Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli K12: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.ThymineDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Periplasmic Proteins: Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.ArabinoseCarbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.UracilSpheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.PeptidoglycanMultienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.T-Phages: A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Exodeoxyribonuclease V: An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.

Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (1/79677)

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (2/79677)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (3/79677)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase. (4/79677)

BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (5/79677)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (6/79677)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (7/79677)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (8/79677)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

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The structure of the O-antigen polysaccharide (PS) from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 180/C3 has been determined. Sugar and methylation analysis together with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were the main methods used. The PS is composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the following structure:→2)-β-d-Quip3NAc-(1→3)-β-d-Ribf-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→Analysis of NMR data indicates that the presented sequence of sugar residues also represents the biological repeating unit of the O-chain. The structure is closely related to that of O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O5 and partially to that of E. coli O65. The difference between the O-antigen from the 180/C3 strain and that of E. coli O5 is the linkage to the d-Quip3NAc residue, which in the latter strain is 4-O-substituted. The E. coli O65 O-antigen contains as part of its linear pentasaccharide repeating unit a similar structural element, namely ...
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in Journal of the American Chemical Society (2008), 130(17), 5618-9. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is applied to intact peptidoglycan sacculi of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. High-quality solid-state NMR spectra allow atom-resolved investigation of the ... [more ▼]. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is applied to intact peptidoglycan sacculi of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. High-quality solid-state NMR spectra allow atom-resolved investigation of the peptidoglycan structure and dynamics as well as the study of protein-peptidoglycan interactions. [less ▲]. Detailed reference viewed: 70 (1 ULiège) ...
e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa | order e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa | How to use: e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa |
Surgical stress shifts the intestinal Escherichia coli population to that of a more adherent phenotype: role in barrier regulation.: The combination of surgical
E. coli bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of the rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, known as E. coli. These bacteria are normal inhabitants of the human intestine (they also occur in the intestine of animals) and are usually harmless. Under certain conditions, however, E. coli might increase in number and cause infection. Serotypes of E. coli are responsible for gastro-enteritis in children, particularly in tropical countries. In adults it causes travellers diarrhoea and 80% of all urinary tract infections. It is also the organism most used in genetic engineering studies. Magnification: x2400 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image B230/0143
e coli protein biotin labeled anti e coli host cell protein antibody | order e coli protein biotin labeled anti e coli host cell protein antibody | How to use:
The susceptibility of the E. coli B strain to a variety of stressful conditions and antibiotics revealed by PM tests (Figure S3 in Additional file 1) can be explained by several observations (Figure 5). First, differences in the composition of the LPS core and expression of outer membrane proteins may influence the permeability and integrity of the cell envelope. B strains produce more OmpF porin than K-12 strains because the B genome lacks micF, which post-transcriptionally prevents production of OmpF [24]. This is further supported by the transcriptome data showing high levels of ompF expression in the B strain and high expression of ompC and ompA in the K-12 strain (Figure 4). These observations were also consistent with results of proteome analysis of the outer membrane fractions (Figure S2B in Additional file 1). Noxious agents such as antibiotics and bile acids diffuse more easily through OmpF than OmpC because the former produces a channel with a larger pore size [25]. Second, synthesis ...
A strain of human invasive Escherichia coli 0143 (HlnvEC) which was found to lack pili and flagella was orally administered to rabbits weighing 0.7 to 1.1 kg in doses ranging from 1.5 x 108 to 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria. HInvEC colonized the ileum, cecum, and colon in large numbers for one to three days and produced diarrhea depending on the dose in 124 (65%) of 189 rabbits. A dose of 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria elicited diarrheal disease in 91 (87%) of 105 rabbits, The acute pathohistology as determined by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and immune-fluorescent microscopy was manifested in the distal ileum, cecum, and colon. The pathohistology involved the epithelial mucosa which developed mucosal ulcers characterized by a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response, especially at sites where HlnvEC invaded the lamina propria. Thus, we have developed and characterized in young rabbits a model of HlnvEC diarrhea that is similar clinically and pathohistologically to the same disease ...
Studies using isogenic transductant strains mlpA+ and mlpA as well as reversion analysis suggested that the physiological consequences of a structural gene mutation in murein lipoprotein include (i) increased sensitivity toward chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid, (ii) leakage of periplasmic enzyme ribonuclease, (iii) weakened association between the outer membrane and the rigid layer accentuated by Mg2+ starvation, resulting in the formation of outer membrane blebs, and (iv) decreased growth rate in media of low ionic strength or low osmolarity. It is suggested that the bound form of lipoprotein plays an important role in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the outer membrane of the Escherichia coli cell envelope. Other outer membrane components may also contribute to the anchorage of outer membrane to the rigid layer, probably through ionic interactions with divalent cations. Using the phenotype of ...
Construction of an ftsW depletion strain.To understand our approach for constructing a depletion strain, it is helpful to know that ftsW resides in a large operon in the 2-min region of the E. coli chromosome along with several other genes involved in division and/or peptidoglycan synthesis. The gene order in the relevant region is murD-ftsW-murG, all of which overlap and are essential. We disrupted ftsW by using the λ Red recombination system to replace ftsW with an ftsW::kan PCR fragment that had 50 nucleotides of flanking homology at either end (12, 46). The ftsW::kan replacement allele preserved the first six codons of ftsW (so the stop codon for murD was not affected), extended to the stop codon of ftsW, and provided a strong Shine-Dalgarno sequence and a start codon for murG to minimize polarity (12). In addition, the kan gene was oriented so that transcription proceeds towards murG and other downstream genes.. The depletion strain was constructed in several steps. First, ftsW was cloned ...
Can get into food, like beef andescherichia . Common type of several types or strains of bacteria and fecaloral found. . Bacteria thatnov , get into. russian blue cat for sale in michigan, Escherichia coli characteristics types of the enteroaggregative shiga toxin verotoxin producing escherichia. Gram negative, rod shaped bacteria and related bacteria thatnov . Can get into food, like beef andescherichia e an aerobic gram. Like beef andescherichia e food like ...
The ribosome is a complex macromolecule consisting of RNA and protein subunits that is responsible for translating the genetic code and protein synthesis. Within its large subunit, the exit tunnel exists as a conduit for nascent peptides to traverse before reaching the cytoplasm or membrane translocon. The tips of the extended loops (also called tentacles) of two proteins, L4 and L22, contribute to the surface of the narrowest portion of Escherichia colis exit tunnel. Mutations in the tentacles of the L4 and L22 proteins promote resistance to a class of antibiotics referred to as macrolides. Although the mutant strains have the advantage of growing in the presence of the antibiotic, erythromycin, they have the disadvantage of growing slower than the wildtype. The decreased rate of growth may be a reflection of structural changes within the 23S rRNA component of the large subunit induced by structural changes in L4 and L22, which in turn result in defects in ribosomal assembly and/or peptide ...
Chromosomal DNA from several Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) strains was transduced by bacteriophage P1 into E. coli strain K12 W3110 trpA33. Recombination patterns of the transductants were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism over a 40-kb region centering on a single marker (trpA+) in the tryptophan operon. These experiments demonstrate that transduction between different strains of E. coli can result in recombinational replacements that are small in comparison to the entrant molecule (replacements average 8-14 kb, whereas P1 packages approximately 100 kb) often in a series of discrete segments. The transduction patterns generated resemble the natural mosaic sequence patterns of the ECOR strains described in previous work. Extensive polymorphisms in the restriction-modification systems of the ECOR strains are a possible explanation for the sequence patterns in nature. To test this possibility two transductants were back-transduced into strain K12 W3110 trpA33. The resulting ...
Summary Nine hundred and twenty-five Escherichia coli isolates from cases of diarrhoea in the United Kingdom and belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O serogroups were examined for virulence properties. The tests included adhesion to HEp-2 cells, the fluorescence actin staining (FAS) test (which correlates with the ability to cause attaching and effacing lesions) and DNA hybridisations with probes to detect sequences for eaeA (E. coli attaching and effacing factor), EAF (EPEC adherence factor), verocytotoxins VT1 and VT2, enteroaggregative E. coli and diffusely adherent E. coli. The O serogroups examined were 18, 26, 44, 55, 86, 111, 114, 119, 125, 126, 127, 128 and 142. Six hundred and sixty strains (71.4%) hybridised with at least one of the DNA probes. Over 80% of strains in O serogroups 26, 55, 119, 125, 127 and 142 and 41% of strains of serogroups 86, 111, 114, 126 and 128 hybridised with the eae probe and most showed localised attachment and were FAS-positive. However, |10% of these eae
