Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.

Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (1/79677)

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (2/79677)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (3/79677)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase. (4/79677)

BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (5/79677)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (6/79677)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (7/79677)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (8/79677)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

Objective: To search for further synergistic combinations of gentamicin and raw honey that might have potential in treating wounds. Methods: The antibacterial activity and synergistic interaction of raw honey and gentamicin was assessed by using agar well diffusion method. Two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2154) bacteria were selected for antibacterial activity assay. The cultures of bacteria were maintained in their appropriate agar slants at 4 °C throughout the study and used as stock cultures. Results: Raw honey and gentamicin interacted synergistically to inhibit Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: These results suggest that combinations of raw honey and gentamicin have therapeutic benefits in prophylaxis of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative multi-omics systems analysis of Escherichia coli strains B and K-12. AU - Yoon, Sung H.. AU - Han, Mee Jung. AU - Jeong, Haeyoung. AU - Lee, Choong H.. AU - Xia, Xiao Xia. AU - Lee, Dae Hee. AU - Shim, Ji H.. AU - Lee, Sang Y.. AU - Oh, Tae K.. AU - Kim, Jihyun F.. PY - 2012/5/25. Y1 - 2012/5/25. N2 - Background: Elucidation of a genotype-phenotype relationship is critical to understand an organism at the whole-system level. Here, we demonstrate that comparative analyses of multi-omics data combined with a computational modeling approach provide a framework for elucidating the phenotypic characteristics of organisms whose genomes are sequenced.Results: We present a comprehensive analysis of genome-wide measurements incorporating multifaceted holistic data - genome, transcriptome, proteome, and phenome - to determine the differences between Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains. A genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli B was reconstructed and used to identify genetic ...
Bekijk Stockfoto van Escherichia Coli Bacteria Commonly Known As E Coli Can Cause Food Poisoning When Found In Above Average Numbers Sem X26000. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
The structure of the O-antigen polysaccharide (PS) from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 180/C3 has been determined. Sugar and methylation analysis together with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were the main methods used. The PS is composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the following structure:→2)-β-d-Quip3NAc-(1→3)-β-d-Ribf-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→Analysis of NMR data indicates that the presented sequence of sugar residues also represents the biological repeating unit of the O-chain. The structure is closely related to that of O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O5 and partially to that of E. coli O65. The difference between the O-antigen from the 180/C3 strain and that of E. coli O5 is the linkage to the d-Quip3NAc residue, which in the latter strain is 4-O-substituted. The E. coli O65 O-antigen contains as part of its linear pentasaccharide repeating unit a similar structural element, namely ...
View Stock Photo of Escherichia Coli Bacteria Commonly Known As E Coli Can Cause Food Poisoning Usually When A Person Consumes Undercooked Or Raw Meat Infection Can Also Occur After Swimming Bathing Or Drinking Sewagecontaminated Water Or Consuming Raw Milk Sem. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
Bekijk Stockfoto van Escherichia Coli Bacteria Commonly Known As E Coli Can Cause Food Poisoning Usually When A Person Consumes Undercooked Or Raw Meat Infection Can Also Occur After Swimming Bathing Or Drinking Sewagecontaminated Water Or Consuming Raw Milk Sem. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
in Journal of the American Chemical Society (2008), 130(17), 5618-9. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is applied to intact peptidoglycan sacculi of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. High-quality solid-state NMR spectra allow atom-resolved investigation of the ... [more ▼]. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is applied to intact peptidoglycan sacculi of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. High-quality solid-state NMR spectra allow atom-resolved investigation of the peptidoglycan structure and dynamics as well as the study of protein-peptidoglycan interactions. [less ▲]. Detailed reference viewed: 70 (1 ULiège) ...
Background: The emergence and propagation of different phylogenetic groups of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli have become a worldwide health concern in human and veterinary medicine. Therefore, the evaluation of the phylogenetic distribution of antibiotic-resistant E. coli is important for therapeutic and economic purposes. The aims of this study were to determine phylogenetic ...
FtsA is an essential cell division protein which is synthesized in minute amounts in Escherichia coli. To study the effects of overexpressing ftsA on the phenotype of E. coli cells, DNA fragments encoding the ftsA gene were subcloned downstream of a lac or a tac promoter in two plasmids. High-level expression of the ftsA gene from these promoters inhibited normal cell septation and caused the cells to become long, nonseptate filaments. Continued overexpression of ftsA resulted in the filaments developing spherical bulges up to 4 um in diameter. It is suggested that these bulges may emanate from septation sites because they were evenly spaced in relation to one another and to the cell poles. Observations of thin sections by electron microscopy demonstrated that these bulges contained small electron dense regions and large electron-lucent plate-like inclusions. A finding that the bulging filamentous cells contain more hexosamine per mass than control cells suggests that abnormal peptidoglycan synthesis
How is Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli abbreviated? DNAa stands for Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli. DNAa is defined as Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli very rarely.
e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa | order e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa | How to use: e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa |
The novel sigma factor (sigma S) encoded by rpoS (katF) is required for induction of many growth phase-regulated genes and expression of a variety of stationary-phase phenotypes in Escherichia coli. Here we demonstrate that wild-type cells exhibit spherical morphology in stationary phase, whereas rpoS mutant cells remain rod shaped and are generally larger. Size reduction of E. coli cells along the growth curve is a continuous and at least biphasic process, the second phase of which is absent in rpoS-deficient cells and correlates with induction of the morphogene bolA in wild-type cells. Stationary-phase induction of bolA is dependent on sigma S. The gearbox a characteristic sequence motif present in the sigma S-dependent growth phase- and growth rate-regulated bolAp1 promoter, is not recognized by sigma S, since stationary-phase induction of the mcbA promoter, which also contains a gearbox, does not require sigma S, and other sigma S-controlled promoters do not contain gearboxes. However, ...
In the present study, we demonstrate colonization resistance in mice precolonized with a specific human commensal E. coli strain and subsequently fed the same strain 10 days later, i.e., the strain fed at day 10 is nearly eliminated (Fig. 1). However, despite the fact that different human commensal strains compete with each other in all sections of the intestine (Table 2), it appears that colonization resistance is not effective when mice precolonized with one human commensal E. coli strain are fed 105 CFU of a different human commensal E. coli strain 10 days later. That is, the strain fed at day 10 grows from low to higher numbers in the mouse intestine and persists in high numbers along with the precolonized strain (Fig. 2).. When the precolonized E. coli strain and the strain fed at 10 days are isogenic and utilize all nutrients equally well, the precolonized strain has the advantage of having had 10 days to adapt to the intestinal environment. The mechanisms involved in adaptation that ...
Surgical stress shifts the intestinal Escherichia coli population to that of a more adherent phenotype: role in barrier regulation.: The combination of surgical
E. coli bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of the rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, known as E. coli. These bacteria are normal inhabitants of the human intestine (they also occur in the intestine of animals) and are usually harmless. Under certain conditions, however, E. coli might increase in number and cause infection. Serotypes of E. coli are responsible for gastro-enteritis in children, particularly in tropical countries. In adults it causes travellers diarrhoea and 80% of all urinary tract infections. It is also the organism most used in genetic engineering studies. Magnification: x2400 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image B230/0143
e coli protein biotin labeled anti e coli host cell protein antibody | order e coli protein biotin labeled anti e coli host cell protein antibody | How to use:
The susceptibility of the E. coli B strain to a variety of stressful conditions and antibiotics revealed by PM tests (Figure S3 in Additional file 1) can be explained by several observations (Figure 5). First, differences in the composition of the LPS core and expression of outer membrane proteins may influence the permeability and integrity of the cell envelope. B strains produce more OmpF porin than K-12 strains because the B genome lacks micF, which post-transcriptionally prevents production of OmpF [24]. This is further supported by the transcriptome data showing high levels of ompF expression in the B strain and high expression of ompC and ompA in the K-12 strain (Figure 4). These observations were also consistent with results of proteome analysis of the outer membrane fractions (Figure S2B in Additional file 1). Noxious agents such as antibiotics and bile acids diffuse more easily through OmpF than OmpC because the former produces a channel with a larger pore size [25]. Second, synthesis ...
A strain of human invasive Escherichia coli 0143 (HlnvEC) which was found to lack pili and flagella was orally administered to rabbits weighing 0.7 to 1.1 kg in doses ranging from 1.5 x 108 to 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria. HInvEC colonized the ileum, cecum, and colon in large numbers for one to three days and produced diarrhea depending on the dose in 124 (65%) of 189 rabbits. A dose of 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria elicited diarrheal disease in 91 (87%) of 105 rabbits, The acute pathohistology as determined by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and immune-fluorescent microscopy was manifested in the distal ileum, cecum, and colon. The pathohistology involved the epithelial mucosa which developed mucosal ulcers characterized by a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response, especially at sites where HlnvEC invaded the lamina propria. Thus, we have developed and characterized in young rabbits a model of HlnvEC diarrhea that is similar clinically and pathohistologically to the same disease ...
A strain of human invasive Escherichia coli 0143 (HlnvEC) which was found to lack pili and flagella was orally administered to rabbits weighing 0.7 to 1.1 kg in doses ranging from 1.5 x 108 to 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria. HInvEC colonized the ileum, cecum, and colon in large numbers for one to three days and produced diarrhea depending on the dose in 124 (65%) of 189 rabbits. A dose of 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria elicited diarrheal disease in 91 (87%) of 105 rabbits, The acute pathohistology as determined by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and immune-fluorescent microscopy was manifested in the distal ileum, cecum, and colon. The pathohistology involved the epithelial mucosa which developed mucosal ulcers characterized by a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response, especially at sites where HlnvEC invaded the lamina propria. Thus, we have developed and characterized in young rabbits a model of HlnvEC diarrhea that is similar clinically and pathohistologically to the same disease ...
