Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Cell surface proteins that bind erythropoietin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The series of cells in the red blood cell lineage at various stages of differentiation.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.

Human, rat, and mouse kidney cells express functional erythropoietin receptors. (1/3892)

BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO), secreted by fibroblast-like cells in the renal interstitium, controls erythropoiesis by regulating the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. We examined whether renal cells that are exposed to EPO express EPO receptors (EPO-R) through which analogous cytokine responses might be elicited. METHODS: Normal human and rat kidney tissue and defined cell lines of human, rat, and mouse kidney were screened, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, nucleotide sequencing, ligand binding, and Western blotting, for the expression of EPO-R. EPO's effects on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation were also examined. RESULTS: EPO-R transcripts were readily detected in cortex, medulla, and papilla of human and rat kidney, in mesangial (human, rat), proximal tubular (human, mouse), and medullary collecting duct cells (human). Nucleotide sequences of EPO-R cDNAs from renal cells were identical to those of erythroid precursor cells. Specific 125I-EPO binding revealed a single class of high- to intermediate-affinity EPO-Rs in each tested cell line (kD 96 pm to 1. 4 nm; Bmax 0.3 to 7.0 fmol/mg protein). Western blots of murine proximal tubular cell membranes revealed an EPO-R protein of approximately 68 kDa. EPO stimulated DNA synthesis and cell proliferation dose dependently. CONCLUSION: This is the first direct demonstration, to our knowledge, that renal cells possess EPO-Rs through which EPO stimulates mitogenesis. This suggests currently unrecognized cytokine functions for EPO in the kidney, which may prove beneficial in the repair of an injured kidney while being potentially detrimental in renal malignancies.  (+info)

Role of cytokine signaling molecules in erythroid differentiation of mouse fetal liver hematopoietic cells: functional analysis of signaling molecules by retrovirus-mediated expression. (2/3892)

Erythropoietin (EPO) and its cell surface receptor (EPOR) play a central role in proliferation, differentiation, and survival of erythroid progenitors. Signals induced by EPO have been studied extensively by using erythroid as well as nonerythroid cell lines, and various controversial results have been reported as to the role of signaling molecules in erythroid differentiation. Here we describe a novel approach to analyze the EPO signaling by using primary mouse fetal liver hematopoietic cells to avoid possible artifacts due to established cell lines. Our strategy is based on high-titer retrovirus vectors with a bicistronic expression system consisting of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). By placing the cDNA for a signaling molecule in front of IRES-GFP, virus-infected cells can be viably sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and the effect of expression of the signaling molecule can be assessed. By using this system, expression of cell-survival genes such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was found to enhance erythroid colony formation from colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) in response to EPO. However, their expression was not sufficient for erythroid colony formation from CFU-E alone, indicating that EPO induces signals for erythroid differentiation. To examine the role of EPOR tyrosine residues in erythroid differentiation, we introduced a chimeric EGFR-EPOR receptor, which has the extracellular domain of the EGF receptor and the intracellular domain of the EPOR, as well as a mutant EGFR-EPOR in which all the cytoplasmic tyrosine residues are replaced with phenylalanine, and found that tyrosine residues of EPOR are essential for erythroid colony formation from CFU-E. We further analyzed the function of the downstream signaling molecules by expressing modified signaling molecules and found that both JAK2/STAT5 and Ras, two major signaling pathways activated by EPOR, are involved in full erythroid differentiation.  (+info)

Iron depletion by phlebotomy with recombinant erythropoietin prior to allogeneic transplantation to prevent liver toxicity. (3/3892)

Iron overload may induce liver toxicity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but it is not known if iron depletion prior to HSCT can reduce the risk of severe toxicity in this setting. We used subcutaneous recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) (25 UI/kg) three times a week and phlebotomy once a week, to prevent liver toxicity in a patient with advanced acute leukemia and liver disease due to severe iron overload, previous drug toxicity and hepatitis C viral infection. Over the 9 months prior to allogeneic HSCT, 34 phlebotomies were carried out. Serum ferritin dropped from 2964 to 239 microg/l and the ALT dropped to near normal values. At allogeneic HSCT no liver toxicity was observed, suggesting that iron depletion in the pretransplant period may contribute to reducing transplant-related toxicity in selected cases.  (+info)

Association of plasma fibrinogen concentration with vascular access failure in hemodialysis patients. (4/3892)

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma fibrinogen is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease in the general population and patients with chronic renal failure. High plasma fibrinogen may trigger thrombus formation in arteriovenous fistulas. We performed a prospective, cohort study to evaluate the association of plasma fibrinogen concentration with vascular access failure in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. METHODS: Between September 1989 and October 1995, 144 patients underwent a vascular access operation. In March 1997, 102 patients (56 M, 46 F) who had been followed up for more than 18 months (median; 37 months, range; 18-102 months) were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 52 years (range; 19-78 years). In 35 patients, renal disease was secondary to diabetes mellitus. The type of vascular access was a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft in 17 patients. Seventy-seven patients received recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) therapy during the follow-up period. Plasma fibrinogen, albumin, total cholesterol, hematocrit, platelets and creatinine were measured at the time of operation. Vascular access failure was defined as the occurrence of complications requiring transluminal angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy or surgical repair. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients had at least one vascular access failure and the incidence was 0.3 (range; 0-2.4) episodes per patient-year. The survival rate of vascular access was 78% (native fistula; 80%, PTFE graft; 71%) after 12 months and 70% (native fistula; 73%, PTFE graft; 51%) after 24 months. Older age, a PTFE graft, r-HuEPO therapy, higher hematocrit, lower albumin and higher fibrinogen levels were significantly associated with vascular access failure, whereas gender, diabetes mellitus, total cholesterol and platelet count were not. Plasma fibrinogen was inversely correlated with albumin (r=-0.38, P=0.001). The cumulative vascular access survival was significantly lower in patients with high plasma fibrinogen levels (> or = 460 mg/dl) compared with patients with low levels (< 460 mg/dl) (P=0.007). Independent risk factors for vascular access failure analysed by Cox's proportional hazards model were older age (RR; 1.36 by 10-year increment), higher fibrinogen level (RR; 1.20 by 100 mg/dl increment), PTFE graft (RR; 2.28) and r-HuEPO therapy (RR; 3.79). CONCLUSION: High plasma fibrinogen level is an independent risk factor for vascular access failure in haemodialysis patients.  (+info)

Advances in the biological therapy and gene therapy of malignant disease. (5/3892)

Biological and gene therapy of cancer have become important components of clinical cancer research. Advances in this area are based on evidence for the presence of tumor antigens, antitumor immune responses, evasion of host control by tumors, and the recognition of host defense failure in cancer patients. These mechanisms are being corrected or exploited in the development of biological and gene therapy. Over the last decade, 9 biological therapies have received Food and Drug Administration approval, and another 12 appear promising and will likely be approved in the next few years. Our approach to gene therapy has been to allogenize tumors by the direct intratumoral injection of HLA-B7/beta2-microglobulin genes as plasmid DNA in a cationic lipid into patients with malignant melanoma. In four Phase I studies, we found a 36% response by the local injected tumor and a 19% systemic antitumor response. In other cancers, gene transfer, expression, and an intratumoral T-cell response were seen, but no clinical response was seen. A variety of follow-up studies with HLA-B7 and other genes are planned. Evasion of host control is now a major target of gene therapy. Strategies to overcome this include up-regulation of MHC and introduction of cell adhesion molecules into tumor cells, suppression of transforming growth factor and interleukin 10 production by tumor cells, and blockade of the fas ligand-fas interaction between tumor cells and attacking lymphocytes. With these approaches, it seems likely that gene therapy may become the fifth major modality of cancer treatment in the next decade.  (+info)

Identification of the poly(C) binding protein in the complex associated with the 3' untranslated region of erythropoietin messenger RNA. (6/3892)

Hypoxia regulates expression of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that stimulates erythrocytosis, at the level of transcription and also possibly at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA) stability. A pyrimidine-rich region within the EPO mRNA 3' untranslated region was implicated in regulation of EPO mRNA stability element and shown to bind protein factors. In the present study we wished to identify the protein factor binding to the pyrimidine-rich sequence in the EPO mRNA stability element. Using mobility shift assays, ultraviolet light cross-linking, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and electroelution of protein factors from the gel slices corresponding to the ribonucleoprotein complexes, we found that two isoforms of a 40 kD poly(C) binding protein (PCBP, also known as alphaCP or hnRNPE), PCBP1, and PCBP2 are present in that complex. In Hep3B or HepG2 cells hypoxia induces neither expression of PCBP nor formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex associated with EPO mRNA that involves PCBP.  (+info)

Erythropoietin depresses nitric oxide synthase expression by human endothelial cells. (7/3892)

We have recently shown that erythropoietin (EPO)-induced hypertension is unrelated to the rise in hematocrit and is marked by elevated cytosolic [Ca+2] and nitric oxide (NO) resistance. The present study was done to determine the effect of EPO on NO production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression by endothelial cells. Human coronary artery endothelial cells were cultured to subconfluence and then were incubated for 24 hours in the presence of either EPO (0, 5, and 20 U/mL) alone or EPO plus the calcium channel blocker felodipine. The experiments were carried out with quiescent (0.5% FCS) and proliferating (5% FCS) cells. Total nitrate and nitrite, eNOS protein, DNA synthesis (thymidine incorporation), and cell proliferation (cell count) were determined. In addition, NO production in response to acetylcholine stimulation was tested. EPO resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of basal and acetylcholine-stimulated NO production and eNOS protein expression and also led to a significant dose-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis in endothelial cells. The inhibitory effects of EPO on NO production and eNOS expression were reversed by felodipine. Thus, EPO downregulates basal and acetylcholine-stimulated NO production, depresses eNOS expression, and stimulates proliferation in isolated human endothelial cells. The suppressive effects of EPO on NO production and on eNOS expression are reversed by calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

Expression of the erythropoietin receptor by trophoblast cellsin the human placenta. (8/3892)

Nonclassical sites of erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) expression have been described that suggest new physiological roles for this hormone unrelated to erythropoiesis. The recent finding of EPO expression by trophoblast cells in the human placenta prompted us to consider whether these cells also express EPO-R. With use of immunocytochemistry, EPO-R was identified in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells, as well as in the syncytiotrophoblast at all gestational ages. EPO-R was also expressed by cells within the villous core, including endothelial cells of fetoplacental blood vessels. Placental tissues and isolated and immunopurified trophoblast cells, as well as trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma Jar cells, expressed immunoreactive EPO-R on Western blot. EPO-R mRNA was also detected in the same placental tissues and trophoblast cells by nested-primer reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Finally, EPO-R was functional insofar as the receptor was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to exogenous EPO treatment of cultured trophoblast or Jar cells. Thus, the present findings support the hypothesis that trophoblast cells of the human placenta express EPO-R. In view of these results, taken together with previous work demonstrating EPO expression by the same cells, an autocrine role for this hormone in the survival, proliferation, or differentiation of placental trophoblast cells is proposed.  (+info)