E. coli bacterium, artwork. The Escherichia coli bacterium is a Gram-negative bacillus (rod-shaped bacterium). It commonly has a single long flagellum (thin thread-like structure) that is used for movement. However, this strain has numerous flagella, giving it greater mobility. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine however, under certain conditions, its numbers may increase, causing infection. - Stock Image C011/1351
Optimisation of Bacillus subtilis for the secretion of heterologous proteins Therapeutic proteins (including those required for experimental purposes and clinical trials) are major products of biomanufacturing processes and considerable time and expense are expended to maximise the yield and quality of proteins produced in heterologous hosts. The production host of choice is the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli for which many strains and expression systems have been developed. However ...
Optimisation of Bacillus subtilis for the secretion of heterologous proteins Therapeutic proteins (including those required for experimental purposes and clinical trials) are major products of biomanufacturing processes and considerable time and expense are expended to maximise the yield and quality of proteins produced in heterologous hosts. The production host of choice is the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli for which many strains and expression systems have been developed. However ...
BioAssay record AID 585432 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against oqxAB positive Escherichia coli DH5[alpha] harboring pMD18-T::oqxAB by CLSI agar dilution method.
DNA damaging alkylating agents are present abundantly in the environment and also produced endogenously.The majority of the DNA adducts caused by such alkylating agents would be in double-stranded DNA. However, single-strand- specific lesions canarise when DNA double helix is temporarily unwound during replication or recombination. The N1 position of purines and the N3 of pyrimidines, which are normally protected from alkylation by base pairing in duplex DNA, can be alkylated in single-stranded DNA. The Escherichia coliAlkB protein is an oxidative demethylase that repairs such alkylatedbases present in single stranded DNA. Although AlkB function was known in great detail, its regulation was poorly characterized. I hypothesized that some proteins might directly interact with AlkB to regulate its function.. ...
Results of this study provided an example of how ESBL determinants in general and CTX-M in particular are rapidly spreading among commensal E. coli strains in healthy subjects from low-resource settings. In the surveyed area, including urban settings in Bolivia and Peru, the prevalence of healthy children carrying ESBL-positive E. coli strains in their commensal microbiota underwent a dramatic (17-fold) increase over a 3-year time period that was mostly contributed by CTX-M-type determinants. This phenomenon is a matter of concern, since commensals can act as a reservoir of resistance genes (Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Network [http://www.roarproject.org]; Alliance for Prudent Use of Antibiotics), while intestinal colonization by ESBL-producing isolates can be a source for influx of ESBL determinants into the hospital setting and represents a risk factor for subsequent infections caused by ESBL-producing strains in hospitalized patients (3). The reasons for this alarming evolution remain ...
Understanding the mechanisms behind translation and its rate-limiting steps is crucial for both the development of drug targets and improvement of heterologous protein production with many biotechnological applications, such as in pharmaceutical and biofuel industries. Despite many advances in the knowledge of the ribosome structure and function, there is still much discussion around the determinants of translation elongation with experiments and computational studies pointing in different directions. Here, we use a stochastic framework to simulate the process of translation in the context of an Escherichia coli cell by gathering the available biochemical data into a ribosome kinetics description. Our results from the study of translation in E. coli at different growth rates contradict the increase of mean elongation rate with growth rate established in the literature. We show that both the level of tRNA competition and the type of cognate binding interaction contribute to the modulation of ...
Most of us associate the bacteria E. coli with nasty stomach ailments. But a new study published in Nature magazine suggests E. coli can not just turn stomachs, but could potentially turn the wheels of your car, since a genetically engineered strain of the bacteria has produced clean, road-ready biodiesel.. The bacteria can work on any type of biomass, including wood chip, switchgrass, and the plant parts that are left behind after a harvest-all contain cellulose, a structural material that comprises much of a plants mass. Study coauthor Jay Keasling and his colleagues report engineering E. coli bacteria to synthesize and excrete the enzyme hemicellulase, which breaks down cellulose into sugars. The bacteria can then convert those sugars into a variety of chemicals-diesel fuel among them. The final products are excreted by the bacteria and then float to the top of the fermentation vat before being siphoned off [Technology Review]. E. coli bacteria naturally turn sugars into fatty acids to build ...
Methionine is an essential amino acid for animals and is typically considered one of the first limiting amino acids in animal feed formulations. Methionine deficiency or excess in animal diets can lead to sub-optimal animal performance and increased environmental pollution, which necessitates its accurate quantification and proper dosage in animal rations. Animal bioassays are the current industry standard to quantify methionine bioavailability. However, animal-based assays are not only time consuming, but expensive and are becoming more scrutinized by governmental regulations. In addition, a variety of artifacts can hinder the variability and time efficacy of these assays. Microbiological assays, which are based on a microbial response to external supplementation of a particular nutrient such as methionine, appear to be attractive potential alternatives to the already established standards. They are rapid and inexpensive in vitro assays which are characterized with relatively accurate and consistent
Purchase Recombinant Escherichia coli UPF0073 inner membrane protein yqfA(yqfA). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity. Good price.
Hi there, I need an antibody which would recognize the E coli cell surface (I am thinking, for instance, about an anti-flagellae, or and anti-LPS or an anti-porin), that could be use in Elisa experiment where I coat the multiplate with entire and intact E coli cells. Anybody has an answer and/or the antibody? Many thanks in advance! Jean-Yves Paquet jean-yves.paquet at fundp.ac.be ...
In animal diets optimal amino acid quantities and balance among amino acids is of great nutritional importance. Essential amino acid deficiencies have negative impacts on animal physiology, most often expressed in sub-optimal body weight gains. Over supplementation of diets with amino acids is costly and can increase the nitrogen emissions from animals. Although in vivo animal assays for quantification of amino acid bioavailability are well established, Escherichia coli-based bioassays are viable potential alternatives in terms of accuracy, cost, and time input. E. coli inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and although more abundant in colon, a relatively high titer of E. coli can also be isolated from the small intestine, where primary absorption of amino acids and peptides occur. After feed proteins are digested, liberated amino acids and small peptides are assimilated by both the small intestine and E. coli. The similar pattern of uptake is a necessary prerequisite to establish E. coli cells as
Economic Importance of E Coli Bacteria 1) E coli bacteria break down glucose and lactose to from acid and gas by fermentation 2) In human intestine E coli
P.514 left column top paragraph: The bacterial (and archaeal) small (30S) subunit contains the 16S rRNA and 21 r-proteins (Escherichia coli), whereas the eukaryotic small subunit contains the 18S rRNA and 32 r-proteins (Saccharomyces cerevisiae although the numbers vary between species). The bacterial large (50S) subunit contains the 5S and 23S rRNAs and 34 r-proteins (E. coli), with the eukaryotic large subunit containing the 5S, 5.8S and 25S/28S rRNAs and 46 r-proteins (S. cerevisiae again, the exact numbers vary between species ...
SlyA is a member of the MarR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators. Previously, SlyA has been shown to directly regulate only two operons in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, fimB and hlyE (clyA). In both cases, SlyA activates gene expression by antagonizing repression by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. Here, the transcript profiles of aerobic glucose-limited steady-state chemostat cultures of E. coli K-12 MG1655, slyA mutant and slyA over-expression strains are reported. The transcript profile of the slyA mutant was not significantly different from that of the parent; however, that of the slyA expression strain was significantly different from that of the vector control. Transcripts representing 27 operons were increased in abundance, whereas 3 were decreased. Of the 30 differentially regulated operons, 24 have previously been associated with sites of H-NS binding, suggesting that antagonism of H-NS repression is a common feature of SlyA-mediated transcription regulation. Direct binding of
SINGAPORE, Jun. 4 (Korea Bizwire) - Every day, we are exposed to millions of harmful bacteria that can cause infectious diseases, such as the E. coli bacteria. Now, researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) of A*STAR have developed a new material that can kill the E. coli bacteria within 30 seconds. This finding has been published in the peer-reviewed journal, Small.. "The global threat of drug-resistant bacteria has given rise to the urgent need for new materials that can kill and prevent the growth of harmful bacteria. Our new antimicrobial material could be used in consumer and personal care products to support good personal hygiene practices and prevent the spread of infectious diseases," said IBN Executive Director, Professor Jackie Y. Ying.. Triclosan, a common ingredient found in many products such as toothpastes, soaps and detergents to reduce or prevent bacterial infections, has been linked to making bacteria resistant to antibiotics and adverse health ...
Using a genetic selection for mutations which allow large maltodextrins to cross the outer membrane of Escherichia coli in the absence of the LamB maltoporin, we have obtained and characterized two mutations that define a new locus of E. coli. We have designated this locus imp for increased membrane permeability. Mapping studies show that the imp gene resides at approximately 1.2 min on the E. coli chromosome. The mutations alter the permeability of the outer membrane resulting in increased sensitivity to detergents, antibiotics and dyes. The mutations are nonreverting and codominant. Genetic analysis of the mutations suggest that the imp gene is an essential gene. We describe a general cloning strategy that can be used to clone both dominant and recessive alleles. Using this technique, we have cloned the wild-type and mutant imp alleles onto a low copy number plasmid. ...