Studies using isogenic transductant strains mlpA+ and mlpA as well as reversion analysis suggested that the physiological consequences of a structural gene mutation in murein lipoprotein include (i) increased sensitivity toward chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid, (ii) leakage of periplasmic enzyme ribonuclease, (iii) weakened association between the outer membrane and the rigid layer accentuated by Mg2+ starvation, resulting in the formation of outer membrane blebs, and (iv) decreased growth rate in media of low ionic strength or low osmolarity. It is suggested that the bound form of lipoprotein plays an important role in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the outer membrane of the Escherichia coli cell envelope. Other outer membrane components may also contribute to the anchorage of outer membrane to the rigid layer, probably through ionic interactions with divalent cations. Using the phenotype of ...
Can get into food, like beef andescherichia . Common type of several types or strains of bacteria and fecaloral found. . Bacteria thatnov , get into. russian blue cat for sale in michigan, Escherichia coli characteristics types of the enteroaggregative shiga toxin verotoxin producing escherichia. Gram negative, rod shaped bacteria and related bacteria thatnov . Can get into food, like beef andescherichia e an aerobic gram. Like beef andescherichia e food like ...
The ribosome is a complex macromolecule consisting of RNA and protein subunits that is responsible for translating the genetic code and protein synthesis. Within its large subunit, the exit tunnel exists as a conduit for nascent peptides to traverse before reaching the cytoplasm or membrane translocon. The tips of the extended loops (also called tentacles) of two proteins, L4 and L22, contribute to the surface of the narrowest portion of Escherichia colis exit tunnel. Mutations in the tentacles of the L4 and L22 proteins promote resistance to a class of antibiotics referred to as macrolides. Although the mutant strains have the advantage of growing in the presence of the antibiotic, erythromycin, they have the disadvantage of growing slower than the wildtype. The decreased rate of growth may be a reflection of structural changes within the 23S rRNA component of the large subunit induced by structural changes in L4 and L22, which in turn result in defects in ribosomal assembly and/or peptide ...
Chromosomal DNA from several Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) strains was transduced by bacteriophage P1 into E. coli strain K12 W3110 trpA33. Recombination patterns of the transductants were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism over a 40-kb region centering on a single marker (trpA+) in the tryptophan operon. These experiments demonstrate that transduction between different strains of E. coli can result in recombinational replacements that are small in comparison to the entrant molecule (replacements average 8-14 kb, whereas P1 packages approximately 100 kb) often in a series of discrete segments. The transduction patterns generated resemble the natural mosaic sequence patterns of the ECOR strains described in previous work. Extensive polymorphisms in the restriction-modification systems of the ECOR strains are a possible explanation for the sequence patterns in nature. To test this possibility two transductants were back-transduced into strain K12 W3110 trpA33. The resulting ...
Summary Nine hundred and twenty-five Escherichia coli isolates from cases of diarrhoea in the United Kingdom and belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O serogroups were examined for virulence properties. The tests included adhesion to HEp-2 cells, the fluorescence actin staining (FAS) test (which correlates with the ability to cause attaching and effacing lesions) and DNA hybridisations with probes to detect sequences for eaeA (E. coli attaching and effacing factor), EAF (EPEC adherence factor), verocytotoxins VT1 and VT2, enteroaggregative E. coli and diffusely adherent E. coli. The O serogroups examined were 18, 26, 44, 55, 86, 111, 114, 119, 125, 126, 127, 128 and 142. Six hundred and sixty strains (71.4%) hybridised with at least one of the DNA probes. Over 80% of strains in O serogroups 26, 55, 119, 125, 127 and 142 and 41% of strains of serogroups 86, 111, 114, 126 and 128 hybridised with the eae probe and most showed localised attachment and were FAS-positive. However, |10% of these eae
Abstract: The purpose of paper was the evaluation of short-chain organic acid effect on Escherichia coli in fish meal stored at 12°C. Fish meal samples (n=125) were inoculated with 7 x 107 CFU x g-1 of E. coli ATCC 25922 strain and treated with 0 to 1.2% of formic (35%) and propionic (15%) acid mixture. The treatment resulted in the significant reduction of number of test bacteria, proportional to the concentration of acid added. When applied in mixture, propionic and formic acid appeared to work synergistically against E. coli. Accordingly, their application as high-protein feed preservatives seems to be highly appropriate. ...
E. coli bacterium, artwork. The Escherichia coli bacterium is a Gram-negative bacillus (rod-shaped bacterium). It commonly has a single long flagellum (thin thread-like structure) that is used for movement. However, this strain has numerous flagella, giving it greater mobility. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine however, under certain conditions, its numbers may increase, causing infection. - Stock Image C011/1351
Optimisation of Bacillus subtilis for the secretion of heterologous proteins Therapeutic proteins (including those required for experimental purposes and clinical trials) are major products of biomanufacturing processes and considerable time and expense are expended to maximise the yield and quality of proteins produced in heterologous hosts. The production host of choice is the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli for which many strains and expression systems have been developed. However ...
Optimisation of Bacillus subtilis for the secretion of heterologous proteins Therapeutic proteins (including those required for experimental purposes and clinical trials) are major products of biomanufacturing processes and considerable time and expense are expended to maximise the yield and quality of proteins produced in heterologous hosts. The production host of choice is the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli for which many strains and expression systems have been developed. However ...
Propolis exhibits antimicrobial effects on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to various antibiotics and some microorganisms.
BioAssay record AID 585432 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against oqxAB positive Escherichia coli DH5[alpha] harboring pMD18-T::oqxAB by CLSI agar dilution method.
DNA damaging alkylating agents are present abundantly in the environment and also produced endogenously.The majority of the DNA adducts caused by such alkylating agents would be in double-stranded DNA. However, single-strand- specific lesions canarise when DNA double helix is temporarily unwound during replication or recombination. The N1 position of purines and the N3 of pyrimidines, which are normally protected from alkylation by base pairing in duplex DNA, can be alkylated in single-stranded DNA. The Escherichia coliAlkB protein is an oxidative demethylase that repairs such alkylatedbases present in single stranded DNA. Although AlkB function was known in great detail, its regulation was poorly characterized. I hypothesized that some proteins might directly interact with AlkB to regulate its function.. ...
Compaction of DNA is an essential phenomenon that affects all facets of cellular biology. Surprisingly, given the abundance and apparent simplicity of bacteria, our understanding of chromosome organization in these ancient organisms is inadequate. In this chapter we will focus on arguably the best understood aspect of DNA folding in the model bacterium Escherichia coli: the supercondensation of the chromosome that occurs during periods of starvation and stress.. DOWNLOAD. ...
Results of this study provided an example of how ESBL determinants in general and CTX-M in particular are rapidly spreading among commensal E. coli strains in healthy subjects from low-resource settings. In the surveyed area, including urban settings in Bolivia and Peru, the prevalence of healthy children carrying ESBL-positive E. coli strains in their commensal microbiota underwent a dramatic (17-fold) increase over a 3-year time period that was mostly contributed by CTX-M-type determinants. This phenomenon is a matter of concern, since commensals can act as a reservoir of resistance genes (Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Network [http://www.roarproject.org]; Alliance for Prudent Use of Antibiotics), while intestinal colonization by ESBL-producing isolates can be a source for influx of ESBL determinants into the hospital setting and represents a risk factor for subsequent infections caused by ESBL-producing strains in hospitalized patients (3). The reasons for this alarming evolution remain ...
Total counts ofEscherichia coli were followed during anaerobic digestion of pig slurry laboratory scale digesters at 37° C. Counts decreased rapidly d
Understanding the mechanisms behind translation and its rate-limiting steps is crucial for both the development of drug targets and improvement of heterologous protein production with many biotechnological applications, such as in pharmaceutical and biofuel industries. Despite many advances in the knowledge of the ribosome structure and function, there is still much discussion around the determinants of translation elongation with experiments and computational studies pointing in different directions. Here, we use a stochastic framework to simulate the process of translation in the context of an Escherichia coli cell by gathering the available biochemical data into a ribosome kinetics description. Our results from the study of translation in E. coli at different growth rates contradict the increase of mean elongation rate with growth rate established in the literature. We show that both the level of tRNA competition and the type of cognate binding interaction contribute to the modulation of ...
Most of us associate the bacteria E. coli with nasty stomach ailments. But a new study published in Nature magazine suggests E. coli can not just turn stomachs, but could potentially turn the wheels of your car, since a genetically engineered strain of the bacteria has produced clean, road-ready biodiesel.. The bacteria can work on any type of biomass, including wood chip, switchgrass, and the plant parts that are left behind after a harvest-all contain cellulose, a structural material that comprises much of a plants mass. Study coauthor Jay Keasling and his colleagues report engineering E. coli bacteria to synthesize and excrete the enzyme hemicellulase, which breaks down cellulose into sugars. The bacteria can then convert those sugars into a variety of chemicals-diesel fuel among them. The final products are excreted by the bacteria and then float to the top of the fermentation vat before being siphoned off [Technology Review]. E. coli bacteria naturally turn sugars into fatty acids to build ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An nad synthetic reaction bypasses the lipoate requirement for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli strains blocked in succinate catabolism. AU - Hermes, Fatemah A.. AU - Cronan, John E.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - The lipoate coenzyme is essential for function of the pyruvate (PDH) and 2-oxoglutarate (OGDH) dehydrogenases and thus for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. LipB catalyzes the first step in lipoate synthesis, transfer of an octanoyl moiety from the fatty acid synthetic intermediate, octanoyl-ACP, to PDH and OGDH. E. coli also encodes LplA, a ligase that in presence of exogenous octanoate (or lipoate) can bypass loss of LipB. LplA imparts ΔlipB strains with a leaky growth phenotype on aerobic glucose minimal medium supplemented with succinate (which bypasses the OGDH-catalyzed reaction), because it scavenges an endogenous octanoate pool to activate PDH. Here we characterize a ΔlipB suppressor strain that did not require succinate supplementation, but did ...
