The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A system of universal human blood group isoantigens with many associated subgroups. The M and N traits are codominant and the S and s traits are probably very closely linked alleles, including the U antigen. This system is most frequently used in paternity studies.
An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
Small, abnormal spherical red blood cells with more than the normal amount of hemoglobin.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (1/3739)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.  (+info)

Calculation of a Gap restoration in the membrane skeleton of the red blood cell: possible role for myosin II in local repair. (2/3739)

Human red blood cells contain all of the elements involved in the formation of nonmuscle actomyosin II complexes (V. M. Fowler. 1986. J. Cell. Biochem. 31:1-9; 1996. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8:86-96). No clear function has yet been attributed to these complexes. Using a mathematical model for the structure of the red blood cell spectrin skeleton (M. J. Saxton. 1992. J. Theor. Biol. 155:517-536), we have explored a possible role for myosin II bipolar minifilaments in the restoration of the membrane skeleton, which may be locally damaged by major mechanical or chemical stress. We propose that the establishment of stable links between distant antiparallel actin protofilaments after a local myosin II activation may initiate the repair of the disrupted area. We show that it is possible to define conditions in which the calculated number of myosin II minifilaments bound to actin protofilaments is consistent with the estimated number of myosin II minifilaments present in the red blood cells. A clear restoration effect can be observed when more than 50% of the spectrin polymers of a defined area are disrupted. It corresponds to a significant increase in the spectrin density in the protein free region of the membrane. This may be involved in a more complex repair process of the red blood cell membrane, which includes the vesiculation of the bilayer and the compaction of the disassembled spectrin network.  (+info)

Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells. (3/3739)

1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+.  (+info)

Structural and functional consequences of antigenic modulation of red blood cells with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol). (4/3739)

We previously showed that the covalent modification of the red blood cell (RBC) surface with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [mPEG; MW approximately 5 kD] could significantly attenuate the immunologic recognition of surface antigens. However, to make these antigenically silent RBC a clinically viable option, the mPEG-modified RBC must maintain normal cellular structure and functions. To this end, mPEG-derivatization was found to have no significant detrimental effects on RBC structure or function at concentrations that effectively blocked antigenic recognition of a variety of RBC antigens. Importantly, RBC lysis, morphology, and hemoglobin oxidation state were unaffected by mPEG-modification. Furthermore, as shown by functional studies of Band 3, a major site of modification, PEG-binding does not affect protein function, as evidenced by normal SO4- flux. Similarly, Na+ and K+ homeostasis were unaffected. The functional aspects of the mPEG-modified RBC were also maintained, as evidenced by normal oxygen binding and cellular deformability. Perhaps most importantly, mPEG-derivatized mouse RBC showed normal in vivo survival ( approximately 50 days) with no sensitization after repeated transfusions. These data further support the hypothesis that the covalent attachment of nonimmunogenic materials (eg, mPEG) to intact RBC may have significant application in transfusion medicine, especially for the chronically transfused and/or allosensitized patient.  (+info)

Non-selective voltage-activated cation channel in the human red blood cell membrane. (5/3739)

Using the patch-clamp technique, a non-selective voltage-activated Na+ and K+ channel in the human red blood cell membrane was found. The channel operates only at positive membrane potentials from about +30 mV (inside positive) onwards. For sodium and potassium ions, similar conductances of about 21 pS were determined. Together with the recently described K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger, this channel is responsible for the increase of residual K+ and Na+ fluxes across the human red blood cell membrane when the cells are suspended in low ionic strength medium.  (+info)

Spectrofluorimetric detection of DMBA-induced mouse skin carcinoma. (6/3739)

An attempt has been made to evaluate the normal and cancer blood samples of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mouse skin carcinoma by spectrofluorimetric method. Analysis of acetone extracts of plasma, erythrocyte and erythrocyte membrane showed an alteration around 630 nm when excited at 400 nm by cancer samples, compared to normal samples. The ratio of fluorescent intensity at 530 nm/630 nm was found to be decreased in erythrocyte and plasma and increased in erythrocyte membrane. These changes are not detectable in both hemolysates. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies.  (+info)

Resolution of the paradox of red cell shape changes in low and high pH. (7/3739)

The molecular basis of cell shape regulation in acidic pH was investigated in human erythrocytes. Intact erythrocytes maintain normal shape in the cell pH range 6.3-7.9, but invaginate at lower pH values. However, consistent with predicted pH-dependent changes in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, isolated erythrocyte membranes evaginate in acidic pH. Moreover, intact cells evaginate at pH greater than 7.9, but isolated membranes invaginate in this condition. Labeling with the hydrophobic, photoactivatable probe 5-[125I]iodonaphthyl-1-azide demonstrated pH-dependent hydrophobic insertion of an amphitropic protein into membranes of intact cells but not into isolated membranes. Based on molecular weight and on reconstitution experiments using stripped inside-out vesicles, the most likely candidate for the variably labeled protein is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Resealing of isolated membranes reconstituted both the shape changes and the hydrophobic labeling profile seen in intact cells. This observation appears to resolve the paradox of the contradictory pH dependence of shape changes of intact cells and isolated membranes. In intact erythrocytes, the demonstrated protein-membrane interaction would oppose pH-dependent shape effects of the spectrin membrane skeleton, stabilizing cell shape in moderately abnormal pH. Stabilization of erythrocyte shape in moderately acidic pH may prevent inappropriate red cell destruction in the spleen.  (+info)

Interaction between terminal complement proteins C5b-7 and anionic phospholipids. (8/3739)

We have recently shown that C5b-6 binds to the erythrocyte membrane via an ionic interaction with sialic acid before the addition of C7 and subsequent membrane insertion. In this study we assessed the role of anionic lipids in the binding of the terminal complement proteins to the membrane and the efficiency of subsequent hemolysis. Human erythrocytes were modified by insertion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), or dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Lipid incorporation and the hemolytic assays were done in the presence of 100 micromol/L sodium orthovanadate to prevent enzymatic redistribution of lipid. We found that the neutral lipids, DPPC and DPPE, did not affect C5b-7 uptake or hemolysis by C5b-9. In contrast, the two acidic phospholipids, DPPS and DPPA, caused a dose-dependent increase in both lysis and C5b-7 uptake. We conclude that the presence of anionic lipids on the exterior face of the membrane increases C5b-7 uptake and subsequent hemolysis. It is known that sickle cell erythrocytes have increased exposure of phosphatidylserine on their external face and are abnormally sensitive to lysis by C5b-9. The data presented here provide a plausible mechanism for this increased sensitivity.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of dietary n-3 and antioxidant supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity in exercising horses. AU - PORTIER, K.. AU - DE MOFFARTS, B.. AU - FELLMAN, N.. AU - Kirschvink, Nathalie. AU - MOTTA, C.. AU - LETELLIER, C.. AU - RUELLAND, A.. AU - VAN ERCK, E.. AU - LEKEUX, P.. AU - COUDERT, J.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - Suppl. 36. SP - 279. EP - 284. JO - Equine Veterinary Journal. JF - Equine Veterinary Journal. SN - 0425-1644. ER - ...
Protocol for preparing red blood cell ghosts - posted in Cell Biology: Hi all, I need to make RBC ghosts for running my experiments. I basically need to get the hemoglobin out of the rbcs and reseal them. As have the hemoglobin puts a limitation on the hematocrit I can use for my experiments. I would really appreciate if one of you could give me a detailed protocol. I am a mechanical engineer and that makes these processes a little more complicated than they are. For example, I followed...
Klara Pecankova, Pavel Majek, Jaroslav Cermak, Jan E. Dyr. Posttranslational Modifications of Red Blood Cell Ghost Proteins as Signatures for Distinguishing between Low- and High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients. Turk J Hematol. 2017; 34(1): 111- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Large scale isolation of human erythrocyte membranes by high volume molecular filtration. AU - Rosenberry, Terrone L.. AU - Chen, Jeffrey F.. AU - Lee, Mary M.L.. AU - Moulton, Thomas A.. AU - Onigman, Philip. PY - 1981/1. Y1 - 1981/1. N2 - A molecular filtration procedure for preparing large quantities of human erythrocyte ghost membranes is presented. Hemolysate ghost membranes are rapidly cycled in the retantate channel of the filtration apparatus, while hemoglobin is removed s it pass through Pellicon filters into the filtrate. Several-liter quantities of washed packed erythrocytes can be processed in a few hours with this system and the filtration procedure does not appear to alter erythrocyte or ghost membranes. Intact erythrocytes in isotonic solution can be circulated through the retentate channel for 16 h with only 3% hemolysis and with preservation of their orginal morphology in scanning electron microscopy. Ghost membranes isolated by the procedure are virtually ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Scanning tunneling microscopy of human erythrocyte membranes. AU - Gaczynska, M.. AU - Chwialkowski, M.. AU - Olejniczak, W.. AU - Wojczuk, S.. AU - Bartosz, G.. PY - 1991/12/16. Y1 - 1991/12/16. N2 - Images of surfaces of human erythrocyte ghosts, lecithin liposomes, spectrin, erythrocyte membrane skeleton, concanavalin A and concanavalin A - decorated erythrocyte ghosts were obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. The dimensions and surface topography of some membrane structures are described and discussed.. AB - Images of surfaces of human erythrocyte ghosts, lecithin liposomes, spectrin, erythrocyte membrane skeleton, concanavalin A and concanavalin A - decorated erythrocyte ghosts were obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. The dimensions and surface topography of some membrane structures are described and discussed.. UR - UR - ...
PubMed journal article: Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Red blood cell (RBC) physiology is directly linked to many human disorders associated with low tissue oxygen levels or anemia including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, sleep apnea and sickle cell anemia. Parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and phylum Apicomplexa directly target RBCs, and surface molecules within the RBC membrane are critical for pathogen interactions. Proteomics of RBC membrane ghost fractions has therefore been of considerable interest, but protocols described to date are either suboptimal or too extensive to be applicable to a larger set of clinical cohorts. Here, we describe an optimised erythrocyte isolation protocol from blood, tested for various storage conditions and explored using different fractionation conditions for isolating ghost RBC membranes. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis on a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument was used to profile proteins isolated from the comparative conditions. Data analysis was run on the MASCOT
Red blood cells (RBC) are of current basic science and clinical research due to the advantages it offers in the biomedical field. Vesicles derived from RBC have been explored in drug delivery applications due to the non-immunogenic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. In this project, two types of RBC ghost vesicles are investigated, namely inside-out vesicles (IOV) and right-side-out vesicles (ROV). IOV have an inverted membrane orientation whereas ROV have the native membrane orientation as compared to the RBC ghosts. The inverted membrane orientation of the IOV is similar to senescent RBC and other apoptotic cells with high number of phosphotidylserine translocated to the outer monolayer. The vesicles were characterized by quantification of surface markers such as sialic acid and phosphotidylserine using flow cytometry. In this work, surface properties of the vesicles were characterized by monitoring the zeta potential at various ionic strength and pH. It was found that ROV is more ...