Results: Our goal was to develop a high-throughput recombineering system, primarily for the coupling of genes to epitope tags, which could also be used for deletion of genes in both pathogenic and K-12 E. coli strains. To that end we have designed a series of donor plasmids for use with the lambda-Red recombination system, which when cleaved in vivo by the I-SceI meganuclease generate a discrete linear DNA fragment, allowing for C-terminal tagging of chromosomal genes with a 6xHis, 3xFLAG, 4xProteinA or GFP tag or for the deletion of chromosomal regions. We have enhanced existing protocols and technologies by inclusion of a cassette conferring kanamycin resistance and, crucially, by including the sacB gene on the donor plasmid, so that all but true recombinants are counter-selected on kanamycin and sucrose containing media, thus eliminating the need for extensive screening. This method has the added advantage of limiting the exposure of cells to the potential damaging effects of the lambda-Red ...
B Per for total bacterial protein extraction - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hi all, I am in need of clarification of something that is concerning me. I am wanting to extract a transmembrane protein localised in the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli for western blotting and hence I bought B Per from Pierce Scientific. It states that it is an easy to use, one reagent method for gentle lysis of bacterial cells to extract both soluble and insoluble proteins and soluble pr...
Chinese scientists who have fully sequenced the genome of the new E. Coli spreading through Europe said Saturday they found genes in the bacteria that gave it resistance to eight classes of antibiotics. Researchers with the Beijing Genomics Institute, the worlds largest DNA sequencing center, have found genes in the newly identified 0104 strain of E. Coli bacteria that made it resistant to major classes of antibiotics including sulfonamide, cephalothin, penicillin and streptomycin.. This helped explain why doctors in Europe had difficulties in fighting the bug that has killed 18 people and sickened nearly 2,000, BGIs major research arm in Shenzhen said on its website Saturday.. This would help doctors choose right medicines for the treatment, it said.. The researchers are developing a diagnostic kit which will be used to detect the bacteria and prevent the epidemic from spreading further.. The Chinese researchers obtained DNA samples of the bacteria from collaborating scientists in Germany and ...
RecA is important in recombination, DNA repair and repair of replication forks. It functions through the production of a protein-DNA filament. To study the localization of RecA in live Escherichia coli cells, the RecA protein was fused to the green fluorescence protein (GFP). Strains with this gene …
E. coli growth and anaerobic expression of heterologous active [FeFe] hydrogenases.All data are for cultures of E. coli strain BL21(DE3) ΔiscR, and both iron a
Utilizing the bicistronic reporter transposon mini-Tn5 lacZ-tet/1, we have identified lacZ fusions to four Escherichia coli genes/operons that are strongly activated by the accumulation of self-produced extracellular signals. These fusions were designated cma9, cma48, cma113, and cma114 for conditioned medium activated. Each of the cma fusions was expressed in a growth phase-dependent manner, and the presence of conditioned medium from a stationary phase E. coli culture resulted in the premature activation of these fusions in cells at early to mid-logarithmic phase. The cma48 and cma114 fusions were dependent on RpoS for growth phase expression and response to extracellular factors. The extracellular factors that activated the cma9, cma48, and cma114 fusions were produced in both rich complex and defined minimal media. The cma fusions were shown to be within the cysK (cma9), astD (cma48), tnaB (cma113), and gabT (cma114) genes. These genes function in the uptake, synthesis, or degradation of ...
The effect of quindoxin on the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid, and protein in Escherichia coli KL 399 was examined under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the absence of oxygen the synthesis of DNA was completely inhibited by 10 ppm of quindoxin, whereas the syntheses of ribonucleic acid and protein were not affected. Quinoxalin-di-N-oxides (QdNO) induce degradation of DNA in both proliferating and non-proliferating cells. polA, recA, recB, recC, exrA, and uvrA mutants were more susceptible than the corresponding repair-proficient strains. All strains were more resistant in the presence of oxygen. Quindoxin was reduced to quinoxalin-N-oxide by intact E. coli cells or by a cell-free E. coli extract. Electron spin resonance measurements demonstrated the generation of free radicals during the reduction of quindoxin. Oxygen or deficiency of energy sources impaired the antibiotic activity and the reduction of QdNO. The QdNO reductase activity was demonstrated to be ...
Improving Soluble Expression of β-Galactosidase in Escherichia coli by Fusion with Thioredoxin - $\beta$-Galactosidase;Thioredoxin;Inclusion Body;IPTG;
The genomes of species of Escherichia coli (E. coli) show an extraordinary amount of diversity, which include commensal strains and strains belonging to different pathovars. Many strains of E. coli, which can cause mild or severe pathologies in humans, have a commensal ancestor. Understanding the evolutionary changes that can lead to a transition from commensal to pathogen is an important task, which requires integration of different methodologies. One method is experimental evolution of bacteria, in controlled environments, that mimic some of the selective pressures, likely to be important during the transition to pathogenesis. The success of such a transition will depend, at least partially, on ability of E. coli to adapt to the presence of cells of the immune system. Here, we describe a protocol for performing experimental evolution of a commensal strain of E. coli, a derivative of the well studied K12, under the constant selective pressure imposed by cells of the innate immune system, specifically
p.1602 right column bottom paragraph: Considering the fast transcription (∼45 bases/s) and translation (∼15 residues/s) rates, [investigators] tentatively assign 1/κ to the fluorophore maturation process (SOM Text). Although [they] can only spatially resolve a few molecules within an E. coli cell because of the diffraction limit, the long spread of the stochastic arrival times of Venus allows many more protein molecules per expression burst to be counted in several consecutive images ...
Alkylating agents constitute a large class of DNA‐damaging agents that generate both mutagenic and cytotoxic DNA lesions. Much of our understanding of alkylation damage repair is from studies on Escherichia coli, in particular on the adaptive (Ada) response, which involves the upregulation of four genes: ada, aidB, alkA and alkB (Sedgwick et al, 2007). The Ada protein is a multifunctional DNA methyltransferase that also acts as a transcriptional activator of the response. The exact function of AidB, a flavin‐binding protein, remains to be explained and AlkA is a DNA glycosylase with a broad specificity. AlkB catalyses the demethylation of 1‐methyladenine and 3‐methylcytosine in DNA and RNA, coupled to the decarboxylation of 2‐oxoglutarate (2OG) to succinate and CO2 (Falnes et al, 2002; Trewick et al, 2002). Homologues of AlkB have been identified in species ranging from bacteria to humans; eight human homologues (ABH) have been described, but only two, ABH2 and ABH3, are known to ...
Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157, sometimes called VTEC, is a bacterial infection that can cause severe stomach pain , bloody diarrhoea and kidney failure.
E. coli host cells, the phage λ genome circularizes by joining of the cohesive .... construction of recombinant DNA "designer weapons. ... The restriction endonuclease is loosely bound and its catalytic center is kept ... the presence of the essential cofactor Mg2+, the enzyme cleaves the DNA on both strands at the same time. ...
E. coli long-term evolution experiment. This is an ongoing study in experimental evolution led by Richard Lenski that has been tracking genetic changes in 12 initially identical populations of asexual Escherichia coli bacteria since 24 February 1988. The populations reached the milestone of 60,000 in April 2014, the equivalent of 1-million years of human evolution (based on 16-years between generations). Lenski and his colleagues have reported a wide array of genetic changes. Some changes have occurred in all 12 populations and others have only appeared in one or a few populations. At the present time though, the E-coli bacteria are still E-coli bacteria. Not one of them has grown fins to swim around the petri dish or limbs to help it climb out ...
BL21 (DE3) is an E.coli Expression strain, which is a protein expression host with T7 RNA polymerase as the expression system. The expression of T7 phage RNA polymerase gene is controlled by lacuv5 promoter in DE3 region of λ phage, which is integrated on the chromosome of BL21. The strain is suitable for the expression of nontoxic proteins.
At Technovelgy: the Guardian reports on solving the Hamiltonian path problem with E. coli. Programming such a computer is no easy task, however. The researchers coded a simplified version of the problem, using just three cities, by modifying the DNA of Escherichia coli bacteria. The cities were represented by a combination of genes causing the bacteria to glow red or green, and the possible routes between the cities were explored by the random shuffling of DNA. Bacteria producing the correct answer glowed both colours, turning them yellow. The experiment worked, and the scientists checked the yellow bacterias answer by examining their DNA sequence. By using additional genetic differences such as resistance to particular antibiotics, the team believe their method could be expanded to solve problems involving more cities. This is not the only problem bacteria can solve. The research builds on previous work by the same team, who last year created a bacterial computer to solve the Burnt Pancake Problem.
To resurrect these enzymes, which are found in nearly all known modern organisms and are essential for life in mammals, the researchers first constructed a family tree of the more than 200 thioredoxin sequences available from the three domains of life. Then they reconstructed the sequences of the ancestral thioredoxin enzymes using statistical methods based on maximum likelihood. Finally, they synthesized the genes that encoded these sequences, expressed the ancient proteins in the cells of modern Escherichia coli bacteria and then purified the proteins ...
High molecular weight synthetic poly(peptides) of precisely controlled amino acid composition and sequence can be produced by the genetic engineering of Escherichia coli bacteria. By this route, novel
Recombinant DnaK Substrate Binding Domain produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 384 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 48.1 kDa.
Specific assembly proteins are required for the folding and integration of autotransporters into the outer membrane. Employing x-ray crystallography, the authors of the study decoded the atomic structure of the autotransporter assembly protein TamA of the intestinal bacterium Escherichia Coli.. "The protein TamA", explains Fabian Gruss, first author and recipient of a Werner-Siemens PhD fellowship, "also forms a barrel with a pore. The pore is closed to the outside by a lid but a particular kink in the barrel wall provides a gate for autotransporter substrates." When an unfolded autotransporter is delivered, TamA hooks onto one end of the substrate polypeptide chain and integrates it step by step via the gate into its own barrel structure. The TamA barrel is thus expanded; the pore widens and opens such that passenger substrates traverse to the exterior. The assembly process ends when TamA releases the autotransporter into the surrounding membrane. "The autotransporter insertion mechanism was ...
