The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.
A family of membrane-associated proteins responsible for the attachment of the cytoskeleton. Erythrocyte-related isoforms of ankyrin attach the SPECTRIN cytoskeleton to a transmembrane protein (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Brain-related isoforms of ankyrin also exist.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A system of universal human blood group isoantigens with many associated subgroups. The M and N traits are codominant and the S and s traits are probably very closely linked alleles, including the U antigen. This system is most frequently used in paternity studies.
An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
Small, abnormal spherical red blood cells with more than the normal amount of hemoglobin.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Used in copolymerization reactions, in the Diels-Alder(diene)synthesis, in the preparation of resins, pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. It is a powerful irritant and causes burns.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.
Diazo derivatives of aniline, used as a reagent for sugars, ketones, and aldehydes. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A familial disorder characterized by ANEMIA with multinuclear ERYTHROBLASTS, karyorrhexis, asynchrony of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation, and various nuclear abnormalities of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors (ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS). Type II is the most common of the 3 types; it is often referred to as HEMPAS, based on the Hereditary Erythroblast Multinuclearity with Positive Acidified Serum test.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (1/3739)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.  (+info)

Calculation of a Gap restoration in the membrane skeleton of the red blood cell: possible role for myosin II in local repair. (2/3739)

Human red blood cells contain all of the elements involved in the formation of nonmuscle actomyosin II complexes (V. M. Fowler. 1986. J. Cell. Biochem. 31:1-9; 1996. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 8:86-96). No clear function has yet been attributed to these complexes. Using a mathematical model for the structure of the red blood cell spectrin skeleton (M. J. Saxton. 1992. J. Theor. Biol. 155:517-536), we have explored a possible role for myosin II bipolar minifilaments in the restoration of the membrane skeleton, which may be locally damaged by major mechanical or chemical stress. We propose that the establishment of stable links between distant antiparallel actin protofilaments after a local myosin II activation may initiate the repair of the disrupted area. We show that it is possible to define conditions in which the calculated number of myosin II minifilaments bound to actin protofilaments is consistent with the estimated number of myosin II minifilaments present in the red blood cells. A clear restoration effect can be observed when more than 50% of the spectrin polymers of a defined area are disrupted. It corresponds to a significant increase in the spectrin density in the protein free region of the membrane. This may be involved in a more complex repair process of the red blood cell membrane, which includes the vesiculation of the bilayer and the compaction of the disassembled spectrin network.  (+info)

Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells. (3/3739)

1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+.  (+info)

Structural and functional consequences of antigenic modulation of red blood cells with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol). (4/3739)

We previously showed that the covalent modification of the red blood cell (RBC) surface with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [mPEG; MW approximately 5 kD] could significantly attenuate the immunologic recognition of surface antigens. However, to make these antigenically silent RBC a clinically viable option, the mPEG-modified RBC must maintain normal cellular structure and functions. To this end, mPEG-derivatization was found to have no significant detrimental effects on RBC structure or function at concentrations that effectively blocked antigenic recognition of a variety of RBC antigens. Importantly, RBC lysis, morphology, and hemoglobin oxidation state were unaffected by mPEG-modification. Furthermore, as shown by functional studies of Band 3, a major site of modification, PEG-binding does not affect protein function, as evidenced by normal SO4- flux. Similarly, Na+ and K+ homeostasis were unaffected. The functional aspects of the mPEG-modified RBC were also maintained, as evidenced by normal oxygen binding and cellular deformability. Perhaps most importantly, mPEG-derivatized mouse RBC showed normal in vivo survival ( approximately 50 days) with no sensitization after repeated transfusions. These data further support the hypothesis that the covalent attachment of nonimmunogenic materials (eg, mPEG) to intact RBC may have significant application in transfusion medicine, especially for the chronically transfused and/or allosensitized patient.  (+info)

Non-selective voltage-activated cation channel in the human red blood cell membrane. (5/3739)

Using the patch-clamp technique, a non-selective voltage-activated Na+ and K+ channel in the human red blood cell membrane was found. The channel operates only at positive membrane potentials from about +30 mV (inside positive) onwards. For sodium and potassium ions, similar conductances of about 21 pS were determined. Together with the recently described K+(Na+)/H+ exchanger, this channel is responsible for the increase of residual K+ and Na+ fluxes across the human red blood cell membrane when the cells are suspended in low ionic strength medium.  (+info)

Spectrofluorimetric detection of DMBA-induced mouse skin carcinoma. (6/3739)

An attempt has been made to evaluate the normal and cancer blood samples of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mouse skin carcinoma by spectrofluorimetric method. Analysis of acetone extracts of plasma, erythrocyte and erythrocyte membrane showed an alteration around 630 nm when excited at 400 nm by cancer samples, compared to normal samples. The ratio of fluorescent intensity at 530 nm/630 nm was found to be decreased in erythrocyte and plasma and increased in erythrocyte membrane. These changes are not detectable in both hemolysates. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies.  (+info)

Resolution of the paradox of red cell shape changes in low and high pH. (7/3739)

The molecular basis of cell shape regulation in acidic pH was investigated in human erythrocytes. Intact erythrocytes maintain normal shape in the cell pH range 6.3-7.9, but invaginate at lower pH values. However, consistent with predicted pH-dependent changes in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton, isolated erythrocyte membranes evaginate in acidic pH. Moreover, intact cells evaginate at pH greater than 7.9, but isolated membranes invaginate in this condition. Labeling with the hydrophobic, photoactivatable probe 5-[125I]iodonaphthyl-1-azide demonstrated pH-dependent hydrophobic insertion of an amphitropic protein into membranes of intact cells but not into isolated membranes. Based on molecular weight and on reconstitution experiments using stripped inside-out vesicles, the most likely candidate for the variably labeled protein is glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Resealing of isolated membranes reconstituted both the shape changes and the hydrophobic labeling profile seen in intact cells. This observation appears to resolve the paradox of the contradictory pH dependence of shape changes of intact cells and isolated membranes. In intact erythrocytes, the demonstrated protein-membrane interaction would oppose pH-dependent shape effects of the spectrin membrane skeleton, stabilizing cell shape in moderately abnormal pH. Stabilization of erythrocyte shape in moderately acidic pH may prevent inappropriate red cell destruction in the spleen.  (+info)