Comments, concepts and statistics about Haemoglobin Mass and Running Time Trial Performance after Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Administration in Trained Men.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Erythropoietin administration protects retinal neurons from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. AU - Junk, Anna. AU - Mammis, Antonios. AU - Savitz, Sean I.. AU - Singh, Manjeet. AU - Roth, Steven. AU - Malhotra, Samit. AU - Rosenbaum, Pearl S.. AU - Cerami, Anthony. AU - Brines, Michael. AU - Rosenbaum, Daniel M.. PY - 2002/8/1. Y1 - 2002/8/1. N2 - Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in the brains response to neuronal injury. Systemic administration of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) protects neurons from injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion, traumatic brain injury, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity. Protection is in part mediated by antiapoptotic mechanisms. We conducted parallel studies of rhEPO in a model of transient global retinal ischemia induced by raising intraocular pressure, which is a clinically relevant model for retinal diseases. We observed abundant expression of EPO receptor (EPO-R) throughout the ischemic retina. Neutralization of endogenous ...
he National Anemia Action Council states that about 3.4 million Americans are anemic, with causes ranging from serious chronic illnesses to simple dietary insufficiencies (1). Common symptoms include weakness, pallor, tachycardia, shortness of breath, dizziness, headache, chest pain, and numbness in the extremities (1). Since the late 1990s, recombinant erythropoietin has been used to treat anemic patients, including cancer patients whose anemia has been caused by chemotherapy (2).. Recombinant erythropoietin is also known as epoetin alfa, or EPO, a glycoprotein made by transplanting the human erythropoietin gene into the ovary cells of a Chinese hamster species (2). Due to its relative novelty in the research community, older and newer studies are very similar in their findings that erythropoietin effectively raises hemoglobin levels in anemic patients. Current research, however, is focused on quantifying hemoglobin concentration increases from erythropoietin treatment, exploring possible ...
Aim: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the normobaric oxygen paradox theory by investigating the effect of a 2-h normobaric O(2) exposure on the concentration of plasma erythropoietin (EPO). Methods: Ten healthy males were studied twice in a single-blinded counterbalanced crossover study protocol. On one occasion they breathed air (NOR) and on the other 100% normobaric O(2) (HYPER). Blood samples were collected Pre, Mid and Post exposure; and thereafter, 3, 5, 8, 24, 32, 48, 72 and 96 h, and 1 and 2 weeks after the exposure to determine EPO concentration. Results: The concentration of plasma erythropoietin increased markedly 8 and 32 h after the NOR exposure (approx. 58% and approx. 52%, respectively, P , 0.05) as a consequence of its natural diurnal variation. Conversely, the O(2) breathing was followed by approx. 36% decrement of EPO 3 h after the exposure (P , 0.05). Moreover, EPO concentration was significantly lower in HYPER than in the NOR condition 3, 5 and 8 h after the ...
The effect of post-injury erythropoietin administration on mortality and Glasgow outcome scales of patients with traumatic brain injury: A metaanalysis., Faye B Garciano, Perry N N
Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), given intravenously, or even better, subcutaneously, represents a major advance in treating patients with end-stage renal failure. It has been studied most frequently in patients on hemodialysis and has been shown to increase hemoglobin levels, improve quality of life, and permit avoidance of transfusion with its concomitant risk of infection, iron overload, and sensitization (1). The major side effects of the medication have been hypertension and flu-like symptoms. Subcutaneous EPO can be self-administered and may require a lower dose than intravenous EPO (unfortunately, the mean maintenance dose of erythropoietin in this study was not indicated). The authors found no difference in hypertension between the 2 groups, and no unexpected side effects were reported. There has been concern that the increase in hematocrit in predialysis patients treated with EPO may be associated with acceleration of renal failure. Other studies have found no change in the ...
Erythropoietin (Epo), a 30.4-kD glycoprotein, is the principal regulator of erythropoiesis. To evaluate the concept that in vivo gene transfer might be used as an alternative to recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) in applications requiring a 1- to 3-week stimulation of erythropoiesis, the replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus AdMLP.Epo was constructed by deleting the majority of E1 from adenovirus type 5, and replacing E1 with an expression cassette containing the adenovirus type 5 major late promoter (MLP) and the human Epo gene, including the 32 cis-acting hypoxia response element. In vitro studies showed that infection of the human hepatocyte cell line Hep3B with AdMLP.Epo resulted in a 15-fold increase in Epo production in 24 hours that was enhanced to 116-fold in the presence of a hypoxic stimulus. One-time in vivo administration of AdMLP.Epo (7 x 10(9) plaque-forming units/kg) to the peritoneum of cotton rats caused a marked increase in red blood cell production, with a 2.6-fold increase ...
The expression system was used to create recombinant human erythropoietin, a protein synthesized by the adult kidney and responsible for the regulation of red blood cell production. of recombinant EPO and increase the activity of TG-101348 this protein Yeasts have long been a model organism for biochemical and genetic studies because of the advantages they offer compared to bacterial systems, including the ease with which they can cultured and managed, and the fact that they share several important biological characteristics with eukaryotic cells, such as splicing and other processes involved in post-translational modifications. Several yeast species have been used to generate recombinant proteins, including and (examined in B?er offers similar advantages to other yeasts, and are preferred as the overall length of the mannose outer chains is shorter than in (Kang and construction of the gene The entire human erythropoietin gene was constructed using the Splicing by Overlap-Extension by PCR ...
In the present investigation, we studied the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) as an index of lipid peroxidation, related to iron-catalyzed free radical reaction and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants. Forty premature infants, at gestational ages were less than 33 weeks and birthweights were less than 1,500 g, were enrolled in the study. The study population was randomly divided into 2 groups. Twenty infants in Group 1 (treatment group) were given r-HuEPO, and 20 infants in Group 2 served as the control. r-HuEPO treatment (750 U/kg a week) was initiated on the 10th day of life and continued for 6 weeks. Preterm infants given erythrocyte transfusions during the study were excluded from the results. Serum ferritin and MDA levels, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were analyzed ...
Background Our original demonstration of immunomodulatory effects of erythropoietin in multiple myeloma, led us to the search of the cells in the immune system that are direct targets to erythropoietin. The finding that lymphocytes do not express erythropoietin receptors, has led to the hypothesis that other cells act as direct targets and thus mediate the erythropoietin effects. Having found erythropoietin effects on dendritic cells thus led to the question of whether macrophages act as target cells to erythropoietin. Design and Methods EPO effects on macrophages were investigated both in-vivo and in-vitro. The in-vivo studies were performed on splenic macrophages and inflammatory peritoneal macrophages, in recombinant human erythropoietin -treated, compared to untreated mice, as well as in transgenic mice over-expressing human erythropoietin (tg6), compared to their control wild type counterparts. The in-vitro effects of erythropoietin on macrophage surface markers and function were ...
1. Wu H, Liu X, Jaenisch R, Lodish HF. Generation of committed erythroid BFU-E and CFU-E progenitors does not require erythropoietin or the erythropoietin receptor. Cell. 1995;83:59-67 2. Miyake T, Kung CK, Goldwasser E. Purification of human erythropoietin. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1977;252:5558-64 3. Lin FK, Suggs S, Lin CH, Browne JK, Smalling R, Egrie JC. et al. Cloning and expression of the human erythropoietin gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1985;82:7580-4 4. Jacobs K, Shoemaker C, Rudersdorf R, Neill SD, Kaufman RJ, Mufson A. et al. Isolation and characterization of genomic and cDNA clones of human erythropoietin. Nature. 1985;313:806-10 5. Noguchi CT, Wang L, Rogers HM, Teng R, Jia Y. Survival and proliferative roles of erythropoietin beyond the erythroid lineage. Expert reviews in molecular medicine. 2008;10:e36. doi:10.1017/S1462399408000860 6. Teng R, Gavrilova O, Suzuki N, Chanturiya T, Schimel D, Hugendubler L. et ...
Study Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) in predialysis renal patients.. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for 8 weeks.. Setting: Inpatient and outpatient facility in the Clinical Research Center of a university-based hospital.. Patients: Fourteen adult subjects with renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine, 473 µmol/L ± 61 [6.2 µ 0.8 mg/dL] ) and anemia (mean hematocrit, 0.27 ± 0.01).. Interventions: Recombinant human erythropoietin, 50, 100, or 150 IU/kg body weight or placebo given intravenously three times per week.. Measurements and Main Results: Subjects who received active r-HuEPO showed a dose-dependent rise in hematocrit; mean hematocrit increased 41% from 0. 27 ± 0.01 to 0.38 ± 0.01. At the same time, erythrocyte mass rose 43% from 13.7 ± 0.6 mL/kg in the baseline state to 19.6 ± 1.0 mL/kg after treatment. Maximal oxygen consumption during exercise increased 9% from 16.0 mL/min · kg ± 1.8 to ...
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively). Differential gene expression analysis was carried out following normalisation and significance declared following application of a 5% false discovery rate (FDR) and a 1.5 fold-change. Adaptive model analysis was also applied to incorporate these markers for the
A. A male patient with JAK2 V617F mutation, hemoglobin of 13.5 g/dL, and subnormal serum erythropoietin level. B. A male patient with JAK2 V617F mutation, hemoglobin of 16.5 g/dL, and subnormal serum erythropoietin level. C. A patient with JAK2 V617F mutation, hemoglobin of 18.5 g/dL, and subnormal serum erythropoietin level. D. A and B are correct. Question 2 Which of the following is a minor criterion to facilitate the diagnosis of polycythemia vera?. A. Elevated hematocrit of , 48% in women and , 49% in men. B. Elevated hemoglobin of , 16.0 g/dL in women and , 16.5 g/dL in men. C. Bone marrow biopsy showing age-adjusted hypercellularity with panmyelosis and pleomorphic mature megakaryocytes. D. Subnormal serum erythropoietin level. Question 3 Which of the following is a well-described bone marrow characteristic of polycythemia vera?. A. Unilineage erythroid hyperplasia. B. Age-adjusted hypercellularity. C. Pleomorphic immature megakaryocytes. D. All of the above. Question 4 Which of the ...
A. A male patient with JAK2 V617F mutation, hemoglobin of 13.5 g/dL, and subnormal serum erythropoietin level. B. A male patient with JAK2 V617F mutation, hemoglobin of 16.5 g/dL, and subnormal serum erythropoietin level. C. A patient with JAK2 V617F mutation, hemoglobin of 18.5 g/dL, and subnormal serum erythropoietin level. D. A and B are correct. Question 2 Which of the following is a minor criterion to facilitate the diagnosis of polycythemia vera?. A. Elevated hematocrit of , 48% in women and , 49% in men. B. Elevated hemoglobin of , 16.0 g/dL in women and , 16.5 g/dL in men. C. Bone marrow biopsy showing age-adjusted hypercellularity with panmyelosis and pleomorphic mature megakaryocytes. D. Subnormal serum erythropoietin level. Question 3 Which of the following is a well-described bone marrow characteristic of polycythemia vera?. A. Unilineage erythroid hyperplasia. B. Age-adjusted hypercellularity. C. Pleomorphic immature megakaryocytes. D. All of the above. Question 4 Which of the ...
Animal Model. Neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1) no-stroke control, 2) saline control, and 3) rhEPO treatment. The surgical procedure of whisker-barrel cortex ischemia in neonatal rats followed similar methods as described previously (Wei et al., 2006). In brief, postnatal day 7 (P7) pups were anesthetized by hypothermia. Hypothermia anesthesia was chosen because many of the drugs used to anesthetize adult animals provided inadequate anesthesia for neonates or were associated with problems such as excessively high mortality (Danneman and Mandrell, 1997). In this regard, hypothermia (immersion in ice) has been judged as a humane, safe, and effective anesthesia method for survival surgeries of neonatal rats (Danneman and Mandrell, 1997). The hypothermia procedure was kept the same for all pups in different experimental groups. Pups were placed in a noninvasive head-holder to allow for a 2.5- to 3.0-mm-diameter craniectomy through the right parietal skull. The ...
The clinical development of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has had a remarkable impact on the clinical practice of oncology. A decade ago, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in anemic cancer patients demonstrated that rHuEPO resulted in an improvement in hemoglobin and hematocrit, a reduction in transfusion requirements, and improvement in quality-of-life (QOL) end points. Based on these trials, recombinant erythropoietin was approved for the treatment of anemia in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies in whom the anemia was caused by the effect of chemotherapy.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant human erythropoietin for chronic renal failure anaemia in pre-dialysis patients. AU - Cody, June D. AU - Daly, Conal. AU - Campbell, Marion K. AU - Khan, Izhar. AU - Rabindranath, Kannaiyan S. AU - Vale, Luke. AU - Wallace, Sheila A. AU - MacLeod, Alison M. AU - Grant, Adrian M. AU - Pennington, Susan AU - Nistor, Ionut. AU - Bolignano, Davide. AU - Webster, Angela C. PY - 2005/7/20. Y1 - 2005/7/20. N2 - Background Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHu EPO) in dialysis patients has been shown to be highly effective in terms of correcting anaemia and improving quality of life. There is debate concerning the benefits of rHu EPO use in pre-dialysis patients which may accelerate the deterioration of renal function. However the opposing view is that if rHu EPO is as effective in pre-dialysis patients, improving the patients sense of well-being may result in the onset of dialysis being delayed.Objectives To assess the effects of rHu EPO use in pre-dialysis ...
Cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the hepatic erythropoietin expression during acute-phase response: a role for IL-6 Ramadori P, Ahmad G, Ramadori G. Source Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Center of Internal Medicine, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany. Abstract The source of circulating erythropoietin (EPO), the mediators and the mechanisms involved in the upregulation of EPO…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recombinant human erythropoietin stimulates vasculogenesis and wound healing in a patient with systemic sclerosis complicated by severe skin ulcers. AU - Ferri, C.. AU - Giuggioli, D.. AU - Manfredi, A.. AU - Quirici, N.. AU - Scavullo, C.. AU - Colaci, M.. AU - Gianelli, U.. AU - Lambertenghi Deliliers, G.. AU - Del Papa, N.. PY - 2010/12. Y1 - 2010/12. N2 - Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is often complicated by severe skin ulcers that are unresponsive to traditional treatments. Vascular alterations are responsible for the ischaemic features of the disease in both the skin and visceral organs. Defective neoangiogenesis correlates with an abnormally reduced quantity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) caused by impaired maturation potential and proliferative capacity of bone-marrow endothelial stem cells. We report a patient with nonhealing cutaneous ulcers successfully treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). The possible biological effects of this drug ...
Erythropoietin is an essential growth factor that promotes survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mammalian erythroid progenitor cells. Erythropoietin(−/−) and erythropoietin receptor(−/−) mouse embryos die around embryonic day 13.5 due, in part, to failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. In this study, we demonstrated a novel role of erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in cardiac development in vivo. We found that erythropoietin receptor is expressed in the developing murine heart in a temporal and cell type-specific manner: it is initially detected by embryonic day 10.5 and persists until day 14.5. Both erythropoietin(−/−) and erythropoietin receptor(−/−) embryos suffered from ventricular hypoplasia at day 12-13 of gestation. This defect appears to be independent from the general state of hypoxia and is likely due to a reduction in the number of proliferating cardiac myocytes in the ventricular myocardium. Cell proliferation assays revealed that ...
Effects of theophylline on erythropoietin production in normal subjects in patients with erythrocytosis after renal transplantation
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We have used RNase protection to measure oxygen-dependent changes in erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA in isolated perfused kidneys and to compare the effect of hypoxia with the response to inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. In well-oxygenated kidneys perfused for 2 h at 12 ml/min, with hematocrit of 0.09 +/- 0.005 and PO2 of 443 +/- 67 mmHg, EPO mRNA levels were similar to the baseline levels measured in nonperfused contralateral kidneys from the same animals. When perfusions were performed under identical conditions but at a PO2 of 32 +/- 4 mmHg, EPO mRNA increased approximately 16-fold. In contrast, graded concentrations of cyanide (10, 100, and 300 microM and 1 mM), antimycin (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 microM), and oligomycin (0.01, 0.1, and 1 microM) did not alter EPO mRNA in well-oxygenated perfused kidneys. However, in kidneys perfused at low PO2 with a high concentration of each inhibitor, EPO mRNA levels were increased, demonstrating that the ability to respond to hypoxia was retained. Thus
Background: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause of renal graft dysfunction. Increases in cold and warm ischemia times lead to a higher risk of early posttransplant complications including delayed graft function and acute rejection. Moreover, prolonged cold ischemia is a predictor of long-term graft loss in kidney transplant patients. Methods: Darbepoetin alfa (DA) and carbamylated nonerythropoietic derivative of erythropoietin (CEPO) protective effects were evaluated in a model of I/R injury after kidney transplantation in both syngeneic and allogeneic combinations. The effects of wortmannin (phosphorylated Akt [p-Akt] inhibitor) administration were also investigated. Serum creatinine was evaluated at 16, 24, 48 hr and at 4 and 7 days posttransplant. Animals were killed 24 hr or 7 days after transplant and kidneys were processed for histological analysis, immunohistochemistry assessment of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) and β-common chain receptor expression, granulocyte ...
Michael, A, Politi, E, Havranek, E, Corbishley, C, Karapanagiotou, L, Anderson, C, Relph, K, Syrigos, KN and Pandha, H (2007) Prognostic significance of erythropoietin expression in human renal cell carcinoma ...
Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that rats could be made permanently anemic by repeated mixed gamma-neutron irradiations, and that once the maintenance of normal circulatory red cell concentration was lost, the administration of exogenous erythropoietin could not restore the production of red cells to normal levels. Rats were exposed to 9 periodic doses of 150 rads mixed gamma-neutron radiation or to 4 periodic doses of 300 rads. Hematocrits and erythrocyte counts obtained for 100 days or more after the final radiation exposure showed a significant reduction in erythrocyte production. This permanent anemia was not ameliorated by the treatment with 5 daily doses of either 5 units or 25 units of erythropoietin. These findings appear to strengthen the hypothesis that the permanent anemia is caused by a reduced capability for cellular proliferation due to accumulation of residual injury in stem cells.
Although rhEPO treatment is beneficial for CKD patients with renal anemia, several problems remain to be addressed. First, the increasing number of CKD patients is expanding the demand for rhEPO treatment, which, in turn, increases the total cost of this therapy. Second, it is difficult to physiologically control renal anemia using rhEPO treatment. The intermittent administration of rhEPO causes fluctuations in hemoglobin concentrations (3), which is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events (23). In addition, the target hemoglobin concentration for rhEPO treatment remains controversial, and hemoglobin concentrations in most patients are lower than those observed in healthy subjects (24). The physiological control of renal anemia based on a stable, normal range of hemoglobin concentrations may help in the treatment of CKD patients.. hiPSCs/ESCs are potential cell sources for regenerative medicine. Here, we generated EPO-producing cells from hiPSCs/ESCs and miPSCs/ESCs. ...
Although rhEPO treatment is beneficial for CKD patients with renal anemia, several problems remain to be addressed. First, the increasing number of CKD patients is expanding the demand for rhEPO treatment, which, in turn, increases the total cost of this therapy. Second, it is difficult to physiologically control renal anemia using rhEPO treatment. The intermittent administration of rhEPO causes fluctuations in hemoglobin concentrations (3), which is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events (23). In addition, the target hemoglobin concentration for rhEPO treatment remains controversial, and hemoglobin concentrations in most patients are lower than those observed in healthy subjects (24). The physiological control of renal anemia based on a stable, normal range of hemoglobin concentrations may help in the treatment of CKD patients.. hiPSCs/ESCs are potential cell sources for regenerative medicine. Here, we generated EPO-producing cells from hiPSCs/ESCs and miPSCs/ESCs. ...
The present invention provides an expression system for producing recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) exhibiting biological activity and immunochemical properties of the native human erythropoietin (hEPO). Also provided is an improved method for purifying rhEPO from culture medium by two-step column chromatography.
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies and pilot clinical trials have shown that high-dose erythropoietin (EPO) reduces infarct size in acute myocardial infarction. We investigated whether a single high-dose of EPO administered immediately after reperfusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) would limit infarct size. METHODS: A total of 110 patients undergoing successful primary coronary intervention for a first STEMI was randomized to receive standard care either alone (n = 57) or combined with intravenous administration of 1,000 U/kg of epoetin β immediately after reperfusion (n = 53). The primary end point was infarct size assessed by gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance after 3 months. Secondary end points included left ventricular (LV) volume and function at 5-day and 3-month follow-up, incidence of microvascular obstruction (MVO), and safety. RESULTS: Erythropoietin significantly decreased the incidence of MVO (43.4% vs 65.3% in the control group, P = .03) and
The membrane-assisted isoform immunoassay (MAIIA) quantitates erythropoietin (EPO) isoforms as percentages of migrated isoforms (PMI). We evaluated the effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) on the distribution of EPO isoforms in plasma in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over study. 16 healthy subjects received either low-dose Epoetin beta (5000 IU on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13); high-dose Epoetin beta (30.000 IU on days 1, 2 and 3 and placebo on days 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13); or placebo on all days. PMI on days 4, 11 and 25 was determined by interaction of N-acetyl glucosamine with the glycosylation dependent desorption of EPO isoforms. At day 25, plasma-EPO in both rhEPO groups had returned to values not different from the placebo group. PMI with placebo, reflecting the endogenous EPO isoforms, averaged 82.5 (10.3) % (mean (SD)). High-dose Epoetin beta decreased PMI on days 4 and 11 to 31.0 (4.2)% (p,0.00001) and 45.2 (7.3)% (p,0.00001). Low-dose Epoetin beta decreased ...
Erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA levels were measured by ribonuclease (RNase) protection in organs from unstimulated rats and from animals after normobaric hypoxia or hemorrhagic anemia. Both liver and kidney responded to stimulation with large increases in EPO mRNA, but the response characteristic to graded stimulation was different. The liver responded poorly to mild normobaric hypoxia, accounting for only 2 ± 1% of total EPO mRNA at 11% O2, but hepatic EPO mRNA levels increased steeply with more severe hypoxia so that at 7.5% O2 the liver contributed to 33 ± 7% of the total. After hemorrhagic anemia, the liver also responded more strongly to more severe stimulation, but at all points it accounted for a significant proportion of total EPO mRNA, contributing 18 ± 6% after removal of 2.5 ml (hematocrit 37.2 ± 1.3%), increasing to 37 ± 14% after venesection of 10.5 ml (hematocrit 15.8 ± 0.8%). Studies of EPO mRNA in other organs confirmed that EPO production outside the liver and kidney were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical validation of an RIA for natural and recombinant erythropoietin in serun and plasma. AU - Goldberg, Mark A.. AU - Schneider, Thomas J.. AU - Khan, Shaista. AU - Petersen, John R.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of erythropoietin (EPO) was developed using antibody directed against EPO from human urine. With 100 μL of sample, the assay is sensitive to 7 U/L, well below the mean EPO level in normal males (15.1 ± 3.5 U/L) or females (15.4 ± 4.8 U/L). Dilutions of a variety of human serum samples show a parallel relationship with the standard EPO. Clinical validation of the RIA was confirmed by appropriate increases or decreases of EPO levels in various types of anemia and polycythemia. Serum EPO levels were also measured in volunteers participating in an autologous blood donation study. The RIA proved to eb quite sensitve, detecting small increases even after a single unit phlebotomy. This RIA of human EPO meets all the ...
Abstract - The illegal administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) among athletes is largely preferred over blood doping to enhance stamina. The advent of recombinant DNA technology allowed the expression of EPO-encoding genes in several eukaryotic hosts to produce rHuEPO, and today these performance-enhancing drugs are readily available. As a mimetic of endogenous EPO (eEPO), rHuEPO augments the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Thus, monitoring the illicit use of rHuEPO among athletes is crucial in ensuring an even playing field and maintaining the welfare of athletes. A number of rHuEPO detection methods currently exist, including measurement of hematologic parameters, gene-based detection methods, glycomics, use of peptide markers, electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing (IEF)-double immunoblotting, aptamer/antibody-based methods, and lateral flow tests. This review gleans these different strategies and highlights the leading molecular recognition elements that have potential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Robust increases in erythropoietin production by the hypoxic fetus is a response to protect the brain and other vital organs. AU - Teramo, Kari A.. AU - Klemetti, Miira M.. AU - Widness, John A.. PY - 2018/12. Y1 - 2018/12. KW - AMNIOTIC-FLUID. KW - PLASMA ERYTHROPOIETIN. KW - IMMUNOREACTIVE ERYTHROPOIETIN. KW - CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID. KW - TEMPORAL RESPONSE. KW - MESSENGER-RNA. KW - HUMAN FETAL. KW - CORD BLOOD. KW - HUMAN-MILK. KW - BIRTH. KW - 3123 Gynaecology and paediatrics. U2 - 10.1038/s41390-018-0054-4. DO - 10.1038/s41390-018-0054-4. M3 - Review Article. VL - 84. SP - 807. EP - 812. JO - Pediatric Research. JF - Pediatric Research. SN - 0031-3998. IS - 6. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of hemoglobin (Hb) maintenance of subcutaneous (SC) or intravenous (IV) C. E. R. A. (Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not on dialysis. AU - Yuzawa, Yukio. AU - Hotta, Osamu. AU - Suzuki, Hiromichi. AU - Oishi, Tetsuya. AU - Mochizuki, Takahiro. AU - Wakasa, Mikio. AU - Uda, Susumu. AU - Kanno, Yutaka. AU - Horikawa, Kazuhiro. AU - Hara, Soshun. AU - Ichida, Shizunori. AU - Morozumi, Kunio. AU - Shimizu, Hideaki. AU - Tsuyuki, Mikito. AU - Tamai, Hirofumi. AU - Asada, Hiroaki. AU - Naruse, Tomohiko. AU - Inaguma, Daijyo. AU - Suzuki, Satoshi. AU - Kasuga, Hirotake. AU - Ishimura, Eiji. AU - Imai, Enyu. AU - Yamauchi, Atsushi. AU - Saika, Yasushi. AU - Saito, Yoshihiko. AU - Taki, Masafumi. AU - Kawanishi, Hideki. AU - Minakuchi, Jun. AU - Yuasa, Kenji. AU - Miyake, Susumu. AU - Takeda, Kazuhito. AU - Yasunaga, Chikao. AU - Okuda, Seiya. AU - Nakamoto, Masahiko. AU - Saito, Takao. AU - Tsuruya, Kazuhiko. AU - Hirakata, ...
