the cellular role of FtsZ in ...
... system is required for biogenesis of membrane proteins and contains two essential proteins: the SRP subunit Ffh and the SRP- ... With FtsY, we show that it is specifically required for expression of membrane proteins. Since no changes in mRNA levels or ... Scattered in vivo studies have raised the possibility that expression of membrane proteins is inhibited in cells depleted of ... Surprisingly, although FtsY and Ffh function in the same pathway, depletion of Ffh did not affect membrane protein expression ...
tr,A0A3G4QTL1,A0A3G4QTL1_ECOLX Fimbrial protein (Fragment) OS=Escherichia coli OX=562 GN=fimH PE=4 SV=1 ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR036937 ...
Escherichia coli is one of the best known and most often used host organisms for economical protein production. However, upon ... Such active protein particles can be further used for the isolation of pure proteins or as whole active protein particles in ... Until recently IBs formation represented a bottleneck in protein production as they were considered as deposits of inactive ... IBs composed from properly folded and biologically active recombinant proteins can be prepared. ...
Proteins induced by anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Proteins induced by anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli.. M W Smith, F C Neidhardt ... We assessed this contribution by measuring the levels of 170 individual polypeptides produced by Escherichia coli K-12 in cells ... and nitrate antagonized the anaerobic induction of all of the proteins except one. The time course of synthesis of the proteins ...
DNA replication terminus site-binding protein. A. 309. Escherichia coli. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: tus. ... Escherichia Coli Replication Terminator Protein (Tus) Complexed With TerA DNA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2I05/pdb ... Polarity of Termination of DNA Replication in E. coli. Oakley, A.J., Mulcair, M.D., Schaeffer, P.M., Dixon, N.E.. To be ...
Protein Components in the 40S Ribonucleoprotein Particles in Escherichia coli Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... The 40S ribonucleoprotein particle in Escherichia coli cells, accumulated in the presence of a low concentration of ... by exposing the 50S ribosomal subunit to a concentrated lithium chloride solution may also be deficient in the same protein ... chloramphenicol, lacks at least four ribosomal structural protein components which are present in the mature 50S ribosomal ...
... has been cloned into Escherichia coli. The molecule produced by Escherichia coli is slightly larger than the M protein isolated ... Expression of streptococcal M protein in Escherichia coli Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... the molecule synthesized by Escherichia coli has the same type-specific determinants as the streptococcal M protein. ... The structural gene for group A streptococcal M protein, the fibrillar surface molecule enabling the organism to resist ...
... Arifuzzaman M., Maeda M., Itoh A., ... Protein-protein interactions play key roles in protein function and the structural organization of a cell. A thorough ... A large-scale comprehensive pull-down assay was performed using a His-tagged Escherichia coli ORF clone library. Of 4339 bait ... i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or ...
Species about Experts and Doctors on escherichia coli proteins in Germany ... Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655*Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. Sakai ... iron sulfur proteins*carbohydrate epimerases*maltose*cyclic amp receptor protein*periplasmic proteins*host factor 1 protein* ... Structural basis for the interaction of Escherichia coli NusA with protein N of phage lambda. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004; ...
... Gaochi Li, Kentaro ... Depletion of YhcB, an inner membrane protein of Escherichia coli, inhibited the growth of rodZ deletion mutant showing that the ... Furthermore, YhcB was demonstrated to interact with RodZ as well as several other proteins involved in cell shape maintenance ... and an inner membrane protein YciS of unknown function, using bacterial two-hybrid system. These observations seem to indicate ...
Engineering Escherichia coli into a protein delivery system for mammalian cells.. [Analise Z Reeves, William E Spears, Juan Du ... coli or integrated into the E. coli chromosome. To provide flexible control over type 3 secretion and protein delivery, we ... Here, we report the reengineering of a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli with a tunable type 3 secretion system that can ... and delivers heterologous proteins into mammalian cells. This reengineered system thus provides a highly flexible protein ...
coli, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins. ...
2004 The Escherichia coli DjlA and CbpA proteins can substitute for DnaJ in DnaK-mediated protein disaggregation. J. Bacteriol. ... Thomas, J., D. J. Rigden and J. E. Cronan, 2007 Acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase (AcpH) of Escherichia coli is a non- ... Oh, M. K., and J. C. Liao, 2000 DNA microarray detection of metabolic responses to protein overproduction in Escherichia coli. ... and C. T. Walsh, 2000 Holo-(acyl carrier protein) synthase and phosphopantetheinyl transfer in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. ...