Interaction between terminal complement proteins C5b-7 and anionic phospholipids. (8/3739)

We have recently shown that C5b-6 binds to the erythrocyte membrane via an ionic interaction with sialic acid before the addition of C7 and subsequent membrane insertion. In this study we assessed the role of anionic lipids in the binding of the terminal complement proteins to the membrane and the efficiency of subsequent hemolysis. Human erythrocytes were modified by insertion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), or dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Lipid incorporation and the hemolytic assays were done in the presence of 100 micromol/L sodium orthovanadate to prevent enzymatic redistribution of lipid. We found that the neutral lipids, DPPC and DPPE, did not affect C5b-7 uptake or hemolysis by C5b-9. In contrast, the two acidic phospholipids, DPPS and DPPA, caused a dose-dependent increase in both lysis and C5b-7 uptake. We conclude that the presence of anionic lipids on the exterior face of the membrane increases C5b-7 uptake and subsequent hemolysis. It is known that sickle cell erythrocytes have increased exposure of phosphatidylserine on their external face and are abnormally sensitive to lysis by C5b-9. The data presented here provide a plausible mechanism for this increased sensitivity.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of dietary n-3 and antioxidant supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity in exercising horses. AU - PORTIER, K.. AU - DE MOFFARTS, B.. AU - FELLMAN, N.. AU - Kirschvink, Nathalie. AU - MOTTA, C.. AU - LETELLIER, C.. AU - RUELLAND, A.. AU - VAN ERCK, E.. AU - LEKEUX, P.. AU - COUDERT, J.. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - Suppl. 36. SP - 279. EP - 284. JO - Equine Veterinary Journal. JF - Equine Veterinary Journal. SN - 0425-1644. ER - ...
Protocol for preparing red blood cell ghosts - posted in Cell Biology: Hi all, I need to make RBC ghosts for running my experiments. I basically need to get the hemoglobin out of the rbcs and reseal them. As have the hemoglobin puts a limitation on the hematocrit I can use for my experiments. I would really appreciate if one of you could give me a detailed protocol. I am a mechanical engineer and that makes these processes a little more complicated than they are. For example, I followed...
Klara Pecankova, Pavel Majek, Jaroslav Cermak, Jan E. Dyr. Posttranslational Modifications of Red Blood Cell Ghost Proteins as Signatures for Distinguishing between Low- and High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients. Turk J Hematol. 2017; 34(1): 111- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Large scale isolation of human erythrocyte membranes by high volume molecular filtration. AU - Rosenberry, Terrone L.. AU - Chen, Jeffrey F.. AU - Lee, Mary M.L.. AU - Moulton, Thomas A.. AU - Onigman, Philip. PY - 1981/1. Y1 - 1981/1. N2 - A molecular filtration procedure for preparing large quantities of human erythrocyte ghost membranes is presented. Hemolysate ghost membranes are rapidly cycled in the retantate channel of the filtration apparatus, while hemoglobin is removed s it pass through Pellicon filters into the filtrate. Several-liter quantities of washed packed erythrocytes can be processed in a few hours with this system and the filtration procedure does not appear to alter erythrocyte or ghost membranes. Intact erythrocytes in isotonic solution can be circulated through the retentate channel for 16 h with only 3% hemolysis and with preservation of their orginal morphology in scanning electron microscopy. Ghost membranes isolated by the procedure are virtually ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Scanning tunneling microscopy of human erythrocyte membranes. AU - Gaczynska, M.. AU - Chwialkowski, M.. AU - Olejniczak, W.. AU - Wojczuk, S.. AU - Bartosz, G.. PY - 1991/12/16. Y1 - 1991/12/16. N2 - Images of surfaces of human erythrocyte ghosts, lecithin liposomes, spectrin, erythrocyte membrane skeleton, concanavalin A and concanavalin A - decorated erythrocyte ghosts were obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. The dimensions and surface topography of some membrane structures are described and discussed.. AB - Images of surfaces of human erythrocyte ghosts, lecithin liposomes, spectrin, erythrocyte membrane skeleton, concanavalin A and concanavalin A - decorated erythrocyte ghosts were obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy. The dimensions and surface topography of some membrane structures are described and discussed.. UR - UR - ...
PubMed journal article: Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Red blood cell (RBC) physiology is directly linked to many human disorders associated with low tissue oxygen levels or anemia including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congenital heart disease, sleep apnea and sickle cell anemia. Parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and phylum Apicomplexa directly target RBCs, and surface molecules within the RBC membrane are critical for pathogen interactions. Proteomics of RBC membrane ghost fractions has therefore been of considerable interest, but protocols described to date are either suboptimal or too extensive to be applicable to a larger set of clinical cohorts. Here, we describe an optimised erythrocyte isolation protocol from blood, tested for various storage conditions and explored using different fractionation conditions for isolating ghost RBC membranes. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis on a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument was used to profile proteins isolated from the comparative conditions. Data analysis was run on the MASCOT
Red blood cells (RBC) are of current basic science and clinical research due to the advantages it offers in the biomedical field. Vesicles derived from RBC have been explored in drug delivery applications due to the non-immunogenic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties. In this project, two types of RBC ghost vesicles are investigated, namely inside-out vesicles (IOV) and right-side-out vesicles (ROV). IOV have an inverted membrane orientation whereas ROV have the native membrane orientation as compared to the RBC ghosts. The inverted membrane orientation of the IOV is similar to senescent RBC and other apoptotic cells with high number of phosphotidylserine translocated to the outer monolayer. The vesicles were characterized by quantification of surface markers such as sialic acid and phosphotidylserine using flow cytometry. In this work, surface properties of the vesicles were characterized by monitoring the zeta potential at various ionic strength and pH. It was found that ROV is more ...