This thesis presents two new concepts for separation of micro particles using dielectrophoresis, demonstrated by calculated examples, as well as a new method for obtaining dielectric data on living cells. The thesis is based on four papers.. Paper I describes how the trapping efficiency of micro particles may be significantly increased when superpositioned electric fields are employed in a high conductivity medium. Avoiding low conductivity media is important when working with living cells. Calculations were performed to predict trajectories of Escherichia coli bacteria in the system with superpositioned electric fields, and a model was developed which employed two arrays of interdigitated electrodes in a micro channel.. Paper II proposes a new concept for separation of micro particles, based on repetitive dielectrophoretic trapping and release in a flow system. Calculations show that the resolution increases as a direct function of the number of trap and release steps, and that a difference in ...
Recombinant Dnak produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 638 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 69 kDa.
Involved in the biogenesis of TorA. Acts on TorA before the insertion of the molybdenum cofactor and, as a result, probably favors a conformation of the apoenzyme that is competent for acquiring the cofactor.
KOHLENHYDRATKATABOLISMUS (METABOLISMUS); WACHSTUM UND ENTWICKLUNG VON MIKROORGANISMEN (MIKROBIOLOGIE); MIKROBIELLER ABBAU UND KATABOLISMUS (METABOLISMUS); ESCHERICHIA (MIKROBIOLOGIE); CARBOHYDRATE CATABOLISM (METABOLISM); GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS (MICROBIOLOGY); MICROBIAL DEGRADATION AND CATABOLISM (METABOLISM); ESCHERICHIA (MICROBIOLOGY ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium [Plural: Bacteria] that is commonly found in the lower intestine of human n animal. This bacterium is the most human friendly and environment friendy bug. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some [grand-childrens of E coli], such as serotype EHEC O157:H7, O104:H4 strains , can cause serious food poisoning in humans. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora [bacteria which are found in or on our bodies without causing disease] of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K and by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine and hell lot other beneficial ...
Actually Id like to compare a metal reduction process between different engineered E. coli strains which membrane permeability is impaired. These mutants are derived from MC4100, so I need to use this one as a control. Some of these strains carry a pET vector in which a gene encoding a metal reductase was cloned. My preliminary experiments suggest that the IPTG induction may have not worked as expected. Before I check the protein production by western blot, I was just wondering if somebody had expertise in using the T7 expression system with MC4100 and derived strains. Thanks !. ...
There are many human feeding studies of various E. coli types and strains, which can be pooled in various ways to yield different dose response models. Many of these have small sample sizes and cannot be used on their own to reliably fit a dose response model. Most datasets for E. coli infections describe high levels of infection resulting from high doses. Lower doses remain to be investigated, and dose response models for infection are therefore uncertain. Another important factor is whether the dose was given with bicarbonate, which would neutralize some stomach acid and possibly increase infectivity.. Haas, Rose, and Gerba (1999) fitted beta-Poisson models to several pooled datasets describing the disease response from ETEC, EPEC and EIEC. [6]Among these datasets were the EPEC strains O111[7] and O55, as well as EIEC strains 4608 and 1624[8] with diarrhea as the end point. However, it mixed data from experiments in which bacteria were given with and without bicarbonate.. The best available ...
Science breaks the news again. What if, instead of storing information in computers, we were able to do so in living organisms? This has been proven to be
... A mathematical model of aerobic bacterial metabolic processes is developed and used to derive the Monod equation, a second-order differential BOD equation, an equation relating specific bacterial growth rate to specific bacterial respiration rate, and a rationale for continuous respirometric growth rate control of the activated sludge process. The model consists of rate equations for both viable and nonviable cells. It is shown that the continuous respirometric data could be used to calculate the amount of new protoplasm synthesized over a day's time.
Cloning recombinants. A restriction enzyme is used to insert a hummingbird gene into a plasmid, which acts as a cloning vector and placed back into E. coli cells. The plasmid genes ampR (ampicillin resistance) and lacZ are used as genetic markers to screen for E. coli cells containing the recombinant gene of interest. Once identified, the recombinant E. coli cells are cloned to make many copies of the gene of interest. Tutorial: ...
LB broth is used for maintaining and cultivating recombinant strains of Escherichia coli. The ingredients of LB broth are tryptone, yeast extract and Sodium Chloride. We show you how to prepare the LB medium. - LB Medium Preparation - AbVideo™ - Support - Abnova
Ours is the only existing genome-scale model of E. coli," says Palsson. In addition, while many approaches to genetics experiments "knock out" individual genes and track the results, the new model takes a whole-system approach. Changing one aspect of a genetic code could be irrelevant if an organism adapts and evolves, says Palsson. The constraints-based models allow the E. coli to evolve more naturally along several possible paths ...
EUPROTEIN provides expression and production services in the E.coli expression system. Learn more about it, by submitting an initial inquiry to us.
Two hundred and thirty-two strains of Escherichia coli belonging to infantile enteropathogenic serotypes isolated in the United Kingdom during 1980 and 1981 were tested for resistance to 10 antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to one or more drugs was found in 134 (57.8%) of the strains, with resistance to sulphonamides, streptomycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin occurring most commonly. Resistance was transferable in 65 out of 104 resistant strains. These findings are a cause for concern because they indicate that the choice of treatment for severe illness is limited and suggest that a large pool of drug-resistant organisms exists in the community. ...
Hi Everyone. (I do have questions, but want to give you my background info first.) I am planning on doing an experiment to make one species of bacteria into another. I plan to: Take E. coli bacteria and extract all of their DNA; their entire genome. Then, I will take another species of bacteria (strep) and remove ALL DNA from them. I shall next take the E. coli DNA and force it into the strep. I want to see if the strep cells will indeed turn into the E. coli bacteria. None of this is finalized. The bacteria species and types may vary if it is easier to do this experiment. The DNA may be cut with enzymes, or whatever, as long as it goes into the 2nd bacteria type. Efficiency rates are not a problem, as long as there is a small or some percent of chance of success. ===== MY QUESTIONS: What are the lab methods of extracting a full "loop" of DNA from bacteria? Is there a way at all to extract all of the DNA in a cell (many cells will be used when I do this.) If the bacterial DNA is broken into many ...
Much research has been done on the ebg operon of the bacterium Escherichia coli over the last 30 years. specific mutations within this operon enable the bacterium to metabolize lactose.. PDF Download ...
New template-based self-propelled gold/nickel/polyaniline/platinum (Au/Ni/PANI/Pt) microtubular engines, functionalized with the Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin bioreceptor, are shown to be extremely useful for the rapid, real-time isolation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria from fuel-enhanced environmental, food, and clinical samples. These multifunctional microtube engines combine the selective capture of E. coli with the uptake of polymeric drug-carrier particles to provide an attractive motion-based theranostics strategy. Triggered release of the captured bacteria is demonstrated by movement through a low-pH glycine-based dissociation solution. The smaller size of the new polymer-metal microengines offers convenient, direct, and label-free optical visualization of the captured bacteria and discrimination against nontarget cells. ...
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DH5-alpha Chemically Competent E. coli cells are suitable for high efficiency transformation in a wide variety of routine applications such as plasmid isolation, cloning, and subcloning.
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LA Testing provides environmental and food testing services to help prevent deadly E. coli outbreaks., , , , Garden Grove, CA, , , , According to a recent article in the Microbial Drug Resistance journal, the...
Escherichia coli, commonly referred to as E. coli, has many different strains. The most commonly known serotypes of these bacteria can cause serious food poisoning or even fatality in humans. However, most strains are completely harmless. These strains are usually found in the gut of the host and help by producing K2 and helping with digestion. The presence of these bacteria is very beneficial for it helps to prevent pathogenic bacteria from being present in the intestine.[1] The Lac switch that we have created in the genetic coding of E. coli bacteria produces a glowing blue color that initially runs off of glucose and eventually runs off of lactose. With this technology, we can create a glow stick that can be used in emergency kits that will provide light in dire situations. By using a non-harmful strain of E. coli, we can create an environmental conscious and biodegradable glow stick that will not cause harm to the surroundings. This model would act as a proof-of-concept in the development of ...
Escherichia coli, commonly referred to as E. coli, has many different strains. The most commonly known serotypes of these bacteria can cause serious food poisoning or even fatality in humans. However, most strains are completely harmless. These strains are usually found in the gut of the host and help by producing K2 and helping with digestion. The presence of these bacteria is very beneficial for it helps to prevent pathogenic bacteria from being present in the intestine.[1] The Lac switch that we have created in the genetic coding of E. coli bacteria produces a glowing blue color that initially runs off of glucose and eventually runs off of lactose. With this technology, we can create a glow stick that can be used in emergency kits that will provide light in dire situations. By using a non-harmful strain of E. coli, we can create an environmental conscious and biodegradable glow stick that will not cause harm to the surroundings. This model would act as a proof-of-concept in the development of ...
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the_ubiquitous_and_usually_harmless_e_coli_bacterium_which_has_oneseventh_the_number_of_genes_as_a_human_has_more_than_1000_of_them_involved_in_metabolism_and_metabolic_regulation_activation_of_random_combinations_of_these_genes_would_theoretically_be_capable_of_generating_a_huge_variety_of_internal_states_however_researchers_at_ucsd_will_report_in_the_dec_27_issue_of_proceedings_of_th
