The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
The series of cells in the red blood cell lineage at various stages of differentiation.
A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
A myeloproliferative disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of erythroblastic and myeloblastic elements with atypical erythroblasts and myeloblasts in the peripheral blood.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
An increase in circulating RETICULOCYTES, which is among the simplest and most reliable signs of accelerated ERYTHROCYTE production. Reticulocytosis occurs during active BLOOD regeneration (stimulation of red bone marrow) and in certain types of ANEMIA, particularly CONGENITAL HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
Cell surface proteins that bind erythropoietin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. They include epsilon-globin, gamma-globin, delta-globin and beta-globin. There is also a pseudogene of beta (theta-beta) in the gene cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains and two beta-globin chains.
Suppression of erythropoiesis with little or no abnormality of leukocyte or platelet production.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
Members of the alpha-globin family. In humans, they are encoded in a gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 16. They include zeta-globin and alpha-globin. There are also pseudogenes of zeta (theta-zeta) and alpha (theta-alpha) in the cluster. Adult HEMOGLOBIN is comprised of 2 alpha-globin chains and 2 beta-globin chains.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Members of the beta-globin family. In humans, two non-allelic types of gamma-globin - A gamma and G gamma are encoded in the beta-globin gene cluster on CHROMOSOME 11. Two gamma-globin chains combine with two ZETA-GLOBIN chains to form the embryonic hemoglobin Portland. Fetal HEMOGLOBIN F is formed from two gamma-globin chains combined with two ALPHA-GLOBIN chains.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.

Sustained induction of fetal hemoglobin by pulse butyrate therapy in sickle cell disease. (1/1023)

High levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) protect from many of the complications of sickle cell disease and lead to improved survival. Butyrate and other short chain fatty acids were previously shown to increase Hb F production in erythroid cells in vitro and in animal models in vivo. However, butyrates are also known to inhibit the proliferation of many cell types, including erythroid cells. Experience with the use of butyrate in animal models and in early clinical trials demonstrated that the Hb F response may be lost after prolonged administration of high doses of butyrate. We hypothesized that this loss of response may be a result of the antiproliferative effects of butyrate. We designed a regimen consisting of intermittent or pulse therapy in which butyrate was administered for 4 days followed by 10 to 24 days with no drug exposure. This pulse regimen induced fetal globin gene expression in 9 of 11 patients. The mean Hb F in this group increased from 7.2% to 21.0% (P <.002) after intermittent butyrate therapy for a mean duration of 29.9 weeks. This was associated with a parallel increase in the number of F cells and F reticulocytes. The total hemoglobin levels also increased from a mean of 7.8 g/dL to a mean of 8.8 g/dL (P <.006). The increased levels of Hb F were sustained in all responders, including 1 patient who has been on pulse butyrate therapy for more than 28 months. This regimen, which resulted in a marked and sustained increase in Hb F levels in more than two thirds of the adult sickle cell patients enrolled in this study, was well tolerated without adverse side effects. These encouraging results require confirmation along with an appropriate evaluation of clinical outcomes in a larger number of patients with sickle cell disease.  (+info)

Use of altered specificity mutants to probe a specific protein-protein interaction in differentiation: the GATA-1:FOG complex. (2/1023)

GATA-1 and FOG (Friend of GATA-1) are each essential for erythroid and megakaryocyte development. FOG, a zinc finger protein, interacts with the amino (N) finger of GATA-1 and cooperates with GATA-1 to promote differentiation. To determine whether this interaction is critical for GATA-1 action, we selected GATA-1 mutants in yeast that fail to interact with FOG but retain normal DNA binding, as well a compensatory FOG mutant that restores interaction. These novel GATA-1 mutants do not promote erythroid differentiation of GATA-1- erythroid cells. Differentiation is rescued by the second-site FOG mutant. Thus, interaction of FOG with GATA-1 is essential for the function of GATA-1 in erythroid differentiation. These findings provide a paradigm for dissecting protein-protein associations involved in mammalian development.  (+info)

Angiogenesis defects and mesenchymal apoptosis in mice lacking SMAD5. (3/1023)

The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signals are mediated by a family of at least nine SMAD proteins, of which SMAD5 is thought to relay signals of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. To investigate the role of SMAD5 during vertebrate development and tumorigenesis, we disrupted the Smad5 gene by homologous recombination. We showed that Smad5 was expressed predominantly in mesenchyme and somites during embryogenesis, and in many tissues of the adult. Mice homozygous for the mutation died between days 10.5 and 11.5 of gestation due to defects in angiogenesis. The mutant yolk sacs lacked normal vasculature and had irregularly distributed blood cells, although they contained hematopoietic precursors capable of erythroid differentiation. Smad5 mutant embryos had enlarged blood vessels surrounded by decreased numbers of vascular smooth muscle cells, suffered massive apoptosis of mesenchymal cells, and were unable to direct angiogenesis in vitro. These data suggest that SMAD5 may regulate endothelium-mesenchyme interactions during angiogenesis and that it is essential for mesenchymal survival.  (+info)

FLI-1 inhibits differentiation and induces proliferation of primary erythroblasts. (4/1023)

Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia involves two members of the ETS family of transcriptional regulators, both activated via proviral insertion in the corresponding loci. Spi-1/PU.1 is expressed in the disease induced by the original Friend virus SFFV(F-MuLV) complex in adult mice. In contrast, FLI-1 is overexpressed in about 75% of the erythroleukemias induced by the F-MuLV helper virus in newborn mice. To analyse the consequences of the enforced expression of FLI-1 on erythroblast differentiation and proliferation and to compare its activity to that of PU.1/Spi-1, we used a heterologous system of avian primary erythroblasts previously described to study the cooperation between Spi-1/PU.1 and the other molecular alterations observed in SFFV-induced disease. FLI-1 was found: (i) to inhibit the apoptotic cell death program normally activated in erythroblasts following Epo deprivation; (ii) to inhibit the terminal differentiation program induced in these cells in response to Epo and; (iii) to induce their proliferation. However, in contrast to Spi-1/PU.1, the effects of FLI-1 on erythroblast, differentiation and proliferation did not require its cooperation with an abnormally activated form of the EpoR. Enhanced survival of FLI-1 expressing erythroblasts correlated with the upregulation of bcl2 expression. FLI-1 also prevented the rapid downregulation of cyclin D2 and D3 expression normally observed during Epo-induced differentiation and delayed the downregulation of several other genes involved in cell cycle or cell proliferation control. Our results show that overexpression of FLI-1 profoundly deregulates the normal balance between differentiation and proliferation in primary erythroblasts. Thus, the activation of FLI-1 expression observed at the onset of F-MuLV-induced erythroleukemia may provide a proliferative advantage to virus infected cells that would otherwise undergo terminal differentiation or cell death.  (+info)

Correction for erythroid cell contamination in microassay for immunophenotyping of neonatal lymphocytes. (5/1023)

Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocyte subpopulations in neonates and young infants is hampered by the limited amount of blood that can be collected. Contamination of the flow cytometric "lympho-gate" by normoblasts and analysed erythrocytes, and therefore the underestimation of the relative frequencies of lymphocyte subpopulations, interferes with the precise calculation of absolute counts. A microassay was developed by adapting the lysed whole blood technique. Triple immunostaining in a single antibody staining step was used to reduce washing steps and cell loss. Introduction of a triple staining for CD71 (expressed by erythroid precursors), glycophorin A (GpA, expressed by all erythroid cells), and CD45 (expressed by all leucocytes) permitted the relative frequencies of normoblasts (CD71(+)/GpA+/CD45(-) population) and unlysed erythrocytes (CD71(-)/GpA+/CD45(-) population)to be identified and measured within the "lympho-gate" of neonatal cord blood samples. Particularly high frequencies were found (median: 31%) in cord blood samples from preterm neonates. These erythroid cells disappear rapidly by 1 week of age The relative frequencies of erythroid cells can be used to calculate correct lymphocyte subpopulation values. Using only 0.5-0.8 ml of blood, this micro- assay would also be suitable for rapid prenatal immunodiagnosis of congenital immunodeficiencies.  (+info)

Insulin-like growth factor I plays a role in regulating erythropoiesis in patients with end-stage renal disease and erythrocytosis. (6/1023)