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A commonly used measure to reflect the intake of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA is the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA + DHA as % of total fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane. When the omega-3 index changes it follows that the relative fractions of other fatty acids in the membrane are also changed. In the present study, increasing doses of a preparation of omega-3 rich phospholipids extracted from krill oil were administered orally to non-human primates for 12 weeks and the time course of EPA, DHA and 22 other fatty acids in erythrocytes was determined bi-weekly during treatment and for 8 weeks after cessation of treatment. Plasma concentrations of six endocannabinoid-type mediators being downstream metabolites of some fatty acids analyzed in erythrocytes were also determined. Six diabetic, dyslipidemic non-human primates were included, three in a vehicle control group and three being treated with the omega-3 rich phospholipid preparation. The vehicle control and test items
A commonly used measure to reflect the intake of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA is the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA + DHA as % of total fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane. When the omega-3 index changes it follows that the relative fractions of other fatty acids in the membrane are also changed. In the present study, increasing doses of a preparation of omega-3 rich phospholipids extracted from krill oil were administered orally to non-human primates for 12 weeks and the time course of EPA, DHA and 22 other fatty acids in erythrocytes was determined bi-weekly during treatment and for 8 weeks after cessation of treatment. Plasma concentrations of six endocannabinoid-type mediators being downstream metabolites of some fatty acids analyzed in erythrocytes were also determined. Six diabetic, dyslipidemic non-human primates were included, three in a vehicle control group and three being treated with the omega-3 rich phospholipid preparation. The vehicle control and test items
The action of purified phospholipases on monomolecular films of various interfacial pressures is compared with the action on erythrocyte membranes. The phospholipases which cannot hydrolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus, phospholipase A2 from pig pancreas and Crotalus adamanteus and phospholipase D from cabbage, can ... read more hydrolyse phospholipid monolayers at pressure below 31 dynes/cm only. The phospholipases which can hydrolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase C from Clostridium welchii phospholipase A2 from Naja naja and bee venom and sphingomyelinase from Staphylococcus aureus, can hydrolyse phospholipid monolayers at pressure above 31 dynes/cm. It is concluded that the lipid packing in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane is comparable with a lateral surface pressure between 31 and 34.8 dynes/cm. show less ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical and morphological properties of bovine erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins. AU - Fletcher, M. A.. AU - Brunschwig, J. P.. AU - Lo, H.. AU - Caldwell, K. E.. AU - Lo, T. M.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - The major and minor sialoglycoproteins of the bovine erythrocyte have been solubilized and extensively purified. A comparison of composition revealed that the major glycoprotein had 77% carbohydrate and 23% peptide, and the minor one had 27% carbohydrate and 73% peptide. Molar ratios of sugars were related, however, the major glycoprotein had twice as much galactose and sialic acid as did the minor glycoprotein. Molecular weights, estimated from retardation coefficients of mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, were 55,000 for the major glycoprotein and 34,000 for the minor glycoprotein. The glycoproteins were studied by electron microscopy before and after delipidation and after ultracentrifugation. The major glycoprotein, prior to delipidation, formed ...
Saleemuddin, M.; Zimmermann, U.; Schneeweiss, F., 1977: Preparation of human erythrocyte ghosts in isotonic solution hemo globin content and poly peptide composition
Alnakshbandi, Abdulkadir A. (2015) Aminoglycosides induce fragility of human red cell membrane: An in vitro study. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
We have measured Ca binding to fragmented human red cell membranes under equilibrium conditions in the presence of low concentrations of EGTA-buffered, ionized Ca. The ionic strength of the assay...
Lipoprotein metabolism influenced by training-induced changes in human skeletal muscle. Differing erythrocyte membrane skeletal protein defects in alpha and beta thalassemia
In order to examine the widely held hypothesis that the reticulum of proteins which covers the cytoplamsic surface of the human erythrocyte membrane controls cell stability and shape, we have assessed some of its properties. The reticulum, freed of the bilayer by extraction with Triton X-100, was found to be mechanically stable at physiological ionic strength but physically unstable at low ionic strength. The reticulum broke down after a characteristic lag period which decreased 500-fold between 0 degrees and 37 degrees C. The release of polypeptide band 4.1 from the reticulum preceded that of spectrin and actin, suggesting that band 4.1 might stabilize the ensemble but is not essential to its integrity. The time-course of breakdown was similar for ghosts, the reticulum inside of ghosts, and the isolated reticulum. However, at very low ionic strength, the reticulum was less stable within the ghost than when free; at higher ionic strength, the reverse was true. Over a wide range of conditions the ...
The article summarizes new insights into the molecular mechanisms for the maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in human erythrocyte membranes. We focus on phosphatidylserine, which is primarily found in the inner leaflet of the membrane lipid bilayer under low C...
Read The role of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in transport of fluorescent anions across the human erythrocyte membrane, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Abstract: Amount of cholesterol was distinctly decreased but content of scvalene, lanosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol and 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol--increased in erythrocyte membranes of rats with Shvetz experimental leukosis. At the same time, osmotic stability of erythrocytes and a pattern of acidic erythrogramms were altered. After UV irradiation of rats amount of cholesterol was increased as well as other unidentified substances appeared in erythrocyte membranes. These alterations appear to be one of factors responsible for development of body resistance to leukosis ...
The red blood cell membrane is specialized to exchange bicarbonate and chloride; generally the pH gradient the chloride percentage as well as the membrane potential are firmly coupled. site. Throughout their MPC-3100 maturation reticulocytes reduce many membrane protein. The sort and fractional reduction is varieties dependent. For instance most reticulocytes lose the majority of their Na pushes keeping about 100 pushes per cell but pets from the purchase Carnivora lose almost all their pushes. We review a number of the proof that PKC phosphorylation of N-terminus serines is in charge of endocytosis in additional cell types and varieties variation in this area. Intro For over half of a hundred years ion flux measurements over the reddish colored cell membrane possess provided key information regarding how membrane transporters operate. Two of the greatest studied transporters will be the anion exchanger as well as the Na pump. Oddly enough the anion exchanger exists at 1 million copies per ...
Resealed Erythrocytes as Drug Carriers and Its Therapeutic Applications: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0754-3.ch012: In this pharma innovative world, there are more than 30 drug delivery systems. Todays due to lacking the target specificity, the present scenario about drug
The flow method of reaction rate measurement has been adapted to the determination of the rate of diffusion of water into the human red cell. In seven experiments the half-time for diffusion exchange has been found to be 4.2 ± 1.1 msec., which is equivalent to a diffusion flow of 8.6 x 10-9 ml. H2O/(sec., red cell). This figure has been compared with the rate of water entrance under an osmotic pressure gradient, and has been found to be smaller by a factor of 2.5. The difference between these two rates of water entrance has been interpreted as indicating the presence of water-filled channels in the membrane. An estimate of the equivalent radius of these channels (on the assumption of uniform right cylindrical pores) leads to a value of 3.5 Å, which is viewed as an operational description of the resistance offered by the membrane to the passage of water.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of the erythrocyte membrane shape. T2 - Recovery from the effect of crenating agents. AU - Alhanaty, E.. AU - Sheetz, Michael. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Intact erythrocytes become immediately crenated upon addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or pyrenebutyric acid (PBA). However, when cells are incubated at 37° C in the presence of the crenating agents with glucose, they gradually (4-8 h) recover the normal biconcave disc form. The recovery process does not reflect a gradual inactivation of DNP or PBA since fresh cells are equally crenated by the supernatant from the recovered cells. Further, after recovery and removal of the crenating agents, cells are found to be desensitized to the readdition of DNP as well as to the addition of PBA, but they are more sensitive to cupping by chlorpromazine. This alteration in the cell membrane responsiveness was reversible upon further incubation in the absence of DNP. Recovery is dependent upon cellular metabolic state since ...
Clone REA368 recognizes the human CD233 antigen, a multi-pass membrane protein also known as anion exchange protein 1 (AE1) or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1). CD233 is a phylogenetically preserved transport protein responsible for mediating the electroneutral anion exchange of chloride for bicarbonate across a plasma membrane. It is the major integral membrane glycoprotein of the erythrocyte membrane and is required for the normal flexibility and stability of the erythrocyte membrane as well as for the normal erythrocyte shape via the interactions of its cytoplasmic domain with cytoskeletal proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and hemoglobin. CD233 mediates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange in the kidney, and is required for the normal acidification of the urine. Additional information: Clone REA368 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
Flotillins are prominent, oligomeric protein components of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane raft domains and are considered to play an important structural role in lateral organization of the plasma membrane. In our previous work on erythroid membranes and giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) derived from them we have shown that formation of functional domains (resting state rafts) depends on the presence of membrane palmitoylated protein 1 (MPP1/p55), pointing to its new physiological role. Exploration of the molecular mechanism of MPP1 function in organizing membrane domains described here, through searching for its molecular partners in RBC membrane by using different methods, led to the identification of the raft-marker proteins, flotillin 1 and flotillin 2, as hitherto unreported direct MPP1 binding-partners in the RBC membrane ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolysis of the monomeric and dimeric C5b-9 complexes of complement. T2 - Alteration in the susceptibility to proteases of the C9 subunits associated with C5b-9 dimerization. AU - Yamamoto, K.. AU - Migita, S.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - The C5b-9 monomer having the sedimentation coefficient of 23S was extracted from the rabbit erythrocyte membranes that had been treated with a limiting amount of C9-deficient human serum and of 125I-C9. Upon proteolysis by trypsin and chymotrypsin, the C9 subunits of this complex were cleaved by these enzymes at multiple sites, yielding fragments with m.w. ranging from 40,000 to 19,000. The uncomplexed C9 was also cleaved by both enzymes at multiple sites. By contrast, the C9 subunits of the C5b-9 dimer were found to be totally insusceptible to chymotrypsin under the conditions studied (37°C; 24 hr) and only partially susceptible to trypsin (33% of the C9 subunits were cleaved by trypsin into 2 fragments during incubation at 37°C for ...
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Complete information for EPB41L3 gene (Protein Coding), Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.1 Like 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for EPB41L3 gene (Protein Coding), Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.1 Like 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Homo sapiens erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1 (EPB41L1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00002036-R02) - Products - Abnova
The structure and function of the red cell membrane and associated ion transporters play an important role in the pathology of red cell genetic defects
Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs), the most common type of blood cells in humans are well known for their ability in transporting oxygen to the whole body through hemoglobin. Alterations in their membrane skeletal proteins modify shape and mechanical properties... Read more ...
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This bald eagle spotted a dead fish floating on a lake and tried several times to swoop in and fly away with it. But the fish seems to be quite heavy, so t...
Looking for online definition of 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein in the Medical Dictionary? 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein explanation free. What is 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein? Meaning of 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein medical term. What does 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein mean?
Soejima A, Matsuzawa N, Miyake N, Karube M, Fukuoka K, Nakabayashi K, Kitamoto K, Nagasawa T.. Clin Nephrol 1999 Feb;51(2):92-7. BACKGROUND: Persistent hypoalbuminemia is a long-term poor prognostic factor in chronic hemodialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the correlation between the degree of peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids, erythrocyte alpha tocopherol content, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and serum albumin concentration in twelve patients with uremia not undergoing hemodialysis and fifteen patients on maintenance hemodialysis. RESULTS: The glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes was higher in patients of uremia not undergoing hemodialysis than in chronic hemodialysis patients. A significant negative correlation was observed between the erythrocyte alpha tocopherol content and the degree of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation in chronic hemodialysis patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the degree of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Model of red blood cell membrane skeleton. T2 - Electrical and mechanical properties. AU - Kozlov, M. M.. AU - Markin, V. S.. PY - 1987/12/21. Y1 - 1987/12/21. N2 - A theoretical membrane skeleton model of erythrocyte has been developed and successfully applied to interpret electrical and mechanical properties of the red blood cell spectrin-actin network. The model is based on the structure of the membrane skeleton that is comprised of unit cells each containing an actin protofilament and shooting forth a few spectrin heterodimers. The loose ends of the heterodimers of adjacent cells can form bonds with each other giving rise to an integrated network. The number of bonds depends on the temperature. The bond length being excessive (2·6 times the distance between the centers of adjacent cells), the bonds are flexible, and can thus be regarded as entropy springs. The advanced model has been employed to calculate the shear modulus of the membrane skeleton as well as to establish its ...
