Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
An ATP-dependent exodeoxyribonuclease that cleaves in either the 5'- to 3'- or the 3'- to 5'-direction to yield 5'-phosphooligonucleotides. It is primarily found in BACTERIA.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.

Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (1/79677)

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (2/79677)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (3/79677)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase. (4/79677)

BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (5/79677)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA. (6/79677)

The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed.  (+info)

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (7/79677)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Hsp60 is targeted to a cryptic mitochondrion-derived organelle ("crypton") in the microaerophilic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. (8/79677)

Entamoeba histolytica is a microaerophilic protozoan parasite in which neither mitochondria nor mitochondrion-derived organelles have been previously observed. Recently, a segment of an E. histolytica gene was identified that encoded a protein similar to the mitochondrial 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60 or chaperonin 60), which refolds nuclear-encoded proteins after passage through organellar membranes. The possible function and localization of the amebic Hsp60 were explored here. Like Hsp60 of mitochondria, amebic Hsp60 RNA and protein were both strongly induced by incubating parasites at 42 degreesC. 5' and 3' rapid amplifications of cDNA ends were used to obtain the entire E. histolytica hsp60 coding region, which predicted a 536-amino-acid Hsp60. The E. histolytica hsp60 gene protected from heat shock Escherichia coli groEL mutants, demonstrating the chaperonin function of the amebic Hsp60. The E. histolytica Hsp60, which lacked characteristic carboxy-terminal Gly-Met repeats, had a 21-amino-acid amino-terminal, organelle-targeting presequence that was cleaved in vivo. This presequence was necessary to target Hsp60 to one (and occasionally two or three) short, cylindrical organelle(s). In contrast, amebic alcohol dehydrogenase 1 and ferredoxin, which are bacteria-like enzymes, were diffusely distributed throughout the cytosol. We suggest that the Hsp60-associated, mitochondrion-derived organelle identified here be named "crypton," as its structure was previously hidden and its function is still cryptic.  (+info)

Objective: To search for further synergistic combinations of gentamicin and raw honey that might have potential in treating wounds. Methods: The antibacterial activity and synergistic interaction of raw honey and gentamicin was assessed by using agar well diffusion method. Two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2154) bacteria were selected for antibacterial activity assay. The cultures of bacteria were maintained in their appropriate agar slants at 4 °C throughout the study and used as stock cultures. Results: Raw honey and gentamicin interacted synergistically to inhibit Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: These results suggest that combinations of raw honey and gentamicin have therapeutic benefits in prophylaxis of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative multi-omics systems analysis of Escherichia coli strains B and K-12. AU - Yoon, Sung H.. AU - Han, Mee Jung. AU - Jeong, Haeyoung. AU - Lee, Choong H.. AU - Xia, Xiao Xia. AU - Lee, Dae Hee. AU - Shim, Ji H.. AU - Lee, Sang Y.. AU - Oh, Tae K.. AU - Kim, Jihyun F.. PY - 2012/5/25. Y1 - 2012/5/25. N2 - Background: Elucidation of a genotype-phenotype relationship is critical to understand an organism at the whole-system level. Here, we demonstrate that comparative analyses of multi-omics data combined with a computational modeling approach provide a framework for elucidating the phenotypic characteristics of organisms whose genomes are sequenced.Results: We present a comprehensive analysis of genome-wide measurements incorporating multifaceted holistic data - genome, transcriptome, proteome, and phenome - to determine the differences between Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains. A genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli B was reconstructed and used to identify genetic ...
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The structure of the O-antigen polysaccharide (PS) from the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strain 180/C3 has been determined. Sugar and methylation analysis together with 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy were the main methods used. The PS is composed of tetrasaccharide repeating units with the following structure:→2)-β-d-Quip3NAc-(1→3)-β-d-Ribf-(1→4)-β-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-d-GalpNAc-(1→Analysis of NMR data indicates that the presented sequence of sugar residues also represents the biological repeating unit of the O-chain. The structure is closely related to that of O-antigen polysaccharide from E. coli O5 and partially to that of E. coli O65. The difference between the O-antigen from the 180/C3 strain and that of E. coli O5 is the linkage to the d-Quip3NAc residue, which in the latter strain is 4-O-substituted. The E. coli O65 O-antigen contains as part of its linear pentasaccharide repeating unit a similar structural element, namely ...
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in Journal of the American Chemical Society (2008), 130(17), 5618-9. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is applied to intact peptidoglycan sacculi of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. High-quality solid-state NMR spectra allow atom-resolved investigation of the ... [more ▼]. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is applied to intact peptidoglycan sacculi of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. High-quality solid-state NMR spectra allow atom-resolved investigation of the peptidoglycan structure and dynamics as well as the study of protein-peptidoglycan interactions. [less ▲]. Detailed reference viewed: 70 (1 ULiège) ...
Background: The emergence and propagation of different phylogenetic groups of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli have become a worldwide health concern in human and veterinary medicine. Therefore, the evaluation of the phylogenetic distribution of antibiotic-resistant E. coli is important for therapeutic and economic purposes. The aims of this study were to determine phylogenetic ...
FtsA is an essential cell division protein which is synthesized in minute amounts in Escherichia coli. To study the effects of overexpressing ftsA on the phenotype of E. coli cells, DNA fragments encoding the ftsA gene were subcloned downstream of a lac or a tac promoter in two plasmids. High-level expression of the ftsA gene from these promoters inhibited normal cell septation and caused the cells to become long, nonseptate filaments. Continued overexpression of ftsA resulted in the filaments developing spherical bulges up to 4 um in diameter. It is suggested that these bulges may emanate from septation sites because they were evenly spaced in relation to one another and to the cell poles. Observations of thin sections by electron microscopy demonstrated that these bulges contained small electron dense regions and large electron-lucent plate-like inclusions. A finding that the bulging filamentous cells contain more hexosamine per mass than control cells suggests that abnormal peptidoglycan synthesis
How is Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli abbreviated? DNAa stands for Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli. DNAa is defined as Defective DNA of the Bacteria Escherichia Coli very rarely.
e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa | order e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa | How to use: e coli protein e coli host cell protein elisa |
The novel sigma factor (sigma S) encoded by rpoS (katF) is required for induction of many growth phase-regulated genes and expression of a variety of stationary-phase phenotypes in Escherichia coli. Here we demonstrate that wild-type cells exhibit spherical morphology in stationary phase, whereas rpoS mutant cells remain rod shaped and are generally larger. Size reduction of E. coli cells along the growth curve is a continuous and at least biphasic process, the second phase of which is absent in rpoS-deficient cells and correlates with induction of the morphogene bolA in wild-type cells. Stationary-phase induction of bolA is dependent on sigma S. The gearbox a characteristic sequence motif present in the sigma S-dependent growth phase- and growth rate-regulated bolAp1 promoter, is not recognized by sigma S, since stationary-phase induction of the mcbA promoter, which also contains a gearbox, does not require sigma S, and other sigma S-controlled promoters do not contain gearboxes. However, ...
In the present study, we demonstrate colonization resistance in mice precolonized with a specific human commensal E. coli strain and subsequently fed the same strain 10 days later, i.e., the strain fed at day 10 is nearly eliminated (Fig. 1). However, despite the fact that different human commensal strains compete with each other in all sections of the intestine (Table 2), it appears that colonization resistance is not effective when mice precolonized with one human commensal E. coli strain are fed 105 CFU of a different human commensal E. coli strain 10 days later. That is, the strain fed at day 10 grows from low to higher numbers in the mouse intestine and persists in high numbers along with the precolonized strain (Fig. 2).. When the precolonized E. coli strain and the strain fed at 10 days are isogenic and utilize all nutrients equally well, the precolonized strain has the advantage of having had 10 days to adapt to the intestinal environment. The mechanisms involved in adaptation that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pathogenic and fecal Escherichia coli strains from turkeys in a commercial operation. AU - Altekruse, S. F.. AU - Elvinger, F.. AU - DebRoy, C.. AU - Pierson, F. W.. AU - Eifert, J. D.. AU - Sriranganathan, N.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. N2 - The biochemical phenotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 105 clinical Escherichia coli isolates from flocks with colibacillosis in a turkey operation were compared with 1104 fecal E. coli isolates from 20 flocks in that operation. Clinical isolates and 194 fecal isolates with biochemical phenotypes or minimum inhibitory concentrations for gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole similar to clinical isolates were tested for somatic antigens and the potential virulence genes hylE, iss, tsh, and K1. The predominant biochemical phenotype of clinical isolates contained 21 isolates including 14 isolates belonging to serogroup O78 with barely detectable β-D-glucuronidase activity. Thirty-five fecal isolates had biochemical phenotypes ...
Surgical stress shifts the intestinal Escherichia coli population to that of a more adherent phenotype: role in barrier regulation.: The combination of surgical
E. coli bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph of the rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, known as E. coli. These bacteria are normal inhabitants of the human intestine (they also occur in the intestine of animals) and are usually harmless. Under certain conditions, however, E. coli might increase in number and cause infection. Serotypes of E. coli are responsible for gastro-enteritis in children, particularly in tropical countries. In adults it causes travellers diarrhoea and 80% of all urinary tract infections. It is also the organism most used in genetic engineering studies. Magnification: x2400 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image B230/0143
e coli protein biotin labeled anti e coli host cell protein antibody | order e coli protein biotin labeled anti e coli host cell protein antibody | How to use:
The susceptibility of the E. coli B strain to a variety of stressful conditions and antibiotics revealed by PM tests (Figure S3 in Additional file 1) can be explained by several observations (Figure 5). First, differences in the composition of the LPS core and expression of outer membrane proteins may influence the permeability and integrity of the cell envelope. B strains produce more OmpF porin than K-12 strains because the B genome lacks micF, which post-transcriptionally prevents production of OmpF [24]. This is further supported by the transcriptome data showing high levels of ompF expression in the B strain and high expression of ompC and ompA in the K-12 strain (Figure 4). These observations were also consistent with results of proteome analysis of the outer membrane fractions (Figure S2B in Additional file 1). Noxious agents such as antibiotics and bile acids diffuse more easily through OmpF than OmpC because the former produces a channel with a larger pore size [25]. Second, synthesis ...
A strain of human invasive Escherichia coli 0143 (HlnvEC) which was found to lack pili and flagella was orally administered to rabbits weighing 0.7 to 1.1 kg in doses ranging from 1.5 x 108 to 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria. HInvEC colonized the ileum, cecum, and colon in large numbers for one to three days and produced diarrhea depending on the dose in 124 (65%) of 189 rabbits. A dose of 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria elicited diarrheal disease in 91 (87%) of 105 rabbits, The acute pathohistology as determined by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and immune-fluorescent microscopy was manifested in the distal ileum, cecum, and colon. The pathohistology involved the epithelial mucosa which developed mucosal ulcers characterized by a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response, especially at sites where HlnvEC invaded the lamina propria. Thus, we have developed and characterized in young rabbits a model of HlnvEC diarrhea that is similar clinically and pathohistologically to the same disease ...
A strain of human invasive Escherichia coli 0143 (HlnvEC) which was found to lack pili and flagella was orally administered to rabbits weighing 0.7 to 1.1 kg in doses ranging from 1.5 x 108 to 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria. HInvEC colonized the ileum, cecum, and colon in large numbers for one to three days and produced diarrhea depending on the dose in 124 (65%) of 189 rabbits. A dose of 2.5 x 10 10 bacteria elicited diarrheal disease in 91 (87%) of 105 rabbits, The acute pathohistology as determined by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and immune-fluorescent microscopy was manifested in the distal ileum, cecum, and colon. The pathohistology involved the epithelial mucosa which developed mucosal ulcers characterized by a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response, especially at sites where HlnvEC invaded the lamina propria. Thus, we have developed and characterized in young rabbits a model of HlnvEC diarrhea that is similar clinically and pathohistologically to the same disease ...
Studies using isogenic transductant strains mlpA+ and mlpA as well as reversion analysis suggested that the physiological consequences of a structural gene mutation in murein lipoprotein include (i) increased sensitivity toward chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N-tetraacetic acid, (ii) leakage of periplasmic enzyme ribonuclease, (iii) weakened association between the outer membrane and the rigid layer accentuated by Mg2+ starvation, resulting in the formation of outer membrane blebs, and (iv) decreased growth rate in media of low ionic strength or low osmolarity. It is suggested that the bound form of lipoprotein plays an important role in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the outer membrane of the Escherichia coli cell envelope. Other outer membrane components may also contribute to the anchorage of outer membrane to the rigid layer, probably through ionic interactions with divalent cations. Using the phenotype of ...
Can get into food, like beef andescherichia . Common type of several types or strains of bacteria and fecaloral found. . Bacteria thatnov , get into. russian blue cat for sale in michigan, Escherichia coli characteristics types of the enteroaggregative shiga toxin verotoxin producing escherichia. Gram negative, rod shaped bacteria and related bacteria thatnov . Can get into food, like beef andescherichia e an aerobic gram. Like beef andescherichia e food like ...
The ribosome is a complex macromolecule consisting of RNA and protein subunits that is responsible for translating the genetic code and protein synthesis. Within its large subunit, the exit tunnel exists as a conduit for nascent peptides to traverse before reaching the cytoplasm or membrane translocon. The tips of the extended loops (also called tentacles) of two proteins, L4 and L22, contribute to the surface of the narrowest portion of Escherichia colis exit tunnel. Mutations in the tentacles of the L4 and L22 proteins promote resistance to a class of antibiotics referred to as macrolides. Although the mutant strains have the advantage of growing in the presence of the antibiotic, erythromycin, they have the disadvantage of growing slower than the wildtype. The decreased rate of growth may be a reflection of structural changes within the 23S rRNA component of the large subunit induced by structural changes in L4 and L22, which in turn result in defects in ribosomal assembly and/or peptide ...
Chromosomal DNA from several Escherichia coli reference (ECOR) strains was transduced by bacteriophage P1 into E. coli strain K12 W3110 trpA33. Recombination patterns of the transductants were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism over a 40-kb region centering on a single marker (trpA+) in the tryptophan operon. These experiments demonstrate that transduction between different strains of E. coli can result in recombinational replacements that are small in comparison to the entrant molecule (replacements average 8-14 kb, whereas P1 packages approximately 100 kb) often in a series of discrete segments. The transduction patterns generated resemble the natural mosaic sequence patterns of the ECOR strains described in previous work. Extensive polymorphisms in the restriction-modification systems of the ECOR strains are a possible explanation for the sequence patterns in nature. To test this possibility two transductants were back-transduced into strain K12 W3110 trpA33. The resulting ...