Erythroid progenitor growth, the serum hormones that regulate erythropoiesis, and the effect of patient's serum on the growth of normal erythroid progenitors were assessed in eight patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and erythrocytosis. All patients were male and had been on maintenance dialysis, they had a hematocrit >50% and/or a red blood cell count >6 x 10(12)/L and an arterial oxygen saturation >95%. Four had acquired cystic disease of the kidney (ACDK), and four other non-ACDK patients did not have known causes of secondary erythrocytosis after appropriate investigations and long-term follow-up. The methylcellulose culture technique was used to assay the erythroid progenitor (BFU-E/CFU-E) growth. Serum erythropoietin (EPO) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels were measured by RIA. Paired experiments were performed to determine the effects of 10% sera from ESRD patients and control subjects on normal marrow CFU-E growth. The numbers of EPO-dependent BFU-E in marrow and/or blood of patients with ESRD and erythrocytosis were higher than those of normal controls. No EPO-independent erythroid colonies were found. Serum EPO levels were constantly normal in one patient and elevated in three patients with ACDK; for non-ACDK patients, EPO levels were normal or low in two patients and persistently increased in one, but fluctuated in the remaining one on serial assays. There was no correlation between serum EPO levels and hematocrit values. The serum IGF-I levels in patients with ESRD and erythrocytosis were significantly increased compared with normal subjects or ESRD patients with anemia. We found an inverse correlation between serum EPO and IGF-I levels. Sera from patients with ESRD and erythrocytosis exhibited a stimulating effect on normal marrow CFU-E growth. The stimulating effect of sera from patients who had a normal serum EPO level and an elevated IGF-I level could be partially blocked by anti-IGF-I. The present study suggests that IGF-I plays an important role in the regulation of erythropoiesis in patients with ESRD and erythrocytosis who did not have an increased EPO production.  (+info)

c-kitUsing Ly5 congenic mice, we characterized the early differentiation step of pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells. Lineage- (Lin-)/CD71- cells in the bone marrow cells were separated into major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I(high)/c-kit(low) and MHC class I(high)/c-kit+info)

Apoptosis of erythroid precursors under stimulation with thrombopoietin: contribution to megakaryocytic lineage choice. (8/1023)

Although the effect of thrombopoietin (TPO) on megakaryocyte production is well established, its role in the commitment of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors to the megakaryocytic lineage remains to be determined. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the determination process of megakaryocytic lineage as a terminal differentiation pathway under stimulation with TPO. Day 7 cultured cells grown by TPO derived from cord blood CD34+ cells were divided into four subpopulations on the basis of CD34 and CD41 expression. The CD34-/CD41- cells showed the labeling pattern of anti-CD42b and anti-CD9 antibodies closer to that of the CD34+/CD41- cells than the CD34+/CD41+ cells. Replating experiments revealed that approximately 40% of the CD34-/CD41- cells proliferated in response to a combination of growth factors, and more than 80% of them were pure erythroid precursors. However, this subpopulation failed to grow/survive and fell into apoptosis in the presence of TPO alone. In contrast, the CD34+/CD41+ cells, which predominantly contained megakaryocytic precursors, exerted a low but significant proliferative potential in the presence of TPO. The insufficient response to TPO of the CD34-/CD41- cells may result from the apparently low expression of c-MpI, as determined by flow cytometric analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Therefore, these results suggest that the apoptosis of hematopoietic precursors other than megakaryocytic precursors is related to the determination of the terminal differentiation under the influence of TPO.  (+info)

There are two main types of beta-thalassemia:

1. Beta-thalassemia major (also known as Cooley's anemia): This is the most severe form of the condition, and it can cause serious health problems and a shortened lifespan if left untreated. Children with this condition are typically diagnosed at birth or in early childhood, and they may require regular blood transfusions and other medical interventions to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
2. Beta-thalassemia minor (also known as thalassemia trait): This is a milder form of the condition, and it may not cause any noticeable symptoms. People with beta-thalassemia minor have one mutated copy of the HBB gene and one healthy copy, which allows them to produce some normal hemoglobin. However, they may still be at risk for complications such as anemia, fatigue, and a higher risk of infections.

The symptoms of beta-thalassemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the age of onset. Common symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Frequent infections
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Enlarged spleen

Beta-thalassemia is most commonly found in people of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian ancestry. It is caused by mutations in the HBB gene, which is inherited from one's parents. There is no cure for beta-thalassemia, but it can be managed with blood transfusions, chelation therapy, and other medical interventions. Bone marrow transplantation may also be a viable option for some patients.

In conclusion, beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other complications. While there is no cure for the condition, it can be managed with medical interventions and bone marrow transplantation may be a viable option for some patients. Early diagnosis and management are crucial in preventing or minimizing the complications of beta-thalassemia.

Erythroleukemia typically affects adults in their 50s and 60s, although it can occur at any age. Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue. The cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body, including the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes.

Erythroleukemia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill cancer cells and restore normal blood cell production. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary. The prognosis for erythroleukemia is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of about 20%.

Erythroleukemia is classified as an acute leukemia, meaning it progresses rapidly and can lead to life-threatening complications if left untreated. It is important for patients to receive prompt and appropriate treatment to improve their chances of survival and quality of life.

The term "reticulocytosis" is derived from the Latin words "reticulum," meaning net-like, and "cytosis," meaning the condition of cells. This refers to the characteristic net-like appearance of reticulocytes under a microscope.

There are several possible causes of reticulocytosis, including:

1. Inherited disorders such as hereditary elliptocytosis, hereditary spherocytosis, and pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency.
2. Acquired disorders such as hemolytic anemia, thalassemia, and sickle cell disease.
3. Infections such as malaria, dengue fever, and babesiosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, and anti-inflammatory medications.
5. Other conditions such as chronic kidney disease, liver disease, and autoimmune disorders.

Reticulocytosis can be diagnosed through a blood test called a complete blood count (CBC) or a reticulocyte count. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medication or blood transfusions may be required.

There are three main types of polycythemia:

1. Polycythemia vera (PV): This is the most common type and is characterized by an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It is a slowly progressing disease that can lead to complications such as blood clots, bleeding, and an increased risk of cancer.
2. Essential thrombocythemia (ET): This type is characterized by an overproduction of platelets, which can increase the risk of blood clots and other cardiovascular problems.
3. Primary myelofibrosis (PMF): This type is characterized by bone marrow scarring, anemia, fatigue, and an increased risk of blood clots.

Symptoms of polycythemia may include:

* Headache
* Dizziness
* Fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Swelling in the spleen or liver

Diagnosis is based on a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood counts (CBCs) and bone marrow biopsies. Treatment options for polycythemia include:

1. Phlebotomy (removal of blood): This is the most common treatment for PV and ET, which involves removing excess blood to reduce the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Chemotherapy: This may be used in combination with phlebotomy to treat PV and PMF.
3. Hydroxyurea: This medication is used to reduce the production of blood cells and relieve symptoms such as headache and dizziness.
4. Interferons: These medications are used to treat ET and may be effective in reducing the number of platelets.
5. Stem cell transplantation: In severe cases of PV or PMF, a stem cell transplant may be necessary.

It is important to note that these treatments do not cure polycythemia, but they can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes.

The exact cause of polycythemia vera is not known, but it is believed to be due to a genetic mutation in the JAK2 gene, which is involved in the signaling pathways that regulate blood cell production. The condition typically affects adults over the age of 60 and is more common in men than women.

Symptoms of polycythemia vera can include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Shortness of breath
* Headaches
* Dizziness
* Itching
* Night sweats
* Weight loss

Diagnosis of polycythemia vera is typically made based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

* Complete blood count (CBC) to measure the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
* Blood chemistry tests to assess liver function and other body chemicals
* Genetic testing to look for the JAK2 mutation
* Bone marrow biopsy to examine the bone marrow tissue for abnormalities

Treatment for polycythemia vera usually involves phlebotomy (the removal of blood from the body) to reduce the number of red blood cells and relieve symptoms such as itching and night sweats. In some cases, medications may be used to reduce the production of blood cells or to treat specific symptoms. Regular monitoring by a healthcare provider is important to detect any changes in the condition and to prevent complications.

Overall, polycythemia vera is a chronic and progressive disease that can have significant impact on quality of life if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

The symptoms of RCPA can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:

* Severe anemia
* Fatigue
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Increased risk of bleeding

Diagnosis of RCPA typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including blood counts, genetic analysis, and bone marrow aspiration. Treatment for RCPA may involve blood transfusions, iron chelation therapy, and in some cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

The prognosis for RCPA is generally poor, with a high risk of bleeding and death in early childhood if left untreated. However, with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, patients with RCPA can have a good quality of life and a normal lifespan.

There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia. Alpha-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the alpha-globin chain, which is one of the two chains that make up hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the beta-globin chain.

Thalassemia can cause a range of symptoms, including anemia, fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, liver failure, and bone deformities. Thalassemia is usually diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of hemoglobin and other proteins in the blood.

There is no cure for thalassemia, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and medications to reduce the severity of anemia. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.

Preventive measures for thalassemia include genetic counseling and testing for individuals who are at risk of inheriting the disorder. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who are carriers of the disorder. In addition, individuals with thalassemia should avoid marriage within their own family or community to reduce the risk of passing on the disorder to their children.

Overall, thalassemia is a serious and inherited blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. However, with proper treatment and management, individuals with thalassemia can lead fulfilling lives and minimize the risk of complications.

There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:

1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.

The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.

Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.

Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.

In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.

The symptoms of sideroblastic anemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and a rapid heart rate. Treatment options for sideroblastic anemia typically involve addressing the underlying genetic cause of the condition, such as through gene therapy or enzyme replacement therapy, and managing symptoms with medication and lifestyle modifications.

In summary, sideroblastic anemia is a rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormalities in iron metabolism that can lead to impaired red blood cell production and various other symptoms. It is important for individuals with this condition to receive timely and appropriate medical attention to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.

Previous article Definition of 'Anemia, Sideroblastic, Congenital' Next article Definition of 'Anemia, Diamond-Blackfan'

Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and pale or yellowish skin. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions, medication to suppress the immune system, antibiotics for infections, and removal of the spleen (splenectomy) in severe cases.