a protein, called MscL, found in the membrane of the single-cell bacterium Escherichia coli. The protein is essentially an emergency-response valve that changes shape to let salts and other solutes in and out of the cell through a process called gating in order to keep tension on the membrane steady. This gating process allows some of the cells innards to spill out or liquid from the surrounding environment to rush in ...
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Its difficult to make predictions, especially about the future, and even more so when they involve the reactions of living cells - huge numbers of genes, proteins and enzymes, embedded in complex pathways and feedback loops. Yet researchers at the University of California, Davis, Genome Center and Department of Computer Science are attempting just that, building a computer
A newly discovered receptor in a strain of Escherichia coli can be blocked to avert infection, a finding that might aid in developing better therapies to treat bacterial infections resulting in food poisoning, diarrhoea or plague.
Hi, Patrice: In a past I found useful the following technique: 1. Spin down 1.5 ml of stationary-phase E. coli culture in Eppendorf tube 2. Resuspend pellet in 0.5 ml ice-cold 20 mM Tris pH 7.4-7.6, 50 mM NaCL, 5-10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol 3. sonicate on ice (time and intensity depends on culture and model of sonicator, generally 6 x 10 sec with 10 sec. intervals, 50% pulse duration and 50-90 power is OK in most cases) 4. spin down in microcentrifuge for 2 min @ max speed at 4 C (room t works as well) 5. incubate 10 ul of lambda DNA (0.1 ug/ul in appropriate restriction buffer) with 3 ul of resulting lysate for 10-30 min @ 37 C 6. run the gel This procedure worked in my hands with about dosen of naturally occuring producers of restriction enzymes as well as with genes cloned in E. coli. In a latter case contaminating nucleases never presented a problem. However, if this happens, some old remedy suggests to add t-RNA to titer out nonspecific nucleases. Some adjustments might be necessary with above ...
Misc.Comments : Open reading frame vector. E.coli MC1000 = F- araD139 delta[ara,leu]7697 delta[lac]chi74 galK- galU- rpsL. Medium is 1227 LB plus ampicillin ...
Fitting Inside a Cell - E-coli is able to house a long strand of DNA because of DNAs relationship with proteins called histones. Learn about E-coli and find out how DNA wraps around histones.
i. α-helix: In an α-helix, the protein chain is coiled like a loosely-coiled spring (just like the telephone cable). Why it is called "alpha"? Alpha measn that if you look down the length of the spring, the coiling happens in a clockwise direction as it goes away from you. An α-helix is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the (backbone) amino and carbonyl groups. The H-atom of amide group forms the bond with the OH atoms of carbonyl group. There is regularity in the arrangement of hydrogen atoms. All the N-H groups point upwards as against the C=O groups that point downwards (as in the figure). In an α-helix, the R-groups (side chains) of amino acids protrude out from the helically coiled polypeptide backbone. Also, each complete turn of the spiral has approximately 3.6 amino acids residues in it and the distance between two turns is 0.54nm ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C4ZY62 (MDTI_ECOBW), Spermidine export protein MdtI. Escherichia coli (strain K12 / MC4100 / BW2952)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for C4ZU95 (ARNB_ECOBW), UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose--oxoglutarate aminotransferase. Escherichia coli (strain K12 / MC4100 / BW2952)
Protein expression in the bacterium E. coli has been the most popular means of producing recombinant proteins for over two decades.
Recombinant Human Cytokeratin-8 / KRT8, expressed in E. coli protein - 230-00241. Liquid . Expression system is Escherichia coli (E.coli).
E coli dosH protein: DOS=direct oxygen sensor; a Heme-binding PAS-domain protein from E. coli; dosH is the sensor domain; amino acid sequence in first source
E coli AADA4 protein: confers streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance; isolated from E. coli; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank Z50802
|p||b|Highlights of PrePhage™|/b||/p| |ul||li|Has narrow host range - specific against |i|Escherichia coli (E. coli)|/i||/li||li|Commonly found in foods we consume|/li||li|Enhances growth of good bacteria|/li||li|Does not cause gas or bloating|/li||li|In
Scientists have come closer to the understanding of how a E. coli clone described as the most important of its kind to cause human infections, has spread across the world in a very short time.
[Role of protein synthesis in the process of degradation of anomalous proteins in Escherichia coli cells].: The degradation of three types of anomalous proteins
E.coli respond to increased solute concentrations by phosphorylation of the membrane receptor _______________, which transfers a phosphate to the subcellular second messenger ______________ that initiates transcription of the ___________ gene producing a protein that can prevent solute entry and preserve the osmotic integrity of the cell.. ...
E.coli respond to increased solute concentrations by phosphorylation of the membrane receptor _______________, which transfers a phosphate to the subcellular second messenger ______________ that initiates transcription of the ___________ gene producing a protein that can prevent solute entry and preserve the osmotic integrity of the cell ...
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of serotype O1:K1:H7/NM are frequently implicated in neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections and septicemia in humans. They are also commonly isolated from colibacillosis in poultry. Studies to determine the similarities of ExPEC from different origins have indicated that avian strains potentially have zoonotic properties. A total of 59 ExPEC O1:K1:H7/NM isolates (21 from avian colibacillosis, 15 from human meningitis, and 23 from human urinary tract infection and septicemia) originated from four countries were characterized by phylogenetic PCR grouping, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and genotyping based on several genes known for their association with ExPEC or avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) virulence. APEC and human ExPEC isolates differed significantly in their assignments to phylogenetic groups, being phylogroup B2 more prevalent among APEC than among human ExPEC (95% vs. 53%, P =
Looking for Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli? Find out information about Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli. common bacterium that normally inhabits the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, but can cause infection in other parts of the body, especially the... Explanation of Enteroaggregative Escherichia Coli
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause extraintestinal diseases in birds, leading to substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Bacteria that invade cells can overcome the host humoral immune response, resulting in a higher pathogenicity potential. Invasins are members of a large family of outer membrane proteins that allow pathogen invasion into host cells by interacting with specific receptors on the cell surface. An in silico analysis of the genome of a septicemic APEC strain (SEPT362) demonstrated the presence of a putative invasin homologous to the ychO gene from E. coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655. In vitro and in vivo assays comparing a mutant strain carrying a null mutation of this gene, a complemented strain, and its counterpart wild-type strain showed that ychO plays a role in the pathogenicity of APEC strain SEPT362. In vitro assays demonstrated that the mutant strain exhibited significant decreases in bacterial adhesiveness and invasiveness in chicken cells and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutation of aromatic amino acid residues located at the amino- and carboxy-termini of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin Ip reduces the efficiency of the toxin to cross the outer membrane. AU - Yamanaka, Hiroyasu. AU - Okamoto, Keinosuke. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Heat-stable enterotoxin Ip (STIp) of Escherichia coli is synthesized as a precursor form consisting of pre- (amino acid residues 1 to 19), pro- (amino acid residues 20 to 54) and mature (amino acid residues 55 to 72) regions. Mature STIp (bioactive STIp) is formed in the periplasmic space after the precursor is proteolytically processed and the mature STIp translocates across the outer membrane through the secretory system including TolC, an outer membrane protein of E. coli. However, it remains unknown how the mature STIp is recognized by this secretory system. In this study, we investigated the amino acid residues of STIp involved in its translocation across the outer membrane. We prepared mutant STIp ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Rigano, M. M.. AU - Alvarez, M. L.. AU - Pinkhasov, J.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Sala, F.. AU - Arntzen, C. J.. AU - Walmsley, A. M.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. Both components of the fusion protein were detected ...
PAIVA, Magna Cristina et al. The first report of the qnrB19, qnrS1 and aac(6´)-Ib-cr genes in urinary isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 2012, vol.107, n.5, pp.687-689. ISSN 0074-0276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762012000500018.. In this study, we investigated the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes among 101 ciprofloxacin-resistant urinary Escherichia coli isolates and searched for mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in PMQR-carrying isolates. Eight isolates harboured the qnr and aac(6)-Ib-cr genes (3 qnrS1, 1 qnrB19 and 4 aac(6)-Ib-cr). A mutational analysis of the QRDRs in qnr and aac(6)-Ib-cr-positive isolates revealed mutations in gyrA, parC and parE that might be associated with high levels of resistance to quinolones. No mutation was detected in gyrB. Rare gyrA, parC and parE mutations were detected outside of the ...
Date: 11/7/2018 Title: Detection and Quantification of Seven Major Serogroups of Shiga Toxin-Producing *Escherichia coli* on Hides of Cull Dairy, Cull Beef, and Fed Beef Cattle at Slaughter ...
ICD-10 B96.22 is other specified shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli [e. coli] (stec) as the cause of diseases classified elsewhere (B9622). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for certain infectious and parasitic diseases.
Few US clinical laboratories screen stool specimens for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) other than E. coli O157. An outbreak of STEC O111:H8 infections indistinguishable from E. coli O157:H7 at a youth camp highlights the need to improve non-O157 STEC surveillance. Interviews of 521 (80%) of 650 attendees revealed 55 (11%) were ill; 2 developed hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Illness was associated with consuming salad during the camps first lunch meal (hazard ratio [HR], 4.68; P , .01), consuming ice provided in barrels on the camps final day (HR, 3.41; P , .01), eating cob corn (HR, 3.22; P , .01), and eating a dinner roll (HR, 2.82; P , .01). Cultures of 2 of 11 stools yielded E. coli O111:H8. Results of serologic testing and additional stool cultures demonstrated no evidence of infection with other bacterial pathogens, including E. coli O157, and supported infection with E. coli O111. Clinical laboratories should routinely screen suspect specimens for non-O157 STEC and should ...