Red blood cell (RBC) membrane fluctuations provide important insights into cell states. We present a spatial analysis of red blood cell membrane fluctuations by using digital holographic microscopy (DHM). This interferometric and dye-free technique, possessing nanometric axial and microsecond temporal sensitivities enables to measure cell membrane fluctuations (CMF) on the whole cell surface. DHM acquisition is combined with a model which allows extracting the membrane fluctuation amplitude, while taking into account cell membrane topology. Uneven distribution of CMF amplitudes over the RBC surface is observed, showing maximal values in a ring corresponding to the highest points on the RBC torus as well as in some scattered areas in the inner region of the RBC. CMF amplitudes of 35.9+/-8.9 nm and 4.7+/-0.5 nm (averaged over the cell surface) were determined for normal and ethanol-fixed RBCs, respectively.
1) We have prepared murine monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (band 3). (2) All of these antibodies react with regions of the protein located at the cytoplasmic surface of the red cell. (3) One of the antibodies reacts with an epitope present on a cytoplasmic loop of the protein located between the C-terminus and a point 168 amino acids from the C-terminus. The other antibodies recognize different epitopes on the C-terminal tail of the protein and the sequences likely to be involved in these epitopes are defined. (4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red-cell membrane. (5) None of the antibodies inhibited sulphate exchange transport when introduced into resealed red-cell membranes; however, the bivalent form of one of the antibodies reduced the inhibitory potency of 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene disulphonate on sulphate exchange transport in ...
The enzyme lactoperoxidase was used to catalyse the radioiodination of membrane proteins in intact human erythrocytes and in erythrocyte ghosts. Two major proteins of the erythrocyte membrane were isolated after iodination of these two preparations, and the peptide maps of each protein so labelled were compared. Peptides from both proteins are labelled in the intact cell. In addition, further mobile peptides derived from one of the proteins are labelled only in the ghost preparation. Various sealed ghost preparations were also iodinated, lactoperoxidase being present only at either the cytoplasmic or extra-cellular surface of the membrane. The peptide maps of protein E (the major membrane protein) labelled in each case were compared. Two discrete sets of labelled peptides were consistently found. One group is obtained when lactoperoxidase is present at the extra-cellular surface and the other group is found when the enzyme is accessible only to the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane. ...
The distribution of specific glycoprotein receptors on the external surfaces of red cells was mapped, by the freeze-etching technique, to determine if the receptors coincided with the underlying 75-A intramembranous particles. Phytohemagglutinin, ferritin-conjugated phytohemagglutinin, and influenza virus were used as labeling agents since they can be seen by freeze-etching techniques and each reacts with a different site on the same glycoprotein molecule. The distribution of these labels was studied on intact human red cells, isolated ghost membranes, and trypsin-treated ghost membranes.. The results show that the receptors for these labels are distributed uniformly over the surfaces of normal red cell membranes in the same apparent distribution as that of the 75-A particles within the membrane. The association between the external receptors and the underlying particles is especially evident when trypsin-treated ghost membranes are labeled: the labeled receptor sites and the intramembranous ...
The authors evaluated the role of a hyperproteic, hypocaloric, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and plasma antioxidant defences of non professional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n=5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n=6) followed a high protein, low calorie diet with a 3g/day fish oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant ...
Zhang, J, Tu, K, Xu, Y, Pan, L, Wu, C, Chen, X, Wu, M, Cheng, Z and Chen, B (2013) Sphingomyelin in erythrocyte membranes increases the total cholesterol content of erythrocyte membranes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. ...
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Spectrin is the major constituent of the cytoskeletal network underlying the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It associates with band 4.1 and actin to form the cytoskeletal superstructure of the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Native spectrin molecule is a tetramer composed of two antiparallel heterodimers joined head to head so that each end of the native molecule includes the C-terminus of the alpha subunit and the N-terminus of the beta subunit ...
1. The distribution of proteolytic activity in membranes from human erythrocytes and from rabbit reticulocytes and erythrocytes was investigated, after removal of leucocytes and platelets from the cell suspensions. 2. All membrane preparations displayed proteolytic activity in the acidic pH region only. Membranes from human and rabbit mature erythrocytes showed latent activity, which could be increased when extracted with a number of detergents. 3. Three active fractions were resolved either by gel chromatography of solubilized membrane extracts or by standard polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The three proteinase activities (designated proteinases I, II and III) were purified from solubilized extracts of human erythrocyte membranes. 4. The relevant mol.wts. were around 80000, 40000 and 30000, respectively, and each of the three proteinases appeared to be composed of a single polypeptide chain. 5. Distinctive pH optima (in the range pH2.8-3.9) and different saturation profiles with globin as ...
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A plasma membrane fraction of HeLa S3 cells, consisting of ghosts, is characterized more fully. A simple procedure is described which permits light and electron microscope study of the plasma membrane fraction through the entire depth of the final product pellet and through large areas parallel to the surface. Contamination by nuclei is 0.14%, too little for DNA detection by the diphenylamine reaction. Contamination by rough endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes is small, a single ghost containing about 3% of the RNA in a single cell. Mitochondria were not encountered. Electron microscopy also shows (a) small vesicles associated with the outer surface of the ghosts, and (b) a filamentous web at the inner face of the ghost membrane. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel analysis shows that of the many Coomassie Blue-stained bands two were prominent. One, 43,000 daltons, co-migrated with purified rabbit muscle actin and constituted about 7.5% of the plasma membrane protein. The other major ...
1. Human red cells were enriched with cholesterol by incubation with lipid dispersions having a high cholesterol: phospholipid mol ratio and the kinet
Main parameters of lipid complex were studied in erythrocytes of whole blood and of the blood containing anticoagulant. Initial steps of blood coagulation involved activation of erythrocyte endogenous phospholipase A, which led to destabilization of erythrocyte lipid structures as a result of an increase in concentration of free fatty acids, accumulation of lysophospholipids as well as of alterations in microviscosity of erythrocyte membranes ...
The nanosponges look like red blood cells, and therefore serve as red blood cell decoys that collect the toxins. The nanosponges absorb damaging toxins and divert them away from their cellular targets. The nanosponges had a half-life of 40 hours in the researchers experiments in mice. Eventually the liver safely metabolized both the nanosponges and the sequestered toxins, with the liver incurring no discernible damage.. Each nanosponge has a diameter of approximately 85 nanometers and is made of a biocompatible polymer core wrapped in segments of red blood cells membranes.. Zhangs team separates the red blood cells from a small sample of blood using a centrifuge and then puts the cells into a solution that causes them to swell and burst, releasing hemoglobin and leaving RBC skins behind. The skins are then mixed with the ball-shaped nanoparticles until they are coated with a red blood cell membrane.. Just one red blood cell membrane can make thousands of nanosponges, which are 3,000 times ...
I am pleased to have had the opportunity to present an overview of red cell membranes in normal and disease states with my background of nearly 30 years in this area of research. I believe that this kind of publication on red cell membrane is a very timely summary of all the results obtained by the tremendous efforts worldwide by all of the scientists in this field during the past few decades. As reviewed in Chapter 1, the general concepts of red cell membrane abnormalities and the categories of each red cell membrane disorder are now well established. ...
Human protein 4.2 (P4.2) is a major membrane skeletal protein in erythrocytes. Individuals with P4.2 deficiency exhibit spherocytosis and experience various degrees of hemolytic anemia, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining stability and integrity of the membrane. Molecular cloning of P4.2 cDNAs showed that P4.2 is a transglutaminaselike molecule in erythrocytes but lacks the essential cysteine for cross-linking activity. Two cDNA isoforms have been identified from a human reticulocyte cDNA library, with the long isoform containing a 90-base pair (bp) in-frame insertion encoding an extra 30 amino acids near the N-terminus. Characterization of the P4.2 gene suggests differential splicing as the mechanism for generating these two cDNA isoforms. The donor site for the short isoform (P4.2S) agrees better with the consensus than the donor site for the long isoform (P4.2L) does. Expression of P4.2L was detected by a long- isoform-specific antibody raised against a peptide within the ...
Protein names and data: RHAG_HUMAN, Full=Ammonium transporter Rh type A, Full=Erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein Rh50;Full=Erythrocyte plasma membrane 50 kDa glycoprotein;Short=Rh50A;Full=Rhesus blood group family type A glycoprotein;Short=Rh family type A glycoprotein;Short=Rh type A glycoprotein;Full=Rhesus blood group-associated ammonia channel;Full=Rhesus blood group-associated glycoprotein;CD_antigen=CD241; Length: 409 a.a., Mass: 44198 Da ...
There are conflicting results regarding the erythrocyte membrane cholesterol and phospholipid content in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (PHC), due to methodological problems in obtaining haemoglobin-free ghosts. At the same time, the diff
The effectiveness of penetration of erythrocyte membrane by sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was analyzed. The experiment was executed in a dependence on different doses of the herbicide and at different times of incubation of red blood cells with 2,4-D-Na. It is known that...
The biomembrane is postulated as the initial target when Platinum(II) complexes attack cells. In this work, a spin-labeling ESR technique has been used to study the effects of cis-DCDP, cis-DBDP, cis-DIDP, trans-DCDP, and cis-DADP on the permeability of human erythrocyte membrane. We monitored the reduction processes of the ESR signal of a nitroxide spin label, (TEMPO), which leaks out through the membrane and is reduced by the external ascorbate. Our results indicate that cisplatin and its analogues can enhance the permeability of membranes to small moieties such as TEMPO and ascorbate, and the differences between these compounds are related to features of the leaving group. In addition, changes in the order parameter of 5DS spin label in membrane indicate that hydrolysis of these Pt(II) complexes result in membrane damage.. ...
Anemia is a condition that has multiple origins. One such origin is the destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane induced by free radicals. Treatment of anemia could therefore be enhanced by the use of free radicals scavengers potentially found in some medicinal plants. In this study, the protective effect of Harungana madagascariensis on the RBCs membrane physiology was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro hemolytic anemia was induced by incubation of fresh human RBCs with carbontetrachloride (CCl4) in Olive oil (Oo). Relaxation times of protons excited at 20 MHz (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence) in the absence or presence of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions (T 2i for
Stabilized human and animal erythrocytes are a suspension of stabilized erythrocytes of humans and mammals, obtained from erythrocyte mass of humans or whole blood of mammals.. The volume of erythrocytes and their number are preserved throughout the product validity period with the minimal deviations from the passport values, due to the method of effective stabilization developed by our company.. It is possible to obtain stabilized erythrocytes with different antigenic status (ABO system, Rh-factor, other anti-gene systems of human and mammal blood).. Stabilized erythrocytes can be used in the production of control materials for in vitro diagnostics, hematological research, for example, during the production of hematological controls for automatic hematological analyzers, including the possibility of determining normoblasts and reticulocytes.. Storage temperature: +2 +8°С.. Validity period: not less than 180 days.. Each series of stabilized erythrocytes is accompanied by a passport, with ...
Erythrocytes in mammals are anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus and as a result, have no DNA. Red blood cells have nuclei during early phases of development, but extrude them as they mature in order to provide more space for hemoglobin. In comparison, the erythrocytes of nearly all other vertebrates have nuclei; the only known exception being salamanders of the Batrachoseps genus.[4] Mammalian erythrocytes also lose their other organelles such as their mitochondria. As a result, red blood cells produce ATP through glycolysis only and therefore use none of the oxygen they carry. Furthermore, red cells do not have an insulin receptor and thus glucose uptake is not regulated by insulin. Because of the lack of nucleus and organelles, the red blood cells cannot synthesize any RNA so they cannot divide or repair themselves. Mammalian erythrocytes are biconcave disks: flattened and depressed in the center, with a dumbbell-shaped cross section. This shape (as well as the loss of ...