Prevention strategies for hemolytic anemia include avoiding triggers such as certain medications or infections, maintaining good hygiene practices, and seeking early medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

It is important to note that while hemolytic anemia can be managed with proper treatment, it may not be curable in all cases, and ongoing monitoring and care are necessary to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Examples of experimental leukemias include:

1. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): A rare inherited disorder that leads to a lack of antibody production and an increased risk of infections.
2. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare inherited disorder characterized by a failure of red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow.
3. Fanconi anemia: A rare inherited disorder that leads to a defect in DNA repair and an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.
4. Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT): A rare inherited disorder characterized by progressive loss of coordination, balance, and speech, as well as an increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma.
5. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which increases the risk of developing leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

These experimental leukemias are often used in research studies to better understand the biology of leukemia and to develop new treatments.

There are several subtypes of MDS, each with distinct clinical features and prognosis. The most common subtype is refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), followed by chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The exact cause of MDS is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic mutations and environmental factors. Risk factors for developing MDS include exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, age over 60, and a history of previous cancer treatment.

Symptoms of MDS can vary depending on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, but may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, infection, bleeding, and easy bruising. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy.

Treatment for MDS depends on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, or more intensive therapies like chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.

Overall, myelodysplastic syndromes are a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders that can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic accuracy, developing more effective treatments, and exploring novel therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients with MDS.