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A commonly used measure to reflect the intake of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA is the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA + DHA as % of total fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane. When the omega-3 index changes it follows that the relative fractions of other fatty acids in the membrane are also changed. In the present study, increasing doses of a preparation of omega-3 rich phospholipids extracted from krill oil were administered orally to non-human primates for 12 weeks and the time course of EPA, DHA and 22 other fatty acids in erythrocytes was determined bi-weekly during treatment and for 8 weeks after cessation of treatment. Plasma concentrations of six endocannabinoid-type mediators being downstream metabolites of some fatty acids analyzed in erythrocytes were also determined. Six diabetic, dyslipidemic non-human primates were included, three in a vehicle control group and three being treated with the omega-3 rich phospholipid preparation. The vehicle control and test items
A commonly used measure to reflect the intake of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA is the omega-3 index, defined as the sum of EPA + DHA as % of total fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane. When the omega-3 index changes it follows that the relative fractions of other fatty acids in the membrane are also changed. In the present study, increasing doses of a preparation of omega-3 rich phospholipids extracted from krill oil were administered orally to non-human primates for 12 weeks and the time course of EPA, DHA and 22 other fatty acids in erythrocytes was determined bi-weekly during treatment and for 8 weeks after cessation of treatment. Plasma concentrations of six endocannabinoid-type mediators being downstream metabolites of some fatty acids analyzed in erythrocytes were also determined. Six diabetic, dyslipidemic non-human primates were included, three in a vehicle control group and three being treated with the omega-3 rich phospholipid preparation. The vehicle control and test items
The action of purified phospholipases on monomolecular films of various interfacial pressures is compared with the action on erythrocyte membranes. The phospholipases which cannot hydrolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus, phospholipase A2 from pig pancreas and Crotalus adamanteus and phospholipase D from cabbage, can ... read more hydrolyse phospholipid monolayers at pressure below 31 dynes/cm only. The phospholipases which can hydrolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase C from Clostridium welchii phospholipase A2 from Naja naja and bee venom and sphingomyelinase from Staphylococcus aureus, can hydrolyse phospholipid monolayers at pressure above 31 dynes/cm. It is concluded that the lipid packing in the outer monolayer of the erythrocyte membrane is comparable with a lateral surface pressure between 31 and 34.8 dynes/cm. show less ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical and morphological properties of bovine erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins. AU - Fletcher, M. A.. AU - Brunschwig, J. P.. AU - Lo, H.. AU - Caldwell, K. E.. AU - Lo, T. M.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - The major and minor sialoglycoproteins of the bovine erythrocyte have been solubilized and extensively purified. A comparison of composition revealed that the major glycoprotein had 77% carbohydrate and 23% peptide, and the minor one had 27% carbohydrate and 73% peptide. Molar ratios of sugars were related, however, the major glycoprotein had twice as much galactose and sialic acid as did the minor glycoprotein. Molecular weights, estimated from retardation coefficients of mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, were 55,000 for the major glycoprotein and 34,000 for the minor glycoprotein. The glycoproteins were studied by electron microscopy before and after delipidation and after ultracentrifugation. The major glycoprotein, prior to delipidation, formed ...
Saleemuddin, M.; Zimmermann, U.; Schneeweiss, F., 1977: Preparation of human erythrocyte ghosts in isotonic solution hemo globin content and poly peptide composition
Alnakshbandi, Abdulkadir A. (2015) Aminoglycosides induce fragility of human red cell membrane: An in vitro study. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
We have measured Ca binding to fragmented human red cell membranes under equilibrium conditions in the presence of low concentrations of EGTA-buffered, ionized Ca. The ionic strength of the assay...
Lipoprotein metabolism influenced by training-induced changes in human skeletal muscle. Differing erythrocyte membrane skeletal protein defects in alpha and beta thalassemia
In order to examine the widely held hypothesis that the reticulum of proteins which covers the cytoplamsic surface of the human erythrocyte membrane controls cell stability and shape, we have assessed some of its properties. The reticulum, freed of the bilayer by extraction with Triton X-100, was found to be mechanically stable at physiological ionic strength but physically unstable at low ionic strength. The reticulum broke down after a characteristic lag period which decreased 500-fold between 0 degrees and 37 degrees C. The release of polypeptide band 4.1 from the reticulum preceded that of spectrin and actin, suggesting that band 4.1 might stabilize the ensemble but is not essential to its integrity. The time-course of breakdown was similar for ghosts, the reticulum inside of ghosts, and the isolated reticulum. However, at very low ionic strength, the reticulum was less stable within the ghost than when free; at higher ionic strength, the reverse was true. Over a wide range of conditions the ...
The article summarizes new insights into the molecular mechanisms for the maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in human erythrocyte membranes. We focus on phosphatidylserine, which is primarily found in the inner leaflet of the membrane lipid bilayer under low C...
Read The role of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in transport of fluorescent anions across the human erythrocyte membrane, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Abstract: Amount of cholesterol was distinctly decreased but content of scvalene, lanosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol and 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol--increased in erythrocyte membranes of rats with Shvetz experimental leukosis. At the same time, osmotic stability of erythrocytes and a pattern of acidic erythrogramms were altered. After UV irradiation of rats amount of cholesterol was increased as well as other unidentified substances appeared in erythrocyte membranes. These alterations appear to be one of factors responsible for development of body resistance to leukosis ...