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In the sixties and seventies, erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) were extensively studied. Much has been learnt particularly concerning their metabolism and gas transporter function. In the past decade, the use of new approaches and methodologies
The EMA binding test using flow cytometry is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic aid [6]. Conventional diagnosis of hereditary RBC membrane disorders is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and has low sensitivity and specificity [10]. In contrast, the EMA test can be performed in less than 2 hours. Previous results have illustrated its high specificity (99.1%) and sensitivity (92.1%), indicating is it a useful diagnostic tool for red cell membrane disorders [8]. This method can be used to detect not only band 3 deficiencies, but also spectrin and protein 4.2 deficiencies [6].. Our study showed minimal changes in the MCF over a 6-month period for EMA. However, the stability of the EMA dye decreased continuously after 6 months, with a significant decrease relative to baseline levels at 8 months. Dye stability, dye concentration, incubation time, storage conditions of blood samples, and delay in flow cytometric analysis of EMA-labeled red cells each play a crucial role in the reproducibility ...
Although cholesterol is essential for membrane fluidity and deformability, the level of its lateral heterogeneity at the plasma membrane of living cells is
Synonyms for crenated erythrocyte in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for crenated erythrocyte. 2 synonyms for erythrocyte: RBC, red blood cell. What are synonyms for crenated erythrocyte?
Cellular adhesion plays a critical role in biological systems and biomedical applications. Cell deformation and biophysical properties of adhesion molecules are of significance for the adhesion...
May be part of an oligomeric complex which is likely to have a transport or channel function in the erythrocyte membrane. Involved in ammonia transport across the erythrocyte membrane. Seems to act in monovalent cation transport.
Abstract. The density and size of human erythrocytes has been roughly correlated with cell age, with the denser and smaller cells being older. Observations of
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further study on Ca2+-mediated inhibition of human erythrocyte D-glucose transporter. AU - Xie, Wensheng. AU - Tu, Yaping. AU - Yang, Fuyu. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1007/BF02882504. DO - 10.1007/BF02882504. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0642332284. VL - 42. SP - 871. EP - 875. JO - Science Bulletin. JF - Science Bulletin. SN - 2095-9273. IS - 10. ER - ...
A densimeter technique was used to make a kinetic analysis of the rate of swelling of human erythrocytes suspended in 1% NaCl following successive additions of NH4Cl. Two series of experiments were performed, one in the absence of and the other in the presence of 6 x 10-4 M NaHCO3. An analysis of the data using Widdass equations gave a family of curves in each instance. When LeFevres equation was used with a value of ø = 1.3 isotones, a straight line was obtained with both series of data. It is concluded that this system shows carrier kinetics.. ...
Proteins are long chain of amino acids that are tightly folded in on themselves. The order and chemical properties of the acids determine the locations of the folds, which in turn determine the function of the protein. Cysteine is hydrophobic; it interacts poorly with water and so it is usually on the inside of a protein. And because stress changes the shape of these folded proteins, Discher reasoned that measuring the degree to which cysteine is exposed would in effect measure how stressed the protein and cells containing it are. Dischers team simulated the shear forces originating from the beating heart, which forcefully pumps blood and ultimately pulls apart the folds that keep cysteine on the inside of proteins at the red blood cell membrane, allowing it to bind with a fluorescent marker dye. The team could visually confirm that more stressed cells were more fluorescent under the microscope but actually tested the levels of marked cysteine using mass spectrometry. Just like a polymer ...
Clone Q1/156. Band III is a protein associated with the surface membrane of red blood cells and their precursors. It is the major glycoprotein of the erythrocyte membrane and
Control of the erythrocyte free Ca2+ concentration in essential hypertension.: Since Ca2+ ions seem to directly participate in the control of erythrocyte membra
Eliminate erythrocytes from culture - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Dear all, I am culturing primary pancreatic tissue and after digesting the pancreas there is always a portion of erythrocytes in the culture, no matter the number of time I wash the tissue before. I know that they will evenually be eliminated but, is there a way of acelerating the process? I have heard that NaCl eliminates erythocytes. As anyone ever tried eliminating them from primary cultures? If so, I would very...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Red blood cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of normal healthy red blood cells (red) and a crenated red blood cell (white). Crenation is caused by dehydration, which distorts the cell. The main function of red blood cells (erythrocytes) is to distribute oxygen to body tissues, and to carry waste carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Crenation leads to a severe reduction in their ability to carry out this function. Magnification: x6000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C010/3090
Crenated red blood cell. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a section through the tissue between a blood vessel (lower right) and the lung (top), showing a crenated red blood cell (erythrocyte, centre). Crenation is caused by dehydration, which distorts the cell. Healthy red blood cells (round, lower right) can also be seen inside the blood vessel. - Stock Image C023/4091
Red blood cells or erythrocytes are the most common type of blood cell in our body. Their main purpose is to deliver oxygen to different body tissues. This papercraft from Shinaig will give you an idea what they look like since the original size only measures 6-8 μm. ...
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Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are the sort of blood cells that primarily serve to deliver oxygen to the body cells.
... (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red ... Senczuk AM, Reeder JC, Kosmala MM, Ho M (November 2001). "Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 functions as a ... Hence, they named the earlier protein Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), to distinguish it from the ... Rask TS, Hansen DA, Theander TG, Gorm Pedersen A, Lavstsen T (September 2010). "Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane ...
48: 15-42 . doi:10.1085.jpg.48.1.15 Berg, H. C.; Diamond, J. M.; Marfey, P. S. (1965). "Erythrocyte membrane: Chemical ... Clausen, C.; Machen, T. E.; Diamond, J. M. (1982). "Changes in the Cell Membranes of the Bullfrog Gastric Mucosa with Acid ... Jope, R. S.; Jenden, D. J.; Ehrlich, B. E.; Diamond, J. M.; Gosenfeld, L. F. (1980). "Erythrocyte choline concentrations are ... Loo, D. D.; Lewis, S. A.; Ifshin, M. S.; Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Turnover, membrane insertion, and degradation of sodium ...
The only known location of this enzyme is on the outside of erythrocyte membranes. However, physiological functions of this ... Acetylcholinesterase in the erythrocyte membrane]". Journal of UOEH. 16 (3): 253-262. doi:10.7888/juoeh.16.253. ISSN 0387-821X ... Short-term toxicity effects in rabbits and mice, exposed through different routes include inhibition of erythrocyte and brain ... erythrocytes and in the brain at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg/day. The short-term dermal exposure to granular ethoprophos was also ...
Dahr W, Beyreuther K, Moulds J, Unger P (1987). "Hybrid glycophorins from human erythrocyte membranes. I. Isolation and ... Dahr W, Beyreuther K, Moulds JJ (July 1987). "Structural analysis of the major human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoprotein ... Tate CG, Tanner MJ (1988). "Isolation of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins alpha and delta". ... 1987). "Glycophorins B and C from human erythrocyte membranes. Purification and sequence analysis". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (12): ...
ISBN 978-0-7817-6519-0. Downes CP, Michell RH (1981). "The polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase of erythrocyte membranes". ... The PH domain of β2 and β3 plays a dual role, much like PLC-δ1, by binding to the plasma membrane, as well as being a site of ... This membrane docking is mediated mostly by lipid-binding domains (e.g. PH domain and C2 domain) that display affinity for ... Further reading: Function of calcium in humans DAG remains within the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane due to its ...
Tokumasu F, Ostera GR, Amaratunga C, Fairhurst RM (2012) Modifications in erythrocyte membrane zeta potential by Plasmodium ... Their membrane plays many roles in this. These functions are highly dependent on the membrane composition. The red blood cell ... with a plasma membrane as the sack. Approximately 2.4 million new erythrocytes are produced per second in human adults. The ... "Factors determining detergent resistance of erythrocyte membranes". Biophysical Chemistry. 135 (1-3): 14-18. doi:10.1016/j.bpc. ...
Dahr W, Beyreuther K, Moulds JJ (July 1987). "Structural analysis of the major human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoprotein ... Tate CG, Tanner MJ (1988). "Isolation of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins alpha and delta". ... Thacker TC, Johnson FB (September 1998). "Binding of bovine parvovirus to erythrocyte membrane sialylglycoproteins". J. Gen. ... are major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane which bear the antigenic determinants for the MN and Ss blood ...
"Geldanamycin-Induced Phosphatidylserine Translocation in the Erythrocyte Membrane". Cell Physiol Biochem. 32 (6): 1600-1609. ... reported that geldanamycin induces the apoptosis of erythrocytes under physiological concentrations. These side effects have ...
Hebbel RP, Eaton JW (April 1989). "Pathobiology of heme interaction with the erythrocyte membrane". Semin Hematol. 26 (2): 136- ... Huy NT, Shima Y, Maeda A, Men TT, Hirayama K, Hirase A, Miyazawa A, Kamei A (2013). "Phospholipid Membrane-Mediated Hemozoin ... Paul F, Roath S, Melville D, Warhurst DC, Osisanya JO (1981). "Separation of malaria-infected erythrocytes from whole blood: ... with membrane lipids, histidine-rich proteins, or even a combination of the two, being proposed to catalyse the formation of ...
One good source of GLUT1 is erythrocyte membranes. GLUT1 accounts for 2 percent of the protein in the plasma membrane of ... GLUT1, found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes, is a classic example of a uniporter. After glucose is transported into the ... Six of these membrane-spanning helices are believed to bind together in the membrane to create a polar channel in the center ... "Dematin and adducin provide a novel link between the spectrin cytoskeleton and human erythrocyte membrane by directly ...
Banga JP, Pinder JC, Gratzer WB, Linch DC, Huehns ER (November 1979). "An erythrocyte membrane-protein anomaly in march ... Defects in red blood cell membrane proteins have been identified in some of these patients. Free haemoglobin is released from ...
Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPB42 gene. It is part of the red blood ... Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2 is an ATP-binding protein which may regulate the association of band 3 with ankyrin. It ... "Entrez Gene: EPB42 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2". Falcón-Pérez JM, Dell'Angelica EC (2002). "The pallidin (Pldn) gene ... 1994). "Human erythrocyte membrane protein 4.2 is palmitoylated". Eur. J. Biochem. 224 (2): 575-580. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ...
"The inositol trisphosphate phosphomonoesterase of the human erythrocyte membrane". The Biochemical Journal. 203 (1): 169-77. ...
Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 5 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the EPB41L5 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 5". Retrieved 2012-04-26. Gosens I, Sessa A, den Hollander AI, ...
Erythrocyte membrane plays a crucial role in blood clotting. In the bilayer of red blood cells is phosphatidylserine. This is ... A biological membrane, biomembrane or cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane that separates the interior of a cell ... such as mucous membranes, basement membranes, and serous membranes. The lipid bilayer consists of two layers- an outer leaflet ... For all cells, membrane fluidity is important for many reasons. It enables membrane proteins to diffuse rapidly in the plane of ...
"Entrez Gene: EPB49 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.9 (dematin)". Azim AC, Knoll JH, Beggs AH, Chishti AH (1995). "Isoform ... "Headpiece domain of dematin is required for the stability of the erythrocyte membrane". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 (10): 6637 ... 1996). "Human erythrocyte dematin and protein 4.2 (pallidin) are ATP binding proteins". Biochemistry. 35 (9): 3001-6. doi: ...
Szemraj J, Sobolewska B, Gulczynska E, Wilczynski J, Zylinska L (May 2005). "Magnesium sulfate effect on erythrocyte membranes ... A human enzyme was found in erythrocytes but the observation could not be confirmed. Groisman EA, Cromie MJ, Shi Y, Latifi T ( ... "The CorA Mg2+ transport protein of Salmonella typhimurium Mutagenesis of conserved residues in the third membrane domain ...
Jilani K, Abed M, Zelenak C, Lang E, Qadri SM, Lang F (2011). "Triggering of erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling by ursolic ...
Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) is a multifunctional protein that mediates interactions between the erythrocyte ... "Entrez Gene: EPB41L1 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1". Ye K, Hurt KJ, Wu FY, Fang M, Luo HR, Hong JJ, Blackshaw S ... "A novel neuron-enriched homolog of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1". J. Neurosci. 19 (15): 6457-67. doi: ... The encoded protein binds and stabilizes D2 and D3 dopamine receptors at the neuronal plasma membrane. Multiple transcript ...
In the erythrocyte glycophorin C makes up ~4% of the membrane sialoglycoproteins. The average number of O linked chains is 12 ... Erythrocyte membrane cartoon GYPC+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (CS1: ... Within the erythrocyte it interacts with band 4.1 (an 80-kDa protein) and p55 (a palmitoylated peripheral membrane ... GPC appears to be synthesized in excess in the erythrocyte and that the membrane content is regulated by band 4.1 (protein 4.1 ...
Hu, Che-Ming J.; Zhang, Li; Aryal, Santosh; Zhang, Liangfang (June 20, 2011). "Erythrocyte membrane-camouflaged polymeric ... By disguising the drug in red blood cell membrane, the drugs could evade the body's immune system and deliver cancer-fighting ... As an assistant professor, Zhang's research team became the first to combine the natural cell membrane with a synthetic ... They found that a biodegradable polymer nanoparticle filled with small molecule drugs and red blood cell membrane could ...
One of the major electrophoretic identifiable erythrocyte membrane proteins may be the cytochalasin B binding site of ... Taverna, RD; Langdon, RG (1973). "Reversible Association of Cytochalasin B with the Human Erythrocyte Membrane. Inhibition of ... followed by bulge formation in the membrane. The nucleus then moves to the outside of the membrane, but stays connected to the ... Extrusion could be assisted by the CB-induced weakening of the plasma membrane. It has been shown that cytochalasin B binds ...
"Entrez Gene: EPB41L2 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 2". Walensky LD, Gascard P, Fields ME, Blackshaw S, Conboy JG, ... interacts with a novel homologue of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1". The Journal of Cell Biology. 141 (1): ... interacts with a novel homologue of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1". The Journal of Cell Biology. 141 (1): ...
Steck TL (1972). "Cross-linking the major proteins of the isolated erythrocyte membrane". J. Mol. Biol. 66 (2): 295-305. doi: ...
Goebl MG (March 1992). "Is the erythrocyte protein p55 a membrane-bound guanylate kinase?". Trends Biochem. Sci. 17 (3): 99. ... Bryant PJ, Woods DF (February 1992). "A major palmitoylated membrane protein of human erythrocytes shows homology to yeast ...
Hu CM, Zhang L, Aryal S, Cheung C, Fang RH, Zhang L (July 2011). "Erythrocyte membrane-camouflaged polymeric nanoparticles as a ... Membranes for artificial cells can be made of simple polymers, crosslinked proteins, lipid membranes or polymer-lipid complexes ... The first attempt was made in 1957 by replacing the red blood cell membrane by an ultrathin polymeric membrane which was ... The membranes of artificial cells are much thinner those used in dialysis and their small size means that they have a high ...
"Is hemoglobin an essential structural component of human erythrocyte membranes?". J Clin Invest. 42 (4): 581-88. doi:10.1172/ ... erythrocytes) of almost all vertebrates (the exception being the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some ... or RBC membrane defects - or other problems, the RBC half-life is frequently shortened. In these individuals, an alternative ...
This takes into account both the glycocalyx and spectrin layers of the erythrocyte membrane. This information is useful for ... "Solutions of non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for erythrocyte membrane". Brazilian Journal of Physics. 30 (2): 403-409. ... many reasons including the study of the mechanical stability of the erythrocyte membrane. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation can ... and membranes. This involves the equations being solved with simple boundary conditions such as constant surface potential. ...
The system is based on the affinity of dermaseptins for the plasma membrane of human erythrocytes. After transient loading of ...;2-w. Feder R, Nehushtai R, Mor A (October 2001). "Affinity driven molecular transfer from erythrocyte membrane to target ... greater affinity the dermaseptin derivative is spontaneously transferred to the microbial membrane where it exerts its membrane ... have the potential to form amphipathic helices in water or when integrated with the lipid bilayer of the bacterial membrane. ...
"Entrez Gene: EPB41L3 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, ...
Current Topics in Membranes. Vol. 79. Academic Press. pp. 275-307. doi:10.1016/bs.ctm.2016.11.004. ISBN 978-0-12-809389-4. PMID ... The essential determinant of erythrocyte dehydration in hereditary xerocytosis". Haematologica. 102 (10): e415-e418. doi: ...
Steiner JP, Bennett V (1988). "Ankyrin-independent membrane protein-binding sites for brain and erythrocyte spectrin". J. Biol ... As opposed to alpha I-spectrin that is principally found in erythrocytes, alpha II-spectrin is expressed in most tissues. In ... Bennett PM, Baines AJ, Lecomte MC, Maggs AM, Pinder JC (2004). "Not just a plasma membrane protein: in cardiac muscle cells ... Davis LH, Bennett V (1990). "Mapping the binding sites of human erythrocyte ankyrin for the anion exchanger and spectrin". J. ...
... basolateral membrane of small intestine and apical GLUT2 is also suggested. basolateral membrane of renal tubular cells GLUT2 ... kinetic characterization and substrate specificities of the erythrocyte, liver, and brain isoforms". Biochemistry. 30 (21): ... GLUT2 is found in cellular membranes of: liver (Primary) pancreatic β cell (Primary in mice, tertiary in humans after GLUT1 and ... GLUT2 is up-regulated at the brush border membrane, enhancing the capacity of glucose transport. Basolateral GLUT2 in ...
... "lysis of erythrocytes" (erythro- ± cyto- + -lysis). Red blood cells (erythrocytes) have a short lifespan (approximately 120 ... Modeling of fluid flows to predict the likelihood of red cell membrane rupture in response to stress is an active area of ... Hemolysis may result from intrinsic defects in the red blood cell itself: Defects of red blood cell membrane production (as in ... Bossi, D; Russo, M (1996). "Hemolytic anemias due to disorders of red cell membrane skeleton". Molecular Aspects of Medicine. ...
Mangeat PH (1989). "Interaction of biological membranes with the cytoskeletal framework of living cells". Biol. Cell. 64 (3): ... Gardner K, Bennett V (1987). "Modulation of spectrin-actin assembly by erythrocyte adducin". Nature. 328 (6128): 359-62. ...
Cytochrome a refers to the heme A in specific combination with membrane protein forming a portion of cytochrome c oxidase. The ... Degradation begins inside macrophages of the spleen, which remove old and damaged erythrocytes from the circulation. In the ...
... genes and belong to a family of membrane skeletal proteins involved in the assembly of spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes ... Adducin, originally purified from human erythrocytes, was found to be a heterodimer of adducins alpha and beta. Polymorphisms ... a human cDNA highly homologous to human erythrocyte adducin". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 74 (1-2): 90-5. doi:10.1159/000134389. PMID ...
It lacks the DNA binding region of CUTL1, but instead contains a trans-membrane domain that allows it to insert into lipid ... macrophages and erythrocytes but remains elevated in differentiating megakaryocytes". Leukemia. 14 (5): 863-73. doi:10.1038/sj. ... is a Golgi membrane protein related to giantin". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 3761-74. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-06-0349. ... a Subset of Golgi Integral Membrane Proteins". Mol. Biol. Cell. 15 (5): 2423-35. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-09-0699. PMC 404034. PMID ...
This is the case in human erythrocytes, which have no mitochondria, and in oxygen-depleted muscle. Adenosine triphosphate is a ... The potential energy stored as an electrochemical gradient of protons (H+) across the inner mitochondrial membrane is required ...
Different membrane lipids that can be used to create FSLs have different membrane physiochemical characteristics and thus can ... created by attaching peptides onto erythrocytes". Transfusion. 50 (3): 635-641. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02480.x. PMID ... The lipid of the FSL anchors it to lipid membranes and gives the FSL construct its amphiphatic nature which can cause it to ... It is expected that the FSL will be highly mobile within the membrane and the choice of lipid tail will effect is relative ...
... ceramide readily flip-flops across membranes as supported by studies in membrane models and membranes from red blood cells ( ... 2005). "Rapid transbilayer movement of ceramides in phospholipid vesicles and in human erythrocytes". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (27): ... This explains its ability to move between membranes and to flip-flop across a membrane. Estimates conducted at physiological pH ... in the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and the perinuclear membranes. Being located in the metabolic hub, ceramide ...
Eitan, A; Aloni, B; Livne, A (1976). "Unique properties of the camel erythrocyte membraneII. Organization of membrane proteins ... also known as the nictitating membrane). The camels' gait and widened feet help them move without sinking into the sand. The ...
... can be seen Circular raised patches of hair all over the body Haemorrhages in the ocular and vaginal mucous membranes A degree ... of theileriosis Definitive diagnosis relies on the observation of the pirolplasm stages of the organism in the erythrocytes in ...
Greenwalt, T.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Dumaswala, U.J. (1984). "Erythrocyte membrane vesiculation and changes in membrane composition ...
The attachment of M. haemofelis to red blood cell membranes is often associated with positive Coombs test results, meaning IgG ... This spontaneous alteration of phenotype seems to allow individuals to detach from erythrocytes by the alteration or ... Once in the bloodstream, M. haemofelis individuals adhere to the cell membranes of red blood cells and eventually become ... haemofelis infection of erythrocytes. Treated and untreated animals that recover from M. haemofelis infections generally remain ...
Robert F, Fendri S, Hary L, Lacroix C, Andréjak M, Lalau JD (June 2003). "Kinetics of plasma and erythrocyte metformin after ... AMPK is known to cause GLUT4 deployment to the plasma membrane, resulting in insulin-independent glucose uptake. Some metabolic ... rapid passive diffusion of metformin through cell membranes is unlikely. As a result of its low lipid solubility it requires ...
Throughout apoptosis, FAK is an important contributor to cell rounding, loss of focal contacts and apoptotic membrane ... amino-terminal domains of FAK share a significant sequence similarity with the band 4.1 domain first identified in erythrocytes ...
His pearly research in the Institute's Electron Microscopy Laboratory involved the membrane structure of erythrocytes, their ... Danon became interested in the process of aging of erythrocytes, and joined the Israeli Association of Gerontology. In 1975 he ... His research during this period continued to focus on erythrocytes and thrombocytes, as well as the interaction between these ... a device that enables automatic registration of osmotic fragility curve of erythrocytes, later produced by "Elron". . In later ...
... in the membrane and is responsible for localizing the GAB protein on the intracellular surface of the membrane and in regions ... The erythropoietin hormone (Epo) is responsible for the regulation and proliferation of erythrocytes. Epo is able to self ... It is a member of the GAB/DOS family localized on the internal membrane of the cell. It mediates the interaction between ... GAB2 is a docking protein with a conserved, folded PH domain attached to the membrane and a large disordered region, which ...
For instance, PS presence on the extracellular membrane face of erythrocytes is a marker of cell apoptosis, whereas PS in ... as are the nuclear membrane surrounding the cell nucleus, and membranes of the membrane-bound organelles in the cell. The lipid ... By measuring the capacitance of erythrocyte solutions, Hugo Fricke determined that the cell membrane was 3.3 nm thick. Although ... These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. The cell membranes of almost all organisms and ...
... with erythrocyte ankyrin R is required for its attachment to the erythrocyte membrane". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... major malarial cytoadherence protein to the erythrocyte membrane; however, these findings were disputed by recent NMR and ... "Structural analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) intracellular domain reveals a ... Instead, KAHRP was shown to interact with Ankyrin, more precisely the D3 subunit of the Membrane-binding domain of Ankyrin type ...