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... involved in the development of erythroid lineage from multipotent progenitors. The burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) cells ... Erythropoietin has its primary effect on red blood cell progenitors and precursors (which are found in the bone marrow in ... Precursors of red cells, the proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts also express erythropoietin receptor and are ... This results in differentiation, survival and proliferation of the erythroid cell. SOCS1, SOCS3 and CIS are also expressed ...
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On bone marrow examination, people with the disease exhibit abnormal vacuoles in precursor cells of the myeloid and erythroid ... In 2022 the National Cancer Institute announced a three-year clinical trial to evaluate stem cell transplant as a possible ... "A Phase II Study of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for Subjects With VEXAS (Vacuoles, E1 Enzyme, X-linked, ... caused by a somatic mutation of the UBA1 gene in hematopoietic progenitor cells. The name VEXAS is an acronym deriving from the ...
The bone marrow of patients with RCC contains islands of erythroid precursors and spare granulocytes. In some scenarios, ... Symptoms result from underproduction of red blood cells (weakness, pallor, failure to thrive, pica), white blood cells ( ...
HbF are termed F cells. These cells are progeny of a small pool of immature committed erythroid precursors (BFU-e) that retain ... thereby preventing cells from leaving the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. This agent also exhibits radiosensitizing activity by ... which does not polymerize and deform red blood cells like the mutated HbS, responsible for sickle cell disease). Adult red ... In sickle-cell disease it increases fetal hemoglobin and decreases the number of attacks. It is taken by mouth. Common side ...
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A diagnosis of DBA is made on the basis of anemia, low reticulocyte (immature red blood cells) counts, and diminished erythroid ... precursors in bone marrow. Features that support a diagnosis of DBA include the presence of congenital abnormalities, ... Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid aplasia that usually presents in infancy. DBA causes low red blood cell ... The phenotype of DBA patients suggests a hematological stem cell defect specifically affecting the erythroid progenitor ...
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... an increase in megakaryocytes and erythroid precursors may be observed, but dyspoiesis in not seen in any cell lineage. Also, ... The postulated cell of origin is a limited-potential, marrow-derived stem cell. The majority (90%) of cases have not had ... so the bone marrow biopsy may show evidence of a plasma cell dyscrasia with increased numbers of atypical plasma cells. Splenic ... On both the bone marrow aspirate and the core biopsy, a hypercellular marrow with an increased myeloid:erythroid ratio of 20:1 ...
Bone marrow produces both white blood cells and red blood cells from the same precursor stem cells. Therefore, the upregulation ... Inflammatory cytokines suppress the proliferation of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow.; (ii) inflammatory cytokines ... of white blood cells causes fewer stem cells to differentiate into red blood cells. This effect may be an important additional ... the effect of locking up iron stores is to reduce the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. These cells ...
A decrease in Thromboxane-A synthase leads to an increase in prostaglandin E2 levels which may affect erythroid precursor cells ... The TBXAS1 gene mainly transcribes in cells involved with the skeletal system and muscular system. The increased bone density ... with a range between 0.1 mg/kg/day to 1.5 mg/kg/day to maintain hemoglobin and white blood cells at normal levels in the blood ...
... erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated ... The retained iron in Hereditary hemochromatosis is primarily deposited in parenchymal cells, with reticuloendothelial cell ... The main role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all ... The receptor with its ligand bound transferrin is then transported through the endocytic cycle back to the cell surface, ready ...
... granulocyte precursor cells MeSH A11.148.378.590 - myeloid progenitor cells MeSH A11.148.378.590.249 - erythroid progenitor ... cho cells MeSH A11.251.210.505 - l cells (cell line) MeSH A11.251.210.520 - llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH ... granulocyte precursor cells MeSH A11.251.210.172 - cell line, transformed MeSH A11. - cos cells MeSH A11.251. ... u937 cells MeSH A11.627.635.350 - granulocyte precursor cells MeSH A11.635.500.700 - satellite cells, skeletal muscle MeSH ...
... defined as cytoplasmic and nuclear morphologic changes in erythroid, granulocytic, and megakaryocytic precursors, than what is ... First, the percentage of undifferentiated progenitor cells, blast cells, is always less than 20%, with considerably more ... Cell. 165 (4). doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.04.006. ISSN 1097-4172. PMID 27133164. Sumpter, Rhea; Levine, Beth (2016-08-09). "Novel ... "Role of Fanconi DNA repair pathway in neural stem cell homeostasis". Cell Cycle. 7 (13): 1911-5. doi:10.4161/cc.7.13.6235. PMID ...
However, infection with parvoviruses (such as human parvovirus B19) can affect erythroid precursors while they still have DNA, ... Lipid rafts that have been implicated in cell signaling events in nonerythroid cells have been shown in erythroid cells to ... Red blood cells in mammals anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus. In comparison, the red blood cells of ... Red blood cells are deformable, flexible, are able to adhere to other cells, and are able to interface with immune cells. Their ...
... is possible to use negative exclusion markers to deplete a cell population of other precursors and differentiated cells by cell ... Early erythroid progenitors are found at a quite low frequency relative to later stages of erythroid differentiation, such as ... CFU-E cells express Epo receptor, c-Kit (Stem cell factor receptor), transferrin receptor (CD71+), and are Ter119(glycophorin-A ... CFU-E stands for Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid. It arises from CFU-GEMM (via BFU-E, which stands for "erythroid burst-forming ...
Among white blood cells and precursors, CD71 is expressed only by erythroid precursors within the normal hematopoietic marrow ... the adult T cell leukemia (ATLL) caused by HTLV-1 and the Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).[citation needed] TfR1 expressed on the ... "Ubiquitous cell-surface glycoprotein on tumor cells is proliferation-associated receptor for transferrin". Proceedings of the ... Each monomer binds one holo-transferrin molecule creating an iron-Tf-TfR complex which enters the cell by endocytosis. TfR1 as ...
"Interplay of pu.1 and gata1 determines myelo-erythroid progenitor cell fate in zebrafish". Dev. Cell. 8 (1): 97-108. doi: ... Choi K, Kennedy M, Kazarov A, Papadimitriou JC, Keller G (1998). "A common precursor for hematopoietic and endothelial cells" ( ... immune cells, and even platelets all originate from the same progenitor cell, the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). As these cells ... PAX5 and Notch mutations can result in B-cell and T-cell leukemias, respectively. Dysregulation of stromal cells can in some ...
... a condition where macrophages phagocytose myeloid and erythroid precursors (similar to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in ... Langerhans cells are dendritic cells found in the skin and function by internalizing antigens (foreign particles) and ... and it is mediated by infiltration of CD8-expressing T cells followed by expression of Type 1 T helper cell cytokines (such as ... Cytology reveals cells with clear to lightly basophilic cytoplasm and round or indented nuclei with fine chromatin and ...
... a condition where macrophages phagocytose myeloid and erythroid precursors (similar to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in ... Langerhans cells are dendritic cells found in the skin and function by internalizing antigens (foreign particles) and ... A histiocyte is a differentiated tissue cell that has its origin in the bone marrow. The source for histiocytes is the monocyte ... Ginhoux F, Tacke F, Angeli V, Bogunovic M, Loubeau M, Dai XM, Stanley ER, Randolph GJ, Merad M (2006). "Langerhans cells arise ...
... and precursors for erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, but only in the beginning of their development. It is associated with ... placenta and chorio-carcinoma cells. Splicing products on the 5´end were found in primary haematopoietic cells and acute ... stem cells the β chain is expressed at very low levels and the amount increases along initial differentiation of erythroid, ... Kinetics of the receptor in immature and mature myeloid cells in response to GM-CSF is readily regulated by internalization or ...
Acute myeloid leukemia Acute erythroid leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Adult T-cell ... leukemia/lymphoma (Precursor) T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma Blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia Wolach, O; Stone, ... In most cases, these can be classified according to the lineage, myeloid or lymphoid, of the malignant cells that grow ... Yodoi, J; Takatsuki, K; Masuda, T (1974). "Letter: Two cases of T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Japan". New England ...
Decreased reticulocyte count due to destruction of fragile and abnormal megaloblastic erythroid precursor. The platelet count ... unbalanced cell proliferation and impaired cell division occur as a result of arrested nuclear maturation so the cells show ... Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to body ... There is a defect in DNA synthesis in the rapidly dividing cells and to a lesser extent, RNA and protein synthesis are also ...
It is classified as an erythrovirus because of its capability to invade red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. Three ... This infection is sometimes complicated by severe aplastic anemia caused by lysis of early erythroid precursors.[citation ... as well as the virus directly negatively affecting the red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. The risk of fetal loss is ... Although most patients have a decrease of erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) during parvovirus infection, it is ...
Cell. 35 (6): 856-67. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.09.006. PMC 2782615. PMID 19782034. Chan SY, Zhang YY, Hemann C, Mahoney CE, ... The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor ... Bianchi N, Zuccato C, Lampronti I, Borgatti M, Gambari R (August 2009). "Expression of miR-210 during erythroid differentiation ... Cell Metab. 10 (4): 273-84. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2009.08.015. PMC 2759401. PMID 19808020. Bostjancic E, Zidar N, Glavac D (2009 ...
"Protein Synthesis in Erythroid Cells, I. Reticulocyte Ribosomes Active in Stimulating Amino Acid Incorporation". Proceedings of ... Nikolaev, N.; Silengo, L.; Schlessinger, D. (1973). "Synthesis of a Large Precursor to Ribosomal RNA in a Mutant of Escherichia ...
"Occurrence of the erythroid cell specific arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase in human reticulocytes". Biochemical and Biophysical ... thereby may serve to signal for the degradation of the mitochondria and the maturation of these precursors to red blood cells ... mammary epithelial cells, the Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's lymphoma, corneal epithelial cells, and dendritic cells; it is ... joint Synovial membrane cells, seminal fluid, prostate epithelium cells, and mammary ductal epithelial cells. The distribution ...
Tikhmyanova N, Tulin AV, Roegiers F, Golemis EA (2010). "Dcas supports cell polarization and cell-cell adhesion complexes in ... erythroid 2-like1), MAX1, C/EBPα, CHOP-10 (C/EBP homologous protein 10), POU3F1 (POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 1, ... it has been speculated that it may have a role in axonal transport and influence the expression of the amyloid precursor ... "Differential regulation of cell motility and invasion by FAK". The Journal of Cell Biology. 160 (5): 753-67. doi:10.1083/jcb. ...