*Puromycin

Selection of Escherichia coli[edit]. Puromycin is poorly active on E. coli. Puromycin-resistant transformants are selected in ... But use of puromycin for E. coli selection requires precise pH adjustment and also depends on which strain is selected. For ...

*Heat-labile enterotoxin

Escherichia coli[edit]. The heat-labile enterotoxin is inactivated at high temperatures.[1][2] ... Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. ... "Expression of the B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli in tobacco mosaic virus-infected Nicotiana ... coli cells and A-type blood antigens.[3] The importance of these binding events is not yet known. ...

*Catabolite repression

Escherichia coli[edit]. Catabolite repression was extensively studied in Escherichia coli. E. coli grows faster on glucose than ... For example, if E. coli is placed on an agar plate containing only glucose and lactose, the bacteria will use glucose first and ... Note that E. coli has a similar cAMP-independent catabolite repression mechanism that utilizes a protein called catabolite ...

*Hypothiocyanite

Escherichia coli • Haemophilus influenzae • Helicobacter Pylori • Klebsiella oxytoca • Klebsiella pneumoniae • Legionella • ...

*Cefminox

Escherichia coli: 0.125 - 16 µg/ml. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 256 µg/ml. [3] ...

*Octenidine dihydrochloride

Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and the yeast Candida albicans.[5]. Comparison between octenidine and chlorhexidine ...

*Interactome

Bartel PL, Roecklein JA, SenGupta D, Fields S (1996). "A protein linkage map of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7". Nat. Genet ... "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (3): 285-90. doi:10.1038/nbt. ... "Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins". PLoS Biol. 7 (4): e96. doi: ... The E. coli and Mycoplasma interactomes have been analyzed using large-scale protein complex affinity purification and mass ...

*Epigenetics

DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... "Genome-wide mapping of methylated adenine residues in pathogenic Escherichia coli using single-molecule real-time sequencing". ...

*CB military symbol

EC - Escherichia coli. *BT - Bacillus thuringiensis. *EH - Erwinia hebicola. *FP - fluorescent particle ...

*dnaQ

... is the gene encoding the ε subunit of DNA polymerase III in Escherichia coli.[1] The ε subunit is one of three core ... the epsilon subunit of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "A human DNA editing enzyme homologous to the Escherichia coli DnaQ/MutD protein". The EMBO Journal. 18 (13): 3868-75. doi: ... "The theta subunit of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III: a role in stabilizing the epsilon proofreading subunit". Journal of ...

*Small intestine

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. *Salmonella enterica. *Campylobacter. *Shigella. *Yersinia. *Clostridium difficile ( ...

*Protein production

Baneyx F (October 1999). "Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 10 (5): 411-21 ... For example, common hosts are bacteria (such as E.coli, B. subtilis), yeast (such as S.cerevisiae[4]) or eukaryotic cell lines ... E. coli is one of the most widely used expression hosts, and DNA is normally introduced in a plasmid expression vector. The ... E. coli, one of the most popular hosts for artificial gene expression. ...

*AB5 toxin

Norton, E. B.; Lawson, L. B.; Mahdi, Z.; Freytag, L. C.; Clements, J. D. (23 April 2012). "The A Subunit of Escherichia coli ... Shiga toxin is an infectious disease caused by the rod shaped Shigella dysenteriae as well as Escherichia coli (STEC), and is ... Weltzin, R; Guy, B; Thomas WD, Jr; Giannasca, PJ; Monath, TP (May 2000). "Parenteral adjuvant activities of Escherichia coli ... Paton, AW; Paton, JC (Feb 1, 2010). "Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin". Toxins. 2 (2): 215-228. doi:10.3390/toxins2020215. ...

*Gastroenteritis

"Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)". Diarrhoeal Diseases. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. ... Viruses (particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter species are the primary causes of ... For example, vaccines against Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), two of the leading bacterial causes of ... with the most common types being Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species.[13] If food becomes ...

*Transferase

This enzyme is a component of MoCo biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. The reaction it catalyzes is as follows: adenylyl- ... Nichols JD, Xiang S, Schindelin H, Rajagopalan KV (Jan 2007). "Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli MoeA: two functional ... Forchhammer K, Böck A (Apr 1991). "Selenocysteine synthase from Escherichia coli. Analysis of the reaction sequence". The ... Reichard P, Hanshoff G (1956). "Aspartate Carbamyl Transferase from Escherichia Coli" (PDF). Acta Chemica Scandinavica: 548-566 ...

*Microfluidics

Park, Tu San; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol (2015-03-01). Smartphone Detection of Escherichia coli From Field Water Samples on Paper ... "Physical manipulation of the Escherichia coli chromosome reveals its soft nature". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 (40): ... "Robust growth of Escherichia coli". Current Biology. 20 (12): 1099-1103. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.04.045. PMC 2902570. PMID ...

*ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system

Meningitis due to Escherichia coli. *Meningitis due to Friedländer bacillus. *Meningitis due to Klebsiella ...

*人類基因組 - 维基百科,自由的百科全

Escherichia coli. 大腸桿菌 4,600,000 4,400 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 釀酒酵母 12,000,000 5,538 ...

*Category:Biotechnology

Escherichia coli‎ (2 C, 29 P). G. *. ► Genetic engineering‎ (13 C, 100 P) ...

*DNA

deHaseth PL, Helmann JD (June 1995). "Open complex formation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: the mechanism of polymerase- ... "The Replication of DNA in Escherichia Coli". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...

*4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-monooxygenase

Prieto, MA; Perez-Aranda, A; Garcia, JL (1993). "Characterization of an Escherichia coli aromatic hydroxylase with a broad ... Diaz, E; Ferrandez, A; Prieto, MA; Garcia, JL (2001). "Biodegradation of aromatic compounds by Escherichia coli". Microbiol Mol ... H2O This reaction is the first step in a pathway found in enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli and soil bacteria such as ... "Catabolism of phenylpropionic acid and its 3-hydroxy derivative by Escherichia coli". J. Bacteriol. 155: 113-21. PMC 217659 . ...

*Allan Wilson

Wilson, A. C.; Pardee, A. B. (1962). "Regulation of flavin synthesis by Escherichia coli". Journal of General Microbiology. 28 ...