Summary Nine hundred and twenty-five Escherichia coli isolates from cases of diarrhoea in the United Kingdom and belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O serogroups were examined for virulence properties. The tests included adhesion to HEp-2 cells, the fluorescence actin staining (FAS) test (which correlates with the ability to cause attaching and effacing lesions) and DNA hybridisations with probes to detect sequences for eaeA (E. coli attaching and effacing factor), EAF (EPEC adherence factor), verocytotoxins VT1 and VT2, enteroaggregative E. coli and diffusely adherent E. coli. The O serogroups examined were 18, 26, 44, 55, 86, 111, 114, 119, 125, 126, 127, 128 and 142. Six hundred and sixty strains (71.4%) hybridised with at least one of the DNA probes. Over 80% of strains in O serogroups 26, 55, 119, 125, 127 and 142 and 41% of strains of serogroups 86, 111, 114, 126 and 128 hybridised with the eae probe and most showed localised attachment and were FAS-positive. However, |10% of these eae
Optimisation of Bacillus subtilis for the secretion of heterologous proteins Therapeutic proteins (including those required for experimental purposes and clinical trials) are major products of biomanufacturing processes and considerable time and expense are expended to maximise the yield and quality of proteins produced in heterologous hosts. The production host of choice is the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli for which many strains and expression systems have been developed. However, one size does not fit all: E. coli is not suitable for the production of many proteins, either because it is not able to carry out appropriate post-translational modifications (e.g. glycosylation) or because it does not facilitate their folding into a native (i.e. functional) configuration. The former can be overcome by use of more expensive eukaryotic host production systems, while the latter can often be overcome by secreting proteins from the cytoplasm. Secretion has three major potential advantages ...
We have developed a new system of chromosomal mutagenesis in order to study the functions of uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) in wild-type Escherichia coli. Because of the operon structure of this organism, traditional methods such as insertional mutagenesis run the risk of introducing pol …
Abstract: The purpose of paper was the evaluation of short-chain organic acid effect on Escherichia coli in fish meal stored at 12°C. Fish meal samples (n=125) were inoculated with 7 x 107 CFU x g-1 of E. coli ATCC 25922 strain and treated with 0 to 1.2% of formic (35%) and propionic (15%) acid mixture. The treatment resulted in the significant reduction of number of test bacteria, proportional to the concentration of acid added. When applied in mixture, propionic and formic acid appeared to work synergistically against E. coli. Accordingly, their application as high-protein feed preservatives seems to be highly appropriate. ...
E. coli bacterium, artwork. The Escherichia coli bacterium is a Gram-negative bacillus (rod-shaped bacterium). It commonly has a single long flagellum (thin thread-like structure) that is used for movement. However, this strain has numerous flagella, giving it greater mobility. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine however, under certain conditions, its numbers may increase, causing infection. - Stock Image C011/1351
Optimisation of Bacillus subtilis for the secretion of heterologous proteins Therapeutic proteins (including those required for experimental purposes and clinical trials) are major products of biomanufacturing processes and considerable time and expense are expended to maximise the yield and quality of proteins produced in heterologous hosts. The production host of choice is the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli for which many strains and expression systems have been developed. However ...
Propolis exhibits antimicrobial effects on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to various antibiotics and some microorganisms.
BioAssay record AID 585432 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against oqxAB positive Escherichia coli DH5[alpha] harboring pMD18-T::oqxAB by CLSI agar dilution method.
DNA damaging alkylating agents are present abundantly in the environment and also produced endogenously.The majority of the DNA adducts caused by such alkylating agents would be in double-stranded DNA. However, single-strand- specific lesions canarise when DNA double helix is temporarily unwound during replication or recombination. The N1 position of purines and the N3 of pyrimidines, which are normally protected from alkylation by base pairing in duplex DNA, can be alkylated in single-stranded DNA. The Escherichia coliAlkB protein is an oxidative demethylase that repairs such alkylatedbases present in single stranded DNA. Although AlkB function was known in great detail, its regulation was poorly characterized. I hypothesized that some proteins might directly interact with AlkB to regulate its function.. ...
Compaction of DNA is an essential phenomenon that affects all facets of cellular biology. Surprisingly, given the abundance and apparent simplicity of bacteria, our understanding of chromosome organization in these ancient organisms is inadequate. In this chapter we will focus on arguably the best understood aspect of DNA folding in the model bacterium Escherichia coli: the supercondensation of the chromosome that occurs during periods of starvation and stress.. DOWNLOAD. ...
Results of this study provided an example of how ESBL determinants in general and CTX-M in particular are rapidly spreading among commensal E. coli strains in healthy subjects from low-resource settings. In the surveyed area, including urban settings in Bolivia and Peru, the prevalence of healthy children carrying ESBL-positive E. coli strains in their commensal microbiota underwent a dramatic (17-fold) increase over a 3-year time period that was mostly contributed by CTX-M-type determinants. This phenomenon is a matter of concern, since commensals can act as a reservoir of resistance genes (Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Network []; Alliance for Prudent Use of Antibiotics), while intestinal colonization by ESBL-producing isolates can be a source for influx of ESBL determinants into the hospital setting and represents a risk factor for subsequent infections caused by ESBL-producing strains in hospitalized patients (3). The reasons for this alarming evolution remain ...
In this paper, the Escherichia coli cell is considered as a system designed for rapid growth, but limited by the medium. We propose that this very design causes the cell to become subsaturated with precursors and catalytic components at all levels of macromolecular biosynthesis and leads to a molecular sharing economy at a high level of competition inside the cell. Thus, the promoters compete with each other in the binding of a limited amount of free RNA polymerase and the ribosome binding sites on the mRNA chains compete with each other for the free ribosomes. The macromolecular chain elongation reactions sequester a considerable proportion of the total amount of RNA polymerase and ribosomes in the cells. We propose that the degree of subsaturation of the macromolecular biosynthetic apparatus renders a variable fraction of RNA polymerase and ribosomes unavailable for the initiation of new chain synthesis and that this, at least in part, determines the composition of the cell as a function of ...
Total counts ofEscherichia coli were followed during anaerobic digestion of pig slurry laboratory scale digesters at 37° C. Counts decreased rapidly d
Understanding the mechanisms behind translation and its rate-limiting steps is crucial for both the development of drug targets and improvement of heterologous protein production with many biotechnological applications, such as in pharmaceutical and biofuel industries. Despite many advances in the knowledge of the ribosome structure and function, there is still much discussion around the determinants of translation elongation with experiments and computational studies pointing in different directions. Here, we use a stochastic framework to simulate the process of translation in the context of an Escherichia coli cell by gathering the available biochemical data into a ribosome kinetics description. Our results from the study of translation in E. coli at different growth rates contradict the increase of mean elongation rate with growth rate established in the literature. We show that both the level of tRNA competition and the type of cognate binding interaction contribute to the modulation of ...
Most of us associate the bacteria E. coli with nasty stomach ailments. But a new study published in Nature magazine suggests E. coli can not just turn stomachs, but could potentially turn the wheels of your car, since a genetically engineered strain of the bacteria has produced clean, road-ready biodiesel.. The bacteria can work on any type of biomass, including wood chip, switchgrass, and the plant parts that are left behind after a harvest-all contain cellulose, a structural material that comprises much of a plants mass. Study coauthor Jay Keasling and his colleagues report engineering E. coli bacteria to synthesize and excrete the enzyme hemicellulase, which breaks down cellulose into sugars. The bacteria can then convert those sugars into a variety of chemicals-diesel fuel among them. The final products are excreted by the bacteria and then float to the top of the fermentation vat before being siphoned off [Technology Review]. E. coli bacteria naturally turn sugars into fatty acids to build ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An nad synthetic reaction bypasses the lipoate requirement for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli strains blocked in succinate catabolism. AU - Hermes, Fatemah A.. AU - Cronan, John E.. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - The lipoate coenzyme is essential for function of the pyruvate (PDH) and 2-oxoglutarate (OGDH) dehydrogenases and thus for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli. LipB catalyzes the first step in lipoate synthesis, transfer of an octanoyl moiety from the fatty acid synthetic intermediate, octanoyl-ACP, to PDH and OGDH. E. coli also encodes LplA, a ligase that in presence of exogenous octanoate (or lipoate) can bypass loss of LipB. LplA imparts ΔlipB strains with a leaky growth phenotype on aerobic glucose minimal medium supplemented with succinate (which bypasses the OGDH-catalyzed reaction), because it scavenges an endogenous octanoate pool to activate PDH. Here we characterize a ΔlipB suppressor strain that did not require succinate supplementation, but did ...
Methionine is an essential amino acid for animals and is typically considered one of the first limiting amino acids in animal feed formulations. Methionine deficiency or excess in animal diets can lead to sub-optimal animal performance and increased environmental pollution, which necessitates its accurate quantification and proper dosage in animal rations. Animal bioassays are the current industry standard to quantify methionine bioavailability. However, animal-based assays are not only time consuming, but expensive and are becoming more scrutinized by governmental regulations. In addition, a variety of artifacts can hinder the variability and time efficacy of these assays. Microbiological assays, which are based on a microbial response to external supplementation of a particular nutrient such as methionine, appear to be attractive potential alternatives to the already established standards. They are rapid and inexpensive in vitro assays which are characterized with relatively accurate and consistent
Purchase Recombinant Escherichia coli UPF0073 inner membrane protein yqfA(yqfA). It is produced in in vitro E.coli expression system. High purity. Good price.
Hi there, I need an antibody which would recognize the E coli cell surface (I am thinking, for instance, about an anti-flagellae, or and anti-LPS or an anti-porin), that could be use in Elisa experiment where I coat the multiplate with entire and intact E coli cells. Anybody has an answer and/or the antibody? Many thanks in advance! Jean-Yves Paquet jean-yves.paquet at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombination of plasmids in a carbapenem-resistant NDM-5-producing clinical Escherichia coli isolate. AU - Xie, Miaomiao. AU - Li, Ruichao. AU - Liu, Zhonghua. AU - Chan, Edward Wai Chi. AU - Chen, Sheng. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - Objectives: To investigate the genetic features of five plasmids recovered from an NDM-5-producing clinical Escherichia coli strain, BJ114, and to characterize the plasmid recombination event that occurred during the conjugation process. Methods: The genetic profiles of the five plasmids were determined by PCR, conjugation, S1-PFGE, Southern hybridization andWGS analysis. Plasmid sequences were analysed with various bioinformatic tools. Results: Complete sequences of five plasmids were obtained. Two small plasmids, pBJ114-141 and pBJ114-46, were speculated to have recombined into a large fusion plasmid, pBJ114T-190. When conjugated to other E. coli strains, some of the fusion plasmids were able to be resolved into the original two single ...
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains of serotype O1:K1:H7/NM are frequently implicated in neonatal meningitis, urinary tract infections and septicemia in humans. They are also commonly isolated from colibacillosis in poultry. Studies to determine the similarities of ExPEC from different origins have indicated that avian strains potentially have zoonotic properties. A total of 59 ExPEC O1:K1:H7/NM isolates (21 from avian colibacillosis, 15 from human meningitis, and 23 from human urinary tract infection and septicemia) originated from four countries were characterized by phylogenetic PCR grouping, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and genotyping based on several genes known for their association with ExPEC or avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) virulence. APEC and human ExPEC isolates differed significantly in their assignments to phylogenetic groups, being phylogroup B2 more prevalent among APEC than among human ExPEC (95% vs. 53%, P =
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonadditivity of Mutational Effects at the Folate Binding Site of Escherichia coli Dihydrofolate Reductase. AU - Huang, Zheng. AU - Wagner, Carston R.. AU - Benkovic, Stephen J.. PY - 1994/9/1. Y1 - 1994/9/1. N2 - The function of the hydrophobic residues Leu28, Phe31, Ile50, and Leu54 at the folate binding site in Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate:NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC has been studied by a combination of site-specific mutagenesis and reaction kinetics. Studies suggest that the overall protein structure and kinetic sequence for the reaction did not change for the mutant proteins compared to the wild-type enzyme. Two sets of mutated reductases have been constructed. The first set, in which the side chains of the targeted amino acids are spatially well separated (∼8 Å), includes two single mutants (L28Y and L54F) and a double mutant (L28Y-L54F). This set features residues that increased the side chain surface area and the potential ...
Title: Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) of Chlamydia pneumoniae Major Outer Membrane Protein (ompA) mRNA with Bioluminescent Detection. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):B. K. Coombes and J. B. Mahony. Affiliation:Regional Virology and Chlamydiology Laboratory, St. Josephs Hospital, 50 Charlton Ave. East,Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 4A6, CANADA.. Abstract: Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated with chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease but the precise role of this intracellular bacteria in the pathogenesis of these diseases is not well defined. Several techniques have been developed for detection of C. pneumoniae in atheromatous lesions, however it remains unclear whether persistent forms of the organism and/or actively replicating bacteria contribute to associated pathology. The aim of this study was to utilize nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) technology together with a highly sensitive aequorin bioluminescent hybridization assay for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of virulence factors on host inflammatory response induced by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes. AU - Sanchez-Villamil, Javier. AU - Navarro-Garcia, Fernando. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Pathogens are able to breach the intestinal barrier, and different bacterial species can display different abilities to colonize hosts and induce inflammation. Inflammatory response studies induced by enteropathogens as Escherichia coli are interesting since it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, leading to different E. Coli pathotypes. Diarrheagenic E. Coli secrete toxins, effectors and virulence factors that exploit the host cell functions to facilitate the bacterial colonization. Many bacterial proteins are delivered to the host cell for subverting the inflammatory response. Hereby, we have highlighted the specific processes used by E. Coli pathotypes, by that subvert the inflammatory pathways. These mechanisms include an arrangement of pro- and anti-inflammatory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary Structure of Escherichia coli Ribosomal Protein S1 and Features of Its Functional Domains. AU - KIMURA, Makoto. AU - FOULAKI, Kirani. AU - SUBRAMANIAN, Alap‐Raman ‐R. AU - WITTMANN‐LIEBOLD, Brigitte. PY - 1982/3. Y1 - 1982/3. N2 - The complete covalent structure of ribosomal protein S1 of Eschericlziu coli has been determined and predictions made of its secondary structure. Protein S1 (E. coli MRE 600) is a single‐chain, acidic protein with 557 amino acid residues of the composition Asp43, Asn23, Thr25, Ser25, Glu60, Glnl4, Pro10, Gly48, Ala48, Val67, Met6, Ile30, Leu45, Tyr6, Phe17, His8, LYS43, Arg30, Trp7, Cys2 and an Mr, of 61159. The two ‐SH groups of S1 are located in the central region of the chain at positions 292 and 349, the latter being the reactive group whose modification results in the reported loss of the nucleic‐acid‐unfolding ability of S1, The central region also contains the majority of the tryptophan, histidine and methionine residues of ...