F mutation triggers erythropoietin hypersensitivity and terminal erythroid amplification in primary cells from patients with ... Megakaryocyte colony formation from human bone marrow precursors », Blood, 1979 oct;54(4), p. 940-5 Romeo PH, Prandini MH, ... William Vainchenker is director of research at Inserm, Hematopoiesis and Stem Cells Unit, Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif. ... Cancer Cell., 2011 jul 12;20(1), p. 25-38 Delhommeau F, Dupont S, Della Valle V, James C, Trannoy S, Massé A, Kosmider O, Le ...
... foetal and adult erythroid lineages may be explained by FANCA expression. As FANCA is also linked to cell-cycling and its ... In primitive and foetal erythrocyte precursors, FANCA expression is low, and almost zero during reticulocyte formation. The ... Other features of the Fanconi anaemia cell phenotype also include abnormal cell cycle kinetics (prolonged G2 phase), ... cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport". Exp. Cell Res. 289 (2): 211-21. doi:10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00261- ...
... leukaemia/lymphoma Early T-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukaemia NK-lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma Mature B-cell neoplasms ... without maturation AML with maturation Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia Acute monoblastic and monocytic leukaemia Pure erythroid ... NOS Germinal centre B-cell subtype Activated B-cell subtype T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma Primary DLBCL of the ... The myeloid cell line normally produces granulocytes, erythrocytes, thrombocytes, macrophages and mast cells; the lymphoid cell ...
JAK2 is a member of the Janus kinase family and makes the erythroid precursors hypersensitive to erythropoietin (EPO). This ... in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. It may also result in the overproduction of white blood cells and ... Phlebotomy is typically performed to bring their hematocrit (red blood cell percentage) down below 45 for men or 42 for women. ... Jackson N, Burt D, Crocker J, Boughton B (1987). "Skin mast cells in polycythaemia vera: relationship to the pathogenesis and ...
August 2006). "Early postnatal astroglial cells produce multilineage precursors and neural stem cells in vivo". The Journal of ... June 2005). "Podocalyxin is a CD34-related marker of murine hematopoietic stem cells and embryonic erythroid cells". Blood. 105 ... Stem cell markers are genes and their protein products used by scientists to isolate and identify stem cells. Stem cells can ... 2005). "Somatic stem cell marker prominin-1/CD133 is expressed in embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors". Stem Cells. 23 (6 ...
... granulocyte precursor cells MeSH A15.378.316.378 - hematopoietic stem cells MeSH A15.378.316.378.590 - myeloid progenitor cells ... erythroid progenitor cells MeSH A15.378.316.378.590.249.200 - erythroblasts MeSH A15.378.316.378.590.249.200.500 - megaloblasts ... foam cells MeSH A15.382.680.397.376 - giant cells, foreign-body MeSH A15.382.680.397.380 - giant cells, langhans MeSH A15.382. ... foam cells MeSH A15.382.812.522.376 - giant cells, foreign-body MeSH A15.382.812.522.380 - giant cells, langhans MeSH A15.382. ...
"Gene expression and biological significance of hexokinase in erythroid cells". Acta Haematologica. 108 (4): 204-9. doi:10.1159/ ... suggests that the 100-kDa hexokinases originated from a 50-kDa precursor via gene duplication and tandem ligation. Both N- and ... Cell. 125 (4): 801-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.03.032. PMID 16713569. S2CID 13709685. Sakai N, Terami H, Suzuki S, Haga M, ... Peng Q, Zhou J, Zhou Q, Pan F, Zhong D, Liang H (2009). "Silencing hexokinase II gene sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5- ...
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cancer cells, ... PDH is a precursor of acetyl-CoA, thus the inhibition of PDH eventually limits the production of ATP in electron transport ... The biotransformation of arsenic for excretion is primarily done through the nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 ... Arsenic exposure in small children distorts the ratio of T helper cells (CD4) to cytotoxic T cells (CD8), which are responsible ...
Similar to stimulation of red blood cell precursor cells (erythrogenesis), erythropoietin stimulates non-differentiated Schwann ... Differential expression of EpoR between erythroid cells. Most notably, plasma Epo concentration is regulated by ... In Schwann cells, increased erythropoietin levels may stimulate Schwann cell proliferation via JAK2 and ERK/MAP kinase ... Cell culture models show that retinal ganglion cells can be prevented from dying by certain pharmacological treatments. ...
Bruchova-Votavova H, Yoon D, Prchal JT (2010). "miR-451 enhances erythroid differentiation in K562 cells". Leuk Lymphoma. 51 (4 ... Page for mir-451 microRNA precursor family at Rfam "MicroRNA MIR451 family (MIR451) Gene group". HUGO Gene Nomenclature ... "MicroRNA-451 regulates LKB1/AMPK signaling and allows adaptation to metabolic stress in glioma cells". Mol Cell. 37 (5): 620- ... Patrick DM, Zhang CC, Tao Y, Yao H, Qi X, Schwartz RJ, Jun-Shen Huang L, Olson EN (2010). "Defective erythroid differentiation ...
The other, alternatively spliced form expressed primarily in the erythroid tissues, differs at the C-terminus, and contains a ... Acetylcholinesterase is also found on the red blood cell membranes, where different forms constitute the Yt blood group ... Pakaski M, Kasa P (2003). "Role of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the metabolism of amyloid precursor protein". Current ... Gaston SM, Marchase RB, Jakoi ER (1982). "Brain ligatin: a membrane lectin that binds acetylcholinesterase". J. Cell. Biochem. ...
... or more of the remaining cells (non- erythroid) are myeloblasts. In rare cases the erythroid lineage is the only obvious ... where the myeloproliferation is of erythrocytic precursors. It is defined as type "M6" under the FAB classification. The most ... Acute erythroid leukemias can be classified as follows: 50% or more of all nucleated bone marrow cells are erythroblasts, ... In a WHO proposal the blastic leukemias that are limited to the erythroid series are designated pure erythroid malignancies. ...
... in that certain cell types tend to aggregate in specific areas. For instance, erythrocytes, macrophages, and their precursors ... The ratio between myeloid series and erythroid cells is relevant to bone marrow function, and also to diseases of the bone ... Hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow can give rise to hematopoietic lineage cells, and mesenchymal stem cells, which can ... which are also known as marrow stromal cells. These are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell ...
As a result, either stem cells cannot enter the cell cycle, or cell division slows in many tissues. Extrinsic regulation is ... The pathways are a series of reactions, in which a zymogen (inactive enzyme precursor) of a serine protease and its ... "Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 facilitates neuronal glutathione synthesis by upregulating neuronal excitatory ... These receptors, that recognize the antigen soluble (B cells) or linked to a molecule on Antigen Presenting Cells (T cells), do ...
... is a precursor of monomethyl fumarate. Other prodrugs that metabolize to monomethyl fumarate have been ... This can be achieved because dimethyl fumarate and monomethyl fumarate, as cell-permeable metabolites, can epigenetically ... Dimethyl fumarate and monomethyl fumarate can activate the transcription factor (Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2)-related ... resulting in a shift in T helper cells (Th) from the Th1 and Th17 profile to a Th2 phenotype. Inflammatory cytokine production ...
She has shown that the developing retina contains a population of rod photoreceptor precursor cells, which can be transplanted ... Sowden, Jane Caroline (1991). Transcriptional control mechanisms regulating erythroid-specific expression of the carbonic ... These cells undergo a number of cell divisions before producing all retinal neurons. Sowden has explored whether stem cells can ... 21 July 2013). "Photoreceptor precursors derived from three-dimensional embryonic stem cell cultures integrate and mature ...
... the hormone produced by red cell precursors in the marrow to maintain the iron supply for the production of red cells. ... "Marcel Simon Award". E. Donnall Thomas Award Ganz, Tomas (2014). "Identification of erythroferrone as an erythroid regulator of ...
"Involvement of ABC7 in the biosynthesis of heme in erythroid cells: interaction of ABC7 with ferrochelatase". Blood. 101 (8): ... With iron/sulfur cluster precursors as its substrates, this protein may play a role in metal homeostasis. Mutations in this ... "Involvement of ABC7 in the biosynthesis of heme in erythroid cells: interaction of ABC7 with ferrochelatase". Blood. 101 (8): ... "Identification of genes expressed in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells by expressed sequence tags and efficient ...
This leads to megaloblastic changes in all rapidly dividing cells because DNA synthesis is diminished. In erythroid precursors ... Megaloblastic maturation of erythroid precursors is shown. Two megaloblasts occupy the center of the slide with a megaloblastic ... In the plasma, the Cbl is bound to transcobalamin II (TC II), which delivers the complex to nonintestinal cells. In these cells ... In the plasma, the Cbl is bound to transcobalamin II (TC II), which delivers the complex to nonintestinal cells. In these cells ...
... and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells ... lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 ... It is not known which tissues, in addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been ... erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by transmission electron ...
Erythroid Precursor Cells/drug effects*; Erythroid Precursor Cells/metabolism; Erythropoiesis/drug effects; Glycophorins/ ... We report here that low-dose arsenic exposure inhibits the erythroid differentiation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells ( ... Title: Arsenite exposure inhibits the erythroid differentiation of human hematopoietic progenitor CD34+ cells and causes ... metabolism; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects*; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism; Hemoglobins/metabolism*; Humans; ...
Anemia is strictly defined as a decrease in red blood cell (RBC) mass. The function of the RBC is to deliver oxygen from the ... erythroid and granulocyte precursors).. Replacement of bone marrow with nonhemopoietic cells leads to activation of fetal sites ... Congenital dyserythropoietic anemias - Demonstration of abnormalities of erythroid precursors in bone marrow aspirates, ... Infiltration of the bone marrow with fibrous tissue, neoplastic cells, or other cells that replace normal hematopoietic tissue ...
Finally, the precursor cells are available through bone marrow biopsy and cell purification schemes for particular stages of ... cell physiology and gene expression. Given the fact that erythroid cell suspensions are easy to obtain and that there are ... cells, especially with post-translational modifications or subcellular localizations that are unique to erythroid cells. A long ... genetic program specifies the formation of a particular cell type. In addition, the sheer number of erythroid cells available ...
or various combinations of all three cell types. Erythroid precursor cells may predominate secondary to hemorrhage or ... EMH may include increased numbers of erythroid precursors (Figure 2. and Figure 4. , arrows), myeloid precursors (Figure 2. and ... If one cell type predominates (i.e., myeloid, erythroid, megakaryocytic), this can be discussed in the pathology narrative. If ... whereas myeloid precursor cells may predominate secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or immune-mediated conditions. Plasma ...
... and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells ... It is not known which tissues, in addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been ... infection are related to the propensity of the virus to infect and lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell ... eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of chromatin can be seen in erythroid precursor cells of infected ...