Methionine is an essential amino acid for animals and is typically considered one of the first limiting amino acids in animal feed formulations. Methionine deficiency or excess in animal diets can lead to sub-optimal animal performance and increased environmental pollution, which necessitates its accurate quantification and proper dosage in animal rations. Animal bioassays are the current industry standard to quantify methionine bioavailability. However, animal-based assays are not only time consuming, but expensive and are becoming more scrutinized by governmental regulations. In addition, a variety of artifacts can hinder the variability and time efficacy of these assays. Microbiological assays, which are based on a microbial response to external supplementation of a particular nutrient such as methionine, appear to be attractive potential alternatives to the already established standards. They are rapid and inexpensive in vitro assays which are characterized with relatively accurate and consistent
Purchase Recombinant Escherichia coli UPF0073 inner membrane protein yqfA(yqfA). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity. Good price.
Hi there, I need an antibody which would recognize the E coli cell surface (I am thinking, for instance, about an anti-flagellae, or and anti-LPS or an anti-porin), that could be use in Elisa experiment where I coat the multiplate with entire and intact E coli cells. Anybody has an answer and/or the antibody? Many thanks in advance! Jean-Yves Paquet jean-yves.paquet at fundp.ac.be ...
In animal diets optimal amino acid quantities and balance among amino acids is of great nutritional importance. Essential amino acid deficiencies have negative impacts on animal physiology, most often expressed in sub-optimal body weight gains. Over supplementation of diets with amino acids is costly and can increase the nitrogen emissions from animals. Although in vivo animal assays for quantification of amino acid bioavailability are well established, Escherichia coli-based bioassays are viable potential alternatives in terms of accuracy, cost, and time input. E. coli inhabits the gastrointestinal tract and although more abundant in colon, a relatively high titer of E. coli can also be isolated from the small intestine, where primary absorption of amino acids and peptides occur. After feed proteins are digested, liberated amino acids and small peptides are assimilated by both the small intestine and E. coli. The similar pattern of uptake is a necessary prerequisite to establish E. coli cells as
Economic Importance of E Coli Bacteria 1) E coli bacteria break down glucose and lactose to from acid and gas by fermentation 2) In human intestine E coli
P.514 left column top paragraph: The bacterial (and archaeal) small (30S) subunit contains the 16S rRNA and 21 r-proteins (Escherichia coli), whereas the eukaryotic small subunit contains the 18S rRNA and 32 r-proteins (Saccharomyces cerevisiae although the numbers vary between species). The bacterial large (50S) subunit contains the 5S and 23S rRNAs and 34 r-proteins (E. coli), with the eukaryotic large subunit containing the 5S, 5.8S and 25S/28S rRNAs and 46 r-proteins (S. cerevisiae again, the exact numbers vary between species ...
SlyA is a member of the MarR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators. Previously, SlyA has been shown to directly regulate only two operons in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, fimB and hlyE (clyA). In both cases, SlyA activates gene expression by antagonizing repression by the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS. Here, the transcript profiles of aerobic glucose-limited steady-state chemostat cultures of E. coli K-12 MG1655, slyA mutant and slyA over-expression strains are reported. The transcript profile of the slyA mutant was not significantly different from that of the parent; however, that of the slyA expression strain was significantly different from that of the vector control. Transcripts representing 27 operons were increased in abundance, whereas 3 were decreased. Of the 30 differentially regulated operons, 24 have previously been associated with sites of H-NS binding, suggesting that antagonism of H-NS repression is a common feature of SlyA-mediated transcription regulation. Direct binding of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombination of plasmids in a carbapenem-resistant NDM-5-producing clinical Escherichia coli isolate. AU - Xie, Miaomiao. AU - Li, Ruichao. AU - Liu, Zhonghua. AU - Chan, Edward Wai Chi. AU - Chen, Sheng. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - Objectives: To investigate the genetic features of five plasmids recovered from an NDM-5-producing clinical Escherichia coli strain, BJ114, and to characterize the plasmid recombination event that occurred during the conjugation process. Methods: The genetic profiles of the five plasmids were determined by PCR, conjugation, S1-PFGE, Southern hybridization andWGS analysis. Plasmid sequences were analysed with various bioinformatic tools. Results: Complete sequences of five plasmids were obtained. Two small plasmids, pBJ114-141 and pBJ114-46, were speculated to have recombined into a large fusion plasmid, pBJ114T-190. When conjugated to other E. coli strains, some of the fusion plasmids were able to be resolved into the original two single ...
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of serotype O1:K1:H7/NM are frequently implicated in neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections and septicemia in humans. They are also commonly isolated from colibacillosis in poultry. Studies to determine the similarities of ExPEC from different origins have indicated that avian strains potentially have zoonotic properties. A total of 59 ExPEC O1:K1:H7/NM isolates (21 from avian colibacillosis, 15 from human meningitis, and 23 from human urinary tract infection and septicemia) originated from four countries were characterized by phylogenetic PCR grouping, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and genotyping based on several genes known for their association with ExPEC or avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) virulence. APEC and human ExPEC isolates differed significantly in their assignments to phylogenetic groups, being phylogroup B2 more prevalent among APEC than among human ExPEC (95% vs. 53%, P =
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonadditivity of Mutational Effects at the Folate Binding Site of Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase. AU - Huang, Zheng. AU - Wagner, Carston R.. AU - Benkovic, Stephen J.. PY - 1994/9/1. Y1 - 1994/9/1. N2 - The function of the hydrophobic residues Leu28, Phe31, Ile50, and Leu54 at the folate binding site in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) has been studied by a combination of site-specific mutagenesis and reaction kinetics. Studies suggest that the overall protein structure and kinetic sequence for the reaction did not change for the mutant proteins compared to the wild-type enzyme. Two sets of mutated reductases have been constructed. The first set, in which the side chains of the targeted amino acids are spatially well separated (∼8 Å), includes two single mutants (L28Y and L54F) and a double mutant (L28Y-L54F). This set features residues that increased the side chain surface area and the potential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of virulence factors on host inflammatory response induced by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes. AU - Sanchez-Villamil, Javier. AU - Navarro-Garcia, Fernando. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Pathogens are able to breach the intestinal barrier, and different bacterial species can display different abilities to colonize hosts and induce inflammation. Inflammatory response studies induced by enteropathogens as Escherichia coli are interesting since it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, leading to different E. Coli pathotypes. Diarrheagenic E. Coli secrete toxins, effectors and virulence factors that exploit the host cell functions to facilitate the bacterial colonization. Many bacterial proteins are delivered to the host cell for subverting the inflammatory response. Hereby, we have highlighted the specific processes used by E. Coli pathotypes, by that subvert the inflammatory pathways. These mechanisms include an arrangement of pro- and anti-inflammatory ...
Presence and characterization of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence genes in F165-positive E. coli strains from diseased calves and pigs
This study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the consumption of cranberry capsules vs. placebo in the urine of healthy volunteers. A first double-blind, randomised, crossover trial involved eight volunteers who had followed three regimens, with or without cranberry, with a wash-out period of at least 6 days between each regimen. Twelve hours after consumption of cranberry or placebo hard capsules, the first urine of the morning was collected. Different Escherichia coli strains were cultured in the urine samples. Urinary antibacterial adhesion activity was measured in vitro using the human T24 epithelial cell-line, and in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans killing model. With the in-vitro model, 108 mg of cranberry induced a significant reduction in bacterial adherence to T24 cells as compared with placebo (p ...
Video articles in JoVE about escherichia coli include The Multifaceted Benefits of Protein Co-expression in Escherichia coli, Protocols for Implementing an Escherichia coli Based TX-TL Cell-Free Expression System for Synthetic Biology, Quantification of the Abundance and Charging Levels of Transfer RNAs in Escherichia coli, Determination of the Optimal Chromosomal Location(s) for a DNA Element in Escherichia coli Using a Novel Transposon-mediated Approach, Mapping Bacterial Functional Networks and Pathways in Escherichia Coli using Synthetic Genetic Arrays, Non-Invasive Model of Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in the Neonatal Rat, Method for Labeling Transcripts in Individual Escherichia coli Cells for Single-molecule Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Experiments, Residue-specific Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids into Model Proteins Using an Escherichia coli Cell-free Transcription-translation System, Detection of Live Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells by PMA-qPCR,
CS6 is the predominant colonization factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We report the existence of multiple CS6 subtypes caused by natural point mutations in cssA and cssB, the structural genes for CS6. The subtype AIBI was mostly associated with ETEC isolated from diarrhoeal cases, whereas AIIBII was mostly found in asymptomatic controls. Here we explore the rationale behind this association. ETEC isolates expressing AIIBII showed weaker adherence to intestinal epithelial cells compared with ETEC expressing AIBI. AIIBII expression on the ETEC cell surface was threefold less than AIBI. We found that alanine at position 37 in CssAII, in conjunction with asparagine at position 97 in CssBII, was responsible for the decreased levels of AIIBII on the bacterial surface. In addition, purified AIIBII showed fourfold less mucin binding compared with AIBI. The asparagine at position 97 in CssBII was also accountable for the decreased mucin binding by AIIBII. Reduced fluid accumulation and
Temperature variation--through time and across climatic gradients--affects individuals, populations, and communities. Yet how the thermal response of biological systems is altered by environmental stressors is poorly understood. Here we quantify two key features--optimal temperature and temperature breadth--to investigate how temperature responses vary in the presence of antibiotics. We use high-throughput screening to measure growth of Escherichia coli under single and pairwise combinations of 12 antibiotics across seven temperatures that range from 22{degrees}C to 46{degrees}C. We find that antibiotic stress often results in considerable changes in the optimal temperature for growth and a narrower temperature breadth. The direction of the optimal temperature shifts can be explained by the similarities between antibiotic-induced and temperature-induced damage to the physiology of the bacterium. We also find that the effects of pairs of stressors in the temperature response can often be ...