METHODS: Thirty-five rats were divided into 3 groups. In the baseline control group (BC, n=7), rats were uninjured and untreated. In the positive control group (PC, n=21) rats were injured but untreated. In the EPO-24 group (n=7), rats were injured and a single dose of intra-peritoneal EPO (5000 IU/kg) was administered immediately after lung injury. The PC group was divided into 3 subgroups: PC-6 (n=7), PC-12 (n=7), and PC-24 (n=7). The BC group was subjected to thoracotomy, and the right lung was harvested. The PC subgroups were eu-thanized at 6, 12, and 24 hours after injury, respectively. The EPO-24 group was euthanized at the 24th hour after injury. Lung samples were obtained, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and EPO were analyzed, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were then measured in homogenized lung tissue samples. Histologic damage to lung tissue in the BC group, the EPO-24 group, and PC subgroup euthanized at the 24th hour after injury were scored by a ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Erythropoietin fails to reverse the anemia in mice continuously exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vivo. AU - Clibon, U.. AU - Bonewald, Lynda. AU - Caro, J.. AU - Roodman, G. David. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) is a monokine produced by activated macrophages that has cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on erythroid progenitor cells. We have recently shown that Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the human TNF gene and which constitutively express TNF induced a hypoproliferative anemia, mild thrombocytopenia, and mild leukocytosis when injected into nude mice. We have used this murine model to determine if treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin can prevent or ameliorate the anemia seen with long-term continuous exposure to high concentrations of TNF. Mice bearing TNF-producing tumors became anemic with hematocrits ranging from 30 to 32%. Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (100-1000 U/kg body weight three times per ...
RATIONALE: Darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa may stimulate red blood cell production and treat anemia in patients who are receiving chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether darbepoetin alfa is more effective than epoetin alfa in treating patients with anemia.. PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to compare the effectiveness of darbepoetin alfa with that of epoetin alfa in treating anemia in patients who are receiving chemotherapy for cancer. ...
Erythropoietin, a hormone produced in the adult kidney, controls erythrocyte production. In response to ischemic or hypoxic hypoxia, the level of expression of the gene increases markedly. We have a limited understanding of the factors governing the tissue specificity of erythropoietin gene expression but considerable progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms that increase erythropoietin gene expression in response to hypoxia. An increase in transcription occurs, mediated (at least in part) by formation of a heterodimeric DNA binding complex termed hypoxia inducible factor 1. Transcriptional regulation mediated by this complex has now been shown to modulate the expression of a number of other genes in a wide range of cell types.
Erythropoietin is a substance produced by the kidney that leads to the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. It is a glycoprotein hormone which regulates erythropoiesis (Red Blood Cell production). For erythrocyte precursors present in the bone marrow, EPO acts as a cytokine. Commonly referred to as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, erythropoietin is also known to have other biological functions, such as involvement in the wound healing cycle and brains response to neuronal injury. People suffering from End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), HIV or undergoing chemotherapy are not able to produce enough EPO on their own and thus, are administered with synthetic or recombinant erythropoietin which has the similar sequence of amino acids. Recombinant erythropoietin is a kind of therapeutic agent devised using DNA technology.. Request a sample of this report at http://www.orbisresearch.com/contacts/request-sample/127811 .. On the bases of their molecular structure, EPO drugs can be divided into ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepcidin-25 is a marker of the response rather than resistance to exogenous erythropoietin in chronic kidney disease/chronic heart failure patients. AU - van der Putten, K.. AU - Jie, K.E.. AU - van den Broek, D.. AU - Kraaijenhagen, R.J.. AU - Laarakkers, C.. AU - Swinkels, D.W.. AU - Braam, B.. AU - Gaillard, C.A.J.M.. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. U2 - 10.1093/eurjhf/hfq099. DO - 10.1093/eurjhf/hfq099. M3 - Article. C2 - 20601671. VL - 12. SP - 943. EP - 950. JO - European Journal of Heart Failure. JF - European Journal of Heart Failure. SN - 1388-9842. IS - 9. ER - ...
Using the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2, we have studied a possible role of protein kinase C (PKC) activity for regulation of erythropoietin (EPO) production. During a 72-h incubation, EPO production by the cells was stimulated sevenfold by exposure to low oxygen tension (1%) and threefold by exposure to cobaltous chloride (100 microM). The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate-13 acetate (PMA) led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of basal and stimulated EPO formation (ED50 10 nM). This decrease of EPO production, which was apparent already after 1 h of incubation with PMA, reached its maximal effect after 24 h and held on for 72 h. It was paralleled by an inhibition of the increase of EPO mRNA levels in response to stimulation. A 24-h preincubation of the cells with PMA (100 nM) virtually blunted the effect of hypoxia on EPO formation. Recovery of EPO synthesis after removal of PMA took 48-72 h. The effect of PMA on EPO production was mimicked by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (ED50 1 microM) but not
Chemotherapy can often cause anemia in patients with cancer. Anemia is a low number of red blood cells. The symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, dizziness, headache, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Erythropoietin is a hormone made by the kidneys that signals the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells. Recombinant human erythropoietin has been produced in the laboratory and has the same effect as the hormone produced by the body. Use of recombinant human erythropoietin allows the body to produce more red blood cells, possibly eliminating or decreasing your symptoms and the need for a red blood cell transfusion. Recombinant human erythropoietin is FDA approved to treat anemia in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. This clinical study is investigating the effectiveness of darbepoetin alfa for the treatment of anemia in patients with non-myeloid malignancies who are receiving chemotherapy every three weeks. Darbepoetin alfa is a recombinant erythropoietic protein that stimulates the ...
|i|Objectives:|/i| Platinum compounds are commonly associated with significant anemia. Erythropoietin administration has been found effective in correcting anemia in patients with solid tu
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Background: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protects tissue from ischemic damage, but translation of this finding into useful guidelines with respect to human trials for myocardial infarction
Erythropoietin (EPO). *Erythropoietin-Fc. *Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA/Mircera). *Peginesatide ...
Erythropoietin Kidney Stimulate development of erythropoietic cells 6 Nerve growth factor (NGF) Salivary gland Stimulate the ...
Erythropoietin (EPO). *Erythropoietin-Fc. *Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA/Mircera). *Peginesatide ...
Erythropoietin (EPO). *Erythropoietin-Fc. *Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA/Mircera). *Peginesatide ...
erythropoietin Epogen anemia arising from cancer chemotherapy, chronic renal failure, etc. recombinant protein stimulation of ...
Erythropoietin (EPO). *Erythropoietin-Fc. *Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA/Mircera). *Peginesatide ...
Erythropoietin (see here instead). *Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI; PGI, PHI, AMF) ...
Erythropoietin (EPO). *Erythropoietin-Fc. *Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA/Mircera). *Peginesatide ...
Erythropoietin (see here instead). *Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI; PGI, PHI, AMF) ...
Erythropoietin (EPO).[22]. *PolyHeme, a blood substitute solution of chemically modified human hemoglobin.[22] ...
It has high homology with erythropoietin. It is essential for the formation of an adequate quantity of platelets. After budding ... Certain cytokines such as IL-3, IL-6, IL-11, LIF, erythropoietin, and thrombopoietin all stimulate the maturation of ... Jelkmann W (2001). "The role of the liver in the production of thrombopoietin compared with erythropoietin". Eur. J. ... and erythropoietin. The megakaryocyte develops through the following lineage: CFU-Me (pluripotential hemopoietic stem cell or ...
... erythropoietin (EPO); 4. insulin; 5. DHEA; 6. melatonin; 7. thyroid; 8. pregnenolone. In theory, if all or some of these ...
... the hormone erythropoietin; and, paradoxically, drugs such as the α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist atipamezole and the CB1 ...
13 June 2006). "Detection of recombinant human erythropoietin in urine for doping analysis - Interpretation of isoelectric ... Françoise Lasne & Jacques de Ceaurriz (8 June 2000). "Recombinant erythropoietin in urine". Nature. 405 (6787): 635. doi: ...
13 June 2006). "Detection of recombinant human erythropoietin in urine for doping analysis - Interpretation of isoelectric ... Françoise Lasne & Jacques de Ceaurriz (8 June 2000). "Recombinant erythropoietin in urine". Nature. 405 (6787): 635. doi: ... erythropoietin (EPO), growth hormones, testosterone and amphetamines. When raiding the Festina headquarters in France, the ...
E: Erythropoietin, Endocrine Disorders [61]. References[edit]. *^ Ecder T, Schrier RW (April 2009). "Cardiovascular ...
Erythropoietin (EPO) is largely taken by endurance athletes who seek a higher level of red blood cells, which leads to more ... Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187-. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. ... Erythropoietin) which made the accusations against Armstrong stronger.[82] ... enhancement drugs through the measurement of indicators that change with the use of recombinant human erythropoietin:[106] ...
Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187-. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. ...
Fisher, J. W. (2003). "Erythropoietin: physiology and pharmacology update". Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood, N.J.). ... Fisher, J. W. (1997). "Erythropoietin: physiologic and pharmacologic aspects". Proceedings of the Society for Experimental ...
Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187-. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. ...
Tan, Chorh Chuan (1992). Regulation of Erythropoietin Messenger RNA. National University of Singapore. Archived from the ... "Regulation of erythropoietin messenger RNA". Upon graduation in 1983, Tan started his medical career as a renal physician. From ...
Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. p. 187. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. " ...
Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. p. 187. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. ...
... erythropoietin and renin); the thymus; skin (cholecalciferol); and adipose tissue (leptin and resistin). Endocrine glands ...
Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187-. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. ...
Ismailov, RM (July-September 2013). "Erythropoietin and epidemiology of Alzheimer disease". Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 27 (3 ... the recent hypothesis suggests that high altitude could be protective against Alzheimer's disease via action of erythropoietin ...
... due to increased erythropoietin secretion; varicocele, which is seen in males as an enlargement of the pampiniform plexus of ... anaemia resulting from depression of erythropoietin; erythrocytosis (increased production of red blood cells) ...
"The interaction of iron and erythropoietin". "Hemoglobin and Serum Iron Concentrations in Menstruating Nulliparous Women in Jos ...
Ali Bagautinov tested positive for erythropoietin. The following fighters were awarded $50,000 bonuses: Fight of the Night: Tae ... announced that Bagautinov tested positive for erythropoietin (EPO) prior to the title fight. In response, the BCAC has ...
Dillashaw tested positive for erythropoietin (EPO). The following fighters were awarded $50,000 bonuses: Fight of the Night: ... as it was revealed he tested positive to erythropoietin in a fight night test. martial arts portal New York City portal New ...
The erythropoietin test measures the amount of a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO) in blood. ... The erythropoietin test measures the amount of a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO) in blood. ...
Erythropoietin News and Research. RSS Erythropoietin, or its alternative erythropoetin or EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that ... The hormone erythropoietin (Epo) is a well-known doping substance that has a long history of abuse in endurance sports, such as ... Erythropoietin treatment may not provide neuroprotection for preemies A study published in the Jan 16 edition of the New ... Erythropoietin helps to protect and repair vulnerable brains though it remains a mystery how the anemia drug does so. ...