Multiple aggregates of neutrophilic band cells and erythroid precursor cells are present in the sinusoids with a large ... Typical morphological features consist of small aggregates of cells with intensely basophilic nuclei (erythroid) or small ... collections of immature and mature myelocytic cells (myelopoiesis) located in the sinusoids and, in severe cases, in portal ...
... anemia refers to an absolute reduction of the total number of circulating red blood cells (RBCs). For practical purposes, ... anemia is considered when one or more of the following are decreased: hemoglobin, hematocrit, or red blood cell (RBC) count. ... demonstrates a leukoerythroblastic blood picture with the presence of precursor cells of the myeloid and erythroid lineage. In ... demonstrates a leukoerythroblastic blood picture with the presence of precursor cells of the myeloid and erythroid lineage. In ...
2009) A ferroportin transcript that lacks an iron-responsive element enables duodenal and erythroid precursor cells to evade ... 2018) Ferroportin deficiency in erythroid cells causes serum iron deficiency and promotes hemolysis due to oxidative stress. ... Rouault, T.A. (2005) The intestinal heme transporter revealed. Cell 122(5):649-51. PMID: 16143096, DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2005.08. ... 2012) Targeting HIF2α translation with Tempol in VHL-deficient clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Oncotarget 3(11):1472-82. PMID ...
... is a decreased red blood cells and deficiency in oxygen and body tissues hypoxia. • Anemia is usually diagnosed with a decrease ... abnormally large RBCs and erythroid precursors (megaloblasts). Anemias vitamin B12 deficiency; Pernicious anemia so caused by ... Red Blood cell and Bleeding Disorders.pdf. *Anemia Anemia; is a decreased red blood cells and deficiency in oxygen and body ... Similaire à Red Blood cell and Bleeding Disorders.pdf(. 20. ). Anaemia for c1 students in JImma university up load by sinboona ...
9/L or red cell transfusion dependence and hypocellular bone marrow for age with absent or reduced red cell precursors OR ... Erythroid lineage: Hemoglobin ,= 9 g/dL and reticulocyte count , 60 x 10^ ... or gamma-delta T cells. -Restricted or clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor by PCR AND cytopenia as follows: Severe ... Immune bone marrow failure is a condition that occurs when a person s immune system attacks the cells of the bone marrow. This ...
... and demonstrated engraftment of NP23-NHD13 myeloid cells as well as a less prominent (8-38%) population of erythroid cells in ... Thymic Precursor Cells Generate Acute Myeloid Leukemia in NP23-NHD13 Double Transgenic Mice. Friday, September 15, 2017. - ... The NP23-NHD13 cells lost expression of myeloid markers after 26 days; these cells were transplanted; all recipients were ... The percent of malignant cells in the thymus was often higher than the bone marrow (BM); indicated that the AML in NP23-NHD13 ...
mDYRK3 kinase is expressed selectively in late erythroid progenitor cells and attenuates colony-forming unit-erythroid ... mDYRK3 kinase is expressed selectively in late erythroid progenitor cells and attenuates colony-forming unit-erythroid ... Erythroid Precursor Cells 89% * Erythroid Cells 59% * Stem Cell Factor 56% * Phosphotransferases 54% ...
... erythroid and myeloid cells (monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes and dendritic cells). Within the B cell lineage, BTK is ... Thus, lack of BTK or expression of dominant-negative BTK splice variants in B cell precursor leukemia cells can inhibit ... Deficiency of Brutons tyrosine kinase in B cell precursor leukemia cells.. Feldhahn N et al. ... In XLA patients, B cell development is almost completely arrested at the pre-B cell stage: the pre-B cell fraction mainly ...
Cell, Erythroid Precursor Cells, Erythroid Precursor Erythroid Precursor Cell Precursor Cell, Erythroid Precursor Cells, ... Erythroid Precursor Cell. Erythroid Progenitor Cell. Erythroid Progenitor Cells. Erythroid Stem Cell. Erythroid Stem Cells. ... Erythropoietic Stem Cells. Precursor Cell, Erythroid. Precursor Cells, Erythroid. Progenitor Cell, Erythroid. Progenitor Cell, ... Cell, Erythroid Stem. Cell, Erythropoietic Progenitor. Cell, Erythropoietic Stem. Cells, Erythroid Precursor. Cells, Erythroid ...
... parvovirus that targets the erythroid precursors. Some patients, who later on develop only mild or moderate anemia, can present ... Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is the most common cause of inherited red cell membrane disorders and affects approximately 1 out ... On Behalf of the SFGM-TC: Prophylactic Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Patients Treated with Allogeneic Stem-Cell Transplantation ...
Erythroid Cells [A11.443] * Erythrocytes [A11.443.240] * Erythrocytes, Abnormal [A11.443.240.330] * Erythroid Precursor Cells [ ... Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitor Cells [A15.378.316.378.590.837] * Erythroid Precursor Cells [A15.378.316.378.590.837.250] * ... Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitor Cells [A11.148.378.590.837] * Erythroid Precursor Cells [A11.148.378.590.837.250] * ... Erythroid Precursor Cells Preferred Concept UI. M0024026. Scope Note. The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID ...
Cell culture. For CFU-F assay, flushed bone marrow cells were plated at 3 × 106 cells/T25 flask. Cells were cultured in growth ... erythroid (rat anti-mouse Ter119 APC, BD Biosciences, catalog 557909), or megakaryocytes (rat anti-mouse CD41 FITC, BD ... Cell-cycle analysis were calculated by using the Seurat cell-cycle scoring function, proliferative cells were defined as cells ... Single-cell RNA sequencing of endosteal bone marrow cells. We constructed 3 batches of single-cell libraries of endosteal Td+ ...
Adoptive transfer of erythroid precursors could rescue mice from ECM. Modeling of γδ T cell dynamics suggests that this ... Calcium imaging and single-cell RNA-sequencing were used in mouse dorsal root ganglia neurons to determine the size of the ... Interplay between liver and blood stages of Plasmodium infection dictates malaria severity via γδ T cells and IL-17-promoted ... This dichotomy relied on liver stage-dependent activation of Vγ4+ γδ T cells. Subsequent blood stage parasite loads dictated ...
Co-operative signalling mechanisms required for erythroid precursor expansion in response to erythropoietin and stem cell ... Stem cell transplantation for the treatment of Fanconi anaemia using a fludarabine-based cytoreductive regimen and T-cell- ... CANDIDATES FOR NORMAL COUNTERPARTS OF SEZARY CELLS AND ATLL CELLS IN THE PERIPHERAL-BLOOD. 55:191-192. 1983 ... improves sickle red blood cell health and survival in patients with sickle cell disease: an analysis of exploratory studies in ...
... to help multipotent progenitors evolve into erythroid lineages. The burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) cells begin to express ... Erythropoietins primary effect is to promote the survival of red blood cell progenitors and precursors (which are located in ... Proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts, which are precursors to red cells, express the erythropoietin receptor and are ... This may be due to anaemia or another disease that causes a low red blood cell count. Low levels of erythropoietin in the blood ...
The present invention includes embodiments for treatment and/or prevention of sickle cell disease that employ Hydroxyfasudil or ... by Phenylacetate and 4-Phenylbutyrate in Erythroid Precursors Derived From Normal Donors and Patients With Sickle Cell and β- ... cells ET-1 Activator of endothelial up (Phelan, et al 1995) cells HIF-1 Activator of endothelial up (Kim, et al 2006) cells TF ... cells 2005) HIF-1 Activator of endothelial up (Kim, et al not known decrease cells 2006) TF Activator of endothelial up ( ...
... of immature red blood cells and platelet-precursor cells (megakaryocytes) to facilitate their specialization (differentiation ... erythroid transcription factor 1. *GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1) ... To function properly, these immature cells must differentiate into specific types of mature blood cells. Red blood cells help ... TAM is characterized by the accumulation of immature megakaryocyte precursor cells in the blood, liver, and bone marrow. In ...
... the bone-marrow cells-megakaryocytes and erythroid cells-differentiate from a shared precursor, the megakaryocyte-erythroid ... Generally, T cells can be generated from iPSC in vitro by co-culturing them from OP9 stromal cells. Restifos lab demonstrated ... 2019 NIH Stem Cell Symposium. BY MANJU BHASKAR, NINDS. Stem-cell research being performed by NIH intramural and extramural ... T cells are potentially curative for patients with metastatic cancer, but many patients with cancer have T cells that are ...
Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitor Cells [A15.378.316.378.590.837]. *Erythroid Precursor Cells [A15.378.316.378.590.837.250] ... Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID ... Megakaryocyte-Erythroid Progenitor Cells [A11.148.378.590.837]. *Erythroid Precursor Cells [A11.148.378.590.837.250] ...
Unit, Erythroid Colony-Forming use Erythroid Precursor Cells Unit, Granulocyte-Erythroid-Macrophage-Megakaryocyte Colony- ... Units, Erythroid Colony-Forming use Erythroid Precursor Cells Units, Granulocyte-Erythroid-Macrophage-Megakaryocyte Colony- ... Unit, Erythroid Burst-Forming use Erythroid Precursor Cells ... Units, Erythroid Burst-Forming use Erythroid Precursor Cells ... Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation use Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation ...
Luspatercept-aamt promoted erythroid maturation through differentiation of late-stage erythroid precursors (normoblasts) in ... REBLOZYL is a prescription medicine used to treat anemia (low red blood cells) in adults with:. •. beta thalassemia who need ... REBLOZYL is an erythroid maturation agent indicated for the treatment of: •. Anemia in adult patients with beta thalassemia who ... REBLOZYL is indicated for the treatment of anemia in adult patients with beta thalassemia who require regular red blood cell ( ...
... and impaired erythroid precursor differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we genetically disrupted the SOD2 gene using the ... HEL cells failed to properly differentiate toward an erythroid phenotype, likely due to failure to complete the necessary ... capable of induced differentiation toward an erythroid phenotype. Cells obtained in this manner displayed significant ... Furthermore, SOD2-/- cells exhibited significantly reduced TET enzyme activity concomitant with decreases in genomic 5-hmC and ...
  • However, the knockdown embryos had significantly fewer myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells. (
  • These results demonstrate that NP23-NHD13 thymic progenitors retain myeloid and erythroid potential and are potently leukemogenic. (
  • A, top) represents normal adult bone marrow, showing multinucleated megakaryocytes and myeloid and erythroid precursors distributed in a matrix containing adipocytes. (
  • B) Representative images of CFU assay plates demonstrating a marked reduction in erythroid colonies in the presence of IFN-γ and restoration of erythroid progenitor cell formation with higher concentrations of EPO in culture. (
  • These results indicate that Fgf21 is a newly identified factor essential for the determination of myelo-erythroid progenitor cell fate in vivo. (
  • Components include genes that are expressed (transcriptome) in erythroid cells, either during development or during differentiation, chemical changes to DNA and histone proteins (epigenome) and the proteins (proteome) that are translated in erythroid cells, including post-translational modifications or subcellular localizations that are unique to erythroid cells. (
  • Cells were expanded in erythroid differentiation medium (containing SCF, IL-3, and EPO 1, 16 or 64 IU/mL), with or without IFN-γ for 7 days. (
  • Following differentiation, cells were collected and the impact of IFN-γ on erythroid progenitors (BFU-E and CFU-E) was assessed by CFU assay. (
  • Treatment of the CHRF-288-11 infected cells with phorbol esters, which induces megakaryocytic differentiation, increases expression of the lacZ transgene. (
  • Overall, these results demonstrate the feasibility and provide a method for infecting cultured megakaryocytic cell lines with retroviral of vectors such that a molecular analysis of megakaryocyte differentiation can be accomplished. (
  • Thus, lack of BTK or expression of dominant-negative BTK splice variants in B cell precursor leukemia cells can inhibit differentiation beyond the pre-B cell stage and protect from radiation-induced apoptosis. (