This chapter on probiotic Escherichia coli focuses on the properties, underlying mechanisms, and clinical uses of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 as this is the most widely used and studied strain. However, it also refers to important work that has been done using other E. coli strains. The enterobacterium E. coli can be extraintestinally pathogenic (e.g., uropathogenic), intestinally pathogenic (e.g., enteropathogenic or enterohemorrhagic), and nonpathogenic or commensal (e.g., probiotic). The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 was isolated in 1917 from a soldier who appeared to be protected from gastrointestinal infections causing severe diarrhea in many of his comrades. Since that time, EcN has been studied intensively, not only with a focus on its apparent clinical use but also with a view to understanding how it counteracts the pathogenic mechanisms underlying a number of diseases. Its uniqueness, not only among other E. coli strains but also among other probiotic microorganisms, is evident.
Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda ATCC ® 77359™ Designation: pLDR10 TypeStrain=False Application: contains sequence attachment site integrating vector
Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 ATCC ® 11303-B4™ Designation: T4 TypeStrain=False Application: Testing of aerosol containment on cell sorters
DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify a DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. ...
In this semirural community, we found that numerically dominant commensal E. coli strains (showing similar antimicrobial resistance and same antibiotic resistance genes) colonizing children and domestic animals in the same period of time and in the same community are genotypically diverse. We also found that plasmids carrying the same antibiotic resistance genes were distinct, which is consistent with recent reports showing that AMR genes move frequently among different plasmids (28, 29). Our research suggests that a common pool of AMR genes could be cocirculating on different plasmids among different E. coli clones in a community (Table 2)-probably through dissemination mediated by transposons, integrons, or gene cassettes (28, 30). Even when the same resistance gene alleles and same plasmid replicon types were identified across isolates, the plasmids harboring these traits were still distinct. We also found potential evidence of Tn2 participation in mobility of the gene blaTEM-1B, as we found ...
Biofilms pose an increasing public health risk due to their ability to confer chemical, mechanical and environmental protection to the constituent bacteria [1]. Previous studies have shown complex fractal patterning and chirality in multi-strain colony biofilms; however, the architecture and substructure of single-strain communities is somewhat understudied. We aim to use the Mesolens to image the previously unexplored internal architecture of an intact Escherichia coli colony biofilm to better understand spatiotemporal organisation of a live bacterial community.. ...
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, although the aquatic environment could be a secondary habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydrological conditions on the structure of the E. coli population in the water of a creek on a small rural watershed in France composed of pasture and with human occupation. RESULTS: It became apparent, after studying the distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D), the presence of the hly (hemolysin) gene and the antibiotic resistance pattern, that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions (dry versus wet periods, rainfall events), but also by how the watershed was used (presence or absence of cattle). Isolates of the B1 phylo-group devoid of hly and sensitive to antibiotics were particularly abundant during the dry period. During the wet period and the rainfall events, contamination from human sources
Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains carrying the afa-8 gene cluster are frequently associated with extra-intestinal infections in humans and animals. The
Escherichia coli bacteria cause many illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract. Often, people come down with these diseases when they eat contaminated foods, especially ground beef or raw produce. Though E. coli infections are most common in less developed parts of the world, they are also a problem in the United States-contamination occurred in prepackaged cookie dough in 2009 and in spinach in 2006. But all E. coli are not harmful, as strains found in the human intestinal system can help with vitamin K production or in fighting harmful bacteria. This revised edition of Escherichia coli Infections contains up-to-date information on the different strains of E. coli, including the latest outbreaks, statistics, diagnostic breakthroughs, and vaccine development ...
E. coli possesses four iron uptake systems that use siderophores such as enterobactin and aerobactin, produced by E. coli, or the fungal siderophores ferrichrome and coprogen. Iron acquisition by this bacterium can also occur in a process mediated by citrate ((1), (5)). Pathogenic E. coli strains are able to use heme compounds as iron sources, but so far little is known about the mechanisms involved in this kind of iron uptake ((10)). The results of this study suggest that the human pathogenic E. coli strain EB1 contains a hemophore-dependent heme acquisition system. The bacterium secretes a heme-binding protein (Hbp) with an estimated size of 110 kD, that degrades hemoglobin. It is likely that Hbp is the shuttle protein of this heme-scavenging system in E. coli.. Recently, an exported protease (PssA) from a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli has been characterized ((43)). Sequence comparison showed that PssA is related to the family of autotransporter proteins, especially to SepA of S. flexneri ...
We examined extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates from livestock, humans, companion animals, food, and the environment during 2009-2016 in Germany for the presence of CTX-M-27 allele within Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131. E. coli ST131 C1-M27 was exclusively present in humans; its incidence increased from 0% in 2009 to 45% in 2016.
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate) supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ±
article{d5d0bba8-690d-4fa7-bd6f-4e7522f5ce40, abstract = {Bacillus subtilis membrane-bound holo-cytochrome c-550 was found to be expressed from the structural gene cloned on a plasmid vector in aerobically grown Escherichia coli and exhibited normal biochemical properties. This occurs despite the lack of endogenous eytochrome c and suggests that eytochrome c-heme lyase activity is also present in aerobic E. coli. The membrane topology of B. subtilis eytochrome c-550 was studied using fusions to alkaline phosphatase (PhoA). The results show that the heme domain (at least when fused to PhoA) can be translocated as apo-cytochrome and confirm that the N-terminal part of the cytochrome functions as both export signal and membrane anchor for the C-tenninal heme domain. A model for the organisation of B. subtilis cytochrome c-550 in the cytoplasmic membrane is presented.}, author = {von Wachenfeldt, Claes and Hederstedt, Lars}, issn = {1873-3468}, keyword = {phoA,cccA,Hemoprotein,Cytochrome c ...
Modern pharmaceutical manufacturing techniques frequently rely upon biotechnology. Amongst the earliest uses of biotechnology in pharmaceutical manufacturing is the use of recombinant DNA technology to modify Escherichia coli bacteria to produce human insulin, which was performed at Genentech in 1978. Prior to the development of this technique, insulin was extracted from the pancreas glands of cattle, pigs, and other farm animals. While generally efficacious in the treatment of diabetes, animal-derived insulin is not indistinguishable from human insulin, and may therefore produce allergic reactions. Genentech researchers produced artificial genes for each of the two protein chains that comprise the insulin molecule. The artificial genes were then inserted... into plasmids... among a group of genes that are activated by lactose. Thus, the insulin-producing genes were also activated by lactose. The recombinant plasmids were inserted into Escherichia coli bacteria, which were induced to produce ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Negative co-dominant inhibition of recA protein function. T2 - Biochemical properties of the recA1, recA13 and recA56 proteins and the effect of recA56 protein on the activities of the wild-type recA protein function in vitro. AU - Lauder, Scott D.. AU - Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - We have investigated the biochemical properties of several Escherichia coli mutant recA proteins that display a null phenotype. These are the recA1, recA13 and recA56 proteins, each of which carries a single missense mutation. These proteins all share a common defect which is the inability to adopt the high affinity DNA binding state normally elicited by the nucleotide cofactor ATP. Consequently, other than the ability to bind ssDNA, they possess none of the in vitro enzymatic activities of recA protein. However, each protein has characteristics that are unique, leading to the conclusion that the observed mutant phenotypes arise through fundamentally different mechanisms. ...