The papers show that the possible therapeutic spectrum of erythropoietin could be expanded considerably when compared with the ... Pathophysiology and Pharmacology of Erythropoietin. Results from both basic research and clinical studies are described in ... levels Epo mRNA Epo production EPO serum levels EPO values Epo-R Erslev erythrocytosis erythropoietin production erythropoietin ... Pathophysiology and pharmacology of erythropoietin. Horst Pagel,Christoph Weiss,Wolfgang Jelkmann. Snippet view - 1992. ...
Erythropoietin (Epo), Thrombopoietin (Tpo) and leptin are hormones with distinct physiological properties. While the first two ... 1992 Erythropoietin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of its own receptor in human erythropoietin-responsive cells. J Biol ... 1994 Erythropoietin induces tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 in a human erythropoietin- ... 1995 Generation of committed erythroid BFU-E and CFU-E progenitors does not require erythropoietin or the erythropoietin ...
... your doctor may prescribe a treatment called erythropoietin. This helps increase the number of red blood cells in your blood. ... Possible side effects of erythropoietin. When you have erythropoietin injections, the amount of erythropoietin in your body ... When erythropoietin may be used. Erythropoietin is a treatment for anaemia. Anaemia means the number of red blood cells in your ... How erythropoietin is given. You have erythropoietin as an injection under the skin (subcutaneously). It is usually given into ...
... continued ability to produce sufficient erythropoietin. If the erythropoietin level is low, erythropoietin replacement therapy ... Why isnt erythropoietin measured to monitor erythropoietin drug therapy?. It is not used because it is the effect on the bone ... This test measures the amount of erythropoietin in the blood.. Erythropoietin is produced and released into the blood by the ... A synthetic form of erythropoietin (recombinant human erythropoietin or rh-EPO) has been developed to help increase RBC ...
"Erythropoietin". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. "erythropoietin - definition of erythropoietin in English from the ... Erythropoietin has been shown to exert its effects by binding to the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). EPO binds to the ... Exogenous erythropoietin, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), is produced by recombinant DNA technology in cell culture ... The burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) cells start erythropoietin receptor expression and are sensitive to erythropoietin. ...
Erythropoietin receptor has been shown to interact with: CRKL, Erythropoietin, Grb2, Janus kinase 2, LYN, PIK3R1, PTPN6, SOCS2 ... Zhu Y, DAndrea AD (Mar 1994). "The molecular physiology of erythropoietin and the erythropoietin receptor". Current Opinion in ... "Generation of committed erythroid BFU-E and CFU-E progenitors does not require erythropoietin or the erythropoietin receptor". ... The erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPOR gene. EpoR is a 52kDa peptide with a ...
... discusses the effect of empagliflozin on erythropoietin levels, iron stores and red blood cell morphology... ... Dr David Mazer (University of Toronto, Toronto, CA) discusses the effect of empagliflozin on erythropoietin levels, iron stores ...
Erythropoietin),medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product ... Erythropoietin) Microwell-EIA,Microwell EIA for the detection of EPO ( ... Microwell EIA for the detection of EPO (Erythropoietin). Info. Biomerica. Customer Service: 949.645.2111. Web site: http://www. ...
Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the kidneys in response to decreased oxygen levels in the circulating blood that ... Erythropoietin. Erythropoietin (also called epo) is a hormone produced by the kidneys in response to decreased oxygen levels in ... Anemia in chronic kidney failure mainly develops because diseased kidneys no longer produce adequate amounts of erythropoietin ...
Synthetic erythropoietin is produced using DNA recombinant technology. Erythropoietin market can be categorized on the basis of ... Erythropoietin tests detects abnormal levels of erythropoietin in the blood thus indicating kidney diseases, bone marrow ... Low levels of oxygen in the blood triggers the production and release of erythropoietin. Erythropoietin stimulates the bone ... Erythropoietin is a type of a glycoprotein produced by body that controls red blood cell production in the body and is produced ...
The cytokine erythropoietin binds to the classic erythropoietin receptor to mediate hematopoiesis and has independent tissue- ... Leist et al. (see the Perspective by Ehrenreich) generated a distinct isoform of erythropoietin that separates its two ... A carbamoylated derivative did not bind to the classical erythropoietin receptor and lost the hematopoietic capacity of natural ... Derivatives of erythropoietin that are tissue protective but not erythropoietic. Science 305, 239-242 (2004). [Abstract] [Full ...
Sex difference in mouse metabolic response to erythropoietin.. Zhang Y1, Rogers HM1, Zhang X2, Noguchi CT3. ... Erythropoietin (EPO) is the cytokine that regulates red blood cell production. Less understood is the nonerythroid action of ... Sex difference in mouse metabolic response to erythropoietin. ... Sex difference in mouse metabolic response to erythropoietin. ...
... Diana Spahlinger, 07 and Lisa King , 07 Chime Index. Contents:. I. Introduction II. General Structure III. ... Erythropoietin activates target erythroid colony-forming cells by binding and orienting two cell surface erythropoietin ... Erythropoietin has two receptor binding sites, located on opposite faces of the molecule: site 1: EPObp EPO and site 2:EPObp ... Erythropoietin (EPO) is a 30.4 kD glycoprotein hormone, 166 amino acids in length. It is shown here complexed with its ...
Erythropoietin (EPO), the main hemopoietic hormone synthesized by the kidney as well as by the liver in fetal life, is ... Erythropoietin: a hormone with multiple functions Pathobiology. 2011;78(1):41-53. doi: 10.1159/000322975. Epub 2011 Apr 5. ... Erythropoietin (EPO), the main hemopoietic hormone synthesized by the kidney as well as by the liver in fetal life, is ...
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism® and the APS® logo are registered trademarks of the American Physiological Society , Print ISSN: 0193-1849 , Online ISSN: 1522-1555. ...
For example, although erythropoietin reduced infarct in a rodent model of coronary occlusion, it failed to do so in a porcine ... Thus the evidence strongly suggested that erythropoietin would limit infarct size.. One explanation for a lack of benefit in a ... "This finding seems to settle the debate about whether there is a therapeutic role for erythropoietin administration during ... The authors noted that preclinical studies had suggested that erythropoietin would act as a cardioprotective agent because it ...
Erythropoietin (Blood). Does this test have other names?. EPO. What is this test?. This is a test to measure how much ... erythropoietin (EPO) you have in your blood. EPO is a hormone that your kidney makes to trigger your bone marrow to make red ...
The papers show that the possible therapeutic spectrum of erythropoietin could be expanded considerably when compared with the ... Pathophysiology and Pharmacology of Erythropoietin. Results from both basic research and clinical studies are described in ... Erythropoietin. Erythropoietin-Pathophysiology-Congresses. Erythropoietin-Therapeutic use-Congresses. Medical / Hematology. ... of Erythropoietin plasma polycythemia protein radioimmunoassay recombinant erythropoietin recombinant human erythropoietin ...
The focus of this review is on a novel neuroprotective approach with erythropoietin, a hematopoietic growth factor that: 1) is ...
Erythropoietin regulates endothelial progenitor cells. Ferdinand H. Bahlmann, Kirsten de Groot, Jens-Michael Spandau, Aimee L. ... Erythropoietin regulates endothelial progenitor cells. Ferdinand H. Bahlmann, Kirsten de Groot, Jens-Michael Spandau, Aimee L. ... Erythropoietin regulates endothelial progenitor cells. Ferdinand H. Bahlmann, Kirsten de Groot, Jens-Michael Spandau, Aimee L. ... Erythropoietin prevents neuronal apoptosis after cerebral ischemia and metabolic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98: ...
... effect of long-term hemodialysis in 58 nonanemic end-stage renal disease patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin ... Practical considerations of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy Am J Kidney Dis. 1989 Aug;14(2 Suppl 1):19-25. ... effect of long-term hemodialysis in 58 nonanemic end-stage renal disease patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin ...
... Growth, Analysis and Forecast - 2025 - published on openPR.com ... Global Erythropoietin (EPO) Market - Johnson & Johnson, Roche, Kyowa Hakko Kirin … Erythropoietin market, also known as EPO, ... Erythropoietin (EPO) Drugs Breakdown Data by Type. • Epoetin-alfa. • Darbepoetin-alfa. • Epoetin-beta. • Others. Erythropoietin ... Global Erythropoietin (EPO) Market 2016 - Amgen, Johnson & Johnson, Roche, Kyowa … Erythropoietin, also known as EPO, ...
Erythropoietin receptor is expressed in rat hippocampal and cerebral cortical neurons, and erythropoietin prevents in vitro ... Preliminary data on exogenous erythropoietin support its protective role for neuronal cells. The presence of erythropoietin ... a HIE-erythropoietin group (N = 15; infants with mild/moderate HIE who received human recombinant erythropoietin, 2500 IU/kg, ... 41 Erythropoietin receptors are known to be present in the developing intestine, and the administration of erythropoietin was ...
Renal epithelium regulates erythropoiesis via HIF-dependent suppression of erythropoietin.. Farsijani NM, Liu Q, Kobayashi H, ... The adult kidney plays a central role in erythropoiesis and is the main source of erythropoietin (EPO), an oxygen-sensitive ... Renal epithelium regulates erythropoiesis via HIF-dependent suppression of erythropoietin. J Clin Invest. 2016 Apr 1;126(4): ... Renal epithelium regulates erythropoiesis via HIF-dependent suppression of erythropoietin. J Clin Invest. 2016 Apr 1;126(4): ...
Erythropoietin Therapy. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been used to try to reduce transfusion requirements, with variable outcomes. ... Early erythropoietin in post-diarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome: a case-control study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2014 Aug 21. [Medline] ... Recombinant erythropoietin therapy as an alternative to blood transfusions in infants with hereditary spherocytosis. Hematol J ... The use of erythropoietin-stimulating agents versus supportive care in newborns with hereditary spherocytosis: a single ...
Comparison Among Erythropoietin Stimulating Agents. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... To evaluate efficacy of continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.) and Darbepoetin Alfa, to maintain Hemoglobin ... Haematological, inflammatory or infectious conditions that might interfere with the erythropoietin response ... or to receive Darbepoetin alfa or continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A) for a total period of 40 weeks. All ...
M. Brines and A. Cerami, "Erythropoietin in spinal cord injury," in Erythropoietin and the Nervous System: Novel Therapeutic ... G. Acs, P. Acs, S. M. Beckwith et al., "Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in human cancer," Cancer Research ... Carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO), a well-characterized erythropoietin (EPO) derivative, does not bind to the classical EPO ... M. Brines, G. Grasso, F. Fiordaliso et al., "Erythropoietin mediates tissue protection through an erythropoietin and common β- ...
Iron demand in bone marrow increases when erythropoiesis is stimulated by hypoxia via increased erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis ...
  • Wu, H., Liu, X., Jaenisch, R. and Lodish, H.F . 1995 Generation of committed erythroid BFU-E and CFU-E progenitors does not require erythropoietin or the erythropoietin receptor. (springer.com)
  • D'Andrea, A.D., Lodish, H.F. and Wong, G.G . 1989 Expression cloning of the murine erythropoietin receptor. (springer.com)
  • The burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) cells start erythropoietin receptor expression and are sensitive to erythropoietin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent stage, the colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E), expresses maximal erythropoietin receptor density and is completely dependent on erythropoietin for further differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Precursors of red cells, the proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts also express erythropoietin receptor and are therefore affected by it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythropoietin has been shown to exert its effects by binding to the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). (wikipedia.org)
  • EPO binds to the erythropoietin receptor on the red cell progenitor surface and activates a JAK2 signalling cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • High level erythropoietin receptor expression is localized to erythroid progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPOR gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the defects in the erythropoietin receptor may produce erythroleukemia and familial erythrocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytokine erythropoietin binds to the classic erythropoietin receptor to mediate hematopoiesis and has independent tissue-protective bioactivities. (sciencemag.org)
  • A carbamoylated derivative did not bind to the classical erythropoietin receptor and lost the hematopoietic capacity of natural erythropoietin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Erythropoietin, shown here complexed with the extracellular domains of its two receptor molecules (EPObp 1 and EPObp2), is the 'incredible hulk' of hormone- receptor complexes. (kenyon.edu)
  • Eligible patients were randomized, either to continue on the previous regimen of Epoetin, or to receive Darbepoetin alfa or continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A) for a total period of 40 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The crystal structure of erythropoietin complexed to the extracellular ligand-binding domains of the erythropoietin receptor, determined at 1.9 A from two crystal forms, shows that erythropoietin imposes a unique 120 degrees angular relationship and orientation that is responsible for optimal signalling through intracellular kinase pathways. (rcsb.org)