Presence and characterization of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) virulence genes in F165-positive E. coli strains from diseased calves and pigs
This study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the consumption of cranberry capsules vs. placebo in the urine of healthy volunteers. A first double-blind, randomised, crossover trial involved eight volunteers who had followed three regimens, with or without cranberry, with a wash-out period of at least 6 days between each regimen. Twelve hours after consumption of cranberry or placebo hard capsules, the first urine of the morning was collected. Different Escherichia coli strains were cultured in the urine samples. Urinary antibacterial adhesion activity was measured in vitro using the human T24 epithelial cell-line, and in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans killing model. With the in-vitro model, 108 mg of cranberry induced a significant reduction in bacterial adherence to T24 cells as compared with placebo (p ...
Video articles in JoVE about escherichia coli include The Multifaceted Benefits of Protein Co-expression in Escherichia coli, Protocols for Implementing an Escherichia coli Based TX-TL Cell-Free Expression System for Synthetic Biology, Quantification of the Abundance and Charging Levels of Transfer RNAs in Escherichia coli, Determination of the Optimal Chromosomal Location(s) for a DNA Element in Escherichia coli Using a Novel Transposon-mediated Approach, Mapping Bacterial Functional Networks and Pathways in Escherichia Coli using Synthetic Genetic Arrays, Non-Invasive Model of Neuropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in the Neonatal Rat, Method for Labeling Transcripts in Individual Escherichia coli Cells for Single-molecule Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Experiments, Residue-specific Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids into Model Proteins Using an Escherichia coli Cell-free Transcription-translation System, Detection of Live Escherichia coli O157:H7 Cells by PMA-qPCR,
CS6 is the predominant colonization factor of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We report the existence of multiple CS6 subtypes caused by natural point mutations in cssA and cssB, the structural genes for CS6. The subtype AIBI was mostly associated with ETEC isolated from diarrhoeal cases, whereas AIIBII was mostly found in asymptomatic controls. Here we explore the rationale behind this association. ETEC isolates expressing AIIBII showed weaker adherence to intestinal epithelial cells compared with ETEC expressing AIBI. AIIBII expression on the ETEC cell surface was threefold less than AIBI. We found that alanine at position 37 in CssAII, in conjunction with asparagine at position 97 in CssBII, was responsible for the decreased levels of AIIBII on the bacterial surface. In addition, purified AIIBII showed fourfold less mucin binding compared with AIBI. The asparagine at position 97 in CssBII was also accountable for the decreased mucin binding by AIIBII. Reduced fluid accumulation and
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the important causative pathogens of neonatal invasive infection. The epidemiological and clinical profile of invasive E. coli infection in Chinese newborns is not well characterized. Ninety-four infants with invasive E. coli infection were categorized into E. coli early onset disease (EOD) group (onset ≤72 h after birth) (n = 46) and E. coli late onset disease (LOD) group (onset | 72 h) (n = 48). We compared and analyzed the clinical characteristics and drug sensitivity profile of early-onset and late-onset E. coli invasive infection in neonates. The incidence of E. coli-EOD and E.coli-LOD was 0.45/1000 live births (LBs) and 0.47/1000 LBs, respectively. The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, perinatal fever, urinary tract infection, chorioamnionitis, and positive E. coli culture among mothers in the E. coli-EOD group were significantly higher than that in E. coli-LOD group. The incidence of premature birth, low-birth-weight, nosocomial infection, and
Temperature variation--through time and across climatic gradients--affects individuals, populations, and communities. Yet how the thermal response of biological systems is altered by environmental stressors is poorly understood. Here we quantify two key features--optimal temperature and temperature breadth--to investigate how temperature responses vary in the presence of antibiotics. We use high-throughput screening to measure growth of Escherichia coli under single and pairwise combinations of 12 antibiotics across seven temperatures that range from 22{degrees}C to 46{degrees}C. We find that antibiotic stress often results in considerable changes in the optimal temperature for growth and a narrower temperature breadth. The direction of the optimal temperature shifts can be explained by the similarities between antibiotic-induced and temperature-induced damage to the physiology of the bacterium. We also find that the effects of pairs of stressors in the temperature response can often be ...
This chapter on probiotic Escherichia coli focuses on the properties, underlying mechanisms, and clinical uses of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 as this is the most widely used and studied strain. However, it also refers to important work that has been done using other E. coli strains. The enterobacterium E. coli can be extraintestinally pathogenic (e.g., uropathogenic), intestinally pathogenic (e.g., enteropathogenic or enterohemorrhagic), and nonpathogenic or commensal (e.g., probiotic). The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 was isolated in 1917 from a soldier who appeared to be protected from gastrointestinal infections causing severe diarrhea in many of his comrades. Since that time, EcN has been studied intensively, not only with a focus on its apparent clinical use but also with a view to understanding how it counteracts the pathogenic mechanisms underlying a number of diseases. Its uniqueness, not only among other E. coli strains but also among other probiotic microorganisms, is evident.
Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda ATCC ® 77359™ Designation: pLDR10 TypeStrain=False Application: contains sequence attachment site integrating vector
Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 ATCC ® 11303-B4™ Designation: T4 TypeStrain=False Application: Testing of aerosol containment on cell sorters
DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify a DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. ...
In this semirural community, we found that numerically dominant commensal E. coli strains (showing similar antimicrobial resistance and same antibiotic resistance genes) colonizing children and domestic animals in the same period of time and in the same community are genotypically diverse. We also found that plasmids carrying the same antibiotic resistance genes were distinct, which is consistent with recent reports showing that AMR genes move frequently among different plasmids (28, 29). Our research suggests that a common pool of AMR genes could be cocirculating on different plasmids among different E. coli clones in a community (Table 2)-probably through dissemination mediated by transposons, integrons, or gene cassettes (28, 30). Even when the same resistance gene alleles and same plasmid replicon types were identified across isolates, the plasmids harboring these traits were still distinct. We also found potential evidence of Tn2 participation in mobility of the gene blaTEM-1B, as we found ...
Biofilms pose an increasing public health risk due to their ability to confer chemical, mechanical and environmental protection to the constituent bacteria [1]. Previous studies have shown complex fractal patterning and chirality in multi-strain colony biofilms; however, the architecture and substructure of single-strain communities is somewhat understudied. We aim to use the Mesolens to image the previously unexplored internal architecture of an intact Escherichia coli colony biofilm to better understand spatiotemporal organisation of a live bacterial community.. ...
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, although the aquatic environment could be a secondary habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydrological conditions on the structure of the E. coli population in the water of a creek on a small rural watershed in France composed of pasture and with human occupation. RESULTS: It became apparent, after studying the distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D), the presence of the hly (hemolysin) gene and the antibiotic resistance pattern, that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions (dry versus wet periods, rainfall events), but also by how the watershed was used (presence or absence of cattle). Isolates of the B1 phylo-group devoid of hly and sensitive to antibiotics were particularly abundant during the dry period. During the wet period and the rainfall events, contamination from human sources
Pathogenic Escherichia coli strains carrying the afa-8 gene cluster are frequently associated with extra-intestinal infections in humans and animals. The
Escherichia coli bacteria cause many illnesses of the gastrointestinal tract. Often, people come down with these diseases when they eat contaminated foods, especially ground beef or raw produce. Though E. coli infections are most common in less developed parts of the world, they are also a problem in the United States-contamination occurred in prepackaged cookie dough in 2009 and in spinach in 2006. But all E. coli are not harmful, as strains found in the human intestinal system can help with vitamin K production or in fighting harmful bacteria. This revised edition of Escherichia coli Infections contains up-to-date information on the different strains of E. coli, including the latest outbreaks, statistics, diagnostic breakthroughs, and vaccine development ...
E. coli possesses four iron uptake systems that use siderophores such as enterobactin and aerobactin, produced by E. coli, or the fungal siderophores ferrichrome and coprogen. Iron acquisition by this bacterium can also occur in a process mediated by citrate ((1), (5)). Pathogenic E. coli strains are able to use heme compounds as iron sources, but so far little is known about the mechanisms involved in this kind of iron uptake ((10)). The results of this study suggest that the human pathogenic E. coli strain EB1 contains a hemophore-dependent heme acquisition system. The bacterium secretes a heme-binding protein (Hbp) with an estimated size of 110 kD, that degrades hemoglobin. It is likely that Hbp is the shuttle protein of this heme-scavenging system in E. coli.. Recently, an exported protease (PssA) from a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli has been characterized ((43)). Sequence comparison showed that PssA is related to the family of autotransporter proteins, especially to SepA of S. flexneri ...
We examined extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing isolates from livestock, humans, companion animals, food, and the environment during 2009-2016 in Germany for the presence of CTX-M-27 allele within Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131. E. coli ST131 C1-M27 was exclusively present in humans; its incidence increased from 0% in 2009 to 45% in 2016.
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Screening and enumeration of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli directly from samples is needed to identify emerging resistant clones and obtain quantitative data for risk assessment. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 3M™ Petrifilm™ Select E. coli Count Plate (SEC plate) supplemented with antimicrobials to discriminate antimicrobial-resistant and non-resistant E. coli. A range of E. coli isolates were tested by agar dilution method comparing the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for eight antimicrobials obtained by Mueller-Hinton II agar, MacConkey agar and SEC plates. Kappa statistics was used to assess the levels of agreement when classifying strains as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. SEC plate showed that 74% of all strains agreed within ± 1 log2 dilution when comparing MICs with Mueller-Hinton II media. High agreement levels were found for gentamicin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime, resulting in a kappa value of 0.9 and 100% agreement within ±
article{d5d0bba8-690d-4fa7-bd6f-4e7522f5ce40, abstract = {Bacillus subtilis membrane-bound holo-cytochrome c-550 was found to be expressed from the structural gene cloned on a plasmid vector in aerobically grown Escherichia coli and exhibited normal biochemical properties. This occurs despite the lack of endogenous eytochrome c and suggests that eytochrome c-heme lyase activity is also present in aerobic E. coli. The membrane topology of B. subtilis eytochrome c-550 was studied using fusions to alkaline phosphatase (PhoA). The results show that the heme domain (at least when fused to PhoA) can be translocated as apo-cytochrome and confirm that the N-terminal part of the cytochrome functions as both export signal and membrane anchor for the C-tenninal heme domain. A model for the organisation of B. subtilis cytochrome c-550 in the cytoplasmic membrane is presented.}, author = {von Wachenfeldt, Claes and Hederstedt, Lars}, issn = {1873-3468}, keyword = {phoA,cccA,Hemoprotein,Cytochrome c ...
Modern pharmaceutical manufacturing techniques frequently rely upon biotechnology. Amongst the earliest uses of biotechnology in pharmaceutical manufacturing is the use of recombinant DNA technology to modify Escherichia coli bacteria to produce human insulin, which was performed at Genentech in 1978. Prior to the development of this technique, insulin was extracted from the pancreas glands of cattle, pigs, and other farm animals. While generally efficacious in the treatment of diabetes, animal-derived insulin is not indistinguishable from human insulin, and may therefore produce allergic reactions. Genentech researchers produced artificial genes for each of the two protein chains that comprise the insulin molecule. The artificial genes were then inserted... into plasmids... among a group of genes that are activated by lactose. Thus, the insulin-producing genes were also activated by lactose. The recombinant plasmids were inserted into Escherichia coli bacteria, which were induced to produce ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Negative co-dominant inhibition of recA protein function. T2 - Biochemical properties of the recA1, recA13 and recA56 proteins and the effect of recA56 protein on the activities of the wild-type recA protein function in vitro. AU - Lauder, Scott D.. AU - Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - We have investigated the biochemical properties of several Escherichia coli mutant recA proteins that display a null phenotype. These are the recA1, recA13 and recA56 proteins, each of which carries a single missense mutation. These proteins all share a common defect which is the inability to adopt the high affinity DNA binding state normally elicited by the nucleotide cofactor ATP. Consequently, other than the ability to bind ssDNA, they possess none of the in vitro enzymatic activities of recA protein. However, each protein has characteristics that are unique, leading to the conclusion that the observed mutant phenotypes arise through fundamentally different mechanisms. ...
Detect phenotypic resistance; Better antibiotic. is an older antibiotic which is an option for treating uncomplicated urinary tract infections from E. coli and E.. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Antimicrobial Agent Disk Content E. coli 1 ATCC 25922 2. Colistin is a mixture of the cyclic Antibiotic resistance and extended.Aynı suşların tetracycline,. Ancak bu seçicilik tam değildir, V.choeraedan geç olmakla birlikte E.coli, Proteus gibi basiller ve Candidalar üreyebilir.Both uses may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial. Escherichia: Escherichia coli; Gram. Tetracycline, e.g.The virulence factor ychO has a pleiotropic action in an Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli. Effects of carriage and expression of the Tn10 tetracycline-resistance.. Titre du document / Document title Induction of Multidrug Resistance Mechanism in Escherichia coli Biofilms by Interplay between Tetracycline and Ampicillin.La colibacillose est une entérite liée à la ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of bacterial factors involved in type 1 fimbria expression using an Escherichia coli K12 proteome chip. AU - Chen, Yi Wen. AU - Teng, Ching Hao. AU - Ho, Yu Hsuan. AU - Ho, Tien Yu Jessica. AU - Huang, Wen Chun. AU - Hashimoto, Masayuki. AU - Chiang, I. Yuan. AU - Chen, Chien Sheng. PY - 2014/6. Y1 - 2014/6. N2 - Type 1 fimbriae are filamentous structures on Escherichia coli. These structures are important adherence factors. Because binding to the host cells is the first step of infection, type 1 fimbria is an important virulence factor of pathogenic E. coli. Expression of type 1 fimbria is regulated by a phase variation in which each individual bacterium can alternate between fimbriated (phase-ON) and nonfimbriated (phase-OFF) states. The phase variation is regulated by the flipping of the 314-bp fimS fragment, which contains the promoter driving the expression of the genes required for the synthesis of type 1 fimbria. Thus, the bacterial proteins able to interact ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Copper atom in PDB 2tir: Crystal Structure Analysis of A Mutant Escherichia Coli Thioredoxin in Which Lysine 36 Is Replaced By Glutamic Acid
Extensive dissemination of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli with multidrug resistance to ‘critically important’ antibiotics among food animals in Hong Kong, 2008â€10. Ho, P. L.; Chow, K. H.; Lai, Eileen L.; Lo, W. U.; Yeung, M. K.; Chan, Jane; Chan, P. Y.; Yuen, K. Y. // Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC);Apr2011, Vol. 66 Issue 4, p765 Objectives To assess the occurrence of faecal carriage of Escherichia coli with resistance to ‘critically important’ antibiotics in various animals. Methods Rectal or cloacal swabs were obtained weekly from cattle, pigs, chickens, cats, dogs and wild rodents over a 2 year period.... ...