*Pyruvate oxidase

Williams FR, Hager LP (1966). "Crystalline flavin pyruvate oxidase from Escherichia coli. I Isolation and properties of the ...

*RNA polymerase

In Escherichia coli bacteria, more than 100 transcription factors have been identified, which modify the activity of RNAP.[10] ... Ishihama A (2000). "Functional modulation of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase". Annual Review of Microbiology. 54: 499-518. doi: ... "Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core and holoenzyme structures". The EMBO Journal. 19 (24): 6833-44. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.24. ... "Use of Mono Q high-resolution ion-exchange chromatography to obtain highly pure and active Escherichia coli RNA polymerase". ...

*P1-derived artificial chromosome

It is one type of vector used to clone DNA fragments (100- to 300-kb insert size; average, 150 kb) in Escherichia coli cells. ...

*Fosforylacja oksydacyjna, wolna encyklopedia

Adaptation of Escherichia coli to redox environments by gene expression. „Mol. Microbiol.". 9 (1), s. 9-15, 1993. DOI: 10.1111/ ... Energetic efficiency of Escherichia coli: effects of mutations in components of the aerobic respiratory chain. „J. Bacteriol ... a b Unden G, Bongaerts J. Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in ... Projection structure of the membrane domain of Escherichia coli respiratory complex I at 8 A resolution. „J. Mol. Biol.". 366 ( ...

*Fenüülalaniin - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeedia

Nad kasutasid mRNA-d selleks, et sisestada uratsiili bakterisse Escherichia coli ning põhjustasid selle, et bakter hakkas ... Tootmisprotsess viiakse läbi bakteris Escherichia coli, mis sünteesib aromaatseid aminohappeid (näiteks fenüülalaniini) ...

*Traveler's diarrhea

Bacteria are responsible for more than half of cases.[3] The bacteria enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are typically the ... The most common causative agent isolated in countries surveyed has been enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).[9] ... Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Archived 2012-05-15 at the Wayback Machine ... Ahmed, T; Bhuiyan, TR; Zaman, K; Sinclair, D; Qadri, F (5 July 2013). "Vaccines for preventing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli ...

Escherichia coli Resistance to Ciprofloxacin in Acute Uncomplicated PyelonephritisEscherichia coli Resistance to Ciprofloxacin in Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis

E. coli was the most common isolated pathogen (81%), followed by other enteric gram negative. E. coli resistance to ... coli resistance to quinolones has been increasing, the recent data of E. coli, causing pyelonephritis, resistance is not known ... The most common pathogen involved is E. coli. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has issued an updated guideline ... Local hospital antibiogram for two years showed up to 22% resistance to ciprofloxacin among E. coli isolates. Methods: We ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/html/80273_80273.htm

Analysis of fimbrial gene clusters and their expression in enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli O157:H7<...Analysis of fimbrial gene clusters and their expression in enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli O157:H7<...

keywords = "Escherichia coli O157, Fimbrial gene clusters",. author = "A Low and N Holden and T Rosser and AJ Roe and C ... Analysis of fimbrial gene clusters and their expression in enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli O157:H7. / Low, A; Holden, N; ... Analysis of fimbrial gene clusters and their expression in enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli O157:H7. Environmental ... title = "Analysis of fimbrial gene clusters and their expression in enterohaemorrhagic escherichia coli O157:H7", ...
more infohttps://pure.sruc.ac.uk/en/publications/analysis-of-fimbrial-gene-clusters-and-their-expression-in-entero

Disease burden in The Netherlands due to infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 | Epidemiology & Infection...Disease burden in The Netherlands due to infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 | Epidemiology & Infection...

Disease burden in The Netherlands due to infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 - Volume 132 Issue 3 - A. ... Human infections with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 - 10 years of E. coli O157 serodiagnosis. Journal of ... Human infections with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 - 10 years of E. coli O157 serodiagnosis. Journal of ... Quantitative risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in frozen ground beef patties consumed by young children in French ...
more infohttp://core-cms.prod.aop.cambridge.org/core/journals/epidemiology-and-infection/article/disease-burden-in-the-netherlands-due-to-infections-with-shiga-toxinproducing-escherichia-coli-o157/A4E9EA6B42EBE0124C9E6D2FD6E95AF2

E. coli (Escherichia coli) | E. coli | CDCE. coli (Escherichia coli) | E. coli | CDC

Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. E ... E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuceplus icon *E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce en Español ... Timeline for Reporting Cases of E. coli O157 Infection. * 2020 Outbreaksplus icon * Outbreak of E. coli Infections Linked to ... Outbreak of E. coli Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuceplus icon *E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce en ...
more infohttp://www.cdc.gov/ecoli/index.html

Resultat #1550819 - GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF QUINOLONE
RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM POULTRY AND HUMANS IN...Resultat #1550819 - GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF QUINOLONE RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM POULTRY AND HUMANS IN...

GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF QUINOLONE RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM POULTRY AND HUMANS IN NORWAY ... GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF QUINOLONE RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM POULTRY AND HUMANS IN NORWAY ...
more infohttps://app.cristin.no/results/show.jsf?id=1550819

BAM: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coliBAM: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL 933 with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli seropathotypes ... coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) and perhaps ... Use of the Escherichia coli identification microarray for characterizing the health risks of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ... Coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli.p. 265-285. In M. L. Speck (ed.), Compendium of ...
more infohttps://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm070080.htm

Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase | SpringerLinkEscherichia coli DNA Gyrase | SpringerLink

In 1963, J. Cairns (1) pointed out that the Escherichia colichromosome... ... In 1963, J. Cairns (1) pointed out that the Escherichia coli chromosome is a closed circular double strand DNA molecule. It has ... Orr E., Lother H., Lurz R., Wahle E. (1984) Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase. In: Proteins Involved in DNA Replication. Advances in ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-8730-5_41

Category:Escherichia coli - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Escherichia coli - Wikimedia Commons

Media in category "Escherichia coli". The following 45 files are in this category, out of 45 total. ... Бактерии Escherichia coli, выросшие на питательной среде McKonkey.jpg 1,280 × 863; 532 KB. ... Escherichia • Species: Escherichia coli (Migula, 1895) Castellani & Chalmers, 1919 ... E. coli cluster analysis-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.jpg 600 × 150; 17 KB. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Escherichia_coli

Dispensability of Escherichia colis latent pathways | PNASDispensability of Escherichia coli's latent pathways | PNAS

2002) Escherichia coli K-12 undergoes adaptive evolution to achieve in silico predicted optimal growth. Nature 420:186-189. ... Dispensability of Escherichia colis latent pathways. Sean P. Cornelius, Joo Sang Lee, and Adilson E. Motter ... 2006) Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: The Keio collection. Mol Syst Biol 2: ... 2004) Pyruvate formate lyase and acetate kinase are essential for anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on xylose. J Bacteriol ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/108/8/3124

Escherichia coli DEC2AEscherichia coli DEC2A

Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/868138

Escherichia coli 99.0741Escherichia coli 99.0741

p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/869678

Escherichia coli - FoodEscherichia coli - Food

E.coli crackdown shows results 19-Sep-2003. A drive in the US to reduce the foodborne disease E.coli could be paying off with ... Calcium could help the body fight E coli, the bacteria often responsible for travellers diarrhea, and a cause of illness in ...
more infohttps://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/tag/keyword/Food/Escherichia%20coli

Identification of phosphoproteins in Escherichia coli.  - PubMed - NCBIIdentification of phosphoproteins in Escherichia coli. - PubMed - NCBI

Identification of phosphoproteins in Escherichia coli.. Freestone P1, Grant S, Toth I, Norris V. ... The substrates of ion- and lipid-stimulated protein kinase activity in extracts of Escherichia coli were purified by ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7783627

Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia Coli | 2014 Case DefinitionShiga Toxin-producing Escherichia Coli | 2014 Case Definition

Escherichia coli O157 isolates that produce the H7 antigen may be assumed to be Shiga toxin-producing. For all other E. coli ... Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause illness that ranges from mild diarrhea to bloody diarrhea, and life- ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli/case-definition/2018/) ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli/case-definition/2006/) ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli/case-definition/2014/

Escherichia coli | Define Escherichia coli at Dictionary.comEscherichia coli | Define Escherichia coli at Dictionary.com

Escherichia coli definition, a species of rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine of humans and ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/escherichia-coli

Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), complete genome - Nucleotide - NCBIEscherichia coli BL21(DE3), complete genome - Nucleotide - NCBI

Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), complete genome Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), complete genome. gi,387823261,ref,NC_012892.2, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_012892

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli definition | Drugs.comEnteropathogenic Escherichia coli definition | Drugs.com

Definition of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ... enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Definition: strain of Escherichia coli in which organisms adhere to small bowel mucosa and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli.html

Stability of Components of the Escherichia coli Septator | SpringerLinkStability of Components of the Escherichia coli Septator | SpringerLink