  • Here we show that erythroid progenitors from erythropoietin receptor (Epo-R) −/− fetal livers, infected in vitro with a retrovirus expressing the wild-type Epo-R, require addition of both Epo and stem cell factor (SCF) to form colony-forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) colonies. (pnas.org)
  • reported the expression of erythropoietin (Epo) and Epo receptor (EpoR) in stage I non-small cell lung cancer ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor coexpression is associated with poor survival in stage I non-small cell lung cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is a member of the cytokine receptor family. (novusbio.com)
  • Erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is thought to be activated by ligand-induced homodimerization. (sciencemag.org)
  • It has become clear in recent years, however, that erythropoietin and its receptor are members of a cytokine superfamily that mediates diverse functions in nonhematopoietic tissues. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Human recombinant erythropoietin appears within the cerebrospinal fluid in neuroprotective concentrations, probably by translocation initiated by binding to the erythropoietin receptor on the luminal surface of the endothelium. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) and its cell surface receptor (EPOR) are essential for red blood cell production and exert important cytoprotective effects on select vascular, immune, and cancer cells. (rupress.org)
  • Erythropoietin(−/−) and erythropoietin receptor(−/−) mouse embryos die around embryonic day 13.5 due, in part, to failure of erythropoiesis in the fetal liver. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrated a novel role of erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in cardiac development in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • We found that erythropoietin receptor is expressed in the developing murine heart in a temporal and cell type-specific manner: it is initially detected by embryonic day 10.5 and persists until day 14.5. (biologists.org)
  • Both erythropoietin(−/−) and erythropoietin receptor(−/−) embryos suffered from ventricular hypoplasia at day 12-13 of gestation. (biologists.org)
  • Cell proliferation assays revealed that erythropoietin acts as a mitogen in cells isolated from erythropoietin(−/−) mice, while it has no effect in hearts from erythropoietin receptor(−/−) animals. (biologists.org)
  • Erythropoietin(−/−) and erythropoietin receptor(−/−) embryos also suffered from epicardium detachment and abnormalities in the vascular network. (biologists.org)
  • Our results elucidate a novel role of erythropoietin in cardiac morphogenesis and suggest a combination of anemia and cardiac failure as the cause of embryonic lethality in the erythropoietin(−/−) and erythropoietin receptor(−/−) animals. (biologists.org)
  • The role of erythropoietin is to control red blood cell production by regulating the differentiation and proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. (kenyon.edu)
  • A European randomized, placebo-controlled trial confirmed these QOL results, and a meta-analysis of other randomized clinical trials firmly supports the role of erythropoietin therapy in improving hemoglobin levels and reducing transfusion requirements. (cancernetwork.com)
  • These findings point to a multifunctional role of erythropoietin and its potential clinical applications as an immunomodulating agent. (haematologica.org)
  • Introduction: The role of erythropoietin (Epo) in myocardial repair after infarction remains inconclusive. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have included the most common side effects of erythropoietin. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • One explanation for a lack of benefit in a clinical trial is the possibility that "the effects of erythropoietin differ among species. (medpagetoday.com)
  • 8 The potential immediate protective effects of erythropoietin include decreased NO production, activation of antioxidant enzymes, reduction of glutamate toxicity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and reduction of inflammation. (aappublications.org)
  • 9 Long-term protective effects of erythropoietin include generation of neuronal antiapoptotic mechanisms, stimulation of angiogenesis, and modulation of neurogenesis. (aappublications.org)
  • Background Our original demonstration of immunomodulatory effects of erythropoietin in multiple myeloma, led us to the search of the cells in the immune system that are direct targets to erythropoietin. (haematologica.org)
  • The in-vitro effects of erythropoietin on macrophage surface markers and function were investigated in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. (haematologica.org)
  • Yet, the biological effects of erythropoietin may not always be beneficial and may be poor tolerated in a number of clinical scenarios, necessitating further basic and clinical investigations that emphasize the elucidation of the signal transduction pathways controlled by erythropoietin to direct both successful and safe clinical care. (eurekaselect.com)
  • What are the side effects of Erythropoietin? (mountsinai.on.ca)
  • Erythropoietin helps to protect and repair vulnerable brains though it remains a mystery how the anemia drug does so. (news-medical.net)
  • An erythropoietin (EPO) test is used primarily to help diagnose the cause of anemia. (labcorp.com)
  • Erythropoietin testing is ordered to help determine if low EPO may be causing and/or worsening the anemia. (labcorp.com)
  • Anemia in chronic kidney failure mainly develops because diseased kidneys no longer produce adequate amounts of erythropoietin. (davita.com)
  • Increasing incidences of anemia globally mainly resulting from chemotherapy and rapidly increasing morbidity rate of kidney disorders are driving the growth of the global erythropoietin market. (pitchengine.com)
  • Synthetic erythropoietin (Epoetin) is prescribed for the treatment of anemia, especially for individuals with cancer, AIDS, or kidney problems. (kenyon.edu)
  • To curb rising incidence of anemia, demand for erythropoietin drugs is expected to increase over the coming years. (openpr.com)
  • Background: Despite extensive use, to the best of our knowledge, no trial has simultaneously compared the three currently used erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESAs) in a prospective manner, in treatment of anemia of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Native human erythropoietin was originally prepared from urine of patients with aplastic anemia. (google.com)
  • In 1988, Dr James Stockman discussed the anemia of prematurity in a fascinating editorial that anticipated much of what has unfolded as therapeutic trials using recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) were initiated. (aappublications.org)
  • These data effectively closed the pathophysiologic loop in anemia of prematurity and strongly implicated inadequate production of erythropoietin (EPO) as the underlying reason erythropoiesis is quantitatively insufficient in this clinical setting (see reference 4 for a review). (aappublications.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the hemoglobin and hematocrit variability between once and three times weekly erythropoietin therapy for the anemia in patients with maintenance dialysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying erythropoietin repression in kidney myofibroblasts and demonstrate that clinically relevant, nontoxic doses of 5-azacytidine can restore erythropoietin production and ameliorate anemia in the setting of kidney fibrosis in mice. (jci.org)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) is a well-known hormone that is clinically used for the treatment of anemia. (nature.com)
  • Based on these trials, recombinant erythropoietin was approved for the treatment of anemia in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies in whom the anemia was caused by the effect of chemotherapy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Based on this aggregate of data, the use of erythropoietin in the treatment of mild-to-moderate anemia has become a standard of care. (cancernetwork.com)
  • For anemia due to other causes, it was assumedthat recombinant erythropoietin would not be effective, because it was assumedthat endogenous erythropoietin responses would occur. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Although it was expected that higherdoses of erythropoietin would be required, it was remarkable that anemia wasameliorated in most patients with erythropoietin alone, despite this complexmultifaceted pathophysiology. (cancernetwork.com)
  • This permanent anemia was not ameliorated by the treatment with 5 daily doses of either 5 units or 25 units of erythropoietin. (dtic.mil)
  • Erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA) are drugs used for anemia management for patients with renal disease. (cms.gov)
  • Although several factors contribute to the high prevalence of anemia in diabetes, erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency seems to be one of the major causes 5 . (nature.com)
  • By 1985, human erythropoietin was being manufactured commercially using recombinant DNA technology and used for the treatment of anemia (low red blood cell count) in human dialysis and cancer patients. (marvistavet.com)
  • In animals, erythropoietin has one major use: the treatment of anemia due to chronic renal disease . (marvistavet.com)
  • Since most erythropoietin is produced by the kidney it should make sense that a damaged kidney cannot produce normal amounts of erythropoietin and anemia results. (marvistavet.com)
  • Results are mixed with this practice as in most such cases where the marrow is not responsive, there are healthy kidneys producing large amounts of erythropoietin already in response the anemia. (marvistavet.com)
  • Because of the potential for antibody production against human origin erythropoietin, is important to withhold use until it is truly warranted rather than beginning it at the first sign of anemia. (marvistavet.com)
  • Further, there is actually quite a bit more to anemia in kidney patients than lack of erythropoietin. (marvistavet.com)
  • Anemia / Chronic Kidney Failure EPO Erythropoietin Ah-Rith-Ro-Poy-Tin Product Name: EPO Manufacturer: China Shenzhen XinPeng Biopharm Package: 3000IU/1. (burrillandco.com)
  • Erythropoietin was reported to have a range of actions beyond stimulation of erythropoiesis including vasoconstriction-dependent hypertension, stimulating angiogenesis, and promoting cell survival via activation of EPO receptors resulting in anti-apoptotic effects on ischemic tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) resembles a classic endocrine hormone in that it exerts its effect on target cells in bone marrow through interactions with specific cell-surface receptors. (kenyon.edu)
  • Erythropoietin activates target erythroid colony-forming cells by binding and orienting two cell surface erythropoietin receptors. (kenyon.edu)
  • Overall half-maximal binding (IC50) of cell-surface receptors is produced with approximately 0.18 nM erythropoietin, indicating that only approximately 6% of the receptors would be bound in the presence of 10 pM erythropoietin. (rcsb.org)
  • Other effective erythropoietin-mimetic ligands that dimerize receptors can evoke the same cellular responses but much less efficiently, requiring concentrations close to their Kd values (approximately 0.1 microM). (rcsb.org)
  • In this study, the tamoxifen-loaded erythropoietin-coated nanostructured lipid carriers (EPO-TAMNLC) were developed to enhance the anti-cancer properties and targetability of TAM, using EPO as the homing ligand for EPO receptors (EpoRs) on breast cancer tissue cells. (plos.org)
  • The finding that lymphocytes do not express erythropoietin receptors, has led to the hypothesis that other cells act as direct targets and thus mediate the erythropoietin effects. (haematologica.org)
  • Della Ragione F, Cucciolla V, Borriello A, Oliva A, Perrotta S. Erythropoietin receptors on cancer cells: a still open question. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Are erythropoietin receptors expressed in tumors? (aacrjournals.org)
  • Artwork of the human erythropoietin (EPO) hormone molecule (yellow) bound to receptors (pink). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Erythropoietin, or its alternative erythropoetin or EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis, or red blood cell production. (news-medical.net)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) is a 30.4 kD glycoprotein hormone, 166 amino acids in length. (kenyon.edu)
  • A molecular model of erythropoietin, a glycoprotein hormone, produced by the kidneys, that regulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The continuous formation of new red blood cells (RBCs) is regulated by the glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (EPO). (stemcell.com)
  • Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein hormone synthesized in the bone marrow that controls and regulates the mechanism of erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells). (medgadget.com)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of erythroid cells ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that promotes the production of red blood cells. (ugent.be)
  • TY - JOUR UR - http://lib.ugent.be/catalog/pug01:744948 ID - pug01:744948 LA - eng TI - Testing for recombinant erythropoietin PY - 2008 JO - (2008) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY SN - 0361-8609 PB - 2008 AU - Delanghe, Joris GE32 UZGent AU - Bollen, Mathieu AU - Beullens, Monique AB - Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that promotes the production of red blood cells. (ugent.be)
  • Epo (Erythropoietin), a glycoprotein hormone and a multifunctional Hematopoietic Cytokine ligand, is the master regulator of Erythropoiesis. (proteinlounge.com)
  • Exogenous erythropoietin, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), is produced by recombinant DNA technology in cell culture and are collectively called erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA): two examples are epoetin alfa and epoetin beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO), the main hemopoietic hormone synthesized by the kidney as well as by the liver in fetal life, is implicated in mammalian erythropoiesis. (nih.gov)
  • Erythropoietin is a cytokine that originally was identified for its role in erythropoiesis and more recently was shown to be produced in the central nervous system. (aappublications.org)
  • Renal epithelium regulates erythropoiesis via HIF-dependent suppression of erythropoietin. (nih.gov)