Escherichia coli strains are normally identified by the combination of their O and H (and sometimes K) antigens, and serotyping based on the antigens is believed to be crucial for clinical detection and epidemiological investigation. Two E. coli strains, G5413 and G5287, were isolated from faecal samples of female patients with diarrhoea and were not agglutinated with any antisera that cover the well-known O serogroups of E. coli. We elucidated the O-polysaccharide (OPS) structures and analysed the O-antigen gene clusters of these bacteria. The OPS structure of G5413 established by monosaccharide analysis and NMR spectroscopy was found to be unique amongst known bacterial polysaccharide structures. The O-antigen gene cluster of this strain was sequenced and did not match sequence data with any of the 184 O serogroups that have been recognized internationally. Gene functions were tentatively assigned and were appropriate to the OPS structure. Based on these data, we suggest G5413 as a candidate for a new
There have been 18 confirmed deaths and over 1,500 individuals infected with a rare strain of Escherichia coli bacteria in 10 different European countries. Austria, Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the U.K. have reported cases of the infection. The outbreak does not seem to be slowing and is causing great concern among health officials in Europe and the United States, who have stated that it is the worst in recorded history. The bacteria responsible for the deadly outbreak has been identified as a strain of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) designated O104:H4. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the strain has been seen in humans before but never in an EHEC outbreak. This bacterium is particularly virulent and can cause hemorrhagic colitis with bloody diarrhea, which can ultimately develop into hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS is characterized by hemolysis of blood cells resulting in anemia and thrombocytopenia and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical significance and phylogenetic background of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolates from extra-intestinal infections. AU - Chakraborty, Arindam. AU - Adhikari, Prabha. AU - Shenoy, Shalini. AU - Saralaya, Vishwas. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Introduction: Escherichia coli producing extended spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL), particularly CTX-M type ESBLs, have rapidly spread worldwide and pose a serious threat for healthcare-associated infections. We performed a molecular detection and characterization study of ESBL-related bla genes, including blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaCTX-M15, and also assessed the relationship between the phylogenetic background of strains carrying ESBL genes and the patients clinical outcome. Methodology: A total of 300 non-repeated, clinically significant isolates were investigated. The molecular types of ESBL genes were determined using multiplex PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using triplex PCR ...
Bacterial inclusion bodies are submicron protein clusters usually found in recombinant bacteria that have been traditionally considered as undesirable products from protein production processes. However, being fully biocompatible, they have been recently characterized as nanoparticulate inert materials useful as scaffolds for tissue engineering, with potentially wider applicability in biomedicine and material sciences. Current protocols for inclusion body isolation from Escherichia coli usually offer between 95 to 99% of protein recovery, what in practical terms, might imply extensive bacterial cell contamination, not compatible with the use of inclusion bodies in biological interfaces. Using an appropriate combination of chemical and mechanical cell disruption methods we have established a convenient procedure for the recovery of bacterial inclusion bodies with undetectable levels of viable cell contamination, below 10-1 cfu/ml, keeping the particulate organization of these aggregates regarding size
The number and proportion of CTX-M positive Escherichia coli organisms were determined in feces from cattle, chickens, and pigs in the United Kingdom to provide a better understanding of the risk of the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteria to humans from food animal sources. Samples of bovine (n = 35) and swine (n = 20) feces were collected from farms, and chicken cecal contents (n = 32) were collected from abattoirs. There was wide variation in the number of CTX-M-positive E. coli organisms detected; the median (range) CFU/g were 100 (100 × 10(6) to 1 × 10(6)), 5,350 (100 × 10(6) to 3.1 × 10(6)), and 2,800 (100 × 10(5) to 4.7 × 10(5)) for cattle, chickens, and pigs, respectively. The percentages of E. coli isolates that were CTX-M positive also varied widely; median (range) values were 0.013% (0.001 to 1%) for cattle, 0.0197% (0.00001 to 28.18%) for chickens, and 0.121% (0.0002 to 5.88%) for pigs. The proportion of animals designated high-density shedders (≥1 ...
Escherichia coli C forms more robust biofilms than other laboratory strains. Biofilm formation and cell aggregation under a high shear force depend on temperature and salt concentrations. It is the last of five E. coli strains (C, K12, B, W, Crooks) designated as safe for laboratory purposes whose genome has not been sequenced. Here we present the complete genomic sequence of this strain in which we utilized both long-read PacBio-based sequencing and high resolution optical mapping to confirm a large inversion in comparison to the other laboratory strains. Notably, DNA sequence comparison revealed the absence of several genes thought to be involved in biofilm formation, including antigen 43, waaSBOJYZUL for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, and cpsB for curli synthesis. The first main difference we identified that likely affects biofilm formation is the presence of an IS3-like insertion sequence in front of the carbon storage regulator csrA gene. This insertion is located 86 bp upstream of the csrA
Purified penicillinase, in gram quantities, has been prepared from Escherichia coli strain W3310 by using methods developed to handle large amounts of material. The final product had a specific enzyme activity of 3.08 units/μg of protein, which was over twice as high as that reported previously (Datta & Richmond, 1966). The purified enzyme was similar to that from E. coli strain TEM, but different in molecular weight and some other respects. The differences observed may be a result of the greater purity obtained.. ...
Department of Chemistry, UBC Faculty of Science. Vancouver Campus. 2036 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: 604.822.3266. Fax: 604.822.2847. ...
The plasmid-located mcr-9 gene, encoding a putative phosphoethanolamine transferase, was identified in a colistin-resistant human fecal Escherichia coli strain belonging to a very rare phylogroup, the D-ST69-O15:H6 clone. This MCR-9 protein shares 33% to 65% identity with the other plasmid-encoded MCR-type enzymes identified (MCR-1 to -8) that have been found... ...
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This study aims to isolate, to identify, and to seek out fragments of encoding gene Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase on Escherichia coli isolated from swab surface of broiler chicken meat in a number of traditional markets in Surabaya. The result shows that 31 out of 50 samples positively contain Escherichia coli, shown through EMBA isolation media and identified using indole test. Sensitivity test shows that 100% of the isolates are resistant to Ampicilin, 48.4% are resistant to Cephazoline, 13% are resistant to Ceftazidime, 9.6% are resistant to Cefotaxime, 6.4% are resistant to Ceftriaxone and 87.2% are resistant to Tetracycline. 8 out of 8 (100%) samples of E. coli resistant show the presence of band towards blaTEM gene of 768 basepair (bp).. ...
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-like E. coli strains belonging to serovar O103:K-:H2 and rhamnose-negative biotypes are highly pathogenic diarrhea-inducing strains for weaned European rabbits. We describe here the cloning and sequencing of the major subunit gene of a new fimbrial adhesin, adhesive factor/rabbit 2 (AF/R2), which confers on these strains the ability to attach to rabbit enterocytes and to HeLa cells in a diffuse manner and which is associated with in vivo virulence. The chromosomal operon that encodes functional AF/R2 has been cloned from strain B10. The major subunit gene afr2G, as well as an adjacent open reading frame, afr2H, has been sequenced. The Afr2G protein shows homologies with FaeG and ClpG, which are the respective major subunits of fimbrial adhesin K88 (F4) and afimbrial adhesin CS31A. Plasmid carrying the operon transcomplements an AF/R2-negative TnphoA mutant for its ability to express AF/R2. As a whole, AF/R2 is a new member of the E. coli K88 adhesin family which ...
The worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance is a concern for public health. When the appropriate antibiotic dosage is determined, the priorities are efficacy and toxicity. The aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge about the most efficient dosing regimens in order to minimize the emergence and selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants. We also wanted to assess the impact of antibiotic selective pressure and host to host transmission for the dissemination of resistance.. Escherichia coli bacteria with different levels of cefotaxime susceptibility were competed in an in vitro kinetic model, demonstrating a complex selection of low-level resistance influenced e.g. by the time duration of selective concentrations and the rise of new mutants. We also constructed a mathematical model incorporating biologically relevant parameters and showed its usefulness when assessing the risks of resistance development.. When E. coli populations with pre-existing fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants were exposed ...
In the present paper, it is reported that the results of phage adsorption rate constant (ARC) on stationary phasic bacteria, and 50% phages inhibiton (PhI_(50) of LPS μg/ml was estimated, and there is an attempt to analyse the loci and the number of phage receptor sites existed on cell wall of Eschevichia coli. The receptor site of Shigella phage Sh was also estimated and discussed. High ARC (K values 198-515) were derived from 9 strains which lysed by phage E-4(φ369), and the LPS less than 0.125 to 0.5μg/m...
The probability of recovering pathogenic Escherichia coli from food by the Bacteriological Analytical Manual method was determined by the effects of several factors: the number of strains per food, the ability of pathogenic strains to survive enrichment, and the frequency of plasmid loss during enrichment. Biochemical patterns indicated the presence of about six E. coli strains per food sample. About half of the strains isolated from humans did not survive enrichment. Among those which grew, plasmid loss, as determined by gel electrophoresis and DNA colony hybridization, ranged from 20 to 95%. The combined effects of failure to survive enrichment and plasmid loss decreased the relative numbers of these strains and reduced the chance of detecting pathogens. To counteract this tendency and obtain a 90 to 95% probability off recovering a given pathogenic strain, 40 to 50 colonies per food sample should be picked during the routine testing of foods. ...
In the study described here, we have taken steps to characterize the YjeE protein, an Escherichia coli protein of unknown function that is essential for bacterial viability. YjeE represents a protein family whose members are broadly conserved in bacteria, absent from eukaryotes and contain both Walker A and B motifs, characteristic of P-loop ATPases. We have revisited the dispensability of the yjeE gene in E. coli and describe efforts to probe the function of the YjeE protein with in vitro biochemistry. We have looked critically for ATPase activity in the recombinant E. coli protein and have made vigilant use of site-directed variants in the Walker A [K41A (Lys41→Ala) and T42A] and putative Walker B (D80Q) motifs. We noted that any hydrolysis of ATP by the wild-type E. coli protein might be attributed to background ATPase, since it was not appreciably different from that of the variants. To overcome potential contaminants, we turned to crystalline pure YjeE protein from Haemophilus influenzae ... is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. CobB regulates Escherichia coli chemotaxis by deacetylating the response regulator CheY.
Selection of Escherichia coli[edit]. Puromycin is poorly active on E. coli. Puromycin-resistant transformants are selected in ... But use of puromycin for E. coli selection requires precise pH adjustment and also depends on which strain is selected. For ...
Escherichia coli[edit]. The heat-labile enterotoxin is inactivated at high temperatures.[1][2] ... Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. ... "Expression of the B subunit of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli in tobacco mosaic virus-infected Nicotiana ... coli cells and A-type blood antigens.[3] The importance of these binding events is not yet known. ...
Escherichia coli[edit]. Catabolite repression was extensively studied in Escherichia coli. E. coli grows faster on glucose than ... For example, if E. coli is placed on an agar plate containing only glucose and lactose, the bacteria will use glucose first and ... Note that E. coli has a similar cAMP-independent catabolite repression mechanism that utilizes a protein called catabolite ...
Escherichia coli • Haemophilus influenzae • Helicobacter Pylori • Klebsiella oxytoca • Klebsiella pneumoniae • Legionella • ...
Escherichia coli: 1 μg/ml. *Proteus vulgaris: 0.25 μg/ml. Side effects[edit]. In 2005-06, neomycin was the fifth-most-prevalent ...
Escherichia coli. 0.95. [7] Clostridium botulinum A, B. 0.94. [7] Salmonella. 0.93. [8] ...
Escherichia coli: 0.125 - 16 µg/ml. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 256 µg/ml. [3] ...
Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and the yeast Candida albicans.[5]. Comparison between octenidine and chlorhexidine ...
Bartel PL, Roecklein JA, SenGupta D, Fields S (1996). "A protein linkage map of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7". Nat. Genet ... "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli". Nature Biotechnology. 32 (3): 285-90. doi:10.1038/nbt. ... "Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins". PLoS Biol. 7 (4): e96. doi: ... The E. coli and Mycoplasma interactomes have been analyzed using large-scale protein complex affinity purification and mass ...
DNA adenine methylation is important in bacteria virulence in organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Vibrio, Yersinia ... "Genome-wide mapping of methylated adenine residues in pathogenic Escherichia coli using single-molecule real-time sequencing". ...
EC - Escherichia coli. *BT - Bacillus thuringiensis. *EH - Erwinia hebicola. *FP - fluorescent particle ...
... is the gene encoding the ε subunit of DNA polymerase III in Escherichia coli.[1] The ε subunit is one of three core ... the epsilon subunit of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... "A human DNA editing enzyme homologous to the Escherichia coli DnaQ/MutD protein". The EMBO Journal. 18 (13): 3868-75. doi: ... "The theta subunit of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III: a role in stabilizing the epsilon proofreading subunit". Journal of ...
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. *Salmonella enterica. *Campylobacter. *Shigella. *Yersinia. *Clostridium difficile ( ...
... and Escherichia coli O157:H7,[21][22] among others. Prior to industrialization, dairy cows were kept in urban areas to limit ...
Baneyx F (October 1999). "Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 10 (5): 411-21 ... For example, common hosts are bacteria (such as E.coli, B. subtilis), yeast (such as S.cerevisiae[4]) or eukaryotic cell lines ... E. coli is one of the most widely used expression hosts, and DNA is normally introduced in a plasmid expression vector. The ... E. coli, one of the most popular hosts for artificial gene expression. ...