  • The kidney can generate and secrete erythropoietin in hypoxic conditions to increase red blood cell development by targeting CFU-E, proerythroblast, and basophilic erythroblast subsets in differentiation. (
  • The colony-forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) stage expresses the highest level of erythropoietin receptor density and is entirely reliant on erythropoietin for differentiation. (
  • By binding to DNA and interacting with other proteins, the GATA1 protein regulates the growth and division (proliferation) of immature red blood cells and platelet-precursor cells (megakaryocytes) to facilitate their specialization (differentiation). (
  • This impairment in the GATA1 protein's normal function leads to increased proliferation, decreased differentiation, and premature death of immature blood cells. (
  • A lack of differentiation causes a shortage of red blood cells (anemia) and platelets involved in blood clotting (thrombocytopenia), which are characteristic features of dyserythropoietic anemia and thrombocytopenia. (
  • Human neural progenitor cells were isolated under selective culture conditions from the developing human brain and directed through lineage differentiation to astrocytes. (
  • Microscopic examination over the course of differentiation showed loss of progenitor cells as the cell population increasingly became astrocytes. (
  • Stadtman Investigator Ramiro Iglesias-Bartolome (National Cancer Institute, NCI) is elucidating the signaling mechanisms that control and drive tissue-specific stem-cell self-renewal and differentiation and their connections to tumor initiation and growth. (
  • He described his team's work exploring the regulation of epithelial stem-cell differentiation and proliferation by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. (
  • His team is further investigating the role of coupled GPCRs in the regulation of stem-cell differentiation and proliferation in the skin. (
  • Since MnSOD has significant effects on SDH activity, and succinate is a key regulator of TET enzymes needed for proper differentiation, we hypothesized that SOD 2 loss would lead to succinate accumulation, inhibition of TET activity, and impaired erythroid precursor differentiation. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we genetically disrupted the SOD 2 gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 genetic strategy in a human erythroleukemia cell line (HEL 92.1.7) capable of induced differentiation toward an erythroid phenotype. (
  • Differentiation of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) constantly produces the cell types of the blood and immune system. (
  • The dynamics of this process and the hierarchy of downstream oligopotent stem cell differentiation remain controversial. (
  • This suggests a model in which more than one differentiation trajectory can link HSC to several cell types. (
  • There have been no reports, to date, of successful introduction of foreign DNA into committed megakaryocyte precursor cells. (
  • TAM is characterized by the accumulation of immature megakaryocyte precursor cells in the blood, liver, and bone marrow. (
  • Erythropoietin's primary effect is to promote the survival of red blood cell progenitors and precursors (which are located in the bone marrow of humans) by shielding them from apoptosis, or cell death. (
  • Erythropoietin is the main erythropoietic factor that works with a variety of other growth factors (such as IL-3, IL-6, glucocorticoids, and SCF) to help multipotent progenitors evolve into erythroid lineages. (
  • A long range goal of this program is to generate a concise description of erythropoiesis that unifies genetics, molecular processes and cytokine determinants in the erythroid lineages so that new therapeutics may be developed to measure and combat anemia. (
  • BTK is expressed in all cell lineages of the hematopoietic system, except for T cells. (
  • Analysis of initial HSC commitment defines marked bifurcation of erythroid/megakaryocytic cells from myeloid/lymphoid lineages. (
  • Proerythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts, which are precursors to red cells, express the erythropoietin receptor and are thus impaired by it. (
  • Red blood cell precursors, corresponding to ERYTHROBLASTS, that are larger than normal, usually resulting from a FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY or VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY. (
  • In human hematopoiesis, the bone-marrow cells-megakaryocytes and erythroid cells-differentiate from a shared precursor, the megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor (MEP). (
  • The excess unpaired alpha-globin chains aggregate to form precipitates that damage red cell membranes, resulting in intravascular hemolysis. (
  • This impairment leads to ineffective RBC production and intramedullary hemolysis that is characterized by large cells with arrested nuclear maturation. (
  • She was transfused with two units packed red cells and one adult dose of platelets. (
  • Therefore BTK expression is found in B lymphocytes, platelets, erythroid and myeloid cells (monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes and dendritic cells). (
  • The Sickled-shaped erythrocytes together with endothelial cells, activated leukocytes, platelets and plasma proteins participate in the multistep vaso-occlusion process (Frenette 2002). (
  • Red blood cells help carry oxygen to various tissues throughout the body and platelets aid in blood clotting. (
  • DN thymocytes from non-leukemic mice were cultured on an OP9 stromal layer and showed markedly enhanced ability to differentiate into myeloid lineage cells compared to WT. (
  • To function properly, these immature cells must differentiate into specific types of mature blood cells. (
  • David Bodine (National Human Genome Research Institute) focuses on hematopoiesis (formation of blood cells) and erythropoiesis (the regenerative process in which undifferentiated hematopoietic cells differentiate into red blood cells). (
  • Finally, when stimulated with δ-aminolevulonic acid (δ-ALA), SOD 2 -/- - HEL cells failed to properly differentiate toward an erythroid phenotype, likely due to failure to complete the necessary global DNA demethylation program required for erythroid maturation. (
  • Anemia: Overview and Types is a subset of macrocytic anemias characterized by increased RBC size and an arrest in nuclear maturation arising from abnormal cell division Cell Division A type of cell nucleus division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of chromosomes of the somatic cells of the species. (
  • maturation and cell death. (
  • The GATA1 protein is also important for the maturation of several types of white blood cells that help fight infection, including eosinophils, mast cells, and dendritic cells. (
  • CD71 plays a role in the control of cellular proliferation by facilitating the uptake of iron via ferrotransferrin binding and the recycling of apotransferrin to the cell surface. (
  • however, severe myeloid cell proliferation may resemble granulocytic leukemia histologically. (
  • Previous terms include "hematopoietic cell proliferation," "myeloid hyperplasia," and "erythroid hyperplasia. (
  • In contrast, Fgf21 had no significant effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis in the intermediate cell mass. (
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood: cell proliferation without rest. (
  • Co-operative signalling mechanisms required for erythroid precursor expansion in response to erythropoietin and stem cell factor. (
  • Erythropoietin, also known as erythropoietin, hematopoietin, or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine that stimulates red blood cell formation (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow in response to cellular hypoxia. (
  • EPO erythropoietin is secreted at low levels (around 10 mU/mL) in order to compensate for normal red blood cell turnover. (
  • EPO Erythropoietin is a hormone that is needed for the development of red blood cells. (
  • The burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) cells begin to express erythropoietin receptors and are erythropoietin responsive. (
  • Beyond erythropoiesis stimulation, erythropoietin has been shown to have a variety of actions, including vasoconstriction-dependent hypertension, angiogenesis stimulation, and cell survival through activation of EPO receptors, resulting in anti-apoptotic effects on ischemic tissues. (
  • Epogen/Procrit (epoetin alfa) and Aranesp are erythropoietin that are available for use as therapeutic agents and are developed using recombinant DNA technology in cell culture. (
  • Erythropoietin replacement therapy can help increase red cell production in the bone marrow if the erythropoietin level is poor. (
  • Impaired IF production in pernicious anemia occurs as a result of autoimmune destruction of parietal cells, which secrete IF, or the development of auto-antibodies targeted against IF itself. (
  • The profound anemia typically is associated with erythroid hyperplasia and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (
  • Conditions with an increase in plasma volume, such as during the last trimester of pregnancy, are associated with lower values without an existent anemia, because the red cell mass is normal. (
  • Often, the etiology of a patient's anemia can be determined if the red blood cells (RBCs) are altered in either size or shape or if they contain certain inclusion bodies. (
  • B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). (
  • It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. (
  • In the acute phase of the illness, patients usually have a moderate to severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. (
  • Erythroid precursor cells may predominate secondary to hemorrhage or erythrocyte destruction (i.e., hemolytic anemia or autoimmune-mediated anemia), whereas myeloid precursor cells may predominate secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or immune-mediated conditions. (
  • Clinical presentation is variable, ranging from asymptomatic to severe form of anemia, and can be exacerbated by pregnancy, sudden blood loss, or superimposed infection, i.e., parvovirus that targets the erythroid precursors. (
  • The most common type of SCD is sickle cell anemia (SCA) (also referred to as HbSS or SS disease or hemoglobin S) in which there is homozygosity for the mutation that causes HbS. (
  • In another project, Bodine's lab is comparing the epigenetic profiles of normal and Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) patient cells to determine whether specific genes and pathways are altered. (
  • Uncovering the emergence of HSCs in the human fetal bone marrow by single-cell RNA-seq analysis. (
  • 6. Expression of CD10, CD19 and CD34 markers in bone marrow samples of children with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in clinical and hematological remission. (
  • 16. Expression of CD58 in normal, regenerating and leukemic bone marrow B cells: implications for the detection of minimal residual disease in acute lymphocytic leukemia. (
  • Immune bone marrow failure is a condition that occurs when a person s immune system attacks the cells of the bone marrow. (
  • A micrograph shows dense presence of mutinuecleared cells in the bone marrow. (
  • Effect of myeloablative bone marrow transplantation on growth in children with sickle cell anaemia: results of the multicenter study of haematopoietic cell transplantation for sickle cell anaemia. (
  • Expression of multidrug resistance gene mdr1 mRNA in a subset of normal bone marrow cells. (
  • Here we dissect hematopoietic progenitor populations in a minimally biased fashion using extensive single cell sampling from murine bone marrow. (
  • Typical morphological features consist of small aggregates of cells with intensely basophilic nuclei (erythroid) or small collections of immature and mature myelocytic cells (myelopoiesis) located in the sinusoids and, in severe cases, in portal areas. (
  • Plasma cell hyperplasia may accompany EMH within the red pulp. (
  • In erythroid precursor cells, we hypothesize that FPN1B expression enhances real-time sensing of systemic iron status and facilitates restriction of erythropoiesis in response to low systemic iron. (
  • Robust cell purification methods are available for highly enriching particular stages of erythropoiesis in several mammalian species, including, human, rabbit, goat, and mouse. (