Detect phenotypic resistance; Better antibiotic. is an older antibiotic which is an option for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infections from E. coli and E.. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Antimicrobial Agent Disk Content E. coli 1 ATCC 25922 2. Colistin is a mixture of the cyclic Antibiotic resistance and extended.Aynı suşların tetracycline,. Ancak bu seçicilik tam değildir, V.choeraedan geç olmakla birlikte E.coli, Proteus gibi basiller ve Candidalar üreyebilir.Both uses may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial. Escherichia: Escherichia coli; Gram. Tetracycline, e.g.The virulence factor ychO has a pleiotropic action in an Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Effects of carriage and expression of the Tn10 tetracycline-resistance.. Titre du document / Document title Induction of Multidrug Resistance Mechanism in Escherichia coli Biofilms by Interplay between Tetracycline and Ampicillin.La colibacillose est une entérite liée à la ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of bacterial factors involved in type 1 fimbria expression using an Escherichia coli K12 proteome chip. AU - Chen, Yi Wen. AU - Teng, Ching Hao. AU - Ho, Yu Hsuan. AU - Ho, Tien Yu Jessica. AU - Huang, Wen Chun. AU - Hashimoto, Masayuki. AU - Chiang, I. Yuan. AU - Chen, Chien Sheng. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - Type 1 fimbriae are filamentous structures on Escherichia coli. These structures are important adherence factors. Because binding to the host cells is the first step of infection, type 1 fimbria is an important virulence factor of pathogenic E. coli. Expression of type 1 fimbria is regulated by a phase variation in which each individual bacterium can alternate between fimbriated (phase-ON) and nonfimbriated (phase-OFF) states. The phase variation is regulated by the flipping of the 314-bp fimS fragment, which contains the promoter driving the expression of the genes required for the synthesis of type 1 fimbria. Thus, the bacterial proteins able to interact ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Copper atom in PDB 2tir: Crystal Structure Analysis of A Mutant Escherichia Coli Thioredoxin in Which Lysine 36 Is Replaced By Glutamic Acid
Extensive dissemination of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli with multidrug resistance to ‘critically important’ antibiotics among food animals in Hong Kong, 2008â€10. Ho, P. L.; Chow, K. H.; Lai, Eileen L.; Lo, W. U.; Yeung, M. K.; Chan, Jane; Chan, P. Y.; Yuen, K. Y. // Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC);Apr2011, Vol. 66 Issue 4, p765 Objectives To assess the occurrence of faecal carriage of Escherichia coli with resistance to ‘critically important’ antibiotics in various animals. Methods Rectal or cloacal swabs were obtained weekly from cattle, pigs, chickens, cats, dogs and wild rodents over a 2 year period.... ...
Escherichia coli strains are normally identified by the combination of their O and H (and sometimes K) antigens, and serotyping based on the antigens is believed to be crucial for clinical detection and epidemiological investigation. Two E. coli strains, G5413 and G5287, were isolated from faecal samples of female patients with diarrhoea and were not agglutinated with any antisera that cover the well-known O serogroups of E. coli. We elucidated the O-polysaccharide (OPS) structures and analysed the O-antigen gene clusters of these bacteria. The OPS structure of G5413 established by monosaccharide analysis and NMR spectroscopy was found to be unique amongst known bacterial polysaccharide structures. The O-antigen gene cluster of this strain was sequenced and did not match sequence data with any of the 184 O serogroups that have been recognized internationally. Gene functions were tentatively assigned and were appropriate to the OPS structure. Based on these data, we suggest G5413 as a candidate for a new
There have been 18 confirmed deaths and over 1,500 individuals infected with a rare strain of Escherichia coli bacteria in 10 different European countries. Austria, Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the U.K. have reported cases of the infection. The outbreak does not seem to be slowing and is causing great concern among health officials in Europe and the United States, who have stated that it is the worst in recorded history. The bacteria responsible for the deadly outbreak has been identified as a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) designated O104:H4. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the strain has been seen in humans before but never in an EHEC outbreak. This bacterium is particularly virulent and can cause hemorrhagic colitis with bloody diarrhea, which can ultimately develop into hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS is characterized by hemolysis of blood cells resulting in anemia and thrombocytopenia and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical significance and phylogenetic background of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates from extra-intestinal infections. AU - Chakraborty, Arindam. AU - Adhikari, Prabha. AU - Shenoy, Shalini. AU - Saralaya, Vishwas. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Introduction: Escherichia coli producing extended spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL), particularly CTX-M type ESBLs, have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for healthcare-associated infections. We performed a molecular detection and characterization study of ESBL-related bla genes, including blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaCTX-M15, and also assessed the relationship between the phylogenetic background of strains carrying ESBL genes and the patients clinical outcome. Methodology: A total of 300 non-repeated, clinically significant isolates were investigated. The molecular types of ESBL genes were determined using multiplex PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using triplex PCR ...
Bacterial inclusion bodies are submicron protein clusters usually found in recombinant bacteria that have been traditionally considered as undesirable products from protein production processes. However, being fully biocompatible, they have been recently characterized as nanoparticulate inert materials useful as scaffolds for tissue engineering, with potentially wider applicability in biomedicine and material sciences. Current protocols for inclusion body isolation from Escherichia coli usually offer between 95 to 99% of protein recovery, what in practical terms, might imply extensive bacterial cell contamination, not compatible with the use of inclusion bodies in biological interfaces. Using an appropriate combination of chemical and mechanical cell disruption methods we have established a convenient procedure for the recovery of bacterial inclusion bodies with undetectable levels of viable cell contamination, below 10-1 cfu/ml, keeping the particulate organization of these aggregates regarding size
The number and proportion of CTX-M positive Escherichia coli organisms were determined in feces from cattle, chickens, and pigs in the United Kingdom to provide a better understanding of the risk of the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteria to humans from food animal sources. Samples of bovine (n = 35) and swine (n = 20) feces were collected from farms, and chicken cecal contents (n = 32) were collected from abattoirs. There was wide variation in the number of CTX-M-positive E. coli organisms detected; the median (range) CFU/g were 100 (100 × 10(6) to 1 × 10(6)), 5,350 (100 × 10(6) to 3.1 × 10(6)), and 2,800 (100 × 10(5) to 4.7 × 10(5)) for cattle, chickens, and pigs, respectively. The percentages of E. coli isolates that were CTX-M positive also varied widely; median (range) values were 0.013% (0.001 to 1%) for cattle, 0.0197% (0.00001 to 28.18%) for chickens, and 0.121% (0.0002 to 5.88%) for pigs. The proportion of animals designated high-density shedders (≥1 ...
Escherichia coli C forms more robust biofilms than other laboratory strains. Biofilm formation and cell aggregation under a high shear force depend on temperature and salt concentrations. It is the last of five E. coli strains (C, K12, B, W, Crooks) designated as safe for laboratory purposes whose genome has not been sequenced. Here we present the complete genomic sequence of this strain in which we utilized both long-read PacBio-based sequencing and high resolution optical mapping to confirm a large inversion in comparison to the other laboratory strains. Notably, DNA sequence comparison revealed the absence of several genes thought to be involved in biofilm formation, including antigen 43, waaSBOJYZUL for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, and cpsB for curli synthesis. The first main difference we identified that likely affects biofilm formation is the presence of an IS3-like insertion sequence in front of the carbon storage regulator csrA gene. This insertion is located 86 bp upstream of the csrA
Purified penicillinase, in gram quantities, has been prepared from Escherichia coli strain W3310 by using methods developed to handle large amounts of material. The final product had a specific enzyme activity of 3.08 units/μg of protein, which was over twice as high as that reported previously (Datta & Richmond, 1966). The purified enzyme was similar to that from E. coli strain TEM, but different in molecular weight and some other respects. The differences observed may be a result of the greater purity obtained.. ...
Department of Chemistry, UBC Faculty of Science. Vancouver Campus. 2036 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: 604.822.3266. Fax: 604.822.2847. ...
The plasmid-located mcr-9 gene, encoding a putative phosphoethanolamine transferase, was identified in a colistin-resistant human fecal Escherichia coli strain belonging to a very rare phylogroup, the D-ST69-O15:H6 clone. This MCR-9 protein shares 33% to 65% identity with the other plasmid-encoded MCR-type enzymes identified (MCR-1 to -8) that have been found... ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
This study aims to isolate, to identify, and to seek out fragments of encoding gene Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase on Escherichia coli isolated from swab surface of broiler chicken meat in a number of traditional markets in Surabaya. The result shows that 31 out of 50 samples positively contain Escherichia coli, shown through EMBA isolation media and identified using indole test. Sensitivity test shows that 100% of the isolates are resistant to Ampicilin, 48.4% are resistant to Cephazoline, 13% are resistant to Ceftazidime, 9.6% are resistant to Cefotaxime, 6.4% are resistant to Ceftriaxone and 87.2% are resistant to Tetracycline. 8 out of 8 (100%) samples of E. coli resistant show the presence of band towards blaTEM gene of 768 basepair (bp).. ...
The worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance is a concern for public health. When the appropriate antibiotic dosage is determined, the priorities are efficacy and toxicity. The aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge about the most efficient dosing regimens in order to minimize the emergence and selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants. We also wanted to assess the impact of antibiotic selective pressure and host to host transmission for the dissemination of resistance.. Escherichia coli bacteria with different levels of cefotaxime susceptibility were competed in an in vitro kinetic model, demonstrating a complex selection of low-level resistance influenced e.g. by the time duration of selective concentrations and the rise of new mutants. We also constructed a mathematical model incorporating biologically relevant parameters and showed its usefulness when assessing the risks of resistance development.. When E. coli populations with pre-existing fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants were exposed ...
In the present paper, it is reported that the results of phage adsorption rate constant (ARC) on stationary phasic bacteria, and 50% phages inhibiton (PhI_(50) of LPS μg/ml was estimated, and there is an attempt to analyse the loci and the number of phage receptor sites existed on cell wall of Eschevichia coli. The receptor site of Shigella phage Sh was also estimated and discussed. High ARC (K values 198-515) were derived from 9 strains which lysed by phage E-4(φ369), and the LPS less than 0.125 to 0.5μg/m...
The probability of recovering pathogenic Escherichia coli from food by the Bacteriological Analytical Manual method was determined by the effects of several factors: the number of strains per food, the ability of pathogenic strains to survive enrichment, and the frequency of plasmid loss during enrichment. Biochemical patterns indicated the presence of about six E. coli strains per food sample. About half of the strains isolated from humans did not survive enrichment. Among those which grew, plasmid loss, as determined by gel electrophoresis and DNA colony hybridization, ranged from 20 to 95%. The combined effects of failure to survive enrichment and plasmid loss decreased the relative numbers of these strains and reduced the chance of detecting pathogens. To counteract this tendency and obtain a 90 to 95% probability off recovering a given pathogenic strain, 40 to 50 colonies per food sample should be picked during the routine testing of foods. ...