The energy released during this process is used to create a hydrogen ion (or proton) gradient across the inner membrane of the ... All of these values are available for erythrocytes, with the exception of the concentrations of NAD+ and NADH. The ratio of ... Cholesterol can be used as is, as a structural component of cellular membranes, or it can be used to synthesize the steroid ... The fact that ΔG is not zero indicates that the actual concentrations in the erythrocyte are not accurately known. The enzymes ...
These receptors regulate sodium and potassium levels on either side of the cell membrane. Osmolyte Myo-Inositol Taurine and ... "Mechanisms of suicidal erythrocyte death". Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 15 (5): 195-202. doi:10.1159/000086406. PMID ... which causes a rapid change in the movement of water across its cell membrane. Under hypertonic conditions - conditions of high ...
Brinckmann R, Schnurr K, Heydeck D, Rosenbach T, Kolde G, Kühn H (January 1998). "Membrane translocation of 15-lipoxygenase in ... "Immunocytochemical localization of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and airway cells". The Journal of ... As one aspect of this processing, the two products are progressively esterified in mitochondria membrane phospholipids during ... Gene Function Kelavkar and Badr (1999) stated that the ALOX15 gene product is implicated in antiinflammation, membrane ...
The fact that bactridine 1 is not toxic to mice and has no haemolytic effect on human erythrocytes seems to present some ... A fluorescent probe study of microbial membrane Na+ permeability changes. Toxicon, 54, 802-817. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2009.06. ...
The increased rigidity of the erythrocyte membrane in SAO is thought to reduce the capacity of the band 3 proteins to cluster ... Rather, the defect lies in a protein known as the band 3 protein, which lies in the cell membrane itself. The band 3 protein ... The band 3 proteins aggregate on the cell membrane at the site of entry, forming a circular orifice that the parasite squeezes ... Other abnormalities include tighter tethering of the band 3 protein to the cell membrane, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of ...
During replication of a virus, some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... that are structurally crucial to a wide variety of erythrocyte-lysing bacteria, described as hemolysins. These bacteria target ... and effector cell which leads to lysis of the cell membrane of the target. If the target cell was pre-loaded with a label of ... whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies, ...
Purification of intracellular forms of Plasmodium chabaudi and their interactions with the erythrocyte membrane and with serum ... 1977)‎. Purification of intracellular forms of Plasmodium chabaudi and their interactions with the erythrocyte membrane and ...
2022). The erythrocyte membrane properties of beta thalassaemia heterozygotes and their consequences for Plasmodium falciparum ... The erythrocyte membrane properties of beta thalassaemia heterozygotes and their consequences for Plasmodium falciparum ... However, the malaria protective properties of beta thalassaemic erythrocytes remain unclear. Here we studied the mechanics and ... We found invasion-relevant differences in beta thalassaemic cells versus matched controls, specifically: elevated membrane ...
The causative gene of this condition is ABCB6, encoding an erythrocyte membrane ABC transporter protein bearing the Langereis ... Molecular genetics and pathogenic mechanisms of hereditary anemias due to altered permeability of erythrocyte membrane. ... Molecular genetics and pathogenic mechanisms of hereditary anemias due to altered permeability of erythrocyte membrane. [Tesi ... Genetic defects of erythrocyte transport proteins cause disorders of red blood cell volume that are characterized by abnormal ...
Dietary plasmalogen increases erythrocyte membrane plasmalogen in rats. In: Lipids in Health and Disease. 2012 ; Vol. 11. ... Mawatari S, Katafuchi T, Miake K, Fujino T. Dietary plasmalogen increases erythrocyte membrane plasmalogen in rats. Lipids in ... Dietary plasmalogen increases erythrocyte membrane plasmalogen in rats. Shiro Mawatari, Toshihiko Katafuchi, Kiyotaka Miake, ... Dietary plasmalogen increases erythrocyte membrane plasmalogen in rats. / Mawatari, Shiro; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Miake, ...
Incubation of turkey erythrocyte membranes with cholera toxin and [32P]NAD caused toxin-dependent incorporation of 32P into a ... Cholera-toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the adenylate cyclase regulatory protein in turkey erythrocyte membranes. Archives ... Cholera-toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the adenylate cyclase regulatory protein in turkey erythrocyte membranes. In: ... Cholera-toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the adenylate cyclase regulatory protein in turkey erythrocyte membranes. / Downs, ...
Oscillations in bovine erythrocyte membrane free thiols. / Gaczyńska, M.. In: Cytobios, Vol. 51, No. 205, 1987, p. 71-79.. ... "Oscillations in bovine erythrocyte membrane free thiols.",. abstract = "Oscillations in the level of bovine erythrocyte ... Gaczyńska, M. / Oscillations in bovine erythrocyte membrane free thiols. In: Cytobios. 1987 ; Vol. 51, No. 205. pp. 71-79. ... Gaczyńska, M 1987, Oscillations in bovine erythrocyte membrane free thiols., Cytobios, vol. 51, no. 205, pp. 71-79. ...
... of human erythrocytes, measured by point dark field microscopy, were shown to depend, to a large extent, on intracellular MgATP ... Membrane fluctuations in erythrocytes are linked to MgATP-dependent dynamic assembly of the membrane skeleton ... Membrane fluctuations in erythrocytes are linked to MgATP-dependent dynamic assembly of the membrane skeleton ... Regulation Mechanism of the Lateral Diffusion of Band 3 in Erythrocyte Membranes by the Membrane Skeleton ...
Characterisation of the naturally occurring antibody response to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 ... Characterisation of the naturally occurring antibody response to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 ...
... in order to isolate the erythrocyte membranes. After identifying the most valid erythrocyte membrane extraction protocol and ... in order to isolate the erythrocyte membranes. After identifying the most valid erythrocyte membrane extraction protocol and ... Analysis of the modifications of erythrocyte membrane proteome induced by blood storage. Fossati, C;Grasso, L;Pergolizzi, B; ... The storage of erythrocytes causes changes in membrane proteins, which could be evidenced by proteomics. The aim of the present ...
Erythrocyte membrane stabilization by decamethonium and succinylcholine. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin. 1983 Jun ... These results indicate that decamethonium and succinylcholine may have a membrane stabilization-lysis effect on erythrocytes. ... These drugs at concentrations of 5 X 10(-8) M to 10(-4) M caused a dose-dependent inhibition of haemolysis of erythrocytes in ... The effects of decamethonium and succinylcholine on hypotonic haemolysis of erythrocytes were studied. ...
Ambaga M., Tumen-Ulzii A. and Buyantushig T. (2022); THE BUFFERING CAPACITY OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE SURROUNDINGS IN RELATION TO ... THE BUFFERING CAPACITY OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE SURROUNDINGS IN RELATION TO FREE PROTONS INSIGHTOF NEW ELUCIDATION OF EIGTH AND ... electron from food substrates under the undirect action of oxygen released from membrane surroundings of erythrocyte in the 8- ... the buffering capacity of erythrocyte membrane surroundings in relation to free protons, formed in the proton conductance have ...
We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane ... "We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane ... We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane ... We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane ...
Pyruvate transport into inside-out vesicles isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Jul 14; 468(2 ...
Erythrocyte membrane phosphorylation in Plasmodium berghei infected mice / by Porntip Chaimanee. by Chaimanee, Porntip , UNDP/ ...
Hydrophobic interaction of alcian blue with soluble and erythrocyte membrane proteins. Gian Marco Ghiggeri, Giovanni Candiano, ... Hydrophobic interaction of alcian blue with soluble and erythrocyte membrane proteins. / Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Candiano, ... Hydrophobic interaction of alcian blue with soluble and erythrocyte membrane proteins. Journal of Chromatography A. 1988 Oct 28 ... Hydrophobic interaction of alcian blue with soluble and erythrocyte membrane proteins. In: Journal of Chromatography A. 1988 ; ...
Erythrocyte Membrane Modified Janus Polymeric Motors for Thrombus Therapy. Jingxin Shao, Mona Abdelghani, Guizhi Shen, Shoupeng ... We report the construction of erythrocyte membrane-cloaked Janus polymeric motors (EM-JPMs) which are propelled by near- ... After biointerfacing the Janus capsules with an erythrocyte membrane, the EM-JPMs displayed red blood cell related properties, ...
... phospholipid ratio of the membrane of patients erythrocytes. The patients abnormally shaped erythrocytes were less deformed ... Alterations in erythrocyte membrane lipid and its fragility in a patient with familial lecithin : cholesterol acyltrasferase ( ... Alterations in erythrocyte membrane lipid and its fragility in a patient with familial lecithin : cholesterol acyltrasferase ( ... In the membrane lipids of the patients erythrocytes, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine increased, and ...
At sites where the membrane network abuts the erythrocyte plasma membrane we observed small vesicles of 15 - 25 nm in size, ... which seem to bud from and/or fuse with the membrane network and the erythrocyte plasma membrane, respectively. On the basis of ... This membrane network could also be visualized in vivo by vital staining of infected erythrocytes with the fluorescent dye ... Evidence for trafficking of PfEMP1 to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes via a complex membrane network. ...
solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 1 (erythrocyte membrane protein band 3, Diego blood group) ... Studies suggest that with the help of glycophorin A, the altered AE1 protein can often get to the cell membrane in red blood ... While a shortage of the AE1 protein in the cell membrane affects the structure of red blood cells in these blood disorders, ... Improper location or absence of AE1 in kidney cell membranes disrupts bicarbonate exchange, and as a result, acid cannot be ...
The Effects of Cholesterol Oxidation on Erythrocyte Plasma Membranes: A Monolayer Study. Lechner, B. D., Smith, P., McGill, B. ... Membranes. 12, 9, 828. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review. DOIs: ...
Changes in dietary intake, plasma carotenoids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in breast cancer survivors after a lifestyle ... vitamin E and retinol concentrations and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EFA) composition. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were ...
Name: erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 3. Synonyms: NBL3, 4.1B, DAL1P, Epb4.1l3 ...
A robust mass spectrometry method for rapid profiling of erythrocyte ghost membrane proteomes ... A robust mass spectrometry method for rapid profiling of erythrocyte ghost membrane proteomes ...
Temperature Effect on Erythrocyte Membrane Permeability for Cryoprotectants with Different Hydrophobicities Authors. * E. V. ... Erythrocyte cooling below physiological temperatures was shown to result in thermotropic changes of membrane state. The most ... Davydova, E. V., & Gordienko, O. I. (2009). Temperature Effect on Erythrocyte Membrane Permeability for Cryoprotectants with ... erythrocytes, cryoprotectants, permeability, activation energy Abstract. There were measured the permeability coefficients for ...
Erythrocyte membrane contains numerous integral membrane proteins, usually, they show absorption maximum between 275 and 280 nm ... Ionizing Radiation-induced Changes In The Absorption Spectrum Of Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins Authors. * S.L. Kalmakhelidze ... γ-Radiation, Erythrocyte Membrane Proteins, Absorption Spectra Abstract. Under influence of ionizing radiation different types ... Results show that absorption for proteins of erythrocytes membrane at 280 nm wavelength timedependent decreased after ...
... resulting notably in cell membrane fluctuations (CMF). These CMF have been subject of many studies in order to obtain a better ... Erythrocyte Deformability / physiology* * Erythrocyte Membrane / metabolism* * Erythrocytes / cytology* * Erythrocytes / ... Spatially-resolved eigenmode decomposition of red blood cells membrane fluctuations questions the role of ATP in flickering ... ATP, however, seems to be required to maintain the unique biomechanical properties of the RBC membrane that lead to thermally ...
It associates with band 4.1 and actin to form the cytoskeletal superstructure of the erythrocyte plasma membrane.... show less ... It forms a component of the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene result in a variety of hereditary red blood ... Spectrin is the major constituent of the cytoskeletal network underlying the erythrocyte plasma membrane. ... This gene encodes a member of a family of molecular scaffold proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton ...