Most of the information concerning cell division in Escherichia coli derive from genetic observations. Mutations in E. ... Most of the information concerning cell division in Escherichia coli derive from genetic observations. Mutations in E. coli ... Bachmann, B. Linkage Map of Escherichia coli K-12. Edition 8 (1990). Microbiol. Rev., 54: 130-197.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Pla, J., Dopazo, A. and Vicente, M. (1990). The native form of FtsA, a septal protein of Escherichia coli, is located in the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9359-8_43

Food safety and quality: Preventing Escherichia coli in foodFood safety and quality: Preventing Escherichia coli in food

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium found in the digestive tract of animals and humans. ... Hundreds of thousands of people are made ill by E. coli each year, with hundreds of them dying. In recent years, there has been ... Generally harmless, some E. coli are pathogenic and can contaminate food, water and the environment. ... FAO has recently developed a technical leaflet on Preventing E. coli in Food. ...
more infohttp://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/a-z-index/e-coli0/en/

Escherichia coli by Emma Blackwood on PreziEscherichia coli by Emma Blackwood on Prezi

Transcript of Escherichia coli. Category Domain Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Taxonomy Escherichia coli Gram Negative ... Escherichia coli. Total Strains: 72 Human Strains. 18. 15. E.Coli s claim to fame. Current Research Highlight. van Summeren- ... Role of Escherichia coli curli operons in directing amyloid fiber formation. Science. 295: p. 851-855. 7. Expression ... Escherichia coli from the family Enterobacteriaceae Gram Negative Rod Bacteria With Fimbrae and sometimes Pili, inclusion ...
more infohttps://prezi.com/x8kpkvlzr5jq/escherichia-coli/

Escherichia coli - WikispeciesEscherichia coli - Wikispecies

Strains: Escherichia coli KO11 - Escherichia coli UTI89 - Escherichia coli 536 - Escherichia coli APEC O1 - Escherichia coli ... Escherichia coli E24377A - Escherichia coli HS - Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655 - Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL933 - ... čeština: Escherichia coli. eesti: Soolekepike, Soolebakter, Kolibakter, Coli-bakter. עברית: חיידק קולי. polski: Pałeczka ... Escherichia coli (Migula, 1895) Castellani & Chalmers, 1919. References[edit]. *Theodor Escherich (1885): Die Darmbakterien des ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Escherichia_coli

Functioning of a metabolic flux sensor in Escherichia coli | PNASFunctioning of a metabolic flux sensor in Escherichia coli | PNAS

Functioning of a metabolic flux sensor in Escherichia coli. Karl Kochanowski, Benjamin Volkmer, Luca Gerosa, Bart R. Haverkorn ... Allosteric Activation of Escherichia coli Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Deaminase (NagB) In Vivo Justified by Intracellular Amino ... Here, we show experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that Escherichia coli is indeed able to measure its glycolytic ... Dissecting the genetic and metabolic mechanisms of adaptation to the knockout of a major metabolic enzyme in Escherichia coli ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/110/3/1130.short

Recombination and Population Structure in Escherichia coli | GeneticsRecombination and Population Structure in Escherichia coli | Genetics

Recombination and Population Structure in Escherichia coli Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/146/3/745

Toxins | Free Full-Text | Escherichia coli Subtilase CytotoxinToxins | Free Full-Text | Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin

... is the prototype of a new AB5 toxin family produced by a subset of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. Its A ... Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin. Toxins. 2010; 2(2):215-228. Chicago/Turabian Style. Paton, Adrienne W.; Paton, James C. ... Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) is the prototype of a new AB5 toxin family produced by a subset of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli ... Keywords: subtilase cytotoxin; AB5 toxin; BiP/GRP78; endoplasmic reticulum stress; Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli subtilase ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/2/2/215
  • Local hospital antibiogram for two years showed up to 22% resistance to ciprofloxacin among E. coli isolates. (scirp.org)
  • this antibiogram reported all E. coli isolates from all sources (blood, urine, skin, etc.) and doesn't differentiate between clinical infection or colonization. (scirp.org)
  • According to our knowledge, local data for E. coli resistance is missing in the Midwest, it has been reported that United State medical centers have higher rates of resistance than Canadian centers. (scirp.org)
  • However, E. coli resistance to quinolones has been increasing, the recent data of E. coli, causing pyelonephritis, resistance is not known in the Midwest. (scirp.org)
  • E. coli resistance to ciprofloxacin was 13.5%, 37% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 5% to ceftriaxone. (scirp.org)
  • The aim of this study is to follow the E. coli resistance trend in the Midwest following the IDSA recommendation. (scirp.org)
  • Referred to as Diarrheagenic E. coli ( 28 ) or commonly as pathogenic E. coli , these groups are classified based on their unique virulence factors and can only be identified by these traits. (fda.gov)
  • Thus, ec240 dysregulated several uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) virulence factors through different mechanisms and independent of its effects on type 1 pilus biogenesis and may have potential as an antivirulence compound. (asm.org)
  • Pathogenic E . coli group consist of many strains, which for simplicity, can be grouped according to the virulence factors they possess or pathological effects they cause. (intechopen.com)
  • Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are unevenly distributed among Escherichia coli phylogroups. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Escherichia coli bacteremia in children. (medscape.com)
  • In a patient with EG, initial blood cultures showed Escherichia coli , and almost occulted P. aeruginosa bacteremia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on the clinical picture we suspected preponderant P. aeruginosa bacteremia, outgrown by concomitant low-grade E. coli bacteremia in the blood culture vials. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our patient with EG had preponderant P. aeruginosa bacteremia, that was almost occulted by concomitant low-grade E. coli bacteremia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Relationship between time to positivity of blood culture with clinical characteristics and hospital mortality in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • For clinical aspects of the disease, see Escherichia coli enteritis . (wikidoc.org)
  • We have published hundreds of Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude for you to read. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition to the medical data, news and clinical trials, BioPortfolio also has a large collection of Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude Companies in our database. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This pilot study highlights the role of NH residents as a source of different ST131 clades, besides emphasizing the importance of E. coli B2-ST131 subtyping in different clinical settings, and understanding the transmission dynamics of the different variants. (cambridge.org)
  • Enteroaggregative E coli (EAggEC) is primarily associated with persistent diarrhea in children in developing countries, and enteroadherent E coli (EAEC) is a cause of childhood diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea in Mexico and North Africa. (medscape.com)
  • We determined the incidence, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility associated with Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England over a 24 month period. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Interventions to reduce the incidence of E. coli bacteraemia will have to target the community setting and UTIs if substantial reductions are to be realised. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • E. coli stains Gram-negative because its cell wall is composed of a thin peptidoglycan layer and an outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outer membrane surrounding the cell wall provides a barrier to certain antibiotics such that E. coli is not damaged by penicillin. (wikipedia.org)
  • NlpI-mediated modulation of outer membrane vesicle production through peptidoglycan dynamics in Escherichia coli. (duke.edu)
  • Bou-Antoun Sabine , Davies John , Guy Rebecca , Johnson Alan P , Sheridan Elizabeth A , Hope Russell J . Descriptive epidemiology of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England, April 2012 to March 2014. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Water quality --- Detection and enumeration of bacteriophages --- Part 1: Enumeration of F-specific RNA bacteriophages [BS EN ISO 10705-1: (atcc.org)
  • Quantitative PCR showed that there were 1.5 × 10 E 7 copies/milliliter (ml) of P. aeruginosa DNA, whereas the quantity of E. coli DNA was below the detection limit of 2 × 10 E 4 copies/ml. (frontiersin.org)
  • The targeted detection limit will be 10-100 cells/L and 5-20 cells/100 mL for Legionella and E.coli, respectively. (europa.eu)
  • Microbiology's meeting in the UK this week, scientists from the Institute for Animal Health announced progress towards controlling the deadly E. coli bacterium that causes. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • In this study we describe the ability of E. coli to produce carbapenemase enzymes based on the results of the combination disc assay with boronic acid performed according to guidelines established by the European Community on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the biochemical Carba NP test. (hindawi.com)
  • Adhesive Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel disease and infective diarrhoea. (bmj.com)
  • E coli is a major facultative inhabitant of the large intestine. (medscape.com)
  • E. coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.1% of gut flora, and fecal-oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. coli is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic (that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present, but is capable of switching to fermentation or anaerobic respiration if oxygen is absent) and nonsporulating bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • E. coli is classified as a facultative anaerobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two hundred and thirty-two strains of Escherichia coli belonging to infantile enteropathogenic serotypes isolated in the United Kingdom during 1980 and 1981 were tested for resistance to 10 antimicrobial drugs. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the virulence profile, phylogenetic background and antimicrobial resistance in 225 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from turkeys presenting airsacculitis. (usp.br)
  • Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus: bad news and good news from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net, formerly EARSS), 2002 to 2009. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) has long been a popular model organism for basic biological research. (mdpi.com)
  • Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. (wikipedia.org)