The red blood cell membrane is specialized to exchange bicarbonate and chloride; generally the pH gradient the chloride percentage as well as the membrane potential are firmly coupled. site. Throughout their MPC-3100 maturation reticulocytes reduce many membrane protein. The sort and fractional reduction is varieties dependent. For instance most reticulocytes lose the majority of their Na pushes keeping about 100 pushes per cell but pets from the purchase Carnivora lose almost all their pushes. We review a number of the proof that PKC phosphorylation of N-terminus serines is in charge of endocytosis in additional cell types and varieties variation in this area. Intro For over half of a hundred years ion flux measurements over the reddish colored cell membrane possess provided key information regarding how membrane transporters operate. Two of the greatest studied transporters will be the anion exchanger as well as the Na pump. Oddly enough the anion exchanger exists at 1 million copies per ...
Resealed Erythrocytes as Drug Carriers and Its Therapeutic Applications: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0754-3.ch012: In this pharma innovative world, there are more than 30 drug delivery systems. Todays due to lacking the target specificity, the present scenario about drug
The flow method of reaction rate measurement has been adapted to the determination of the rate of diffusion of water into the human red cell. In seven experiments the half-time for diffusion exchange has been found to be 4.2 ± 1.1 msec., which is equivalent to a diffusion flow of 8.6 x 10-9 ml. H2O/(sec., red cell). This figure has been compared with the rate of water entrance under an osmotic pressure gradient, and has been found to be smaller by a factor of 2.5. The difference between these two rates of water entrance has been interpreted as indicating the presence of water-filled channels in the membrane. An estimate of the equivalent radius of these channels (on the assumption of uniform right cylindrical pores) leads to a value of 3.5 Å, which is viewed as an operational description of the resistance offered by the membrane to the passage of water.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of the erythrocyte membrane shape. T2 - Recovery from the effect of crenating agents. AU - Alhanaty, E.. AU - Sheetz, Michael. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Intact erythrocytes become immediately crenated upon addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or pyrenebutyric acid (PBA). However, when cells are incubated at 37° C in the presence of the crenating agents with glucose, they gradually (4-8 h) recover the normal biconcave disc form. The recovery process does not reflect a gradual inactivation of DNP or PBA since fresh cells are equally crenated by the supernatant from the recovered cells. Further, after recovery and removal of the crenating agents, cells are found to be desensitized to the readdition of DNP as well as to the addition of PBA, but they are more sensitive to cupping by chlorpromazine. This alteration in the cell membrane responsiveness was reversible upon further incubation in the absence of DNP. Recovery is dependent upon cellular metabolic state since ...
Clone REA368 recognizes the human CD233 antigen, a multi-pass membrane protein also known as anion exchange protein 1 (AE1) or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1). CD233 is a phylogenetically preserved transport protein responsible for mediating the electroneutral anion exchange of chloride for bicarbonate across a plasma membrane. It is the major integral membrane glycoprotein of the erythrocyte membrane and is required for the normal flexibility and stability of the erythrocyte membrane as well as for the normal erythrocyte shape via the interactions of its cytoplasmic domain with cytoskeletal proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and hemoglobin. CD233 mediates the chloride-bicarbonate exchange in the kidney, and is required for the normal acidification of the urine. Additional information: Clone REA368 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
Flotillins are prominent, oligomeric protein components of erythrocyte (RBC) membrane raft domains and are considered to play an important structural role in lateral organization of the plasma membrane. In our previous work on erythroid membranes and giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) derived from them we have shown that formation of functional domains (resting state rafts) depends on the presence of membrane palmitoylated protein 1 (MPP1/p55), pointing to its new physiological role. Exploration of the molecular mechanism of MPP1 function in organizing membrane domains described here, through searching for its molecular partners in RBC membrane by using different methods, led to the identification of the raft-marker proteins, flotillin 1 and flotillin 2, as hitherto unreported direct MPP1 binding-partners in the RBC membrane ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteolysis of the monomeric and dimeric C5b-9 complexes of complement. T2 - Alteration in the susceptibility to proteases of the C9 subunits associated with C5b-9 dimerization. AU - Yamamoto, K.. AU - Migita, S.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - The C5b-9 monomer having the sedimentation coefficient of 23S was extracted from the rabbit erythrocyte membranes that had been treated with a limiting amount of C9-deficient human serum and of 125I-C9. Upon proteolysis by trypsin and chymotrypsin, the C9 subunits of this complex were cleaved by these enzymes at multiple sites, yielding fragments with m.w. ranging from 40,000 to 19,000. The uncomplexed C9 was also cleaved by both enzymes at multiple sites. By contrast, the C9 subunits of the C5b-9 dimer were found to be totally insusceptible to chymotrypsin under the conditions studied (37°C; 24 hr) and only partially susceptible to trypsin (33% of the C9 subunits were cleaved by trypsin into 2 fragments during incubation at 37°C for ...
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Complete information for EPB41L3 gene (Protein Coding), Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.1 Like 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for EPB41L3 gene (Protein Coding), Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 4.1 Like 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Homo sapiens erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1 (EPB41L1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00002036-R02) - Products - Abnova
The structure and function of the red cell membrane and associated ion transporters play an important role in the pathology of red cell genetic defects
Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs), the most common type of blood cells in humans are well known for their ability in transporting oxygen to the whole body through hemoglobin. Alterations in their membrane skeletal proteins modify shape and mechanical properties... Read more ...
This bald eagle spotted a dead fish floating on a lake and tried several times to swoop in and fly away with it. But the fish seems to be quite heavy, so t...
Looking for online definition of 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein in the Medical Dictionary? 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein explanation free. What is 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein? Meaning of 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein medical term. What does 40-kDa erythrocyte membrane protein mean?