  • Genetic defects of erythrocyte transport proteins cause disorders of red blood cell volume that are characterized by abnormal permeability to the cation and, consequently, by changes in red cell hydration. (
  • Incubation of turkey erythrocyte membranes with cholera toxin and [ 32 P]NAD caused toxin-dependent incorporation of 32 P into a 42,000 M r peptide which could be distinguished from toxin-independent 32 P incorporation into other membrane proteins. (
  • The storage of erythrocytes causes changes in membrane proteins, which could be evidenced by proteomics. (
  • The analysis of band 3 showed a gradual fragmentation of the protein during storage time.CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study confirmed the observations of scientific literature demonstrating a modification of erythrocyte proteins during red blood cells (RBC) storage. (
  • In addition, AB binds to most RBC membrane proteins solubilized by urea-detergent extraction, again suggesting hydrophobic interaction. (
  • However, some altered AE1 proteins cannot be helped by glycophorin A and are not trafficked to red blood cell membranes. (
  • Erythrocyte membrane contains numerous integral membrane proteins, usually, they show absorption maximum between 275 and 280 nm, which are caused by the absorbance of the aromatic amino acids tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) and, to a small extent, by the absorbance of cystine (i.e., of disulfide bonds). (
  • Our study aimed to determine Ionizing radiationinduced changes in the absorption spectrum of erythrocyte membrane proteins. (
  • Results show that absorption for proteins of erythrocytes' membrane at 280 nm wavelength timedependent decreased after irradiation and after one month reaches 75% of the control level. (
  • They code for 5 major antigens denoted by letters, C, c, E, e, and D. Rh blood group antigens are inherited as determined by at least 2 homologous but distinct membrane-associated proteins. (
  • This report describes Ca2+-dependent binding of 125I-labeled calmodulin (125I-CaM) to erythrocyte membranes and identification of two new CaM-binding proteins. (
  • An absent glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored receptor prevents several proteins from binding to the erythrocyte membrane. (
  • Quantitative immunoelectrophoresis of proteins in human erythrocyte membranes. (
  • Binding to other proteins and erythrocytes also occurs, but the physiologic role is probably limited. (
  • Here we studied the mechanics and surface protein expression of beta thalassaemia heterozygous erythrocytes, measured their susceptibility to P. falciparum invasion, and calculated the energy required for merozoites to invade them. (
  • The causative gene of this condition is ABCB6, encoding an erythrocyte membrane ABC transporter protein bearing the Langereis blood group antigen system. (
  • When toxin-treated membranes were incubated with isoproterenol and GMP before detergent solubilization, the 42,000 M r labeled peptide was adsorbed by GTP-γ-agarose which, with the same conditions, adsorbed the adenylate cyclase guanine nucleotide regulatory protein. (
  • The labeled peptide allows identification of both active and inactive regulatory protein and should be useful in monitoring the purification of the regulatory protein from turkey erythrocytes. (
  • After identifying the most valid erythrocyte membrane extraction protocol and obtaining homogeneous protein samples by manual sonication, we performed Western blot assay (WB), by incubating the membranes with the primary anti beta-actin antibody and then with the anti-band 3 antibody. (
  • We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, cysteine interdomain region-1α (CIDR-1α). (
  • This protein transports negatively charged atoms (anions) across cell membranes. (
  • However, the altered protein attaches to the normal protein and keeps it from getting to the correct location, leading to a severe reduction or absence of AE1 protein in the correct part of the cell membrane. (
  • Studies suggest that with the help of glycophorin A, the altered AE1 protein can often get to the cell membrane in red blood cells, which explains why most people with SLC4A1 -associated distal renal tubular acidosis do not have blood cell abnormalities. (
  • This finding might be a result of pooled IgG interactions with the hematin molecule and the subsequent conformational changes in the protein molecule altering the electrokinetic properties of the erythrocyte membrane related to the Rh group type of erythrocytes . (
  • The human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports virulence determinants, such as the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), beyond its own periplasmatic boundaries to the surface of its host erythrocyte. (
  • Sharp decrease in activation energy of penetration of 1,2-PD hydrophilic cryoprotectant within 30â€"37°C range disappears after erythrocyte treatment with pCMBS, testifying to a significant contribution of 1,2-PD protein hydrophilic channels into a transmembrane flow. (
  • A fraction of band 3 protein, the major transmembrane protein of erythrocyte membranes is held to the cytoskeletal protein spectrin via noncovalent interactions with the protein ankyrin (band 2.1). (
  • The results show that the membrane composition has a small contribution to the increased bending rigidity and suggests additional protein-driven mechanisms. (
  • Recently, erythrocyte glucose transporter protein 1 (Glut1) was also reported to be expressed in perineurial cells ( 4 ). (
  • Self-association of band-protein from human erythrocyte membranes in aqueous solutions. (
  • Interactions of band 3-protein from human erythrocyte membranes with cholesterol and cholesterol analogues. (
  • Substructure of membrane-bound Na + −K + -ATPase protein. (
  • Anion transport across the erythrocyte membrane, in situ proteolysis of band 3 protein, and cross-linking of proteolytic fragments by 4,4′-diisothiocyano dihydrostilbene-2,2′-disulfonate. (
  • Clinical manifestations of erythrocyte membrane protein coding gene mutations in hereditary spherocytosis]. (
  • Alteration in membrane permeability characteristics in jaundiced neonates causes severe microenvironmental changes in red blood cell profile. (
  • There were measured the permeability coefficients for native and pCMBS-treated human erythrocytes for 1,2-propane diol (1,2-PD) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) within 3â€"37°C temperature range and the values of activation energy for these cryoprotectants’ penetration within certain temperature ranges were determined. (
  • Lepke S, Passow H. Effects of fluoride on potassium and sodium permeability of the erythrocyte membrane. (
  • Ca 2+ control of electrolyte permeability in plasma membrane vesicles from cat pancreas. (
  • The erythrocyte membrane properties of beta thalassaemia heterozygotes and their consequences for Plasmodium falciparum invasion. (
  • Erythrocyte membrane phosphorylation in Plasmodium berghei infected mice / by Porntip Chaimanee. (
  • Red blood cells (RBCs) present unique reversible shape deformability, essential for both function and survival, resulting notably in cell membrane fluctuations (CMF). (
  • Reassociation of spectrin and actin with human erythrocyte membranes was studied by stereoscopic electron microscopy of thin sections combined with tannic acid- glutaraldehyde fixation. (
  • Treatment of the erythrocyte membrane with 0.1 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) extracted more than 90 percent of the spectrin and actin and concomitantly removed filamentous meshworks underlying the membranes, followed by fragmentation into small inside-out vesicles. (
  • When such spectrin-depleted vesicles were incubated with the EDTA extract (crude spectrin), a filamentous meshwork, similar to those of the original membranes, was reformed on the cytoplasmic surface of the vesicles. (
  • The RBCs' unique ability to deform is intrinsically related to the complex interplay between the spectrin network and the cytoplasmic membrane, which form the outer layer of the cell. (
  • Since the spectrin-actin lattice, which has been suggested to play an important role in stabilizing membrane phospholipid asymmetry, is abnormal in sickled erythrocytes, we determined the effects of sickling on membrane phospholipid organization. (
  • Using biochemical and physiological techniques, the erythrocytes of this patient were investigated to gain an insight into the relationship between the abnormalities of lipid metabolism and erythrocyte membrane fragility. (
  • Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities in neuroacanthocytosis: Evidence for a neuron-erythrocyte axis? (
  • De Franceschi L, Corrocher R. Erythrocyte membrane anion exchange abnormalities in chorea-acanthocytosis: The band 3 network. (
  • Abnormalities in membrane phospholipid organization in sickled erythrocytes. (
  • Hereditary disorders may cause hemolysis as a result of erythrocyte membrane abnormalities, enzymatic defects, and hemoglobin abnormalities. (
  • Erythrocyte cooling below physiological temperatures was shown to result in thermotropic changes of membrane state. (
  • Reversible changes of membrane properties induced by alterations in ionic concentrations. (
  • Pyruvate transport into inside-out vesicles isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. (
  • Sulphate-ion/sodium-ion co-transport by brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex. (
  • These findings indicate that normochromic anemia of the patient might be caused by erythrocyte fragility resulting from decreased deformity and/or abnormal shape of the cells due to abnormal lipid composition in the membrane. (
  • Erythrocyte Membrane Biophysical Changes Mediated by Pooled Immunoglobulin G and Hematin: Electrokinetic and Lipid Peroxidation Studies. (
  • The effect of melittin on the membrane capacitance and resistance of model lipid bilayers was probed via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy . (
  • Lipid bilayer capacitance was higher in the presence of 0.10 g/L melittin compared to that in the control, which is likely related to bilayer thinning and alterations of the dielectric permittivity of melittin -treated membranes . (
  • A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay revealed a high rate of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes treated with IgG / hematin or IgG / melittin preparations. (
  • In fact, red blood cell membranes of autistic children are more stiff, have an anomalous lipid composition and the activity of one of the most important membrane enzymes (Na+, K+-ATPase) is severely depressed. (
  • We observe an increased fraction (6%) of liquid ordered ( l o ) domains in the RBC cm s with storage time, and an increased lipid packing in these domains, leading to an increased membrane thickness and membrane order. (
  • Because this lipid is also a major component of ce11 membranes, it is possible that surfactant can interact with mineral dust to alter its interaction with macrophages and other pulmonary cells and, thus, its pathogenicity. (
  • This free bilirubin is able to cross lipid-containing membranes, including the blood-brain barrier, leading to neurotoxicity. (
  • During the transformation of the erythrocyte with S hemoglobin in sickle erythrocyte among the biochemical events there is the oxidative degradation of this hemoglobin releasing degradation products, Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ complexes that attack the cell membrane resulting in lipid hydroperoxides and peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. (
  • In turn, a better acquaintance with the biological alterations of membranes may in the future lead to therapeutic interventions, aimed at their phenotypic correction (e.g. nutraceutical supplementation of specific membrane lipids and antioxidants). (
  • Thus, they are divided in disorders that affect erythrocytes (red blood cells), leucocytes (white blood cells) and hemorrhagic disorders, among which are included platelet and coagulation factors alterations 1 . (
  • Purpura is a disease included in the large group of hemorrhagic disorders and is distinguished by cutaneous hemorrhage and blood loss from mucous membranes and internal organs, which is always related to vascular or platelet alterations 2 . (
  • These data strengthen previous observations that P. falciparum interacts directly with human dendritic cells, and suggests that the interaction between CIDR-1α and the host cell may be responsible for regulation of the CD4 T cell and cytokine responses to P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes reported previously. (
  • Recently, a non-locomotive process, consisting of reversible submicron fluctuations of the cell membrane surface in the frequency range of 0.3-30 Hz has been described to be possessed by various cells. (
  • The oxidative stress is one of the factors that influence the phenotype of the carrier and the processes of vascular occlusion by increasing the adhesive properties of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets to the endothelium. (
  • Abnormal erythrocytes, so-called Target cells and/or Knizocytes, were observed at 20% in our patient's erythrocytes. (
  • In contrast to ICS, where the organization of phospholipids was abnormal under both oxy and deoxy conditions, reoxygenation of RSC almost completely restored the organization of membrane phospholipids to normal. (