Norton, E. B.; Lawson, L. B.; Mahdi, Z.; Freytag, L. C.; Clements, J. D. (23 April 2012). "The A Subunit of Escherichia coli ... Shiga toxin is an infectious disease caused by the rod shaped Shigella dysenteriae as well as Escherichia coli (STEC), and is ... Weltzin, R; Guy, B; Thomas WD, Jr; Giannasca, PJ; Monath, TP (May 2000). "Parenteral adjuvant activities of Escherichia coli ... Paton, AW; Paton, JC (Feb 1, 2010). "Escherichia coli Subtilase Cytotoxin". Toxins. 2 (2): 215-228. doi:10.3390/toxins2020215. ...
"Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)". Diarrhoeal Diseases. Archived from the original on 15 May 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. ... Viruses (particularly rotavirus) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter species are the primary causes of ... For example, vaccines against Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), two of the leading bacterial causes of ... with the most common types being Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species.[13] If food becomes ...
... s can be secreted by many different kinds of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli or Vibrio ... Bhakdi S, Mackman N, Menestrina G, Gray L, Hugo F, Seeger W, Holland IB (June 1988). "The hemolysin of Escherichia coli". Eur. ... "Effect of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin on human peripheral leukocyte function in vitro". Infect. Immun. 37 (3): 966-74. doi ... Escherichia coli hemolysin is potentially cytotoxic to monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages, leading them to autolysis and ...
This enzyme is a component of MoCo biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. The reaction it catalyzes is as follows: adenylyl- ... Nichols JD, Xiang S, Schindelin H, Rajagopalan KV (Jan 2007). "Mutational analysis of Escherichia coli MoeA: two functional ... Forchhammer K, Böck A (Apr 1991). "Selenocysteine synthase from Escherichia coli. Analysis of the reaction sequence". The ... Reichard P, Hanshoff G (1956). "Aspartate Carbamyl Transferase from Escherichia Coli" (PDF). Acta Chemica Scandinavica: 548-566 ...
Park, Tu San; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol (2015-03-01). Smartphone Detection of Escherichia coli From Field Water Samples on Paper ... "Physical manipulation of the Escherichia coli chromosome reveals its soft nature". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109 (40): ... "Robust growth of Escherichia coli". Current Biology. 20 (12): 1099-1103. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2010.04.045. PMC 2902570. PMID ...
Meningitis due to Escherichia coli. *Meningitis due to Friedländer bacillus. *Meningitis due to Klebsiella ...
Escherichia coli. 大腸桿菌 4,600,000 4,400 Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 釀酒酵母 12,000,000 5,538 ...
Escherichia coli‎ (2 C, 30 P). G. *. ► Genetic engineering‎ (13 C, 108 P) ...
As a new faculty member at Harvard Medical school in the 1980s, Kolter's research group made use of Escherichia coli as a model ... Almirón, M; Link, AJ; Furlong, D; Kolter (1992). "Escherichia coli". Genes Dev. 6 (12B): 2646-54. doi:10.1101/gad.6.12b.2646. ... Zambrano, MM; Siegele, DA; Almirón, M; Tormo, A; Kolter (1993). "Escherichia coli mutants that take over stationary phase ... Zambrano, M. M.; Siegele, D. A.; Almirón, M.; Tormo, A.; Kolter, R. (1993-03-19). "Microbial competition: Escherichia coli ...
October 2016). "Escherichia coli". eLife. 5. doi:10.7554/elife.19469. PMC 5089857. PMID 27767957. Cell Division: The Cycle of ...
"SWISS-MODEL , Escherichia coli". Retrieved 2020-02-14. "SWISS-MODEL , SARS-CoV-2". ... Model organisms include human, mouse, C.elegans, E.coli, and various pathogens including severe acute respiratory syndrome ...
Two papers were published in November 2005 with structures of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome. The structures of a vacant ... Czernilofsky AP, Collatz EE, Stöffler G, Kuechler E (January 1974). "Proteins at the tRNA binding sites of Escherichia coli ... Korkmaz G, Sanyal S (September 2017). "Escherichia coli". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 292 (36): 15134-15142. doi: ... Kurland CG (1960). "Molecular characterization of ribonucleic acid from Escherichia coli ribosomes". Journal of Molecular ...
The secreted molecules vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, which is 10 kDa, to the Pseudomonas ... Crane JM, Randall LL (November 2017). "Escherichia coli". EcoSal Plus. 7 (2): ESP-0002-2017. doi:10.1128/ecosalplus.ESP-0002- ... "The twin arginine consensus motif of Tat signal peptides is involved in Sec-independent protein targeting in Escherichia coli ...
Escherichia coli". Methods Enzymol. 9: 421-425. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(66)09086-4. Barkulis SS (1966). "N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine ...
Jones DL, Leroy P, Unoson C, Fange D, Ćurić V, Lawson MJ, Elf J (September 2017). "Escherichia coli". Science. 357 (6358): 1420 ...
Nad kasutasid mRNA-d selleks, et sisestada uratsiili bakterisse Escherichia coli ning põhjustasid selle, et bakter hakkas ... Tootmisprotsess viiakse läbi bakteris Escherichia coli, mis sünteesib aromaatseid aminohappeid (näiteks fenüülalaniini) ...
Escherichia coli (biasa disingkat E. coli) adalah salah satu jenis spesies bakteri Gram negatif. Pada umumnya, bakteri yang ... Inggris) Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc). *(Inggris) The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in ... Kebanyakan E. Coli tidak berbahaya, tetapi beberapa, seperti E. Coli tipe O157:H7, dapat mengakibatkan keracunan makanan yang ... Inggris) FDA information on the Spinach and E. coli Outbreak. *(Inggris) E. coli Outbreak From Fresh Spinach - U.S. Centers for ...
A similar phenomenon has since been described in the bacterium Escherichia coli, which gives rise to morphologically similar ... This is in contrast to the E. coli cell cycle where there can be overlapping rounds of chromosome replication simultaneously ...
Ang Escherichia coli ay isang bakterya kung saan nakakatulong ito sa pagpapalabas ng mga protina na ginagamit sa Recombinant ... Kinuha mula sa "" ...
Bacterium, Escherichia coli 4×106 Best-researched bacterium.[7] Bacterium, Solibactoer usitatus 1×107 Largest known bacterial ... "The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12". Science. 277 (5331): 1453-1462. doi:10.1126/science.277.5331.1453. PMID ...
Evans PR, Hellinga HW (1987). „Mutations in the active site of Escherichia coli phosphofructokinase". Nature. 327 (6121): 437- ...
Escherichia coli (E. coli) - soolekepike,. *Saccharomyces cerevisiae - pagaripärm.. Vaata ka[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. * ...
... və bəzən Escherichia coli, pnevmokok, Leffler difteriya basillusudur. Doğuşdan sonrakı atəşin daha çox yayılmış səbəbi ( ...
In late November 1996, an Escherichia coli outbreak in the town of Wishaw, central Scotland prompted the Scottish Office to ... and Escherichia coli O157:H7. He also wrote on the history of science and medicine such as the introduction of antiseptic ... he is best known as the chair of the Pennington Group enquiry into the Scottish Escherichia coli outbreak of 1996[2] and as ... coli outbreak.[11] The 2005 Outbreak of E. coli O157 in South Wales Public Inquiry report was published in March 2009. ...
Matsushita, K., Ohnishi, T. e Kaback, H. R. (1987): "NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases of the Escherichia coli aerobic ...
Reactions catalyzed by 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide carboxylases from Escherichia coli and Gallus gallus: a case for ...
Un exemplo de artigo de predición de xenes en Escherichia coli aplicando HMM é o de Krogh, A., et al. (1993) A Hidden Markov ... e en 1997 co xenoma de Escherichia coli (4,7 Mbps),[65] en 1998 co primeiro xenoma dun organismo multicelular (as 97 Mbp do ... Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli" (PDF). Proceedings of ... "The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12". Science 277 (5331).. ...
DAEC (diffus adhärente E. coli). Luke uk diar[Bewerke , Kweltekst bewerke]. Commonskategorii: Escherichia coli - Saamlang faan ... Escherichia coli (kurt E. coli, am sait uk kooli-bakteerium) as en bakteerium an komt uun a siarem faan minsken an diarten föör ... Escherichia coli ön üđer Spreekwiisen. Sölring Öömrang Fering Halunder Halifreesk Mooring Wiringhiirder Karhiirder Gooshiirder ... EHEC (enterohämorrhagische E. coli). Uun a somer 2011 san föl minsken uun Nuurdsjiisklun faan EHEC kraank wurden an flooken san ...
... random conical tilt series applied to the 50S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli". Journal of Microscopy. 146 (Pt 2): 113-36 ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... One drawback to butanol production in E. coli remains the high cost of nutrient rich media, however, recent work has ... demonstrated E. coli can produce butanol with minimal nutritional supplementation.[37] Biodiesel[edit]. Main article: Biodiesel ...
Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli rods. Scientific classification Domain:. Bacteria. Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, ...
... (EC, ribonukleaza II, ribonukleaza Q, BN ribonukleaza, Escherichia coli ekso-RNaza II, RNaza II, ... I. Escherichia coli ribonuclease II". J. Biol. Chem. 243: 913-922. PMID 4867942. ... Schmidt, F.J. and McClain, W.H. (1978). "An Escherichia coli ribonuclease which removes an extra nucleotide from a biosynthetic ... "Specific ribonucleases involved in processing of tRNA precursors of Escherichia coli. Partial purification and some properties ...
Escherichia coli cells deficient in HRR are highly sensitive to PUVA compared to wild-type cells.[22] HRR appears to be ... Cole RS, Levitan D, Sinden RR (1976). "Removal of psoralen interstrand cross-links from DNA of Escherichia coli: mechanism and ... "Repair of cross-linked DNA and survival of Escherichia coli treated with psoralen and light: effects of mutations influencing ... In E. coli, even though one or two unrepaired crosslinks are sufficient to inactivate a cell, a wild-type cell can repair and ...
೯೬.೦ ೯೬.೧ Juhas, M; Reuß, DR; Zhu, B; Commichau, FM (November 2014). "Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes ... Salgado, H.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G.; Smith, T.; Collado-Vides, J. (2000). "Operons in Escherichia coli: Genomic analyses and ... "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection.". Molecular systems biology ... "Recircularization and Autonomous Replication of a Sheared R-Factor DNA Segment in Escherichia coli Transformants - PNAS". Pnas. ...
Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Shigella spp. and Trichinella spp. animals domesticated ... The most significant zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne diseases are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Caliciviridae, ...
Bacterial keratitis is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus viridans, Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Pseudomonas, ...
The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause.[2] Risk factors ... Escherichia coli is the single most common microorganism, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus spp., to cause urinary tract ... "The development and early clinical testing of the ExPEC4V conjugate vaccine against uropathogenic Escherichia coli". Clinical ... Uropathogenic E. coli from the gut is the cause of 80-85% of community-acquired urinary tract infections,[22] with ...
"Prevalent positive epistasis in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic networks". Nature Genetics. 42 (3): 272 ...
Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7. *Hepatitis A. *Hepatitis E ...
There have been many outbreaks of disease from bacterial contamination, often by salmonella, listeria, and Escherichia coli, of ...
... de Escherichia coli, se son destinadas a ir á mitocondria.[20][22] Así, poden xerarse células viables que carecen de ADN ligase ...
"Expression in Escherichia coli of chemically synthesized genes for human insulin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli". Proceedings of the ... menciptakan organisme transgenik pertama dengan memasukkan gen resistensi antibiotik ke dalam plasmid bakteri Escherichia coli. ... di E.coli. Genentech mengumumkan produksi insulin manusia rekayasa genetika pada tahun 1978.[28] Pada tahun 1980, Mahkamah ...
Ovaj enzim je izolovan iz bakterija Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Escherichia coli i Bacillus subtilis. ... El Ghachi, M., Bouhss, A., Blanot, D. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D. (2004). „The bacA gene of Escherichia coli encodes an ... Tatar, L.D., Marolda, C.L., Polischuk, A.N., van Leeuwen, D. and Valvano, M.A. (2007). „An Escherichia coli undecaprenyl- ... Touze, T., Blanot, D. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D. (2008). „Substrate specificity and membrane topology of Escherichia coli PgpB, an ...
Escherichia coli]]. ''. ei ole transformatsioonialdis. Alles aastal 1970 näitasid [[Morton Mandel]] ja [[Akiko Higa]]. ,. ,ref ... Escherichia coli. ''. , keda enamasti plasmiididega transformeeritakse. Plasmiidsel DNA-l peab rakku püsimajäämiseks olema oma ... Genetic Transformation of Escherichia coli by R-Factor DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 69 (8): 2110-4. ... "Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids". Journal of molecular biology 166 (4): 557-580. doi:10.1016/S0022- ...
National Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) surveillance data are collected through passive surveillance of ... National Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Surveillance. ... which no STEC can be isolated by the state or territorial public health laboratory are forwarded to CDCs National Escherichia ...
Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL 933 with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli seropathotypes ... coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) and perhaps ... Use of the Escherichia coli identification microarray for characterizing the health risks of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ... Coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enteropathogenic E. coli.p. 265-285. In M. L. Speck (ed.), Compendium of ...
In 1963, J. Cairns (1) pointed out that the Escherichia colichromosome... ... In 1963, J. Cairns (1) pointed out that the Escherichia coli chromosome is a closed circular double strand DNA molecule. It has ... Orr E., Lother H., Lurz R., Wahle E. (1984) Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase. In: Proteins Involved in DNA Replication. Advances in ...
Media in category "Escherichia coli". The following 45 files are in this category, out of 45 total. ... Бактерии Escherichia coli, выросшие на питательной среде McKonkey.jpg 1,280 × 863; 532 KB. ... Escherichia • Species: Escherichia coli (Migula, 1895) Castellani & Chalmers, 1919 ... E. coli cluster analysis-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.jpg 600 × 150; 17 KB. ...
Escherichia coli. Definition. Escherichia coli is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the gut of warm-blooded ... In Escherichia coli, the UvrAB damage sensor recognizes helix-distorting lesions by itself or via Mfd bound to stalled RNA ... Long-term growth data of Escherichia coli at a single-cell level *Yu Tanouchi ... Super-resolution microscopy shows that the localization of each mRNA inEscherichia coliis determined by whether the mRNA ...