The Cs sec mutants of Escherichia coli reflect the cold sensitivity of protein export itself.. K J Pogliano and J Beckwith ... The Cs sec mutants of Escherichia coli reflect the cold sensitivity of protein export itself.. K J Pogliano and J Beckwith ... The Cs sec mutants of Escherichia coli reflect the cold sensitivity of protein export itself.. K J Pogliano and J Beckwith ... We have found that temperature can have a striking effect upon protein export in Escherichia coli, suggesting that there is a ...
The mutagenicity of DNA double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli is controlled by DNA-damage (SOS) and general (RpoS) ... Roles of Nucleoid-Associated Proteins in Stress-Induced Mutagenic Break Repair in Starving Escherichia coli Genetics. 2015 Dec; ... The mutagenicity of DNA double-strand break repair in Escherichia coli is controlled by DNA-damage (SOS) and general (RpoS) ... Here we discovered that most small basic proteins that compact the genome, nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), promote or ...
Porin channels in Escherichia coli: studies with liposomes reconstituted from purified proteins.. H Nikaido, E Y Rosenberg ... protein 1a), OmpC (protein 1b), and PhoE (protein E). All three porin proteins appeared to produce channels of similar size, ... Porin channels in Escherichia coli: studies with liposomes reconstituted from purified proteins. ... Porin channels in Escherichia coli: studies with liposomes reconstituted from purified proteins. ...
Escherichia coli CFT073). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ... Protein target information for KHG/KDPG aldolase ( ...
  • Abstract: '[Investigators] carried out quantitative system-wide analyses of protein and mRNA expression in individual cells with single-molecule sensitivity using a newly constructed yellow fluorescent protein fusion library for Escherichia coli. (harvard.edu)
  • article{90864db6-10df-4743-8950-6627e8f974b9, abstract = {The complex I subunits NuoL, NuoM and NuoN are homologous to two proteins, MrpA and MrpD, from one particular class of Na+/H+ antiporters. (lu.se)
  • Mutant FtsZ84 protein polymerized inefficiently, suggesting that polymerization is important for the cellular role of FtsZ in division. (pnas.org)
  • Depletion of YhcB, an inner membrane protein of Escherichia coli , inhibited the growth of rodZ deletion mutant showing that the loss of both YhcB and RodZ is synthetically lethal. (hindawi.com)
  • isolated another E. coli mutant strain, strain LH530, that was hypersensitive to hydrophobic and large hydrophilic antibiotics and showed temperature-sensitive growth. (genetics.org)
  • To investigate the role of EspA and EspB in EPEC pathogenesis, we constructed mutant strains in E. coli serotype O103. (rupress.org)
  • It was found that the acetylase activity specific for protein L12 was negligible, when assayed in vitro, in the high-speed supernatant prepared from mutant cells. (springer.com)
  • I. A mutant lacking the N-terminal acetylation of protein S5 exhibits thermosensitivity. (springer.com)
  • Studies of a mutant lacking the N-terminal acetylation of protein S18. (springer.com)
  • Induction of protein production at the onset of cultivation decreased growth rate and glucose consumption rate for both the WT and the mutant strains. (uva.nl)
  • This mutant HypB fully supports the production of [NiFe]-hydrogenase in E. coli . (rsc.org)
  • The versatile Escherichia coli facilitates protein expression with relative simplicity, high cell density on inexpensive substrates, well known genetics, variety of expression vectors, mutant strains, co-overexpression technology, extracytoplasmic secretion systems, and recombinant protein fusion partners. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The poor expression in the cytoplasm was improved by several strategies, including coexpression of the cytoplasmic chaperone GroEL/ES, using a mutant E. coli host strain with an oxidative cytoplasm, and protein fusion technology. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In addition, RSE adherence of a DMEM-grown-O157 mutant lacking the intimin protein was comparable to that seen with its wild-type parent O157 strain grown in the same media. (harvard.edu)
  • When added to the culture medium, the recombinant carbohydrate-free GM2-activator, carrying the hexahistidine tail, could be taken up efficiently and restored the degradation of ganglioside GM2 to normal rates in mutant fibroblasts with the AB variant of GM2-gangliosidosis, which is characterized by a genetic defect in the GM2-activator protein. (biochemj.org)
  • An immunosorbent method using antiglutaredoxin-Sepharose was developed for purification of glutaredoxin in high yield from a mutant strain of Escherichia coli K 12 lacking thioredoxin reductase (C 10-17). (eurekamag.com)
  • We cloned a gene for a putative norfloxacin efflux protein from the chromosomal DNA of V. parahaemolyticus by using an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the major multidrug efflux system AcrAB as the host and sequenced the gene ( norM ). (asm.org)
  • The secreted EHEC proteins are recognized by rabbit antiserum raised against the proteins secreted from EPEC and by human serum from a patient infected with an EHEC O157:H7 strain. (asm.org)
  • Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the earthworm Eisenia fetida during Escherichia coli O157:H7 stress. (nextbio.com)
  • We suggest that the variable levels and trends in these spots on the gel may be useful as biomarker profiles to investigate E. coli O157:H7 contamination levels in soils. (nextbio.com)