  • Anemia, hypochromic microcytic, with iron overload 2 (AHMIO2) [MIM:615234]: A hematologic disease characterized by abnormal hemoglobin content in the erythrocytes which are reduced in size, severe anemia, erythropoietic hyperplasia of bone marrow, massive hepatic iron deposition, and hepatosplenomegaly. (
  • The hemolysis of erythrocyte membranes , as well as changes in hematocrit and the morphology of erythrocytes , was investigated here via fluorescence microscopy using FITC - concanavalin A binding to cells . (
  • In vitro cellular assay systems using-erythrocyte hemolysis or the release of macrophage cytosolic or lysosomal enzymes following dust challenge, have been used to analyze the initial mechanism of dust damage to cells. (
  • Exposure of erythrocytes to the dusts also results in greater levels of hemolysis by kaolin for equal mass respirable dust doses. (
  • Hemolysis is the premature destruction of erythrocytes. (
  • The clinical severity of the anemia depends on whether the onset of hemolysis is gradual or abrupt as well as the extent of erythrocyte destruction. (
  • However, patients with mild hemolysis may develop marked anemia if their bone marrow erythrocyte production is transiently shut off by viral (parvovirus B19) or other infections. (
  • Intrinsic membrane glycoproteins with cytosol-oriented sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • The biomolecule interactions with red blood cells were probed in physiological media in which the surface of erythrocyte membranes was negatively charged. (
  • abstract = "Oscillations in the level of bovine erythrocyte membrane-SH groups available for DTNB are described. (
  • Cell membrane fluctuations (CMF) of human erythrocytes, measured by point dark field microscopy, were shown to depend, to a large extent, on intracellular MgATP (Levin, S.V., and R. Korenstein. (
  • Their action on surface properties , oxidation status and epifluorescence properties measured in vitro provide useful information about the functional activity of upper biomacromolecules in erythrocytes in vivo. (
  • iv)expression of erythrocyte enzymes involved in the control of oxidation, such as peroxyredoxin. (
  • We noticed both the anticipated upsurge in FL1 and reduction in FL2 upon oxidation, towards the unexpected increase of C11-BODIPY fluorescence at 600 contrarily?nm observed by measuring the development of neutrophil membrane oxidation upon activation by monitoring the decay of crimson fluorescence11. (
  • Mineral surface interactions with plasma membrane lipoproteins have been proposed as a mechanism of lytic damage of pulmonary cells by silica dust in numerous models. (
  • We used two enzymatic probes: been venom phospholipase A2 and Staphylococcus aureus sphingomyelinase C, which do not penetrate the membrane and react only with phospholipids located in the outer leaflet of the bilayer. (
  • Migrate from blood stream in to tissue spaces, especially mucous membrane Important in defense against protozoans and helminthes. (
  • In the membrane lipids of the patient's erythrocytes, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine increased, and phosphatidylethanolamine decreased. (
  • These results indicate that the process of sickling induces an abnormality in the organization of membrane lipids in RSC which become permanent in ISC. (
  • Findings from the new study were published recently in Lipids through an article titled " Peripheral Artery Disease Is Associated with a Deficiency of Erythrocyte Membrane n‐3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids . (
  • A hemolytic anemia will develop if bone marrow activity cannot compensate for the erythrocyte loss. (
  • Hemolytic anemia in PNH results from the increased susceptibility of PNH erythrocytes to complement. (
  • In this study, trypsin was used under defined conditions to selectively proteolyze ankyrin and thereby destroy the band 3-ankyrin linkage on the cytoplasmic side of erythrocyte ghost membranes. (
  • The 89 kDa NH2-terminal domain of erythrocyte ankyrin is composed almost entirely of 22 tandem repeats of a 33 amino acid sequence and constitutes the binding site for the cytoplasmic NH 2 -terminal domain of the erythrocyte anion exchanger, AE1. (
  • Localization and characterization of transport-related elements in the plasma membrane of turtle bladder epithelial cells. (
  • The mechanism of interaction of particulates of different types with the membranes of cells was also studied using erythrocytes, cultured epithelial cells and liposomes with silica (7631869), talc (14807966), montmorillonite (1318930), bentonite (1302789), crocidolite (12001284) and chrysotile (12001295). (
  • The PlsEtn diet given to normal rats for 9 weeks again caused decrease of plasma cholesterol and phospholipid, and it induced increase of relative composition of PlsEtn of the erythrocyte membrane. (
  • Conclusions: Dietary PlsEtn increases relative composition of PlsEtn of erythrocyte membranes in normal and ZDF rats, and it causes decreases of plasma cholesterol and plasma phospholipids. (
  • The partial depletion of membrane cholesterol from the patient's erythrocytes was demonstrated by incubation with normal plasma with LCAT activity. (
  • At sites where the membrane network abuts the erythrocyte plasma membrane we observed small vesicles of 15 - 25 nm in size, which seem to bud from and/or fuse with the membrane network and the erythrocyte plasma membrane, respectively. (
  • In one proposed mechanism, dust particles interact with the plasma membrane of a macrophage. (
  • Note=Localizes to vesicular-like structures at the plasma membrane and around the nucleus. (
  • The plasma membrane is an outer covering that separates the cell's interior from its surrounding environment. (
  • In eukaryotes, cytoplasm specifically means the region outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane. (
  • Influence of heavy metal mixtures on erythrocyte metabolism. (
  • However, the malaria protective properties of beta thalassaemic erythrocytes remain unclear. (
  • Macrophages activated by BCG-, Con A-, or malaria-induced lymphokines (LK) were cultured with P. yoelii-parasitized erythrocytes (PE). (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Biochemical profile of erythrocyte membrane of jaundiced neonates. (
  • Mazumder S, Sarkar U, Sengupta D. Biochemical profile of erythrocyte membrane of jaundiced neonates. (
  • The electron spin resonance technique with a fatty acid spin probe showed that the membrane fluidity was more elevated than that of normal cells in spite of the increase in cholesterol content and the cholesterol/ phospholipid ratio of the membrane of patient's erythrocytes. (
  • In contrast to the wealth of information concerning membrane phospholipid asymmetry in normal human erythrocytes, very little is known about membrane phospholipid organization in pathologic erythrocytes. (
  • Alcian Blue (AB), a cationic dye widely employed for monitoring negative surface charge variations on red blood cell (RBC), platelet and glomerular membranes of patients with nephrotic syndromes, was found in fact to aggregate with itself and precipitate in the pH range 7.0-7.8, i.e., at the physiological pH values used for performing the binding assay between the dye and cell surfaces. (
  • The use of octyl beta-D-glucoside as detergent for hog kidney brush border membrane. (
  • U.S., Dec. 19 -- registry received information related to the study (NCT02993380) titled 'Effect of Olive Oil on Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Contents in Hemodialysis Patients' on Dec. 9. (
  • The objective of this study is to compare erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) content between patients with PAD and controls. (
  • Activated macrophages killed target PE in a dose-dependent manner by elaborating a membrane-permeable soluble factor(s). (
  • Thus, the absence of CD55 and CD59 on PNH red cells allows C3 and C5 convertases to proceed unchecked and ultimately leads to increased deposition of membrane attack complexes on the red cell membrane. (
  • Co-localizations with antibodies against PfEMP1, PfExp-1, Pf332 and PfSbp1 at the light and electron microscopical level indicate that this membrane network is composed of structures that have been previously described as tubovesicular membrane network (TVM), Maurer's clefts and membrane whorls. (
  • On the basis of our data we hypothesize that this membrane network of parasite origin represents a novel secretory organelle that is involved in the trafficking of PfEMP1 across the erythrocyte cytoplasm. (
  • We found invasion-relevant differences in beta thalassaemic cells versus matched controls, specifically: elevated membrane tension, reduced bending modulus, and higher levels of expression of the major invasion receptor basigin. (
  • Electric and electrokinetic transport properties of homogeneous weak ion exchange membranes. (
  • Surface parameters of erythrocytes are reported upon IgG / hematin and IgG / melittin treatment . (
  • After biointerfacing the Janus capsules with an erythrocyte membrane, the EM-JPMs displayed red blood cell related properties, which enabled them to move efficiently in relevant biological environments (cell culture, serum, and blood). (
  • These CMF have been subject of many studies in order to obtain a better understanding of these remarkable biomechanical membrane properties altered in some pathological states including blood diseases. (
  • The project is aimed at understanding why red blood cell membranes of autistic children are endowed of a number of anomalous features, as described in the above-mentioned scientific article published in PLoS One, 2013 Jun 19;8(6). (
  • Himbert S, Qadri SM, Sheffield WP, Schubert P, D'Alessandro A, Rheinstädter MC (2021) Blood bank storage of red blood cells increases RBC cytoplasmic membrane order and bending rigidity. (
  • A blood sample was drawn and the erythrocyte FA content was assayed using capillary gas chromatography. (
  • In conclusion, because of their ability to scavenge free radicals, LA and to an even greater degree DHLA were able to protect the membranes of red blood cells. (
  • Urinalysis reveals high specific gravity, proteinuria, red blood cells, and granular and erythrocyte casts. (
  • Defects in such disparate systems (ie, basal ganglia and erythrocytes) have led to the suggestion that a common neurohematological membrane defect is involved. (
  • The increment of transformed erythrocytes during the incubation could be prevented by cholesterol depletion from the patient's erythrocyte membrane. (
  • Red cells are characterized by cation leak of the red cell membrane, reflected in elevated sodium content, decreased potassium content, elevated MCHC and MCV, and decreased osmotic fragility. (
  • The Effect of Harmaline on Intestinal Sodium Transport and on Sodium-Dependent D-Glucose Transport in Brush-Border Membrane Vesicles from Rabbit Jejunum. (
  • Marianna and John's paper quantifying the effect of three common constitutive laws for modeling erythrocyte membrane response to large strains is published in Computers & Mathematics with Applications . (
  • Membrane bound (Na+ + K+)ATPase activity is found to be significantly increased in jaundiced neonates. (
  • Further evidence for the existence of an intrinsic bicarbonate-stimulated Mg 2+ -ATPase in brush border membranes isolated from rat kidney cortex. (
  • Compared with the normal erythrocyte, the outer membrane leaflet of the deoxygenated, reversibly sickled cells (RSC) and irreversibly sickled cells (ISC) was enriched in phosphatidyl ethanolamine in addition to containing phosphatidyl serine. (
  • The radiolabeled 42,000 M r peptide could be extracted from the membranes using Lubrol PX. (
  • Pooled Immunoglobulin G ( IgG ), hematin and the membrane -disruptive amphipathic peptide melittin have received attention as powerful biomacromolecules for biomedical and pharmacology applications. (
  • Pooled IgG in the presence of melittin , preincubated IgG / hematin preparations promoted a significant decrease in the electrokinetic potential of erythrocytes (Rh-positive). (
  • Heat-Resistant Factors In Human Erythrocyte Membranes Mediate Cd4-Dependent Fusion With Cells Expressing Hiv-1 Envelope Glycoproteins. (
  • A comparison of the inhibitory potency of reversibly acting inhibitors of anion transport on chloride and sulfate movements across the human red cell membrane. (
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal chronic haemolytic anaemia in which intravascular haemolysis resulting from an intrinsic defect in the membrane of red cells which makes the red cells highly susceptible to complement. (
  • Our results suggest that the distribution of glycerophospholipids within the membrane of sickled cells is different from that in nonsickled cells. (
  • In normal nerves and neuromas, perineuriums were positive for Glut1 as well as for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and there were some CD34-positive fibroblast-like cells in the endoneurium. (
  • We'll talk more about the nucleus and organelles in the next article on eukaryotic cells, but the main thing to keep in mind for now is that prokaryotic cells are not divided up on the inside by membrane walls, but consist instead of a single open space. (
  • deficient delivery of iron to red cells results in elevated levels of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin as an additional marker opijioni iron-deficient erythropoiesis. (
  • This is the result of the shortened lifespan of fetal erythrocytes and the higher erythrocyte mass in neonates. (
  • Here we present evidence for a continuous membrane network of parasite origin in the erythrocyte cytoplasm. (