2002) Escherichia coli K-12 undergoes adaptive evolution to achieve in silico predicted optimal growth. Nature 420:186-189. ... Dispensability of Escherichia colis latent pathways. Sean P. Cornelius, Joo Sang Lee, and Adilson E. Motter ... 2006) Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: The Keio collection. Mol Syst Biol 2: ... 2004) Pyruvate formate lyase and acetate kinase are essential for anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli on xylose. J Bacteriol ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
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E.coli crackdown shows results 19-Sep-2003. A drive in the US to reduce the foodborne disease E.coli could be paying off with ... Calcium could help the body fight E coli, the bacteria often responsible for travellers diarrhea, and a cause of illness in ...
Identification of phosphoproteins in Escherichia coli.. Freestone P1, Grant S, Toth I, Norris V. ... The substrates of ion- and lipid-stimulated protein kinase activity in extracts of Escherichia coli were purified by ...
Most of the information concerning cell division in Escherichia coli derive from genetic observations. Mutations in E. ... Most of the information concerning cell division in Escherichia coli derive from genetic observations. Mutations in E. coli ... Bachmann, B. Linkage Map of Escherichia coli K-12. Edition 8 (1990). Microbiol. Rev., 54: 130-197.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Pla, J., Dopazo, A. and Vicente, M. (1990). The native form of FtsA, a septal protein of Escherichia coli, is located in the ...
Transcript of Escherichia coli. Category Domain Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Taxonomy Escherichia coli Gram Negative ... Escherichia coli. Total Strains: 72 Human Strains. 18. 15. E.Coli s claim to fame. Current Research Highlight. van Summeren- ... Role of Escherichia coli curli operons in directing amyloid fiber formation. Science. 295: p. 851-855. 7. Expression ... Escherichia coli from the family Enterobacteriaceae Gram Negative Rod Bacteria With Fimbrae and sometimes Pili, inclusion ...
Timeline for Reporting Cases of E. coli O157 Infection. *2021 Outbreaksplus icon *E. coli Outbreak Linked to Cake Mixplus icon ... E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuceplus icon *E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce en Español ... Outbreak of E. coli Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuceplus icon *E. coli O157:H7 Infections Linked to Romaine Lettuce en ... National Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) surveillance data are collected through passive surveillance of ...
Functioning of a metabolic flux sensor in Escherichia coli. Karl Kochanowski, Benjamin Volkmer, Luca Gerosa, Bart R. Haverkorn ... Allosteric Activation of Escherichia coli Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Deaminase (NagB) In Vivo Justified by Intracellular Amino ... Here, we show experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that Escherichia coli is indeed able to measure its glycolytic ... Dissecting the genetic and metabolic mechanisms of adaptation to the knockout of a major metabolic enzyme in Escherichia coli ...
Recombination and Population Structure in Escherichia coli Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Escherichia coli is a gram-negative rod that is found as a normal commensal in the GI tract, which can produce ocular infection ... The genus Escherichia is named after Theodor Escherich who isolated the type species of the genus in 1885. ... encoded search term (Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Escherichia Coli) and Ophthalmologic Manifestations of Escherichia Coli ... The genus Escherichia is named after Theodor Escherich who isolated the type species of the genus in 1885. Escherichia coli is ...
fixC oxidoreductase FixC [ Escherichia coli E24377A ] Gene ID: 5586155, discontinued on 29-Jan-2015 * All Gene records for this ... Escherichia coli E24377A (strain: E24377A) Lineage. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacteriales; ... Enterobacteriaceae; Escherichia. NEW Try the new Gene table Try the new Transcript table ...
The genus Escherichia is named after Theodor Escherich, who isolated the ty... ... Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of many common bacterial infections, including cholecystitis, bacteremia, ... encoded search term (Escherichia coli (E coli) Infections) and Escherichia coli (E coli) Infections What to Read Next on ... Escherichia coli (E coli) Infections. Updated: May 18, 2017 * Author: Tarun Madappa, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart ...
The cover image for the June 18 issue of Biophysical Journal is an artistic depiction of Escherichia coli cells lysing that was ...
... Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Proteobacteria Class: Gamma Proteobacteria ... Escherichia coli. (Migula 1895). Castellani and Chalmers 1919 Escherichia coli (pronounced /ˌɛʃ. ɪ. ˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/) (E. coli ... Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) * Genome information on diarrheagenic E.coli and evolutionarily related organisms is ... a b Feng P, Weagant S, Grant, M (2002-09-01). Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria. Bacteriological ...
What is Escherichia coli?. Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria. Although most ... What are Shiga toxin-producing E. coli? Some kinds of E. coli cause disease by making a toxin called Shiga toxin. The bacteria ... Still other kinds of E. coli are used as markers for water contamination-so you might hear about E. coli being found in ... The most commonly identified STEC in North America is E. coli O157:H7 (often shortened to E. coli O157 or even just "O157"). ...
... coli bacteria on a prepared microscope slide. (Not recommended for demonstrating typical bacillus morphology.) ... Escherichia coli Slide, w.m.. Item # 294546 *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ... Allow students to explore the morphology of 1 of the most well-known, Gram-negative bacteria, E. coli. This rod-shaped, ... A whole mount of E. coli bacteria on a prepared microscope slide. (Not recommended for demonstrating typical bacillus ...
Escherichia coli (biasa disingkat E. coli) adalah salah satu jenis spesies bakteri Gram negatif. Pada umumnya, bakteri yang ... Inggris) Encyclopedia of Escherichia coli Genes and Metabolism (EcoCyc). *(Inggris) The Presence of Coliform Bacteria in ... Kebanyakan E. Coli tidak berbahaya, tetapi beberapa, seperti E. Coli tipe O157:H7, dapat mengakibatkan keracunan makanan yang ... Inggris) FDA information on the Spinach and E. coli Outbreak. *(Inggris) E. coli Outbreak From Fresh Spinach - U.S. Centers for ...
Escherichia coli B Domain: Prokaryote Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 37° C Package: Tube ... Genus and Species: Escherichia coli B. Domain: Prokaryote. Optimal Growth Medium: Nutrient Agar Optimal Growth Temperature: 37 ... Escherichia coli B, Living, Tube. Item # 155070 *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ...
Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers Depositors. Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems Type of isolate. Human ... The certificate of origin for that lot of Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (49420) is not currently available ... To download a certificate of origin for Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (49420), enter the lot number exactly ... To download a certificate of analysis for Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (49420), enter the lot number ...
... Designation: MS2 TypeStrain=False Application: Water testing Control ... Escherichia coli bacteriophage MS2 (ATCC® 15597-B1™) Strain Designations: MS2 / Type Strain: no / Biosafety Level: 1 ... 9224 C: Male-specific coliphage assay using Escherichia coli Famp. Washington, DC:American Public Health Association;Standard ... 9224 C: Male-specific coliphage assay using Escherichia coli Famp. Washington, DC:American Public Health Association;Standard ...
Escherichia coli infections synonyms, Escherichia coli infections pronunciation, Escherichia coli infections translation, ... English dictionary definition of Escherichia coli infections. n. a species of rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in ... Escherichia coli. (redirected from Escherichia coli infections). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. Esch•e•rich•i ... Non-0157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in the United States, 1983-2002.. Viability of Escherichia coli O153 ...
  • Escherichia coli O157 isolates that produce the H7 antigen may be assumed to be Shiga toxin-producing. (
  • Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some, such as serotype O157:H7 , can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for costly product recalls . (
  • It is believed that this process led to the spread of shiga toxin from Shigella to E. coli O157:H7. (
  • When you hear news reports about outbreaks of "E. coli" infections, they are usually talking about E. coli O157. (
  • In addition to E. coli O157, many other kinds (called serogroups) of STEC cause disease. (
  • E. coli serogroups O26, O111, and O103 are the non-O157 serogroups that most often cause illness in people in the United States. (
  • Are there important differences between E. coli O157 and other STEC? (
  • Most of what we know about STEC comes from outbreak investigations and studies of E. coli O157 infection, which was first identified as a pathogen in 1982. (
  • Some foods are considered to carry such a high risk of infection with E. coli O157 or another germ that health officials recommend that people avoid them completely. (
  • Kebanyakan E. Coli tidak berbahaya, tetapi beberapa, seperti E. Coli tipe O157:H7 , dapat mengakibatkan keracunan makanan yang serius pada manusia yaitu diare berdarah karena eksotoksin yang dihasilkan bernama verotoksin . (
  • A pathogenic strain of E. coli is E. coli O157:H7, a member of the enterohemorrhahic E. coli group and lives in cattle's intestines. (
  • E. coli O157:H7 produces Shiga toxins, causing severe illness by contaminated meat (2). (
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7 was first identified as a human pathogen in 1982 in the United States of America, following an outbreak of bloody diarrhea associated with contaminated hamburger meat. (
  • Prevention of E.coli O157:H7 contamination is by washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom, before preparing or eating food, and contact with animals. (
  • E. coli serotype O157:H7 is a mesophilic, Gram-negative rod-shaped (Bacilli) bacterium, which possesses adhesive fimbriae and a cell wall that consists of an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides, a periplasmic space with a peptidoglycan layer, and an inner, cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • However, different strains of E. coli like E. coli O157:H7 is one of the most infective strains that can cause food poisoning. (
  • E. coli O157:H7 is found in the intestines of healthy cattle and are used as reservoir. (
  • Shiga toxin is the main virulence factor of E. coli O157:H7 infection (5). (
  • Infection with E. coli O157:H7 is diagnosed by detecting the bacterium in the stool which is essential for public health purposes, such as finding outbreaks (6). (
  • According to CDC, in 1999 E. coli O157:H7 was responsible for an estimation of 73,480 cases of illness, 2,168 hospitalizations, and 61 deaths annually in the USA. (
  • Infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7 causes an estimated 20,000 cases of diarrhea in the United States each year. (
  • Although E. coli O157:H7 can be isolated using commercially available media, many clinical laboratories do not routinely test stool samples for the organism. (
  • In 1993, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommended that clinical laboratories begin culturing all bloody stools -- and optimally all diarrheal stools -- for E. coli O157:H7 (1). (
  • This report describes the investigation of a pseudo-outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infection that occurred in New Jersey during July 1994 after a year-long increase in the number of laboratories culturing all diarrheal specimens for this pathogen. (
  • From June 1 through July 27, 1994, a total of 46 culture-confirmed cases of E. coli O157:H7 infection were reported to the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH). (
  • A case was defined as a stool culture positive for E. coli O157:H7 in a New Jersey resident with onset of diarrhea during July 1994. (
  • This finding was verified by laboratory tests that identified 17 different strains of E. coli O157:H7 among the 23 clinical isolates. (
  • To assess the role of enhanced laboratory surveillance in generating the increase in case reports, NJDOH surveyed 20 clinical laboratories that had reported at least one E. coli O157:H7 isolate during 1994. (
  • The number of laboratories culturing all diarrheal specimens for E. coli O157:H7 had increased from two (10%) in July 1993 to 18 (90%) in July 1994. (
  • Editorial Note: Since 1993, several outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 infection have been detected as a result of increased laboratory testing for this organism (2,3). (
  • A primary strategy for preventing infection with E. coli O157:H7 is reducing risk behaviors through consumer education. (
  • In New Jersey, the sudden increase in E. coli O157:H7 case reports was reported widely by the news media. (
  • Although traceback investigations can be important in preventing E. coli O157:H7 infections, they should be undertaken selectively. (
  • On July 5, 1995, the Winnebago County Health Department (WCHD) in northern Illinois received a report from the local hospital of five cases of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection among children who resided in Rockford. (
  • Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 cultured from stool samples obtained from six persons who swam in the lake were sent to CDC for both Shiga toxin testing and for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (
  • A total of 12 cases were identified, including seven with culture-confirmed E. coli O157:H7, three with positive serology, one with HUS and had culture-confirmed E. coli O157, and one with culture-negative bloody diarrhea. (
  • Cultures of stool from eight persons with confirmed E. coli O157:H7 infection were negative for Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter. (
  • Two families each had two children with E. coli O157:H7. (
  • Pathogenic E. coli strains can be categorized based on elements that can elicit an immune response in animals, namely:[citation needed] O antigen: part of lipopolysaccharide layer K antigen: capsule H antigen: flagellin For example, E. coli strain EDL933 is of the O157:H7 group. (
  • E. coli O157:H7 is one of a number of virulent types of VTEC in humans. (
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli and a cause of foodborne illness . (
  • E. coli serotype O157:H7 is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium . (
  • E. coli O157:H7 was first recognized as a pathogen as a result of an outbreak of unusual gastrointestinal illness in 1982. (
  • The etiologic agent of the illness was identified as a rare O157:H7 serotype of Escherichia coli in 1983. (
  • E. coli O157:H7 is markedly different from other pathogenic E. coli , as well. (
  • In addition, E. coli O157:H7 is sorbitol negative whereas 93% of all E. coli ferment sorbitol . (
  • [4] E. coli O157:H7 also lacks the ability to hydrolyze 4-methylumbelliferyl-ß-D-glucuronide (MUG) and does not grow at 45 °C in the presence of 0.15% bile salts. (
  • E. coli O157:H7 serotypes are closely related, descended from a common ancestor, divergent in plasmid content more than chromosomal content, and are no more related to other shiga toxin producing strains than any other randomly chosen E. coli serotype . (
  • E. coli O55:H7 and E. coli O157:H7 are the most closely related and diverged from a common pathogenic ancestor that possessed the ability to form attaching and effacing lesions. (
  • E. coli O157:H7 serotypes apparently arose as a result of horizontal gene transfer of virulence factors . (
  • Carvacrol and p-cymene inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice. (
  • BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of food poisoning associated with drinking un-pasteurised apple juice contaminated with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 are a cause of serious illness and occasionally death. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of very low concentrations (0.25-1.25 mM) of carvacrol and p-cymene both individually and in combination as a novel means of controlling Escherichia coli O157:H7 in un-pasteurised apple juice. (
  • RESULTS: When inoculated at a level of 4 log CFU/ml into un-pasteurised apple juice (pH 3.20 +/- 0.06), Escherichia coli O157:H7 survived for up to 3 and 19 days at 25 degrees and 4 degrees C, respectively. (
  • Treatment of the juice with 1.25 mM carvacrol or p-cymene reduced the numbers of E. coli O157:H7 to undetectable levels within 1-2 days at both storage temperatures. (
  • The phenolic compounds were biocidal against both spoilage yeasts and E. coli O157:H7 thereby increasing the shelf-life and improving the safety of un-pasteurised apple juice, particularly when stored at chill temperatures. (
  • Using colony blot hybridization with stx(2) and eae probes and agglutination in anti-O157 lipopolysaccharide serum, we isolated stx(2)-positive and eae-positive sorbitol-fermenting (SF) enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:NM (nonmotile) strains from initial stool specimens and stx-negative and eae-positive SF E. coli O157:NM strains from follow-up specimens (collected 3 to 8 days later) from three children. (
  • It was possible to infect and lysogenize the stx-negative E. coli O157 strains in vitro using an stx(2)-harboring bacteriophage from one of the SF EHEC O157:NM isolates. (