  • Given the fact that there are relatively few genes expressed during the latter stages of erythropoiesis, these cells provide a model system with which to characterize exactly how the genetic program specifies the formation of a particular cell type. (
  • Premature destruction of erythroid precursors results in intramedullary death and ineffective erythropoiesis. (
  • The FPN1B transcript encodes ferroportin with an identical open reading frame and contributes significantly to ferroportin protein expression in erythroid precursors and likely also in the duodenum of iron-starved animals. (
  • 96 fL) or if certain abnormal RBCs or white blood cells (WBCs) are observed in the blood smear, the investigative approach can be limited. (
  • decreased red blood cells and deficiency in oxygen and body tissues hypoxia. (
  • The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS . (
  • Immature blood cells cannot perform the functions of specialized, mature blood cells. (
  • abnormally large RBCs and erythroid precursors (megaloblasts). (
  • Extramedullary hematopoiesis in this case includes increased numbers of erythroid (arrow) and myeloid (arrowhead) precursor cells. (
  • B-cell lymphoma, leukemia and extramedullary plasmacytomas can also produce a monoclonal gammopathy.2 The addition of anti-immunoglobulin antibodies to the analysis (immunoelectrophoresis) can aid in identifying the immunoglobulin class and heavy chain isotype (IgA, IgG, IgM) as well as the light chain class (kappa or lambda). (
  • However, here we demonstrate that duodenal epithelial and erythroid precursor cells utilize an alternative upstream promoter to express a FPN1 transcript, FPN1B, which lacks the IRE and is not repressed in iron-deficient conditions. (
  • In this example of CLL, the leukemic cells resemble small lymphocytes. (
  • Mobilization of dendritic cells in cancer patients treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and chemotherapy. (
  • Dendritic cells are thus linked with both monocyte and lymphocyte precursors. (
  • At the symposium, he described his lab's work on single-cell analysis of hematopoiesis. (
  • Inhibition of BTK activity specifically induces apoptosis in BCR-ABL1+ leukemia cells to a similar extent as inhibition of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity itself. (
  • Cells obtained in this manner displayed significant inhibition of SDH activity and ~10-fold increases in cellular succinate levels compared to their parent cell controls. (
  • Retroviral mediated gene transfer in megakaryocytic cell lines. (
  • We have successfully infected two megakaryocytic cell lines, one a committed cell line (CHRF-288-11) and the other a bipotential cell line (K562), with a retroviral vector containing the bacterial lacZ gene and a neomycin resistance marker. (
  • If one cell type predominates (i.e., myeloid, erythroid, megakaryocytic), this can be discussed in the pathology narrative. (
  • Treatment for patients with thalassemia major includes long-term transfusion therapy, iron chelation, splenectomy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, gene therapy, and supportive measures. (
  • The red pulp is markedly expanded by numerous hematopoietic cells (arrow). (
  • In leukemia (B, bottom), the marrow fat and normal hematopoietic cells have been replaced by leukemic cells. (
  • In infant pre-B MLL-AF4+ leukemia cells full-length BTK was detectable in only half of the cases, whereas in ALL cells harboring other fusion genes (including BCR-ABL1, E2A - PBX1 and TEL - AML1 ) full-length BTK was typically co-expressed with kinase-deficient variants. (
  • Within the B cell lineage, BTK is already expressed in the earliest detectable B cell precursors, and expression is downregulated in plasma cells. (
  • The monoclonal peak is so named because it is composed of a large quantity of immunoglobulin proteins being produced by a single clone of neoplastic plasma cells.1 Multiple myeloma is the most common cause of a monoclonal gammopathy, and the source of the increased immunoglobulin (known as a paraprotein-typically IgA or IgG) is a single clone of neoplastic plasma cells. (
  • is caused by cytoskeletal or red cell membrane protein defects. (
  • The translocation to the membrane brings the BTK protein in close proximity to the Lyn en Syk kinases that transphosphorylate BTK at tyrosine Y551. (
  • In an analysis of BTK protein and mRNA expression in infant B-lineage leukemia cells variable but often reduced levels of BTK expression was found. (
  • G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the largest family of cell-surface molecules involved in cell signal transduction, physiological processes, and pathological conditions. (
  • Recently his team demonstrated in mice that conditional epidermal deletion of the gene coding for the stimulatory G-protein alpha heteromeric subunit (Gnas) or the inactivation of protein kinase A are sufficient to cause an aberrant expansion of basal progenitor keratinocytes in the skin, resulting in basal-cell carcinoma. (
  • Probe Set ID Ref Seq Protein ID Signal Strength Name Gene Symbol Species Function Swiss-Prot ID Amino Acid Sequence 1367452_at NP_598278 16.8 small ubiquitin-related modifier 2 precursor Sumo2 Rattus norvegicus " Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or as a lysine-linked polymer. (
  • Fgf21-knockdown zebrafish embryos lacked erythroid and myeloid cells but not blood vessels and lymphoid cells. (
  • A monoclonal gammopathy is the result of a single clone of neoplastic lymphoid cells producing a single type of immunoglobulin.Chronic infectious and inflammatory diseases can also cause increases in immunoglobulin concentrations, although we expect these conditions to produce a polyclonal gammopathy, which is differentiated from monoclonal gammopathy by a wide-based peak in the β2 to γ region ( Figure 3 ). (
  • The shorter, wider base indicates that the peak is composed of multiple immunoglobulin types being produced by different populations of inflammatory lymphoid cells. (
  • Cell and Molecular Biology of the Liver. (
  • The field of the present invention includes at least biology, cell biology, and medicine. (
  • 4. Minimal residual disease values discriminate between low and high relapse risk in children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and an intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21: the Austrian and German acute lymphoblastic leukemia Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (ALL-BFM) trials. (
  • 7. Pure erythroid leukemia following precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. (
  • 10. ABL deletion without associated BCR-ABL in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (
  • 11. 12p chromosomal aberrations in precursor B childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia predict an increased risk of relapse in the central nervous system and are associated with typical blast cell morphology. (
  • 12. Parvovirus B19 infection presenting as pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a transient and progressive course in two children. (
  • Spontaneous pre-B cell leukemia development in Slp65-deficient mice demonstrate that Slp65 acts as a tumor suppressor. (
  • Surprisingly, 100% of the NP23-NHD13 mice developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) within 3 months and were characterized by extraordinarily high WBC and replacement of the thymus with Mac1+/Gr1+ myeloid cells. (
  • It is estimated that 20 to 30 percent of children with TAM will later develop a cancer of the blood-forming cells called acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). (
  • Human CD34+ cells were collected by apheresis of normal volunteers after G-CSF mobilization. (
  • Peripheral smear in beta-zero thalassemia minor showing microcytes (M), target cells (T), and poikilocytes.The genetic defect usually is a missense or nonsense mutation in the beta-globin gene, although occasional defects due to gene deletions of the beta-globin gene and surrounding regions also have been reported. (
  • Some gene mutations can be acquired during a person's lifetime and are present only in certain cells. (
  • Somatic mutations in the GATA1 gene increase the risk of developing a disease of blood-forming cells called transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). (
  • The staining pattern of the lacZ reaction product was perinuclear and punctate in the CHRF-288-11 cells, whereas it was uniform throughout the cytoplasm of the K562 cells, suggesting different sorting mechanisms for bacterial beta-galactosidase in these two cell types. (
  • In recent years, paramount investigations in research of stem cells and growth factors became the leitmotiv of all international Hematology conferences. (
  • The knockdown embryos had haemangioblasts and haematopoietic stem cells. (
  • To achieve precision use of desired human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for medical and pharmaceutical applications, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of all fundamental properties of these starting cell sources. (
  • One of the most important properties is related to the naive pluripotent state that is primarily established in mouse embryonic stem cells. (
  • Staff Scientist Kevin Chen (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) talked about how his current research on characterizing pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and adult stem cells aims to identify optimal signaling cascades that precisely control diverse pluripotent and differentiated states in vivo and in vitro. (
  • Absence of phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked proteins in a very early human multipotential haematopoietic marrow cell. (
  • Furthermore, SOD 2 -/- cells exhibited significantly reduced TET enzyme activity concomitant with decreases in genomic 5-hmC and corresponding increases in 5-mC. (
  • Matched-related donor transplantation for sickle cell disease: report from the Center for International Blood and Transplant Research. (
  • Genetic polymorphisms associated with priapism in sickle cell disease. (
  • The present invention includes embodiments for treatment and/or prevention of sickle cell disease that employ Hydroxyfasudil or Isocoronarin D alone or either in conjunction with each other or an inducer of HbF production. (
  • In particular aspects, the field of the present invention includes treatment and/or prevention of a blood disorder, such as sickle cell disease. (
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common life-threatening monogenic disorder in the world with statistics indicating that approximately 80% (230,000) of children affected globally are born in sub-Saharan Africa (Modell and Darlison 2008). (
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) can arise from a single point mutation that causes erythrocyte deformation or sickle-shaped erythrocytes (Ingram 1957). (
  • These mutations usually occur during fetal development, and the increased risk only applies to people who are born with an extra copy of chromosome 21 in each of their cells, a condition known as trisomy 21 or Down syndrome . (
  • The E41K gain-of-function BTK mutant, in which the E41 residue is mutated in to a lysine residue, manifests increased membrane localization in quiescent cells, independent of PI3K activity, probably resulting from increased affinity for PIP2. (
  • Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is the most common cause of inherited red cell membrane disorders and affects approximately 1 out of every 2,000-5,000 people. (
  • BTK is a signaling mediator downstream of a variety of receptors in several different cell types (listed in Table 1), including the B cell receptor (BCR). (
  • Thus, truncated BTK enables BCR-ABL1-dependent activation of full-length BTK, which initiates downstream survival signals and mimics pre-B cell receptor signaling. (
  • Expression of the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) leads to activation of the adaptor molecule Slp65 (also termed Bash or Blnk) and Btk. (
  • This leads to megaloblastic changes in all rapidly dividing cells because DNA synthesis is diminished. (
  • 2. Prognostic relevance of dic(9;20)(p11;q13) in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) protocols containing an intensive induction and post-induction consolidation therapy. (
  • acute (viral etiology) or chronic (setting of B-cell neoplasms). (
  • or various combinations of all three cell types. (