  • The adult kidney plays a central role in erythropoiesis and is the main source of erythropoietin (EPO), an oxygen-sensitive glycoprotein that is essential for red blood cell production. (nih.gov)
  • Iron demand in bone marrow increases when erythropoiesis is stimulated by hypoxia via increased erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis in kidney and liver. (jci.org)
  • Studies of recombinant erythropoietin demonstrated that theanemia experienced by the cancer chemotherapy patient is multifactorial partiallyattributable to the bone marrow suppression of the cancer chemotherapy, partlyrelated to the blunted erythropoietin response and to the suppressive effects ofcancer and cytokines on erythropoiesis. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Regulation of erythropoiesis and the maintenance of erythroid homeostasis rely on modulation of erythropoietin (EPO) gene expression in response to tissue oxygen tension. (eurekaselect.com)
  • If too much erythropoietin is produced, as occurs with some benign or malignant kidney tumors and with a variety of other cancers, too many RBCs may be produced (polycythemia or erythrocytosis). (labcorp.com)
  • It can help identify candidates for erythropoietin replacement therapy (e.g., people with chronic kidney disease). (labcorp.com)
  • In people with chronic kidney disease, the test may be ordered to evaluate the kidneys' continued ability to produce sufficient erythropoietin. (labcorp.com)
  • Erythropoietin is produced by interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney in close association with the peritubular capillary and proximal convoluted tubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under hypoxic conditions, the kidney will produce and secrete erythropoietin to increase the production of red blood cells by targeting CFU-E, proerythroblast and basophilic erythroblast subsets in the differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidney cells responsible for production of erythropoietin are sensitive to oxygen levels in the blood. (pitchengine.com)
  • Erythropoietin tests detects abnormal levels of erythropoietin in the blood thus indicating kidney diseases, bone marrow disorders and excess erythropoietin production.Erythropoietin is also used to correct anemic conditions by stimulating red blood cell production. (pitchengine.com)
  • Produced primarily in the kidney, erythropoietin circulates in the plasma and acts on target cells in the bone marrow. (kenyon.edu)
  • Erythropoeitin participates in a classic feedback control system, as production of erythropoietin is regulated by impaired oxygen delivery to the kidney. (kenyon.edu)
  • Further, Jacob and colleagues used an expression vector containing a cDNA fragment encoding mature human erythropoietin for transforming kidney fibroblast COS-1 cell under the control of SV40 promoter, and then producing rhEPO from the transformed kidney fibroblast COS-1 cell upon transient expression. (google.com)
  • Renal erythropoietin-producing cells (REPCs) remain in the kidneys of patients with chronic kidney disease, but these cells do not produce sufficient erythropoietin in response to hypoxic stimuli. (jci.org)
  • Here, we show that fibroblast-like FOXD1 + progenitor-derived kidney pericytes, which are characterized by the expression of α1 type I collagen and PDGFRβ, produce erythropoietin through HIF2α regulation but that production is repressed when these cells differentiate into myofibroblasts. (jci.org)
  • Increased production of erythropoietin (Epo) by the kidney is one of the best known adaptive responses to hypoxia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Low levels of erythropoietin occur when someone is suffering from chronic kidney diseases. (hormone.org)
  • One of the most promising candidates is erythropoietin (EPO), a hematopoietic growth factor produced mainly by kidney and fetal liver, which stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid precursor cell [ 45 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In 1950, Reissman [ 64 ] showed that hypoxia stimulated the erythropoietin production and a few years later kidney was reported to be the site of erythropoietin production [ 45 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Erythropoietin is a substance produced by the kidney that leads to the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. (medgadget.com)
  • Approximately 85-90 percent the body's natural erythropoietin comes from the kidney and 10-15% is contributed by the liver. (marvistavet.com)
  • Poor production of erythropoietin by the kidney. (marvistavet.com)
  • In its hormonal role, erythropoietin is produced by the kidney in response to hypoxic stress and signals the bone marrow to increase the number of circulating erythrocytes. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Improved recombinant DNA technology has led to development of synthetic forms of erythropoietin such as epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, darbepoetin alfa, epoetin omega, and epoetin delta among the others. (medgadget.com)
  • Amongst all synthetic erythropoietin products, Epoetin alfa and its advance version, Darbepoetin alfa, are the most popular drugs. (medgadget.com)
  • EpoR pre-exists as dimers which upon binding of a 30 kDa ligand erythropoietin (Epo), changes its homodimerized state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The half-maximal response in a cellular proliferation assay is evoked at an erythropoietin concentration of 10 pM, 10(-2) of its Kd value for erythropoietin-EPOR binding site 1 (Kd approximately equal to nM), and 10(-5) of the Kd for erythropoietin-EPOR binding site 2 (Kd approximately equal to 1 microM). (rcsb.org)
  • Upon erythropoietin (EPO) binding, the EPOR activates Jak2 tyrosine kinase which activates different intracellular pathways including: Ras/MAP kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and STAT transcription factors. (novusbio.com)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine stimulating erythrocyte differentiation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Erythropoietin is the principal hormone involved in the regulation of erythrocyte differentiation and the maintenance of a physiological level of circulating erythrocyte mass. (abcam.com)
  • Human erythropoietin mainly functions in enhancing the proliferation of erythropoietin cells in spleen, bone marrow and fetal hepatocytes, and the differentiation of erythrocytes. (google.com)
  • Human erythropoietin is a haematopoietic cytokine required for the differentiation and proliferation of precursor cells into red blood cells. (rcsb.org)
  • Erythropoietin acts upon haemopoietic stem cells to initiate their differentiation into the erythroid series. (osti.gov)
  • misc{etde_22121055, title = {Recovery of the Erythropoietin-Sensitive Stem-Cell Population following Total-Body X-Irradiation} author = {Byron, J. W.} abstractNote = {Erythropoietin acts upon haemopoietic stem cells to initiate their differentiation into the erythroid series. (osti.gov)
  • Determination of the structure of erythropoietin and itsreceptor identified these molecules as members of a large family of relatedmacromolecules with pleiotropic activities involving cell survival, growth,differentiation, and inflammation. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Specifically,recombinant human erythropoietin supported the growth and differentiation ofseptal cholinergic forebrain neurons in vitro, reminiscent of its activity inthe bone marrow. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Erythropoietin is an essential growth factor that promotes survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mammalian erythroid progenitor cells. (biologists.org)
  • The papers show that the possible therapeutic spectrum of erythropoietin could be expanded considerably when compared with the present situation. (google.com)
  • This finding seems to settle the debate about whether there is a therapeutic role for erythropoietin administration during primary PCI and it is a useful negative finding," wrote Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, MPH, of Harvard Medical School, VA Boston Healthcare System, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, in an editorial that accompanied the study. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The papers show that the possible therapeutic spectrum of erythropoietin could. (google.com)
  • Recombinant erythropoietin is a kind of therapeutic agent devised using DNA technology. (medgadget.com)
  • This observation suggested that recombinant human erythropoietin could be therapeutic for CNS diseases, a possibility further supported by positive findings in a model of ischemic stroke. (cancernetwork.com)
  • When you have erythropoietin injections, the amount of erythropoietin in your body becomes much higher than normal. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • This test measures the amount of erythropoietin in the blood. (labcorp.com)
  • The amount of erythropoietin released depends upon how low the oxygen level is and the ability of the kidneys to produce erythropoietin. (labcorp.com)
  • The density of yellow coloration is directly proportional to the amount of Erythropoietin captured in plate. (abcam.com)
  • 1. A stable pharmaceutical composition comprising a solution of a therapeutically effective amount of erythropoietin and a preservative selected from the group consisting ofbenzyl alcohol, a paraben and phenol or a mixture thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • A more serious side effect of Erythropoietin may be high blood pressure. (mountsinai.on.ca)
  • The report "Global Erythropoietin (EPO) Market with Focus on Asia: Industry Analysis & Outlook (2020-2025)" analyzes the development of this market, with focus on the US and Asia-Pacific markets. (medgadget.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates EPCs in humans. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Several studies published in recent years have shown that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) is a crucial mediator of injury-related tissue protection in mammals following ischemic and nonischemic injuries. (hindawi.com)
  • Cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein mediating cytoprotection in a variety of tissues, including spinal cord, through activation of multiple signaling pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we discuss the exciting potential of the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin for the treatment of diseases such as cardiac ischemia, vascular injury, neurodegeneration, and diabetes through the modulation of cellular oxidative stress. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 1] In patients with chronic renal failureand low levels of endogenous erythropoietin, replacement therapy withrecombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO [Epogen, Procrit]) resulted innormalization of hemoglobin levels. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Standards and test samples are added to the wells along with a biotinylated Erythropoietin detection antibody and the microplate is then incubated at room temperature. (abcam.com)
  • Erythropoietin is given as an injection under the skin. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • You have erythropoietin as an injection under the skin (subcutaneously). (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The investigators investigate intraocular concentrations and pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin after a single intravitreal injection in humans. (bioportfolio.com)
  • diabetic macular edema.However, the pharmacokinetic profile of erythropoietin after intravitreal injection in humans has not yet been determined clearly. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the intraocular pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin after a single intravitreal injection in a prospective investigation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Erythropoietin is given by subcutaneous injection initially three times a week in conjunction with an iron supplement. (marvistavet.com)
  • Injection Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Test EPO 3000iu Used For Bone Repairing Quick detail of our Erythropoietin EPO Purity >98% Specification 3000iu/vial,5vials/kit Physical Appearance Sterile Filtered. (burrillandco.com)
  • People who have a bone marrow condition called myelodysplasia also sometimes have erythropoietin. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Rarely, polycythemia is caused by a bone marrow disorder called polycythemia vera, not by increased erythropoietin. (labcorp.com)
  • If the erythropoietin level is low, erythropoietin replacement therapy may help increase red cell production in the bone marrow. (labcorp.com)
  • Erythropoietin has its primary effect on red blood cell progenitors and precursors (which are found in the bone marrow in humans) by promoting their survival through protecting these cells from apoptosis, or cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythropoietin (also called epo) is a hormone produced by the kidneys in response to decreased oxygen levels in the circulating blood that stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells (RBCs). (davita.com)
  • Erythropoietin stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells that ultimately carries oxygen and maintains the oxygen levels in the body. (pitchengine.com)
  • Erythropoietin couples hematopoiesis with bone formation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Erythropoietin stimulates the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells (to increase the oxygen caring capacity of the blood ). (biology-online.org)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates the growth of erythroblasts in the bone marrow (C. Lacombe and P. Mayeux, Nephrol. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 4,5] The targets ofthis renal erythropoietin are the colony-forming units-erythroid (CFUe) thatreside within the bone marrow for which erythropoietin acts as a survival anddifferentiation factor. (cancernetwork.com)
  • 8] These findings clearlysuggested that the target(s) of erythropoietin extend beyond the bone marrowwhere its action is likely not hormonal in nature. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Erythropoietin is a type of protein called a growth factor. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Erythropoietin controls a variety of signal transduction pathways during oxidative stress that can involve Janus-tyrosine kinase 2, protein kinase B, signal transducer and activator of transcription pathways, Wnt proteins, mammalian forkhead transcription factors, caspases, and nuclear factor κB. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Erythropoietin is a protein and its amino acid sequence was first mapped out in 1983. (marvistavet.com)