  • We conclude that the yecE gene in SF E. coli O157:NM is a hot spot for excision and integration of Shiga toxin 2-encoding bacteriophages. (
  • The ability to recycle stx(2), a critical virulence trait, makes SF E. coli O157:NM strains ephemeral EHEC that can exist as stx-negative variants during certain phases of their life cycle. (
  • Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a human pathogen that was first identified from a foodborne outbreak in 1982, and in the 25 years that followed, many new strains were identified and emerged in numerous outbreaks of human disease. (
  • Extensive research has been conducted to identify virulence factor genes involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli O157:H7 and many genome sequences of E. coli O157:H7 strains have become available to the scientific community. (
  • Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the research that has been conducted over the first 25 years to identify 394 known or putative virulence factor genes present in the genomes of E. coli O157:H7 strains. (
  • Finally, an examination of the conservation of these 394 virulence factor genes across additional genomes of E. coli O157:H7 is provided which summarizes the first 25 years and 13 genomes of this human pathogen. (
  • Reiland, H. , Omolo, M. , Johnson, T. and Baumler, D. (2014) A Survey of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Virulence Factors: The First 25 Years and 13 Genomes. (
  • Torres, A.G., Kanack, K.J., Tutt, C.B., Popov, V. and Kaper, J.B. (2004) Characterization of the Second Long Polar (LP) Fimbriae of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Distribution of LP Fimbriae in Other Pathogenic E. coli Strains. (
  • National Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) surveillance data are collected through passive surveillance of laboratory-confirmed human STEC isolates in the United States. (
  • Hence, analysis for pathogenic E. coli often requires that the isolates be first identified as E. coli before testing for virulence markers. (
  • There are several variants of ST, of which ST1a or STp is found in E. coli isolated from both humans and animals, while ST1b or STh is predominant in human isolates only. (
  • For all other E. coli isolates, Shiga toxin production or the presence of Shiga toxin genes must be determined to be considered STEC. (
  • ent in 7.1% of the E. coli isolates from Author affliliations: University of Brasília, Development and validation of a triplex urinary tract infections ( 3 ). (
  • The adhesive properties of isolates of E coli were assessed by assay of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells with mannose added. (
  • The isolates were obtained from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (50 with a relapse of ulcerative colitis, nine with ulcerative colitis in remission, 13 with Crohn's disease, and 11 with infectious diarrhoea not due to E coli) and 22 controls. (
  • If an index of adhesion of greater than 25% is taken as indicating an adhesive strain 86% of isolates of E coli from patients with inflammatory bowel disease were adhesive compared with 27% from patients with infective diarrhoea and none from controls. (
  • Forty-seven E. coli isolates from various public hospitals in Malaysia were studied. (
  • PFGE, ERIC, and REP-PCR methods were more discriminative than RAPD in subtyping the E. coli isolates. (
  • Based upon its association with pathogenic isolates, its cytopathic phenotype and its ability to elicit a strong antibody response after infection, we postulate that Sat represents a novel virulence determinant of uropathogenic E. coli. (
  • Escherichia coli isolates may carry two different CRISPR-Cas systems ( 19 , 20 ) that belong to either subtype I-E or subtype I-F ( 21 ). (
  • Characterization and typing of E. coli isolates by biochemical, serological, and molecular methods have been explained so that an appropriate choice is made to suite a specific E. coli strain/pathotype. (
  • Method: A total of 122 E. coli isolates were obtained from urine samples of patients with UTI. (
  • Result: E. coli isolates that produced and didn't produce slime using CRA method were 81 (65.9%) and 36 (29.3%) respectively. (
  • Conclusion: E. coli bacteria isolates from UTI patients were able to form biofilmin CRA method and all E. coli causing UTI strains in human studied in this research positively produced biofilm, while some of the biofilm non-producing strains can be expressed in the 2 genes studied. (
  • ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and particularly Escherichia coli ST131 isolates producing CTX-M enzymes are commonly found colonizing the intestine of nursing home (NH) residents, but ST131 subclonal structure has been scarcely explored in this vulnerable population. (
  • E. coli was discovered by German pediatrician and bacteriologist Theodor Escherich in 1885, [6] and is now classified as part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of gamma-proteobacteria . (
  • The treatment of infections caused by Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae has become an important clinical problem associated with reduced therapeutic possibilities. (
  • Antibodies towards several O antigens cross-react with other O antigens and partially to K antigens not only from E. coli, but also from other Escherichia species and Enterobacteriaceae species. (
  • Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli ) are bacteria found in the environment, foods, and intestines of people and animals. (
  • E. coli are a large and diverse group of bacteria. (
  • Health Canada is warning consumers not to use any natural products exported or sold by Tedco Inc, after the Louisiana company failed to provide proof that its Miracle II Neutralizer is not contaminated with the harmful bacteria Escherichia. (
  • Calcium could help the body fight E coli, the bacteria often responsible for traveller's diarrhea, and a cause of illness in children and the elderly in developing countries, suggests new research from the Netherlands. (
  • E. coli can only use these processes when hydrogen-consuming organisms such as methanogens or sulfate-reducing bacteria are present. (
  • E. coli and related bacteria possess the ability to transfer DNA via bacterial conjugation , transduction or transformation , which allows genetic material to spread horizontally through an existing population. (
  • The bacteria that make these toxins are called "Shiga toxin-producing" E. coli, or STEC for short. (
  • Many bacteria that cause intestinal diseases adhere to the gut mucosa, and adhesion of pathogenic Escherichia coli is resistant to D-mannose. (
  • We report the redox mediated detection of Escherichia coli bacteria at carbon microelectrodes, using the impact electrochemistry technique. (
  • Enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli must tolerate high levels of bile salts, powerful detergents that disrupt biological membranes. (
  • Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when E. coli lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms, such as methanogens or sulphate-reducing bacteria. (
  • Escherichia coli is a facultatively aerobic bacteria that can be found in the intestinal microbiota of humans and warm-blooded animals. (
  • This is a freeze-dried sample of an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide complex) associated with the outer membrane of E. coli bacteria. (
  • Escherichia coli is the most prevalent facultative anaerobic species in the gastrointestinal tract of human and animals, usually a harmless microbe, but it is also a medically important bacteria causing a number of significant illnesses 14 . (
  • E. coli bacteria. (
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph of a colony of Escherichia coli, a rod- shaped, Gram-negative species of bacteria. (
  • The burn wound pathology, combined to a global intensive use of antibiotics (ATB), put patients at high risk of suffering from multidrug resistant (MDR) infections, notably carried out by the Gram-negative bacteria species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli. (
  • Research into EPEC is intense and provides a good virulence model of other E. coli infections as well as other pathogenic bacteria. (
  • however, a group of pathogenic E. coli has emerged that causes diarrheal disease in humans. (
  • Referred to as Diarrheagenic E. coli ( 28 ) or commonly as pathogenic E. coli , these groups are classified based on their unique virulence factors and can only be identified by these traits. (
  • The pathogenic groups includes enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diffusely adherent E. coli (DAEC) and perhaps others that are not yet well characterized ( 21 , 28 ). (
  • Profile of international air passengers in- pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) nIII MicroPlate (Biolog, Hayward, tercepted with illegal animal products in have globally expanded their distribu- CA, USA). (
  • Using the BLASTp algorithm, an iterative usher protein search was performed to identify CU fimbrial operons from 35 E. coli (and one Escherichia fergusonnii) genomes representing different pathogenic and phylogenic lineages, as well as 132 Escherichia spp. (
  • Evaluation of the distribution and prevalence of CU fimbrial types among different pathogenic and phylogenic groups provides an overview of group specific fimbrial profiles and insight into the ancestry and evolution of CU fimbriae in E. coli. (
  • E. coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.1% of gut microbiota, and fecal-oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. (
  • Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc. (
  • Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) has been studied for decades because of its economic impact on the poultry industry. (
  • Most E. coli strains are harmless, but pathogenic varieties cause serious food poisoning, septic shock, meningitis, or urinary tract infections in humans. (
  • Unlike normal flora E. coli, the pathogenic varieties produce toxins and other virulence factors that enable them to reside in parts of the body normally not inhabited by E. coli, and to damage host cells. (
  • While most strains are harmless and normally found in the intestine of mammals, this strain which produces Shiga-like toxin , causes severe illness , and is a member of a class of pathogenic E. coli known as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli or EHEC. (
  • E . coli that infect and cause disease syndromes in the gastrointestinal tract are intestinal pathogenic E . coli (IPEC). (
  • Pathogenic E . coli group consist of many strains, which for simplicity, can be grouped according to the virulence factors they possess or pathological effects they cause. (
  • The intestinal pathogenic E . coli include enterotoxigenic E . coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E . coli (EAEC), enteropathogenic E . coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E . coli (EIEC), diffusely adherent E . coli (DAEC), and verocytotoxigenic E . coli (VTEC) according to O'Sullivan et al. (
  • 24 ]. Extra-intestinal pathogenic E . coli includes uropathogenic E . coli (UPEC), neonatal meningitis-associated E . coli (NMEC), and sepsis-causing E . coli (SEPEC) [ 1 ]. (
  • Current Research Highlight van Summeren-Wesenhagen and Marienhagen have developed a platform strain of E.Coli utilizing the ability of E. Coli to readily take up plasmids and it's viability in the lab. (
  • Pregnant women are at a higher risk of colonization with the K1 capsular antigen strain of E coli . (
  • A strain of E. coli is a sub-group within the species that has unique characteristics that distinguish it from other E. coli strains. (
  • Contaminated duodenoscopes triggered a 2013 outbreak of a rare strain of Escherichia coli infections at a single hospital in northeastern Illinois. (
  • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain with a multidrug resistance phenotype and the capacity to produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. (
  • Genome of multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain NA114 from India. (
  • The strain also possesses a glutamate-fermentation system and two aromatic acid degradation systems that are not present in E. coli K-12 (4). (
  • We isolated the protein from E. coli CFT073, a strain cultured from the blood and urine of a patient with acute pyelonephritis. (
  • Here, taking efficient production of salidroside as an example of glycosides, we design and construct a syntrophic Escherichia coli-E. coli coculture composed of the aglycone (AG) strain and the glycoside (GD) strain, which convergently accommodate biosynthetic pathways of tyrosol and salidroside, respectively. (
  • These mutants-the 'Keio collection'-provide a new resource not only for systematic analyses of unknown gene functions and gene regulatory networks but also for genome-wide testing of mutational effects in a common strain background, E. coli K-12 BW25113. (
  • Most of these uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains exhibit certain virulence factors (VFs), including adhesins, iron uptake systems, synthesis of cytotoxins, and specific O:K:H serotypes. (
  • Thus, ec240 dysregulated several uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) virulence factors through different mechanisms and independent of its effects on type 1 pilus biogenesis and may have potential as an antivirulence compound. (
  • Uropathogenic E. coli possess traits that distinguish them from commensal strains of E. coli, such as secretion systems that allow virulence factors to be targeted to extracytoplasmic compartments. (
  • Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause illness that ranges from mild diarrhea to bloody diarrhea, and life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). (
  • It is sometimes also referred to by its toxin producing capabilities, verocytotoxin producing E. coli (VTEC) or Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli (STEC). (
  • The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) virulence markers ( stx1 , stx2 , eae , ehxA ) in E. coli strains isolated from young calves aged fewer than 7 days (bobby calves). (
  • In total, STEC and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) were isolated from 8/299 (2·6%) and 37/299 (12·3%) calves, respectively. (
  • The genus Escherichia is named after Theodor Escherich who isolated the type species of the genus in 1885. (
  • Escherichia coli (/ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/), also known as E. coli (/ˌiː ˈkoʊlaɪ/), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). (
  • Escherichia coli is Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, and rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia . (
  • Some kinds of E. coli can cause diarrhea, while others cause urinary tract infections, respiratory illness and pneumonia, and other illnesses. (
  • Escherichia coli is the most common cause of complicated as well as uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). (
  • Of these infections, E coli is rare a cause. (
  • Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of many common bacterial infections, including cholecystitis , bacteremia , cholangitis , urinary tract infection (UTI), and traveler's diarrhea, and other clinical infections such as neonatal meningitis and pneumonia. (
  • The vast majority of neonatal meningitis cases are caused by E coli and group B streptococcal infections (28.5% and 34.1% overall, respectively). (
  • E coli respiratory tract infections are uncommon and are almost always associated with E coli UTI. (
  • E coli intra-abdominal infections often result from a perforated viscus (eg, appendix, diverticulum) or may be associated with intra-abdominal abscess, cholecystitis, and ascending cholangitis. (
  • As a cause of enteric infections, 6 different mechanisms of action of 6 different varieties of E coli have been reported. (
  • E. coli is of particular concern because these agents are of- Antimicrobial susceptibilities, types of -lactamases, the ten the last line of effective therapy available for the treat- presence of the fimH 30 lineage, and virotypes are shown ment of persons with serious infections ( 4 ). (
  • Global Markets Direct's, ' Escherichia coli Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2016', provides an overview of the Escherichia coli Infections pipeline landscape. (
  • USPRwire, Fri Aug 07 2015] GlobalData's clinical trial report, " Escherichia Coli Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2015" provides an overview of Escherichia Coli Infections clinical trials scenario. (
  • Non-0157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in the United States, 1983-2002. (
  • Risk Factors for Sporadic Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli Infections in Children, Argentina. (
  • Recommendations for diagnosis of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections by clinical laboratories. (
  • Characteristics of 0157 versus non-0157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in Minnesota, 2000-2006. (
  • An outbreak of hemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections at a cheerleading camp in Washington state in mid-July was traced to packaged Spokane Produce brand romaine lettuce, prompting a nationwide health alert from the Food and Drug Administration. (
  • This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Escherichia coli Infections. (
  • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. (
  • E. coli produces certain probiotics that improve our immune responses by providing and stimulating the production of antibodies in the gut to counter a plethora of conditions, like diseases and infections. (
  • Therefore, with E. coli protecting the small intestines, our immune system does not need to do so, allowing for it to combat other infections and diseases in other parts of the body. (
  • However, E. coli can cause a wide variety of diseases and infections. (
  • more often than not, these infections are caused by E. coli , particularly the uropathogenic strains. (
  • Although, most E. coli causing urinary tract infections are not complicated. (