Soejima A, Matsuzawa N, Miyake N, Karube M, Fukuoka K, Nakabayashi K, Kitamoto K, Nagasawa T.. Clin Nephrol 1999 Feb;51(2):92-7. BACKGROUND: Persistent hypoalbuminemia is a long-term poor prognostic factor in chronic hemodialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the correlation between the degree of peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids, erythrocyte alpha tocopherol content, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and serum albumin concentration in twelve patients with uremia not undergoing hemodialysis and fifteen patients on maintenance hemodialysis. RESULTS: The glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes was higher in patients of uremia not undergoing hemodialysis than in chronic hemodialysis patients. A significant negative correlation was observed between the erythrocyte alpha tocopherol content and the degree of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation in chronic hemodialysis patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the degree of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Model of red blood cell membrane skeleton. T2 - Electrical and mechanical properties. AU - Kozlov, M. M.. AU - Markin, V. S.. PY - 1987/12/21. Y1 - 1987/12/21. N2 - A theoretical membrane skeleton model of erythrocyte has been developed and successfully applied to interpret electrical and mechanical properties of the red blood cell spectrin-actin network. The model is based on the structure of the membrane skeleton that is comprised of unit cells each containing an actin protofilament and shooting forth a few spectrin heterodimers. The loose ends of the heterodimers of adjacent cells can form bonds with each other giving rise to an integrated network. The number of bonds depends on the temperature. The bond length being excessive (2·6 times the distance between the centers of adjacent cells), the bonds are flexible, and can thus be regarded as entropy springs. The advanced model has been employed to calculate the shear modulus of the membrane skeleton as well as to establish its ...
Red blood cell (RBC) membrane fluctuations provide important insights into cell states. We present a spatial analysis of red blood cell membrane fluctuations by using digital holographic microscopy (DHM). This interferometric and dye-free technique, possessing nanometric axial and microsecond temporal sensitivities enables to measure cell membrane fluctuations (CMF) on the whole cell surface. DHM acquisition is combined with a model which allows extracting the membrane fluctuation amplitude, while taking into account cell membrane topology. Uneven distribution of CMF amplitudes over the RBC surface is observed, showing maximal values in a ring corresponding to the highest points on the RBC torus as well as in some scattered areas in the inner region of the RBC. CMF amplitudes of 35.9+/-8.9 nm and 4.7+/-0.5 nm (averaged over the cell surface) were determined for normal and ethanol-fixed RBCs, respectively.
1) We have prepared murine monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (band 3). (2) All of these antibodies react with regions of the protein located at the cytoplasmic surface of the red cell. (3) One of the antibodies reacts with an epitope present on a cytoplasmic loop of the protein located between the C-terminus and a point 168 amino acids from the C-terminus. The other antibodies recognize different epitopes on the C-terminal tail of the protein and the sequences likely to be involved in these epitopes are defined. (4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red-cell membrane. (5) None of the antibodies inhibited sulphate exchange transport when introduced into resealed red-cell membranes; however, the bivalent form of one of the antibodies reduced the inhibitory potency of 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene disulphonate on sulphate exchange transport in ...
The enzyme lactoperoxidase was used to catalyse the radioiodination of membrane proteins in intact human erythrocytes and in erythrocyte ghosts. Two major proteins of the erythrocyte membrane were isolated after iodination of these two preparations, and the peptide maps of each protein so labelled were compared. Peptides from both proteins are labelled in the intact cell. In addition, further mobile peptides derived from one of the proteins are labelled only in the ghost preparation. Various sealed ghost preparations were also iodinated, lactoperoxidase being present only at either the cytoplasmic or extra-cellular surface of the membrane. The peptide maps of protein E (the major membrane protein) labelled in each case were compared. Two discrete sets of labelled peptides were consistently found. One group is obtained when lactoperoxidase is present at the extra-cellular surface and the other group is found when the enzyme is accessible only to the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane. ...
The distribution of specific glycoprotein receptors on the external surfaces of red cells was mapped, by the freeze-etching technique, to determine if the receptors coincided with the underlying 75-A intramembranous particles. Phytohemagglutinin, ferritin-conjugated phytohemagglutinin, and influenza virus were used as labeling agents since they can be seen by freeze-etching techniques and each reacts with a different site on the same glycoprotein molecule. The distribution of these labels was studied on intact human red cells, isolated ghost membranes, and trypsin-treated ghost membranes.. The results show that the receptors for these labels are distributed uniformly over the surfaces of normal red cell membranes in the same apparent distribution as that of the 75-A particles within the membrane. The association between the external receptors and the underlying particles is especially evident when trypsin-treated ghost membranes are labeled: the labeled receptor sites and the intramembranous ...
The authors evaluated the role of a hyperproteic, hypocaloric, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and plasma antioxidant defences of non professional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n=5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n=6) followed a high protein, low calorie diet with a 3g/day fish oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant ...
Zhang, J, Tu, K, Xu, Y, Pan, L, Wu, C, Chen, X, Wu, M, Cheng, Z and Chen, B (2013) Sphingomyelin in erythrocyte membranes increases the total cholesterol content of erythrocyte membranes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. ...
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Spectrin is the major constituent of the cytoskeletal network underlying the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It associates with band 4.1 and actin to form the cytoskeletal superstructure of the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Native spectrin molecule is a tetramer composed of two antiparallel heterodimers joined head to head so that each end of the native molecule includes the C-terminus of the alpha subunit and the N-terminus of the beta subunit ...