  • However, recent studies show that by choosing the appropriate host strain and designing an optimal production process, IBs composed from properly folded and biologically active recombinant proteins can be prepared. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we report the reengineering of a laboratory strain of Escherichia coli with a tunable type 3 secretion system that can efficiently deliver heterologous proteins into mammalian cells, thereby circumventing the need for virulence attenuation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Combining these elements, we found that coordinated expression of the type 3 secretion system and modified target protein substrates produces a nonpathogenic strain that expresses, secretes, and delivers heterologous proteins into mammalian cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To investigate the role of Esp proteins in disease, mutations in espA and espB were constructed in rabbit EPEC serotype O103 and infection characteristics were compared to that of the wild-type strain using histology, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy in a weaned rabbit infection model. (rupress.org)
  • In order to increase yield of the recombinant protein, several strategies such as codon optimization, signal sequence tagging and bacterial strain engineering have been developed. (icheme.org)
  • Using a combination of LC-MS/MS approaches with protein and peptide fractionation steps we identified 1103 proteins from the cytosolic fraction of the Escherichia coli strain MC4100. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While both methods provided high-quality abundance data for nearly the entire proteome, their dependence on the availability of a strain library containing tagged versions of all proteins of interest presents a serious limitation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The deletion strains could be complemented in trans by their respective Mrp protein, but expression of MrpA in the B. subtilis Delta mrpD strain and vice versa did not improve growth at pH 7.4. (lu.se)
  • Metagenomic studies have identified specific bacterial species and strains with increased prevalence in CD patients, amongst which is the adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) strain LF82. (ugent.be)
  • Much of the research into USP is done on bacteria, specifically E. coli (Strain K-12). (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent completion of the Escherichia coli genome sequence (Blattner et al. (nih.gov)
  • The number of small proteins (SPs) encoded in the Escherichia coli genome is unknown, as current bioinformatics and biochemical techniques make short gene and small protein identification challenging. (nih.gov)
  • Here we discovered that most small basic proteins that compact the genome, nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs), promote or inhibit mutagenic break repair (MBR) via different routes. (nih.gov)
  • There is a need for improved appreciation of the importance of genome-wide mRNA and protein expression measurements and their role in understanding translation and in relation to genome-wide math. (epfl.ch)
  • A new colicin that adsorbs to the outer membrane protein Tsx but is dependent on the tonB instead of the tolQ membrane transport system. (springer.com)
  • Consistent with a coupling between translocation across the SecYEG translocon and folding by periplasmic chaperones, a lack of PpiD retards the release of a translocating outer membrane protein into the periplasm. (labome.org)
  • The C-terminal signal was successfully fused to a hybrid protein containing a few residues of ss-galactosidase and the majority of E. coli outer membrane protein OmpF lacking its own NH2-terminal signal sequence. (le.ac.uk)
  • Transporters of the RND family consist of several subunits (usually three), and an outer membrane protein(s) is involved in the drug transport. (asm.org)
  • Energy-coupled transport and signal transduction through the gram-negative outer membrane via the TonB-ExbB-ExbD dependent receptor proteins. (springer.com)
  • This cooperativity among effector proteins explains how bacterial pathogens are able to effectively suppress innate immune defense mechanisms in response to diverse classes of immune receptor signaling complexes (RSCs) stimulated during infection. (asm.org)
  • Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ferric enterobactin receptor FepA, an integral membrane protein from Escherichia coli. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Diffraction-quality crystals have been obtained of the integral membrane protein ferric enterobactin receptor (FepA) from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have devised a generally applicable strategy for analysis of protein structure and have applied it to examine the structure of the transmembrane portion of the Tar receptor of Escherichia coli. (caltech.edu)
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Tmp21, a type-I integral membrane protein and COPI-vesicle receptor involved in trans-Golgi network function, as an NleF-binding partner. (k-state.edu)
  • Protein 1 was shown to be the receptor for phage PA-2 by the observations that the purified protein inactivates the phage, mutants lacking the protein are resistant to the phage, and mutants selected for PA-2 resistance have altered protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Surface topology and sequence conservation in the adhesin domain hint at a putative receptor-binding pocket as found in the Klebsiella pneumoniae MrkD and E. coli F17-G (GafD) adhesins. (ugent.be)
  • LpfD binding was found to be resistant to treatment with O- or N-glycosidases, but was lost in collagenase-treated tissue sections, indicating the possible involvement of an intestinal matrix-associated protein as the LpfD receptor. (ugent.be)