  • Although various products have been associated with outbreaks of food-borne diseases, infections caused by E. coli are mainly caused by consumption of contaminated meat and water. (
  • Introduction: Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is responsible for about 80% of all urinary tract infections. (
  • The main objective of the project is to assess the safety, effectiveness and pharmacodynamics of two therapeutic phage cocktails to treat either E. coli or P. aeruginosa burn wound infections. (
  • Mutations in E. coli genes causing inhibition of cell division and a filamentous phenotype have been isolated (Bachmann, 1990). (
  • Aldea, M., Garrido, T., Pia, J. and Vicente, M. (1990) Division genes in Escherichia coli are expressed coordinately to cell septum requirements by gearbox promoters. (
  • Two CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified in Escherichia coli , pertaining to subtypes I-E ( cas -E genes) and I-F ( cas -F genes), respectively. (
  • Moreover, we determined that the primary cas -E genes of E. coli were altogether replaced with a substantially different variant in a minor group of strains that include K-12. (
  • Mutants with deletions of specific genes were constructed using phage P1 transduction using marked genes from the Keio collection of E. coli mutants. (
  • Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. (
  • Espécies resistentes a múltiplas drogas de E. coli são matéria de preocupação uma vez que os genes de resistência podem facilmente ser transferidos para outras linhagens. (
  • We have systematically made a set of precisely defined, single-gene deletions of all nonessential genes in Escherichia coli K-12. (
  • Optical mapping and sequencing of the Escherichia coli KO11 genome reveal extensive chromosomal rearrangements, and multiple tandem copies of the Zymomonas mobilis pdc and adhB genes. (
  • To download a certificate of analysis for Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers ( 49420 ), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or packing slip. (
  • The certificate of analysis for that lot of Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers ( 49420 ) is not currently available online. (
  • Enterohemorrhagic E coli (EHEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis or hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). (
  • Haemolysin from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC-Hly), a putative EHEC virulence factor, belongs to the RTX (repeat-in-toxin) family whose members rapidly inactivate themselves by self-aggregation. (
  • E. coli are not always confined to the intestine, and their ability to survive for brief periods outside the body makes them an ideal indicator organism to test environmental samples for fecal contamination . (
  • P450 enzymes are intransigent to functional heterologous expression, especially in Escherichia coli , leading many laboratories to abandon this organism when engineering P450-containing pathways. (
  • E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. (
  • Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) has long been a popular model organism for basic biological research. (
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a very common extraintestinal infection, and Escherichia coli is by far the most common causative organism. (
  • The emergence of Escherichia coli that produce extended spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs) and are multidrug resistant (MDR) poses antibiotic management problems. (
  • We report an unusual case of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli bacteraemia causing multifocal abscesses, septic arthritis, lumbar discitis and osteomyelitis after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy, requiring restricted antibiotics and surgical debridement. (
  • These specimens subsequently grew an Escherichia coli , which showed a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile, but without extended-spectrum β -lactamase (ESBL) production. (
  • Molecular epidemiology of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. (
  • Scottsdale, AZ ( The authors aimed in this study to determine the range of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli (UPEC) motility types. (
  • Individual proteins are synthesized continuously throughout the Escherichia coli cell cycle. (
  • The bacterium Escherichia coli has been widely used for the production of both pro- and eukaryotic membrane proteins. (
  • We found that each of these proteins mediated the binding of E. coli to macrophages. (
  • Publication of the Entire E. coli (K12) genome was completed in 1997 by Blattner, Plunkett and colegues. (
  • 1997. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. (
  • As a matter of fact, amidst all strains of E. coli , only around twenty percent of their genome are mutual or shared. (
  • Additionally, E. coli is an incredibly diverse species, both genetically and phenotypically. (
  • This study investigated the frequency of Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella species in stool specimens from patients with diarrhoea presenting to health centres in Hamedan province, Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Escherichia coli (E. coli) were first discovered in 1885 by Theodor Escherich, a German bacteriologist. (
  • This document contains the case definitions for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli which is nationally notifiable within Australia. (
  • Escherichia coli is a gram-negative rod that is found as a normal commensal in the GI tract, which can produce ocular infection including corneal ulcer and endophthalmitis, which can result in a devastating outcome. (
  • Corneal infection due to E coli produce indolent corneal ulcers with poor prognosis because most of these patients of have an underlying immunocompromised disorder or have abnormal corneal surface with compromised protective barrier. (
  • E coli may be seen as a source of infection in ophthalmia neonatorum in neonates. (
  • E coli bacteremia precedes pneumonia and is usually due to another focus of E coli infection in the urinary or GI tract. (
  • [9] Strains of E. coli that express Shiga-like toxins gained this ability due to infection with a prophage containing the structural coding for the toxin , and non-producing strains may become infected and produce Shiga-like toxins after incubation with Shiga toxin positive strains . (
  • A drive in the US to reduce the foodborne disease E.coli could be paying off with fresh data from the department of agriculture (USDA) showing a drop in the number of ground beef products tainted with this pathogen. (
  • citation needed] The acidic capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is a thick, mucous-like, layer of polysaccharide that surrounds some pathogen E. coli. (
  • Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. (
  • Removal of vero toxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). (
  • Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a bacterium that causes diarrhea or sudden death in some animals. (
  • Some strains of E. coli , such as VTEC, cause diarrhea and a range of other diseases in animals and humans. (
  • Drug resistance among infantile enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated in the United Kingdom. (
  • Gross R J , Ward L R , Threlfall E J , King H , Rowe B . Drug resistance among infantile enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated in the United Kingdom. (
  • article{osti_1212947, title = {Structural and Functional Analysis of BipA, a Regulator of Virulence in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli}, author = {Fan, Haitian and Hahm, Joseph and Diggs, Stephen and Perry, J. Jefferson P. and Blaha, Gregor}, abstractNote = {The translational GTPase BipA regulates the expression of virulence and pathogenicity factors in several eubacteria. (
  • SUMMARY Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) remains an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. (
  • Diarrheal illness is a major public health problem worldwide, with over 2 million deaths occurring each year, particularly among infants younger than 5 years ( ). One of the most common causes of infantile diarrhea is enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). (
  • This chapter outlines basics of Escherichia coli isolation and characterization strategies that can assist in research designing that matches the set objectives. (
  • Super-resolution microscopy shows that the localization of each mRNA in Escherichia coli is determined by whether the mRNA encodes an inner-membrane protein. (
  • The substrates of ion- and lipid-stimulated protein kinase activity in extracts of Escherichia coli were purified by chromatography. (
  • Altogether, this study establishes E. coli as a tractable host for P450 chemistry, highlights the potential magnitude of protein interdependency in the context of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, and points to a promising future for the microbial synthesis of complex chemical entities. (
  • Thus, we can conclude that Escherichia coli possesses two acid stress chaperones that prevent periplasmic-protein aggregation at acidic pH. (
  • The protein FkpA from the periplasm of Escherichia coli exhibits both cis/trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) and chaperone activities. (
  • We identified a 107 kDa protein that was expressed significantly more often by E. coli strains associated with the clinical syndrome of acute pyelonephritis than by faecal strains (P = 0.029). (
  • Stimulation of the potassium sensor KdpD kinase activity by interaction with the phosphotransferase protein IIA(Ntr) in Escherichia coli. (
  • Fulda M, Heinz E, Wolter F. The fadD gene of Escherichia coli K12 is located close to rnd at 39.6 min of the chromosomal map and is a new member of the AMP-binding protein family. (
  • Welz D, Braun V. Ferric citrate transport of Escherichia coli: functional regions of the FecR transmembrane regulatory protein. (
  • Shaping Escherichia coli for recombinant membrane protein production. (
  • However, on a limited scale, E. coli strains have been isolated for recombinant helical bundle membrane protein production using both selection- and engineering-based approaches. (
  • Interaction of the cell division protein FtsZ with the Escherichia coli inner membrane. (
  • Enterotoxigenic E coli (ETEC) is a cause of traveler's diarrhea. (
  • Different combinations of essential oils from cinnamon, cloves, oregano, and thyme were evaluated in vitro for their bactericidal activity against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). (
  • These different syndromes are caused by different E. coli pathogens, among which enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) may be said to stand out. (
  • Here, we test this hypothesis using the most complete in silico reconstruction of the metabolic network of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 ( 15 , 16 ) and perturbations caused by single-gene knockouts. (
  • Various gene types were of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli strains ( 1 ). (
  • Spontaneous mutation in the Escherichia coli lacI gene. (
  • To gain more detailed insight into the nature and mechanisms of spontaneous mutations, we undertook a DNA sequence analysis of a large collection of spontaneous mutations in the N-terminal region of the Escherichia coli lacI gene. (
  • Detection of the gene(s) encoding the Shiga toxins (stx1 and/or stx2) in faeces or from a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli . (
  • It is generally encoded by the fliC gene[citation needed] There are 53 identified H antigens, numbered from H1 to H56 (H13 and H22 were not E. coli antigens but from Citrobacter freundii, and H50 was found to be the same as H10). (
  • Thirty-one gene co-expression modules were detected from 1391 microarrays of E. coli data. (
  • He, H. Construction and Analysis of Gene Co-Expression Networks in Escherichia coli . (
  • Using a 509 bp probe from the 5' region of pet, 10 cosmid clones of an E. coli CFT073 gene library were positive for hybridization. (
  • New method for generating deletions and gene replacements in Escherichia coli. (
  • The Keio collection is a collection of systematic single-gene knock-out mutants of E. coli K-12 done by the Functional Genomic Analysis of E. coli in Japan project [ 1 ]. (
  • Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection. (
  • MISC{Baba06constructionof, author = {Tomoya Baba and Takeshi Ara and Miki Hasegawa and Yuki Takai and Yoshiko Okumura and Miki Baba and Kirill A Datsenko and Masaru Tomita and Barry L Wanner and Hirotada Mori}, title = {Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection. (
  • Approximately 5-10% of endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis is due to E coli . (
  • We report here that human macrophages bind Escherichia coli by recognizing bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (
  • Spears, K.J., Roe, A.J. and Gally, D.L. (2006) A Comparison of Enteropathogenic and Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli Pathogenesis. (
  • Because of its high infectious dose, analysis for ETEC is usually not performed unless high levels of E. coli have been found in a food. (
  • Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes (EPEC, ETEC etc.) can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for food contamination incidents that prompt product recalls. (
  • Enteropathogenic E coli (EPEC) is a cause of childhood diarrhea . (
  • E coli is facultatively anaerobic with a type of metabolism that is both fermentative and respiratory. (
  • Although the EDP is the more thermodynamically favorable of the three pathways, E. coli do not use the EDP for glucose metabolism, relying mainly on the EMPP and the OPPP. (
  • Escherichia coli genomes contain a large variety of characterised and putative CU fimbrial operons, however, the classification and annotation of individual loci remains problematic. (
  • Based on the clinical picture we suspected preponderant P. aeruginosa bacteremia, outgrown by concomitant low-grade E. coli bacteremia in the blood culture vials. (
  • For clinical aspects of the disease, see Escherichia coli enteritis . (
  • We have published hundreds of Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude news stories on BioPortfolio along with dozens of Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude Clinical Trials and PubMed Articles about Metabolic Engineering Escherichia Coli Production Butanol From Crude for you to read. (
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  • This pilot study highlights the role of NH residents as a source of different ST131 clades, besides emphasizing the importance of E. coli B2-ST131 subtyping in different clinical settings, and understanding the transmission dynamics of the different variants. (
  • vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. (
  • Some clues on sample and isolate preservation for future use are outlined, and general precautions regarding E. coli handling are also presented to the researcher to avoid improper planning and execution of E. coli-related research. (
  • 2004. Cell-to-cell signaling in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. (
  • Enteroinvasive E coli (EIEC) causes a Shigella -like dysentery. (
  • however, Escherichia coli's optimal temperature for reproduction is around thirty-seven degrees celsius. (
  • The National Institute of Genetics in Japan, or the E. coli Genetic Stock Center (CGSC) . (
  • Microbiology's meeting in the UK this week, scientists from the Institute for Animal Health announced progress towards controlling the deadly E. coli bacterium that causes. (
  • Escherichia organisms are gram-negative bacilli that exist singly or in pairs. (
  • When bile flow is obstructed, colonic organisms, including E coli, colonize the jejunum and duodenum. (
  • Even though there is a considerable amount of total E. coli strains in the world, most strains are known to reside in the intestine of warm-blooded organisms like humans. (
  • commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). (
  • Escherichia coli bacteremia in children. (
  • In a patient with EG, initial blood cultures showed Escherichia coli , and almost occulted P. aeruginosa bacteremia. (
  • Our patient with EG had preponderant P. aeruginosa bacteremia, that was almost occulted by concomitant low-grade E. coli bacteremia. (
  • The large clones are propagated on F factor-based plasmids in Escherichia coli. (
  • Here we describe a classification model based on usher phylogeny and genomic locus position to categorise the CU fimbrial types of E. coli. (
  • Those that cause disease syndromes in systems other than gastrointestinal tract are called extra-intestinal E . coli (EXPEC). (
  • E. coli is Gram-negative , facultative anaerobic and non-sporulating . (
  • ˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/ ) ( E. coli ), is a bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded animals. (
  • Escherichia coli can be commonly found in lower intestines of human and mammals and help with digestion processes. (
  • The relevance of the project is clear when one thinks about the high risk of legionellosis in some specific industrial environments, such as cooling waters, evaporative condensers and air conditioning systems and the fact that E. coli is one of the faecal pollution index commonly analyzed for monitoring the presence of waterborne pathogens and hence the quality of bathing waters. (
  • Water quality --- Detection and enumeration of bacteriophages --- Part 1: Enumeration of F-specific RNA bacteriophages [BS EN ISO 10705-1:2001]. (
  • Quantitative PCR showed that there were 1.5 × 10 E 7 copies/milliliter (ml) of P. aeruginosa DNA, whereas the quantity of E. coli DNA was below the detection limit of 2 × 10 E 4 copies/ml. (
  • The targeted detection limit will be 10-100 cells/L and 5-20 cells/100 mL for Legionella and E.coli, respectively. (
  • Emergence of Escherichia coli ST131 sub-clone H30 producing VIM-1 and KPC-3 carbapenemases, Italy. (