1. The distribution of proteolytic activity in membranes from human erythrocytes and from rabbit reticulocytes and erythrocytes was investigated, after removal of leucocytes and platelets from the cell suspensions. 2. All membrane preparations displayed proteolytic activity in the acidic pH region only. Membranes from human and rabbit mature erythrocytes showed latent activity, which could be increased when extracted with a number of detergents. 3. Three active fractions were resolved either by gel chromatography of solubilized membrane extracts or by standard polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The three proteinase activities (designated proteinases I, II and III) were purified from solubilized extracts of human erythrocyte membranes. 4. The relevant mol.wts. were around 80000, 40000 and 30000, respectively, and each of the three proteinases appeared to be composed of a single polypeptide chain. 5. Distinctive pH optima (in the range pH2.8-3.9) and different saturation profiles with globin as ...
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A plasma membrane fraction of HeLa S3 cells, consisting of ghosts, is characterized more fully. A simple procedure is described which permits light and electron microscope study of the plasma membrane fraction through the entire depth of the final product pellet and through large areas parallel to the surface. Contamination by nuclei is 0.14%, too little for DNA detection by the diphenylamine reaction. Contamination by rough endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes is small, a single ghost containing about 3% of the RNA in a single cell. Mitochondria were not encountered. Electron microscopy also shows (a) small vesicles associated with the outer surface of the ghosts, and (b) a filamentous web at the inner face of the ghost membrane. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel analysis shows that of the many Coomassie Blue-stained bands two were prominent. One, 43,000 daltons, co-migrated with purified rabbit muscle actin and constituted about 7.5% of the plasma membrane protein. The other major ...
1. Human red cells were enriched with cholesterol by incubation with lipid dispersions having a high cholesterol: phospholipid mol ratio and the kinet
Main parameters of lipid complex were studied in erythrocytes of whole blood and of the blood containing anticoagulant. Initial steps of blood coagulation involved activation of erythrocyte endogenous phospholipase A, which led to destabilization of erythrocyte lipid structures as a result of an increase in concentration of free fatty acids, accumulation of lysophospholipids as well as of alterations in microviscosity of erythrocyte membranes ...
The nanosponges look like red blood cells, and therefore serve as red blood cell decoys that collect the toxins. The nanosponges absorb damaging toxins and divert them away from their cellular targets. The nanosponges had a half-life of 40 hours in the researchers experiments in mice. Eventually the liver safely metabolized both the nanosponges and the sequestered toxins, with the liver incurring no discernible damage.. Each nanosponge has a diameter of approximately 85 nanometers and is made of a biocompatible polymer core wrapped in segments of red blood cells membranes.. Zhangs team separates the red blood cells from a small sample of blood using a centrifuge and then puts the cells into a solution that causes them to swell and burst, releasing hemoglobin and leaving RBC skins behind. The skins are then mixed with the ball-shaped nanoparticles until they are coated with a red blood cell membrane.. Just one red blood cell membrane can make thousands of nanosponges, which are 3,000 times ...
I am pleased to have had the opportunity to present an overview of red cell membranes in normal and disease states with my background of nearly 30 years in this area of research. I believe that this kind of publication on red cell membrane is a very timely summary of all the results obtained by the tremendous efforts worldwide by all of the scientists in this field during the past few decades. As reviewed in Chapter 1, the general concepts of red cell membrane abnormalities and the categories of each red cell membrane disorder are now well established. ...
Human protein 4.2 (P4.2) is a major membrane skeletal protein in erythrocytes. Individuals with P4.2 deficiency exhibit spherocytosis and experience various degrees of hemolytic anemia, suggesting a role for this protein in maintaining stability and integrity of the membrane. Molecular cloning of P4.2 cDNAs showed that P4.2 is a transglutaminaselike molecule in erythrocytes but lacks the essential cysteine for cross-linking activity. Two cDNA isoforms have been identified from a human reticulocyte cDNA library, with the long isoform containing a 90-base pair (bp) in-frame insertion encoding an extra 30 amino acids near the N-terminus. Characterization of the P4.2 gene suggests differential splicing as the mechanism for generating these two cDNA isoforms. The donor site for the short isoform (P4.2S) agrees better with the consensus than the donor site for the long isoform (P4.2L) does. Expression of P4.2L was detected by a long- isoform-specific antibody raised against a peptide within the ...
Protein names and data: RHAG_HUMAN, Full=Ammonium transporter Rh type A, Full=Erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein Rh50;Full=Erythrocyte plasma membrane 50 kDa glycoprotein;Short=Rh50A;Full=Rhesus blood group family type A glycoprotein;Short=Rh family type A glycoprotein;Short=Rh type A glycoprotein;Full=Rhesus blood group-associated ammonia channel;Full=Rhesus blood group-associated glycoprotein;CD_antigen=CD241; Length: 409 a.a., Mass: 44198 Da ...
There are conflicting results regarding the erythrocyte membrane cholesterol and phospholipid content in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (PHC), due to methodological problems in obtaining haemoglobin-free ghosts. At the same time, the diff
The effectiveness of penetration of erythrocyte membrane by sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was analyzed. The experiment was executed in a dependence on different doses of the herbicide and at different times of incubation of red blood cells with 2,4-D-Na. It is known that...
The biomembrane is postulated as the initial target when Platinum(II) complexes attack cells. In this work, a spin-labeling ESR technique has been used to study the effects of cis-DCDP, cis-DBDP, cis-DIDP, trans-DCDP, and cis-DADP on the permeability of human erythrocyte membrane. We monitored the reduction processes of the ESR signal of a nitroxide spin label, (TEMPO), which leaks out through the membrane and is reduced by the external ascorbate. Our results indicate that cisplatin and its analogues can enhance the permeability of membranes to small moieties such as TEMPO and ascorbate, and the differences between these compounds are related to features of the leaving group. In addition, changes in the order parameter of 5DS spin label in membrane indicate that hydrolysis of these Pt(II) complexes result in membrane damage.. ...