In the study described here, we have taken steps to characterize the YjeE protein, an Escherichia coli protein of unknown function that is essential for bacterial viability. YjeE represents a protein family whose members are broadly conserved in bacteria, absent from eukaryotes and contain both Walker A and B motifs, characteristic of P-loop ATPases. We have revisited the dispensability of the yjeE gene in E. coli and describe efforts to probe the function of the YjeE protein with in vitro biochemistry. We have looked critically for ATPase activity in the recombinant E. coli protein and have made vigilant use of site-directed variants in the Walker A [K41A (Lys41→Ala) and T42A] and putative Walker B (D80Q) motifs. We noted that any hydrolysis of ATP by the wild-type E. coli protein might be attributed to background ATPase, since it was not appreciably different from that of the variants. To overcome potential contaminants, we turned to crystalline pure YjeE protein from Haemophilus influenzae ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. CobB regulates Escherichia coli chemotaxis by deacetylating the response regulator CheY.
Autor: Schutze, T. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2011; Keywords: Chemical Fractionation/*methods; DNA/*genetics/*isolation & purification; Emulsions; Humans; Oils/*chemistry; Polymerase Chain Reaction/*methods; Time Factors; Water/*chemistry; Titel: A streamlined protocol for emulsion polymerase chain reaction and subsequent purification
Results: In 2008, 457 faecal samples from 103 horses were collected, with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 131 samples (28.7, 95% CI 24.6-33.1). In 2017, 314 faecal samples were collected from 74 horses with ESBL-producing E. coli identified in 157 samples (50.0, 95% CI 44.5-55.5). There were 135 and 187 non-duplicate ESBL-producing isolates from 2008 and 2017, respectively. In 2008, 12.6% of isolates belonged to CTX-M-1 group, all carrying blaCTX-M-1, whilst in 2017, 94.1% of isolates were CTX-M-1 group positive and of these 39.2 and 60.8% of isolates carried blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of doxycycline, gentamicin and 3rd generation cephalosporin resistance increased significantly from 2008 to 2017 while a decreased prevalence of phenotypic resistance to potentiated sulphonamides was observed ...
and Escherichia coli. From her findings, she recommended that ampicillin, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, and streptomycin should ... "Antibacterial Effect of Edible Plant Extract on Escherichia coli 0157:H7" (PDF). Pakistan Journal on Nutrition.. ... where she examined the antibacterial effect of edible plant extract on escherichia coli 0157:H7. In her work, four different ... were examined with ethanol and aqueous extract using agar diffusion method for their reaction to ten strains of E coli 0157:H7 ...
Phage P4 infects Escherichia coli. It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2- ... Enterobacteria phage P4 (also known as satellite phage P4) is a temperate bacteriophage strain of species Escherichia virus P2 ...
C. Díez-Villaseñor, C. Almendros, J. García-Martínez, and F.J.M. Mojica (2010). Diversity of CRISPR loci in Escherichia coli. ... CRISPR-Cas functional module exchange in Escherichia coli. mBIO, 5 (1): e00767-13. Mojica, F.J.M.; Díez-Villaseñor, C. (2013 ... CRISPR content correlates with the pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE, 10(7): e0131935. Almendros C., Mojica F. ... Target Motifs Affecting Natural Immunity by a Constitutive CRISPR-Cas System in Escherichia coli. PLoS ONE, 7(11): e50797. ...
Martinac, B.; Buechner, M.; Delcour, A.H.; Adler, J.; Kung, C. (1987). "Pressure-sensitive ion channel in Escherichia coli". ... Kikuchi, K.; Sugiura, M.; Nishizawa-Harada, C.; Kimura, T. (2015). "The application of the Escherichia coli giant spheroplast ... "Patch-clamp and phenotypic analyses of a prokaryotic cyclic nucleotide-gated K+ channel using Escherichia coli as a host". ... coli. It has been extended to study other heterologously expressed ion channels and it has been shown that the giant E. coli ...
... (Pol V) is a polymerase enzyme involved in DNA repair mechanisms in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. It is ... Jarosz DF, Beuning PJ, Cohen SE, Walker GC (February 2007). "Y-family DNA polymerases in Escherichia coli". Trends in ... SOS response in E. coli attempts to alleviate the effect of a damaging stress in the cell. The role of Pol V in SOS response ... Pol V functions as a TLS (translesion DNA synthesis) polymerase in E. coli as part of the SOS response to DNA damage. When DNA ...
In Escherichia coli, cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) can regulate the transcription of more than 100 genes. The signal to ... Weickert MJ, Adhya S (1993). "The galactose regulon of Escherichia coli" (PDF). Mol. Microbiol. 10 (2): 245-51. doi:10.1111/j. ...
In Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology, edn 2. Edited by Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, ... Targets of (p)ppGpp include rRNA operons, of which there are seven in Escherichia coli (a commonly used bacterial model ... These nucleotides were found to accumulate rapidly in Escherichia coli cells starved for amino acids, and inhibit synthesis of ... Gray, Michael J. (2019-02-11). "Inorganic Polyphosphate Accumulation in Escherichia coli Is Regulated by DksA but Not by (p) ...
The easily cultured gut bacterium Escherichia coli, a prokaryote, is similarly widely used as a model organism. Microbes can ... ISBN 978-90-5702-407-8. Lee, S. Y. (March 1996). "High cell-density culture of Escherichia coli". Trends in Biotechnology. 14 ( ... In scientific research, yeasts and the bacterium Escherichia coli serve as model organisms especially in genetics and related ...
"Biosynthesis of phosphatidyl glycerophosphate in Escherichia coli". The Journal of Lipid Research. 8 (5): 447-455. PMID 4860577 ...
"Escherichia coli strain BLR(DE3) chromosome, complete genome". GenBank. 2017-04-13. Retrieved 21 April 2019. "Escherichia coli ... The lacUV5 promoter is a mutated promoter from the Escherichia coli lac operon which is used in molecular biology to drive gene ...
"Adding pyrrolysine to the Escherichia coli genetic code". FEBS Letters. 581 (27): 5282-5288. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2007.10.022 ...
Domi A, Moss B (September 2002). "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli ... "Cloning and stable maintenance of 300-kilobase-pair fragments of human DNA in Escherichia coli using an F-factor-based vector ... "Construction of large DNA segments in Escherichia coli". Science. 244 (4910): 1307-12. Bibcode:1989Sci...244.1307O. doi:10.1126 ... coli. F-plasmids play a crucial role because they contain partition genes that promote the even distribution of plasmids after ...
The discovery of artificially induced competence in bacteria allow bacteria such as Escherichia coli to be used as a convenient ... It was originally thought that Escherichia coli, a commonly used laboratory organism, was refractory to transformation. However ... Hanahan D (June 1983). "Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids". Journal of Molecular Biology. 166 (4): ... genetic transformation of Escherichia coli by R-factor DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
Hanahan, D. (1983). "Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids". Journal of Molecular Biology. 166 (4): 557- ... generally of Escherichia coli. This nutrient-rich microbial broth contains peptides, amino acids, water soluble vitamins and ... coli in SOB or SOC medium results in higher transformation efficiencies of plasmids. SOC medium can also be used to regenerate ...
Adaptive response of Escherichia coli to alkylation damage. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 11:241-255. Deyu Li, James ... AlkB, one of the Escherichia coli adaptive response proteins, uses an α ketoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent mechanism that, by ... Kataoka H, Hall J, Karran P (1986) Complementation of sensitivity to alkylating agents in Escherichia coli and Chinese hamster ... Brennand J, Margison GP (1986) Expression in mammalian cells of a truncated Escherichia coli gene coding for O6-alkylguanine ...
Blattner, F. R. (5 September 1997). "The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12". Science. 277 (5331): 1453-1462. ... Keseler, I. M. (17 December 2004). "EcoCyc: a comprehensive database resource for Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Research. 33 ... He has also been involved in the construction of the EcoCyc E. coli database and the completion of the sequenced E. coli genome ... transcriptional regulation of Escherichia coli K-12 integrated within genetic sensory response units (Gensor Units)". Nucleic ...
The sequence of commensal Escherichia coli strain SE11, for example, has already been determined from the faecal matter of a ... There are several examples of successful comparative genomics studies, among them the analysis of Listeria and Escherichia coli ... December 2008). "Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the wild-type commensal Escherichia coli strain SE11 ... January 2001). "Genome sequence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7". Nature. 409 (6819): 529-33. Bibcode:2001Natur. ...
"The biosynthesis of cell wall lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli. III. The isolation and characterization of 3- ...
Gardner, TS; Cantor CR; Collins JJ (20 Jan 2000). "Construction of a genetic toggle switch in Escherichia coli". Nature. 403 ( ...
It is commonly used for protein production in Escherichia coli. Two hybrid promoters functional in Escherichia coli were ... "Tightly regulated tac promoter vectors useful for the expression of unfused and fused proteins in Escherichia coli". Gene. 69 ( ... Consequently, these hybrid promoters are useful for the controlled expression of foreign genes at high levels in E. coli. In ...
Puustinen, A.; Wikström, M. (1991-07-15). "The heme groups of cytochrome o from Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the National ... "Structure of the heme d of Penicillium vitale and Escherichia coli catalases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (15): ...
Milkman R (Apr 1994). "An Escherichia coli homologue of eukaryotic potassium channel proteins". Proceedings of the National ... Jiang Y, Pico A, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (Mar 2001). "Structure of the RCK domain from the E. coli K+ channel and ...