  • The 22 parameters used in the final model based on proteins' amino acid composition are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Hopp TP, Woods KR (1981) Prediction of protein antigenic determinants from amino acid sequences. (springer.com)
  • Heiland I, Wittmann-Liebold B (1979) Amino acid sequence of the ribosomal protein L21 of Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • The tool PERISCOPE is freely available for the researcher to predict the level of protein expressed based on the combination of signal sequence and amino acid sequence of a protein. (icheme.org)
  • Two mixtures of amino acids were fed together with glucose in fed-batch cultures aiming to improve a biomass yield and a concentration of the ZZT2 protein. (openthesis.org)
  • The other mixture contained only five socalled "protein amino acids", which were reported to be primarily incorporated into biomass: alanine, arginine, methionine, histidine and phenylalanine. (openthesis.org)
  • The mixture of five "protein amino acids" in shake flask culture even inhibited the cellular growth, which is seen as an indicator of disturbed metabolism caused by added amino acids. (openthesis.org)
  • To confirm the fidelity of the expression, the N-terminal ten amino acids of the recombinant rat kallikrein-binding protein were sequenced and were shown to match perfectly with those of the native rat kallikrein-binding protein. (biochemj.org)
  • Two amino acids, Leu149 and Val223, were identified as proteolytically sensitive when Pseudozyma antarctica lipase (PalB) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In certain proteins or groups of proteins, the so-called spikes of high content for a specific amino acid type or combination of amino acids were identified and confirmed statistically, which in some cases could be directly related to function and ligand specificity. (figshare.com)
  • Locations of specific amino acid types in some of the proteins that have crystal structures (EmrE, LacY, AcrB) were also considered to help link amino acid content with protein function. (figshare.com)
  • The H6-ZZ tag was cleaved off with Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease and the 166 amino acid full-length homo-dimeric protein was purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. (diva-portal.org)
  • Small angle X-ray scattering experiments indicate that the L-arabinose-binding protein undergoes a substantial conformational change upon the binding of substrate: the radius of gyration of the protein molecule decreases by (TURN)1 A with the addition of L-arabinose. (rice.edu)
  • Depletion of Ffh, a core component of the signal recognition particle of E.coli , appears to have a slight effect on the export of the TMAO reductase. (embopress.org)
  • A wide variety of proteins which are synthesised in the cytoplasm of E. coli are subsequently directed either to non-cytoplasmic compartments or transported to the extracellular medium. (le.ac.uk)
  • The primary structure of the protein was determined by analyses of [14C]carboxymethylated glutaredoxin and its proteolytic fragments obtained by digestions with trypsin, clostripain, chymotrypsin and staphylococcal Glu-specific extracellular protease. (eurekamag.com)
  • Combined with previous observations that YbbN enhances the DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperone system, we propose that YbbN coordinately regulates the activities of these two prokaryotic chaperones, thereby helping to direct client protein traffic initially to DnaK. (unl.edu)
  • Colicin cleavage by OmpT protease during both entry into and release from Escherichia coli cells. (springer.com)
  • The contribution of protein induction and repression to the adaptation of cells to changes in oxygen supply is only poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • We assessed this contribution by measuring the levels of 170 individual polypeptides produced by Escherichia coli K-12 in cells growing aerobically or anaerobically with and without nitrate. (asm.org)
  • The amount of inclusion product within the cells corresponds to the quantity of chimeric protein formed by the bacteria. (sciencemag.org)
  • Surface proteins of Escherichia coli K12 were identified by radiolabelling using 1,3,4,6 - tatrachloro, 3-alpha, 6-alpha - diphenylgycoluryl (Iodo-Gen) and /sup 131/I. Labelled proteins were localized in the outer membrane of the cells. (osti.gov)
  • Radiolabelling of E.coli cells inculbated at 42/sup 0/C showed that the syntheses of two surface proteins were temperature-inducible. (osti.gov)
  • These secreted proteins are essential for triggering of host signal transduction pathways in tissue culture cells. (rupress.org)
  • Quantifying E. coli proteome and transcriptome with single-molecule sensitivity in single cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Additionally we observe a significant correlation between protein and mRNA abundance in E. coli cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins fulfill a wide variety of functions and are central to almost all processes in living cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-Glucuronidase from Escherichia coli has been used in the enzymatic cleavage and activation of glucuronide prodrugs in non-small cell lung cancer cells, U87 human glioblastoma cell line, in A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and KB (human oral squamous carcinoma). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Please inquire if you are interested in this recombinant protein expressed in E. coli, mammalien cells or by baculovirus infection. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Background: In this study, we present evidence that proteins encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE), considered critical for Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adherence to follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells at the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ), do not appear to contribute to O157 adherence to squamous epithelial (RSE) cells also constituting this primary site of O157 colonization in cattle. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: Antisera targeting intimin-γ, the primary O157 adhesin, and other essential LEE proteins failed to block O157 adherence to RSE cells, when this pathogen was grown in DMEM, a culture medium that enhances expression of LEE proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • This suggested that proteins other than intimin-γ that contribute to adherence to RSE cells are expressed by this pathogen during growth in DMEM. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusion: Proteins other than LEE and intimin-γ proteins are involved in O157 adherence to RSE cells at the bovine RAJ. (harvard.edu)
  • The D. radiodurans RecX protein functions in the Escherichia coli cells similarly to the E. coli RecX protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • tools in the context of an environmental perturbation of Escherichia coli cells-the addn. (epfl.ch)
  • The authors also tested the application of these tools to the study of a genetic perturbation of Escherichia coli cells-the ability of certain strains to hypersecrete the hemolysin protein. (epfl.ch)
  • Cells of E. coli transformed with the cloned ydhE gene showed elevated resistance to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, acriflavine, and tetraphenylphosphonium ion, but not to ethidium, when MICs were measured. (asm.org)
  • To combine the high yield/productivity and scalable protein features of bacteria and yeast, and advanced epigenetic features of plants, insects and mammalians systems, other protein production systems are developed using unicellular eukaryotes (i.e. non-pathogenic 'Leishmania' cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND: The goal of many proteomics experiments is to determine the abundance of proteins in biological samples, and the variation thereof in various physiological conditions. (duke.edu)
  • During my Ph.D. I have tried to understand the reasons for this toxicity by studying the consequences of membrane protein over-expression using a combination of proteomics and more focused biochemical and genetic methods. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Several methods for labeling proteins metabolically (in cell cultures) or after extraction are widely applied in "shotgun" proteomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together with statistical and, importantly, biological evidence, this analysis provides insight into the evolution and function of the ABC proteins. (nih.gov)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • In this approach, proteins are modeled as nodes and their interactions act as an edge, which sheds light on whether some of the biological properties may be correlated with the network topology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • particularly DNA polymerase for PCR, reverse transcriptase for RNA analysis, restriction endonucleases for cloning, and to make proteins that are screened in drug discovery as biological targets or as potential drugs themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutation is a yejM nonsense mutation that produces a truncated protein lacking the predicted periplasmic domain. (genetics.org)
  • Genetic analyses have revealed that the mutation responsible for this alteration maps at a locus around 34 min of the current E. coli genetic map, which is clearly different from the location for the structural gene for protein L7/L12 which is situated at 89 min. (springer.com)
  • The MI values show a significant correlation with mutation data under stress but not with spontaneous mutations in E. coli . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These two types of DNA polymerase mutations may enhance GFP stability by causing a lower point mutation rate in the E. coli host. (utexas.edu)
  • The fusion protein production was induced by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and they were purified by Glutathione Sepharose 4B. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The presence of the Myc- but not of the His(6)-tag on the cell surface during H:gm expression allowed us to confirm the hypothesis that this fusion protein was present on the surface and oriented towards the cell exterior. (diva-portal.org)
  • Modeling and Simulation of Production of Metallothionein and Red Fluorescent Fusion Protein by Recombinant Escherichia Coli Using Graphical Programming, Modeling, Programming and Simulations Using LabVIEW™ Software Riccardo De Asmundis, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/14091. (intechopen.com)
  • Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile. (deepdyve.com)
  • This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. (deepdyve.com)
  • Both components of the fusion protein were detected using GM1-ganglioside-dependent enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. (deepdyve.com)
  • This suggested the fusion protein retained both its native antigenicity and the ability to form pentamers. (deepdyve.com)
  • Rates of diffusion of uncharged and charged solute molecules through porin channels were determined by using liposomes reconstituted from egg phosphatidylcholine and purified Escherichia coli porins OmpF (protein 1a), OmpC (protein 1b), and PhoE (protein E). All three porin proteins appeared to produce channels of similar size, although the OmpF channel appeared to be 7 to 9% larger than the OmpC and PhoE channels in an equivalent radius. (asm.org)