Anemia is a condition that has multiple origins. One such origin is the destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) membrane induced by free radicals. Treatment of anemia could therefore be enhanced by the use of free radicals scavengers potentially found in some medicinal plants. In this study, the protective effect of Harungana madagascariensis on the RBCs membrane physiology was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro hemolytic anemia was induced by incubation of fresh human RBCs with carbontetrachloride (CCl4) in Olive oil (Oo). Relaxation times of protons excited at 20 MHz (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence) in the absence or presence of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions (T 2i for
Stabilized human and animal erythrocytes are a suspension of stabilized erythrocytes of humans and mammals, obtained from erythrocyte mass of humans or whole blood of mammals.. The volume of erythrocytes and their number are preserved throughout the product validity period with the minimal deviations from the passport values, due to the method of effective stabilization developed by our company.. It is possible to obtain stabilized erythrocytes with different antigenic status (ABO system, Rh-factor, other anti-gene systems of human and mammal blood).. Stabilized erythrocytes can be used in the production of control materials for in vitro diagnostics, hematological research, for example, during the production of hematological controls for automatic hematological analyzers, including the possibility of determining normoblasts and reticulocytes.. Storage temperature: +2 +8°С.. Validity period: not less than 180 days.. Each series of stabilized erythrocytes is accompanied by a passport, with ...
Erythrocytes in mammals are anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus and as a result, have no DNA. Red blood cells have nuclei during early phases of development, but extrude them as they mature in order to provide more space for hemoglobin. In comparison, the erythrocytes of nearly all other vertebrates have nuclei; the only known exception being salamanders of the Batrachoseps genus.[4] Mammalian erythrocytes also lose their other organelles such as their mitochondria. As a result, red blood cells produce ATP through glycolysis only and therefore use none of the oxygen they carry. Furthermore, red cells do not have an insulin receptor and thus glucose uptake is not regulated by insulin. Because of the lack of nucleus and organelles, the red blood cells cannot synthesize any RNA so they cannot divide or repair themselves. Mammalian erythrocytes are biconcave disks: flattened and depressed in the center, with a dumbbell-shaped cross section. This shape (as well as the loss of ...
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In the sixties and seventies, erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) were extensively studied. Much has been learnt particularly concerning their metabolism and gas transporter function. In the past decade, the use of new approaches and methodologies
The EMA binding test using flow cytometry is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic aid [6]. Conventional diagnosis of hereditary RBC membrane disorders is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and has low sensitivity and specificity [10]. In contrast, the EMA test can be performed in less than 2 hours. Previous results have illustrated its high specificity (99.1%) and sensitivity (92.1%), indicating is it a useful diagnostic tool for red cell membrane disorders [8]. This method can be used to detect not only band 3 deficiencies, but also spectrin and protein 4.2 deficiencies [6].. Our study showed minimal changes in the MCF over a 6-month period for EMA. However, the stability of the EMA dye decreased continuously after 6 months, with a significant decrease relative to baseline levels at 8 months. Dye stability, dye concentration, incubation time, storage conditions of blood samples, and delay in flow cytometric analysis of EMA-labeled red cells each play a crucial role in the reproducibility ...
Although cholesterol is essential for membrane fluidity and deformability, the level of its lateral heterogeneity at the plasma membrane of living cells is
Synonyms for crenated erythrocyte in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for crenated erythrocyte. 2 synonyms for erythrocyte: RBC, red blood cell. What are synonyms for crenated erythrocyte?
Cellular adhesion plays a critical role in biological systems and biomedical applications. Cell deformation and biophysical properties of adhesion molecules are of significance for the adhesion...
May be part of an oligomeric complex which is likely to have a transport or channel function in the erythrocyte membrane. Involved in ammonia transport across the erythrocyte membrane. Seems to act in monovalent cation transport.
Abstract. The density and size of human erythrocytes has been roughly correlated with cell age, with the denser and smaller cells being older. Observations of
Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Further study on Ca2+-mediated inhibition of human erythrocyte D-glucose transporter. AU - Xie, Wensheng. AU - Tu, Yaping. AU - Yang, Fuyu. PY - 1997/5. Y1 - 1997/5. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1007/BF02882504. DO - 10.1007/BF02882504. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0642332284. VL - 42. SP - 871. EP - 875. JO - Science Bulletin. JF - Science Bulletin. SN - 2095-9273. IS - 10. ER - ...
A densimeter technique was used to make a kinetic analysis of the rate of swelling of human erythrocytes suspended in 1% NaCl following successive additions of NH4Cl. Two series of experiments were performed, one in the absence of and the other in the presence of 6 x 10-4 M NaHCO3. An analysis of the data using Widdass equations gave a family of curves in each instance. When LeFevres equation was used with a value of ø = 1.3 isotones, a straight line was obtained with both series of data. It is concluded that this system shows carrier kinetics.. ...
Proteins are long chain of amino acids that are tightly folded in on themselves. The order and chemical properties of the acids determine the locations of the folds, which in turn determine the function of the protein. Cysteine is hydrophobic; it interacts poorly with water and so it is usually on the inside of a protein. And because stress changes the shape of these folded proteins, Discher reasoned that measuring the degree to which cysteine is exposed would in effect measure how stressed the protein and cells containing it are. Dischers team simulated the shear forces originating from the beating heart, which forcefully pumps blood and ultimately pulls apart the folds that keep cysteine on the inside of proteins at the red blood cell membrane, allowing it to bind with a fluorescent marker dye. The team could visually confirm that more stressed cells were more fluorescent under the microscope but actually tested the levels of marked cysteine using mass spectrometry. Just like a polymer ...