  • Erythropoietin is a protein that controls the production of red blood cells. (mountsinai.on.ca)
  • Abcam's Erythropoietin (EPO) Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for accurate quantitative measurement of Human Erythropoietin concentrations in cell culture supernatant, serum and plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin). (abcam.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that erythropoietin (Epo) activates Jak-Stat signaling pathways in HSCs which leads to the production of BMPs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present invention provides an expression system for producing recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) exhibiting biological activity and immunochemical properties of the native human erythropoietin (hEPO). (google.com)
  • More specifically, the present invention relates to an expression system for producing biologically active recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) and an improved method for purifying the secreted rhEPOs. (google.com)
  • Genetic engineering techniques using an mammalian cell line as a host for producing a high level of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has been developed. (google.com)
  • When the kidneys are damaged, erythropoietin production suffers and it may become necessary to begin injections of one of the products listed above. (marvistavet.com)
  • Erythropoietin injections are very effective and easy to administer by owners at home. (marvistavet.com)
  • Erythropoietin injections are used to increase the production of red blood cells. (mountsinai.on.ca)
  • Erythropoietin specific antibodies have been precoated onto 96-well plates. (abcam.com)
  • Recny, M.A., Scoble, H.A. and Kim, Y . 1987 Structural characterization of natural human urinary and recombinant DNA-derived erythropoietin. (springer.com)
  • The focus of this review is on a novel neuroprotective approach with erythropoietin, a hematopoietic growth factor that: 1) is expressed in the human central nervous system, 2) is hypoxia-inducible, 3) has demonstrated remarkable neuroprotective potential in cell culture and animal models of disease, 4) has multiple protective effects (antiapoptotic, neurotrophic, antioxidant, angiogenic), and 5) is a clinically extremely well tolerated compound. (springer.com)
  • This study demonstrates the feasibility of early administration of human recombinant erythropoietin to term neonates with HIE, to protect against encephalopathy. (aappublications.org)
  • eluting the human erythropoietin from said gel filtration column. (google.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the purified human erythropoietin contains isoforms with molecular weights of from 35 kD to 45 kD. (google.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1 , wherein the purified human erythropoietin exhibits a specific activity of up to 180,000 to 240,000 units/mg. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates generally to the field of molecular biology of human erythropoietin. (google.com)
  • Human erythropoietin (hEPO) is a glycoprotein with molecular weight of 30-40 kD. (google.com)
  • The amount of human erythropoietin obtained from the patient's urine is rare, and a traditional process for purifying the human erythropoietin is laborious and time-consuming. (google.com)
  • Therefore, there is a demand to develop a process for producing and purifying a large amount of human erythropoietin in a simple and economical way. (google.com)
  • A cDNA fragment encoding human erythropoietin was cloned and sequenced by Jacob et al. (google.com)
  • The clinical development of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has had a remarkable impact on the clinical practice of oncology. (cancernetwork.com)
  • LOS ANGELES , July 16 /PRNewswire/ -- Human erythropoietin (EPO) is a potent neuroprotective agent for multiple brain disorders, including stroke, brain and spinal cord injury, and Parkinson's disease. (biospace.com)
  • Our Erythropoietin R Lysates can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Recombinant Human erythropoietin (rHu-Epo) has been a promising role in the management of anaemia in CRF subjects and it is well documented. (omicsonline.org)
  • The in-vivo studies were performed on splenic macrophages and inflammatory peritoneal macrophages, in recombinant human erythropoietin -treated, compared to untreated mice, as well as in transgenic mice over-expressing human erythropoietin (tg6), compared to their control wild type counterparts. (haematologica.org)
  • Purification of Human Erythropoietin," Journal of Biol. (patentgenius.com)
  • Our group has found serendipitously that recombinant human erythropoietin administered into the systemic circulation is not strictly excluded from the brain. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Given the outstanding safety record for recombinant human erythropoietin after more than a decade in widespread clinical use, the results of multiple preclinical investigations suggest that this cytokine or its derivatives may be useful for treatment of a variety of nervous system diseases. (cancernetwork.com)
  • 2. What will be the CAGR of Erythropoietin (EPO) Drugs Market during the forecast period (2019-2025)? (openpr.com)
  • 2019) Enhanced anti-mammary gland cancer activities of tamoxifen-loaded erythropoietin-coated drug delivery system. (plos.org)
  • This infographic illustrates the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of preoperative erythropoietin on perioperative blood transfusion. (lww.com)
  • 2] Despite the significant impacterythropoietin therapy had on the renal dialysis patient population, this wasfelt to be a unique situation related to the lack of erythropoietin productionin the setting of renal failure. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Your doctor may change the dose of erythropoietin, depending on these results. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • A dose of erythropoietin lasts about a day but its effect is seen approximately five days later when the red cell proliferation it has induced is mature enough for release into the circulation. (marvistavet.com)
  • Your doctor may need to reduce or withhold your dose of Erythropoietin and initiate or increase blood pressure medication. (mountsinai.on.ca)
  • The efficacy of erythropoietin mouthwash in prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic SCT: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (ons.org)
  • Sex difference in mouse metabolic response to erythropoietin. (nih.gov)
  • The administration of erythropoietin to infants with asphyxia with mild/moderate HIE was associated with favorable decreases in endogenous NO production, decreases in seizure activity, and improved neurodevelopmental outcomes to 6 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 ) reported that erythropoietin (Epo) inhibits apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy in ovarian cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) is the cytokine that regulates red blood cell production. (nih.gov)
  • growth factor , hormone ) erythropoietin is a glycoprotein (46 kD) hormone produced by specialised cells in the kidneys that regulates the production of red blood cells in the marrow . (biology-online.org)
  • Erythropoietin regulates blood oxygen levels in the body, when levels are low it is released to stimulate the formation of red blood cells. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Moreover, erythropoietin and erythroferrone target Smad1/5 signaling and require Smad1/5 to suppress hepcidin expression. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Erythropoietin is produced and released into the blood by the kidneys in response to low blood oxygen levels (hypoxemia). (labcorp.com)
  • Increased production and release of erythropoietin continues to occur until oxygen levels in the blood rise to normal or near normal concentrations, then production falls. (labcorp.com)
  • Low levels of oxygen in the blood triggers the production and release of erythropoietin. (pitchengine.com)
  • The gene for erythropoietin ( EPO ), which boosts red blood cells thereby raising blood oxygen and endurance, presents another possibility. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) regulation of red blood cell production and its induction at reduced oxygen tension provides for the important erythropoietic response to ischemic stress. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These cells are sensitive to low arterial oxygen concentration and will release erythropoietin when oxygen is low . (biology-online.org)
  • However, when the body is not circulating enough oxygen in the blood, erythropoietin production increases. (hormone.org)
  • Synthetic erythropoietin is produced using DNA recombinant technology. (pitchengine.com)
  • What is the meaning of synthetic erythropoietin? (proprofs.com)
  • People suffering from End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), HIV or undergoing chemotherapy are not able to produce enough EPO on their own and thus, are administered with synthetic or recombinant erythropoietin which has the similar sequence of amino acids. (medgadget.com)
  • The goal was to examine biochemical, neurophysiologic, anatomic, and clinical changes associated with erythropoietin administration to neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). (aappublications.org)
  • Anaemia: Regulation of renal erythropoietin via HIF. (nih.gov)
  • The hormone erythropoietin (Epo) is a well-known doping substance that has a long history of abuse in endurance sports, such as cycling. (news-medical.net)
  • The anabolic-androgenic steroid is known to increase the levels of the hormone ( erythropoietin ) that is involved in the production of red blood cells. (isteroids.com)
  • 7 The provision of exogenous erythropoietin has been shown to inhibit metabolic events that occur during HIE. (aappublications.org)
  • Preliminary data on exogenous erythropoietin support its protective role for neuronal cells. (aappublications.org)
  • Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that rats could be made permanently anemic by repeated mixed gamma-neutron irradiations, and that once the maintenance of normal circulatory red cell concentration was lost, the administration of exogenous erythropoietin could not restore the production of red cells to normal levels. (dtic.mil)
  • However, if a person's kidneys are damaged and do not produce sufficient erythropoietin, then too few RBCs are produced and the person typically becomes anemic. (labcorp.com)
  • The presence of erythropoietin rescues in vitro cultured neurons from NO-induced death. (aappublications.org)
  • Results Erythropoietin effects on macrophages were found under both the in-vivo and in-vitro experiments. (haematologica.org)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) derivatives have been found to increase frataxin levels in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) in vitro. (curefa.org)
  • A study published in the Jan 16 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine suggests that erythropoietin treatment may not provide neuroprotection for extremely premature babies. (news-medical.net)
  • Commonly referred to as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, erythropoietin is also known to have other biological functions, such as involvement in the wound healing cycle and brain's response to neuronal injury. (medgadget.com)
  • Hypoxia causes an increase in erythropoietin gene transcription, enhancing red blood cell production. (kenyon.edu)
  • 1]Erythropoietin DNA probes were constructed from tryptic fragments of the isolateand the gene cloned in 1985. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone produced primarily by the kidneys. (labcorp.com)
  • Erythropoietin is a type of a glycoprotein produced by body that controls red blood cell production in the body and is produced in kidneys. (pitchengine.com)
  • Treatment with HIF stabilizers rescues erythropoietin production in these cells, but the mechanisms underlying the decreased response of REPCs in fibrotic kidneys to anemic stimulation remain elusive. (jci.org)
  • Erythropoietin, also known as EPO, is a hormone that the kidneys produce to stimulate production and maintenance of crucial red blood cells. (hormone.org)
  • A newly-discovered hereditary mutation is responsible for an increased production of erythropoietin (EPO) in the blood. (news-medical.net)
  • Occasionally, an erythropoietin test may be ordered in follow up to CBC results that show an increased number of RBCs, to help determine whether the excess production of RBCs (polycythemia or erythrocytosis) is due to an overproduction of erythropoietin or some other cause (e.g. (labcorp.com)
  • Erythropoietin is an essential hormone for red blood cell production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO), originally identified for its critical function in regulating production and survival of erythrocytes, is a member of the type 1 cytokine superfamily. (hindawi.com)
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) is an essential hormone that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties, and helps control red blood cell production. (ons.org)
  • In high endurance sports, performance enhancing drugs may be used to stimulate erythropoietin production to increase red blood cell count. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Red blood cells are an important aspect of life, and erythropoietin is a hormone directly connected to the production and maintenance of these cells. (hormone.org)
  • Increased erythropoietin production helps compensate for this. (hormone.org)
  • Amgen continues to believe that its patents are valid and enforceable, and that Roche's peg-EPO product will infringe other Amgen patents relating to recombinant erythropoietin and its production. (amgen.com)
  • The peritoneal inflammatory macrophages obtained from erythropoietin -treated mice displayed increased expression of F4/80, CD11b, CD80 and major histocompatibility complex class II, and augmented phagocytic activity. (haematologica.org)
  • This effect may be used in polycythaemic mice to estimate changes in the erythropoietin-sensitive stem-cell population following total-body irradiation (TBR). (osti.gov)
  • Erythropoietin and erythroferrone fail to suppress hepcidin in mice with a conditional ablation of Smad1 and Smad5 in hepatocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Kenneth Maiese, Zhao Zhong Chong, Jinling Hou and Yan Chen Shang, " Erythropoietin and Oxidative Stress", Current Neurovascular Research (2008) 5: 125. (eurekaselect.com)