Escherichia coli is a gram-negative, rod-shaped facultative anaerobic bacterium that does not produce spores. The bacterium is ... E. coli is commonly found in the gut of living organisms. E. coli has many capabilities such as being a host for recombinant ... Some notable mesophiles include Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Other examples of species ... 530-534 Robinson, Richard K.. (2000). Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, Volumes 1-3 - Escherichia Coli. Elsevier. Online ...
... including Escherichia coli. Purified phosphatidylcholine is produced commercially. The name lecithin was derived from Greek ... "Phosphatidylcholine in membrane of Escherichia coli changes bacterial antigenicity". Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 55 (11 ...
Miller, Henry I.; Riggs, Arthur D.; Gill, Gordon N. (1973). "Ribonuclease H (Hybrid) in Escherichia coli IDENTIFICATION AND ...
Hengen, Paul N (1995). "Purification of His-Tag fusion proteins from Escherichia coli". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 20 (7 ... coli strain. Alternatively, comparing with nickel-based, cobalt-based resins have less affinity with SlyD from E. coli, but in ... For example, even when a recombinant protein forcibly expressed in E. coli produces an inclusion body and can not be obtained ... are often used for affinity purification of polyhistidine-tagged recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and other ...
Escherichia coli is commonly used as the host for protein production, but other cell types may also be used. An example of the ... The expression host of choice for the expression of many proteins is Escherichia coli as the production of heterologous protein ... Schoner BE, Belagaje RM, Schoner RG (1986). "Translation of a synthetic two-cistron mRNA in Escherichia coli". Proc Natl Acad ... The cloning process is normally performed in Escherichia coli. Vectors used for protein production in organisms other than E. ...
The MinCDE system is a filament system that properly positions the septum in the middle of the cell in Escherichia coli. ... Shih YL, Le T, Rothfield L (June 2003). "Division site selection in Escherichia coli involves dynamic redistribution of Min ... Several rod shaped species, including Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus, use one or more inhibitors of FtsZ assembly ... Bi EF, Lutkenhaus J (November 1991). "FtsZ ring structure associated with division in Escherichia coli". Nature. 354 (6349): ...
Blattner, F. R. (1997-09-05). "The Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli K-12". Science. 277 (5331): 1453-1462. doi: ... Since common host cells used to produce biopharmaceutical drugs are E. coli, yeast, mouse myeloma cell line (NS0) and Chinese ...
Escherichia coli. 大腸桿菌 4,600,000 4,400 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 釀酒酵母 12,000,000 5,538 ...
Nad kasutasid mRNA-d selleks, et sisestada uratsiili bakterisse Escherichia coli ning põhjustasid selle, et bakter hakkas ... Tootmisprotsess viiakse läbi bakteris Escherichia coli, mis sünteesib aromaatseid aminohappeid (näiteks fenüülalaniini) ...
Escherichia coli (biasa disingkat E. coli) adalah salah satu jenis spesies bakteri Gram negatif. Pada umumnya, bakteri yang ... Inggris) Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc). *(Inggris) The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in ... Kebanyakan E. Coli tidak berbahaya, tetapi beberapa, seperti E. Coli tipe O157:H7, dapat mengakibatkan keracunan makanan yang ... Inggris) FDA information on the Spinach and E. coli Outbreak. *(Inggris) E. coli Outbreak From Fresh Spinach - U.S. Centers for ...
A similar phenomenon has since been described in the bacterium Escherichia coli, which gives rise to morphologically similar ... This is in contrast to the E. coli cell cycle where there can be overlapping rounds of chromosome replication simultaneously ...
Ang Escherichia coli ay isang bakterya kung saan nakakatulong ito sa pagpapalabas ng mga protina na ginagamit sa Recombinant ... Kinuha mula sa "https://tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Escherichia_coli&oldid=1389198" ...
Evans PR, Hellinga HW (1987). „Mutations in the active site of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase". Nature. 327 (6121): 437- ...
Escherichia coli (E. coli) - soolekepike,. *Saccharomyces cerevisiae - pagaripärm.. Vaata ka[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. * ...
In late November 1996, an Escherichia coli outbreak in the town of Wishaw, central Scotland prompted the Scottish Office to ... and Escherichia coli O157:H7. He also wrote on the history of science and medicine such as the introduction of antiseptic ... he is best known as the chair of the Pennington Group enquiry into the Scottish Escherichia coli outbreak of 1996[2] and as ... coli outbreak.[11] The 2005 Outbreak of E. coli O157 in South Wales Public Inquiry report was published in March 2009. ...
Matsushita, K., Ohnishi, T. e Kaback, H. R. (1987): "NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases of the Escherichia coli aerobic ...
Reactions catalyzed by 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylases from Escherichia coli and Gallus gallus: a case for ...
Un exemplo de artigo de predición de xenes en Escherichia coli aplicando HMM é o de Krogh, A., et al. (1993) A Hidden Markov ... e en 1997 co xenoma de Escherichia coli (4,7 Mbps),[65] en 1998 co primeiro xenoma dun organismo multicelular (as 97 Mbp do ... Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli" (PDF). Proceedings of ... "The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12". Science 277 (5331).. ...
DAEC (diffus adhärente E. coli). Luke uk diar[Bewerke , Kweltekst bewerke]. Commonskategorii: Escherichia coli - Saamlang faan ... Escherichia coli (kurt E. coli, am sait uk kooli-bakteerium) as en bakteerium an komt uun a siarem faan minsken an diarten föör ... Escherichia coli ön üđer Spreekwiisen. Sölring Öömrang Fering Halunder Halifreesk Mooring Wiringhiirder Karhiirder Gooshiirder ... EHEC (enterohämorrhagische E. coli). Uun a somer 2011 san föl minsken uun Nuurdsjiisklun faan EHEC kraank wurden an flooken san ...
... random conical tilt series applied to the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli". Journal of Microscopy. 146 (Pt 2): 113-36 ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... One drawback to butanol production in E. coli remains the high cost of nutrient rich media, however, recent work has ... demonstrated E. coli can produce butanol with minimal nutritional supplementation.[37] Biodiesel[edit]. Main article: Biodiesel ...
Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli rods. Scientific classification Domain:. Bacteria. Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, ...
... (EC 3.1.13.1, ribonukleaza II, ribonukleaza Q, BN ribonukleaza, Escherichia coli ekso-RNaza II, RNaza II, ... I. Escherichia coli ribonuclease II". J. Biol. Chem. 243: 913-922. PMID 4867942. ... Schmidt, F.J. and McClain, W.H. (1978). "An Escherichia coli ribonuclease which removes an extra nucleotide from a biosynthetic ... "Specific ribonucleases involved in processing of tRNA precursors of Escherichia coli. Partial purification and some properties ...
೯೬.೦ ೯೬.೧ Juhas, M; Reuß, DR; Zhu, B; Commichau, FM (November 2014). "Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes ... Salgado, H.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Smith, T.; Collado-Vides, J. (2000). "Operons in Escherichia coli: Genomic analyses and ... "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection.". Molecular systems biology ... "Recircularization and Autonomous Replication of a Sheared R-Factor DNA Segment in Escherichia coli Transformants - PNAS". Pnas. ...
Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Shigella spp. and Trichinella spp. animals domesticated ... The most significant zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne diseases are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Caliciviridae, ...
Bacterial keratitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus viridans, Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Pseudomonas, ...
The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause.[2] Risk factors ... Escherichia coli is the single most common microorganism, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus spp., to cause urinary tract ... "The development and early clinical testing of the ExPEC4V conjugate vaccine against uropathogenic Escherichia coli". Clinical ... Uropathogenic E. coli from the gut is the cause of 80-85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections,[22] with ...
"Prevalent positive epistasis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic networks". Nature Genetics. 42 (3): 272 ...
Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A. *Hepatitis E ...
There have been many outbreaks of disease from bacterial contamination, often by salmonella, listeria, and Escherichia coli, of ...
... de Escherichia coli, se son destinadas a ir á mitocondria.[20][22] Así, poden xerarse células viables que carecen de ADN ligase ...
"Expression in Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes for human insulin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the ... menciptakan organisme transgenik pertama dengan memasukkan gen resistensi antibiotik ke dalam plasmid bakteri Escherichia coli. ... di E.coli. Genentech mengumumkan produksi insulin manusia rekayasa genetika pada tahun 1978.[28] Pada tahun 1980, Mahkamah ...
Ovaj enzim je izolovan iz bakterija Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Escherichia coli i Bacillus subtilis. ... El Ghachi, M., Bouhss, A., Blanot, D. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D. (2004). „The bacA gene of Escherichia coli encodes an ... Tatar, L.D., Marolda, C.L., Polischuk, A.N., van Leeuwen, D. and Valvano, M.A. (2007). „An Escherichia coli undecaprenyl- ... Touze, T., Blanot, D. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D. (2008). „Substrate specificity and membrane topology of Escherichia coli PgpB, an ...
Escherichia coli]]. ''. ei ole transformatsioonialdis. Alles aastal 1970 näitasid [[Morton Mandel]] ja [[Akiko Higa]]. ,. ,ref ... Escherichia coli. ''. , keda enamasti plasmiididega transformeeritakse. Plasmiidsel DNA-l peab rakku püsimajäämiseks olema oma ... Genetic Transformation of Escherichia coli by R-Factor DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 69 (8): 2110-4. ... "Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids". Journal of molecular biology 166 (4): 557-580. doi:10.1016/S0022- ...
In contrast, bacteria such as Escherichia coli may be grown on solid or in liquid media. ... Media lacking an amino acid such as proline in conjunction with E. coli unable to synthesize it were commonly used by ...
Molecular characterization and expression in Escherichia coli of three β-1,3-Glucanase genes from Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain ...
DNAa stands for Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli. DNAa is defined as Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia ... How is Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli abbreviated? ... www.acronymfinder.com/Defective-DNA-of-the-Bacteria-Escherichia-Coli-(DNAa).html,DNAa,/a,. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Defective-DNA-of-the-Bacteria-Escherichia-Coli-(DNAa).html ...
GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF QUINOLONE RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM POULTRY AND HUMANS IN NORWAY ... GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF QUINOLONE RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM POULTRY AND HUMANS IN NORWAY ...
Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL 933 with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli seropathotypes ... coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) and perhaps ... Use of the Escherichia coli identification microarray for characterizing the health risks of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ... Coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli.p. 265-285. In M. L. Speck (ed.), Compendium of ...
Escherichia coli (/ˌɛʃɪˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium commonly found in ... following which Escherichia coli was used for linkage mapping studies. Four of the many E. coli strains (K-12, B, C, and W) are ... "Gene recombination in the bacterium Escherichia coli". J. Bacteriol. 53: 673-684. doi:10.1128/jb.53.6.673-684.1947. E. coli ... Escherichia coli is one of the most diverse bacterial species, with several pathogenic strains with different symptoms and with ...
In 1963, J. Cairns (1) pointed out that the Escherichia colichromosome... ... In 1963, J. Cairns (1) pointed out that the Escherichia coli chromosome is a closed circular double strand DNA molecule. It has ... Orr E., Lother H., Lurz R., Wahle E. (1984) Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase. In: Proteins Involved in DNA Replication. Advances in ...
Media in category "Escherichia coli". The following 45 files are in this category, out of 45 total. ... Бактерии Escherichia coli, выросшие на питательной среде McKonkey.jpg 1,280 × 863; 532 KB. ... Escherichia • Species: Escherichia coli (Migula, 1895) Castellani & Chalmers, 1919 ... E. coli cluster analysis-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.jpg 600 × 150; 17 KB. ...
Escherichia coli. Definition. Escherichia coli is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the gut of warm-blooded ... In Escherichia coli, the UvrAB damage sensor recognizes helix-distorting lesions by itself or via Mfd bound to stalled RNA ... Long-term growth data of Escherichia coli at a single-cell level *Yu Tanouchi ... Super-resolution microscopy shows that the localization of each mRNA inEscherichia coliis determined by whether the mRNA ...
2002) Escherichia coli K-12 undergoes adaptive evolution to achieve in silico predicted optimal growth. Nature 420:186-189. ... Dispensability of Escherichia colis latent pathways. Sean P. Cornelius, Joo Sang Lee, and Adilson E. Motter ... 2006) Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: The Keio collection. Mol Syst Biol 2: ... 2004) Pyruvate formate lyase and acetate kinase are essential for anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on xylose. J Bacteriol ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> ...
E.coli crackdown shows results 19-Sep-2003. A drive in the US to reduce the foodborne disease E.coli could be paying off with ... Calcium could help the body fight E coli, the bacteria often responsible for travellers diarrhea, and a cause of illness in ...
Identification of phosphoproteins in Escherichia coli.. Freestone P1, Grant S, Toth I, Norris V. ... The substrates of ion- and lipid-stimulated protein kinase activity in extracts of Escherichia coli were purified by ...
Most of the information concerning cell division in Escherichia coli derive from genetic observations. Mutations in E. ... Most of the information concerning cell division in Escherichia coli derive from genetic observations. Mutations in E. coli ... Bachmann, B. Linkage Map of Escherichia coli K-12. Edition 8 (1990). Microbiol. Rev., 54: 130-197.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Pla, J., Dopazo, A. and Vicente, M. (1990). The native form of FtsA, a septal protein of Escherichia coli, is located in the ...
Escherichia coli minichromosomes are plasmids replicating exclusively from a cloned copy of oriC, the chromosomal origin of ... Host controlled plasmid replication: Escherichia coli minichromosomes.. Dasgupta S1, Løbner-Olesen A. ... These observations indicate that replication initiation in E. coli is normally controlled in such a way that all copies of oriC ...
Transcript of Escherichia coli. Category Domain Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Taxonomy Escherichia coli Gram Negative ... Escherichia coli. Total Strains: 72 Human Strains. 18. 15. E.Coli s claim to fame. Current Research Highlight. van Summeren- ... Role of Escherichia coli curli operons in directing amyloid fiber formation. Science. 295: p. 851-855. 7. Expression ... Escherichia coli from the family Enterobacteriaceae Gram Negative Rod Bacteria With Fimbrae and sometimes Pili, inclusion ...
E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuceplus icon *E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce en Español ... Timeline for Reporting Cases of E. coli O157 Infection. *2021 Outbreaksplus icon *E. coli Outbreak with Unknown Food Sourceplus ... Outbreak of E. coli Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuceplus icon *E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce en ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Annual Report, 2016plus icon *Report Appendices ...
National Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) surveillance data are collected through passive surveillance of ... National Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Surveillance. ... which no STEC can be isolated by the state or territorial public health laboratory are forwarded to CDCs National Escherichia ...
Functioning of a metabolic flux sensor in Escherichia coli. Karl Kochanowski, Benjamin Volkmer, Luca Gerosa, Bart R. Haverkorn ... Allosteric Activation of Escherichia coli Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Deaminase (NagB) In Vivo Justified by Intracellular Amino ... Here, we show experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that Escherichia coli is indeed able to measure its glycolytic ... Dissecting the genetic and metabolic mechanisms of adaptation to the knockout of a major metabolic enzyme in Escherichia coli ...
Recombination and Population Structure in Escherichia coli Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Escherichia coli is a gram-negative rod that is found as a normal commensal in the GI tract, which can produce ocular infection ... The genus Escherichia is named after Theodor Escherich who isolated the type species of the genus in 1885. ... encoded search term (Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Escherichia Coli) and Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Escherichia Coli ... The genus Escherichia is named after Theodor Escherich who isolated the type species of the genus in 1885. Escherichia coli is ...
The genus Escherichia is named after Theodor Escherich, who isolated the ty... ... Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of many common bacterial infections, including cholecystitis, bacteremia, ... encoded search term (Escherichia coli (E coli) Infections) and Escherichia coli (E coli) Infections What to Read Next on ... Escherichia coli (E coli) Infections. Updated: May 18, 2017 * Author: Tarun Madappa, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart ...
The cover image for the June 18 issue of Biophysical Journal is an artistic depiction of Escherichia coli cells lysing that was ...
What is Escherichia coli?. Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most ... What are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli? Some kinds of E. coli cause disease by making a toxin called Shiga toxin. The bacteria ... Still other kinds of E. coli are used as markers for water contamination-so you might hear about E. coli being found in ... The most commonly identified STEC in North America is E. coli O157:H7 (often shortened to E. coli O157 or even just "O157"). ...
... coli bacteria on a prepared microscope slide. (Not recommended for demonstrating typical bacillus morphology.) ... Escherichia coli Slide, w.m.. Item # 294546 *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Allow students to explore the morphology of 1 of the most well-known, Gram-negative bacteria, E. coli. This rod-shaped, ... A whole mount of E. coli bacteria on a prepared microscope slide. (Not recommended for demonstrating typical bacillus ...
Escherichia coli (biasa disingkat E. coli) adalah salah satu jenis spesies bakteri Gram negatif. Pada umumnya, bakteri yang ... Inggris) Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc). *(Inggris) The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in ... Kebanyakan E. Coli tidak berbahaya, tetapi beberapa, seperti E. Coli tipe O157:H7, dapat mengakibatkan keracunan makanan yang ... Inggris) FDA information on the Spinach and E. coli Outbreak. *(Inggris) E. coli Outbreak From Fresh Spinach - U.S. Centers for ...
Escherichia coli B Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 37° C Package: Tube ... Genus and Species: Escherichia coli B. Domain: Prokaryote. Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 37 ... Escherichia coli B, Living, Tube. Item # 155070 *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ...
... Designation: MS2 TypeStrain=False Application: Water testing Control ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage MS2 (ATCC® 15597-B1™) Strain Designations: MS2 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ... 9224 C: Male-specific coliphage assay using Escherichia coli Famp. Washington, DC:American Public Health Association;Standard ... 9224 C: Male-specific coliphage assay using Escherichia coli Famp. Washington, DC:American Public Health Association;Standard ...
Escherichia coli infections synonyms, Escherichia coli infections pronunciation, Escherichia coli infections translation, ... English dictionary definition of Escherichia coli infections. n. a species of rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in ... Escherichia coli. (redirected from Escherichia coli infections). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. Esch•e•rich•i ... Non-0157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in the United States, 1983-2002.. Viability of Escherichia coli O153 ...
The Report Escherichia coli Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016 provides information on pricing, market analysis ... Escherichia coli Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016" provides an overview of Escherichia coli Infections ... technologypharmaceuticalsmarket research reportsequipmentchemicalsinfectionscoliescherichiamarket analysisescherichia coli ... Global Escherichia coli Infections Market Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016. Press Release ...
Escherichia coli genomes contain a large variety of characterised and putative CU fimbrial operons, however, the classification ... Chaperone-usher fimbriae of Escherichia coli PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e52835. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052835. Epub 2013 Jan 30. ... Escherichia coli genomes contain a large variety of characterised and putative CU fimbrial operons, however, the classification ... and one Escherichia fergusonnii) genomes representing different pathogenic and phylogenic lineages, as well as 132 Escherichia ...