Clone Q1/156. Band III is a protein associated with the surface membrane of red blood cells and their precursors. It is the major glycoprotein of the erythrocyte membrane and
Control of the erythrocyte free Ca2+ concentration in essential hypertension.: Since Ca2+ ions seem to directly participate in the control of erythrocyte membra
Eliminate erythrocytes from culture - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Dear all, I am culturing primary pancreatic tissue and after digesting the pancreas there is always a portion of erythrocytes in the culture, no matter the number of time I wash the tissue before. I know that they will evenually be eliminated but, is there a way of acelerating the process? I have heard that NaCl eliminates erythocytes. As anyone ever tried eliminating them from primary cultures? If so, I would very...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Red blood cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of normal healthy red blood cells (red) and a crenated red blood cell (white). Crenation is caused by dehydration, which distorts the cell. The main function of red blood cells (erythrocytes) is to distribute oxygen to body tissues, and to carry waste carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Crenation leads to a severe reduction in their ability to carry out this function. Magnification: x6000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C010/3090
Crenated red blood cell. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a section through the tissue between a blood vessel (lower right) and the lung (top), showing a crenated red blood cell (erythrocyte, centre). Crenation is caused by dehydration, which distorts the cell. Healthy red blood cells (round, lower right) can also be seen inside the blood vessel. - Stock Image C023/4091
Red blood cells or erythrocytes are the most common type of blood cell in our body. Their main purpose is to deliver oxygen to different body tissues. This papercraft from Shinaig will give you an idea what they look like since the original size only measures 6-8 μm. ...
As a sucker for ghost stories, I'm always the first to butt in when I overhear conversations about "the haunted side" of Disney parks. The idea of ghosts at Disneyland seems like the Anaheim park's best ride, The Haunted Mansion, come to life!
Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are the sort of blood cells that primarily serve to deliver oxygen to the body cells.
The life of the party, his best trick is to hold his breath until he turns blue! Invite him to your next bash and hes sure show you a bloody good time.
Berg, H. C.; Diamond, J. M.; Marfey, P. S. (1965). "Erythrocyte membrane: Chemical modification". Science. 150 (3692): 64-67. ... Clausen, C.; Machen, T. E.; Diamond, J. M. (1982). "Changes in the Cell Membranes of the Bullfrog Gastric Mucosa with Acid ... Jope, R. S.; Jenden, D. J.; Ehrlich, B. E.; Diamond, J. M.; Gosenfeld, L. F. (1980). "Erythrocyte choline concentrations are ... Loo, D. D.; Lewis, S. A.; Ifshin, M. S.; Diamond, J. M. (1983). "Turnover, membrane insertion, and degradation of sodium ...
The only known location of this enzyme is on the outside of erythrocyte membranes. However, physiological functions of this ... Acetylcholinesterase in the erythrocyte membrane]". Journal of UOEH. 16 (3): 253-262. doi:10.7888/juoeh.16.253. ISSN 0387-821X ... Short-term toxicity effects in rabbits and mice, exposed through different routes include inhibition of erythrocyte and brain ... erythrocytes and in the brain at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg/day. The short-term dermal exposure to granular ethoprophos was also ...
Dahr W, Beyreuther K, Moulds JJ (July 1987). "Structural analysis of the major human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoprotein ... Tate CG, Tanner MJ (1988). "Isolation of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins alpha and delta". ... Thacker TC, Johnson FB (September 1998). "Binding of bovine parvovirus to erythrocyte membrane sialylglycoproteins". J. Gen. ... are major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane which bear the antigenic determinants for the MN and Ss blood ...
"Geldanamycin-Induced Phosphatidylserine Translocation in the Erythrocyte Membrane". Cell Physiol Biochem. 32 (6): 1600-1609. ... reported that geldanamycin induces the apoptosis of erythrocytes under physiological concentrations. These side effects have ...
"Pathobiology of heme interaction with the erythrocyte membrane". Semin Hematol. 26 (2): 136-149. PMID 2658089. Jani D, ... Huy NT, Shima Y, Maeda A, Men TT, Hirayama K, Hirase A, Miyazawa A, Kamei A (2013). "Phospholipid Membrane-Mediated Hemozoin ... Paul F, Roath S, Melville D, Warhurst DC, Osisanya JO (1981). "Separation of malaria-infected erythrocytes from whole blood: ... with membrane lipids, histidine-rich proteins, or even a combination of the two, being proposed to catalyse the formation of ...
Banga JP, Pinder JC, Gratzer WB, Linch DC, Huehns ER (November 1979). "An erythrocyte membrane-protein anomaly in march ... Defects in red blood cell membrane proteins have been identified in some of these patients. Free haemoglobin is released from ...
Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPB42 gene. It is part of the red blood ... Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2 is an ATP-binding protein which may regulate the association of band 3 with ankyrin. It ... "Entrez Gene: EPB42 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2". Falcón-Pérez JM, Dell'Angelica EC (2002). "The pallidin (Pldn) gene ... 1994). "Human erythrocyte membrane protein 4.2 is palmitoylated". Eur. J. Biochem. 224 (2): 575-580. doi:10.1111/j.1432- ...
"The inositol trisphosphate phosphomonoesterase of the human erythrocyte membrane". The Biochemical Journal. 203 (1): 169-77. ...
Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 5 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the EPB41L5 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 5". Retrieved 2012-04-26. Gosens I, Sessa A, den Hollander AI, ...
"Entrez Gene: EPB49 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.9 (dematin)". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Azim AC, Knoll JH ... "Headpiece domain of dematin is required for the stability of the erythrocyte membrane". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 (10): 6637 ... 1996). "Human erythrocyte dematin and protein 4.2 (pallidin) are ATP binding proteins". Biochemistry. 35 (9): 3001-6. doi: ...
Jilani K, Abed M, Zelenak C, Lang E, Qadri SM, Lang F (2011). "Triggering of erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling by ursolic ...
Dahr W, Beyreuther K, Moulds J, Unger P (1987). "Hybrid glycophorins from human erythrocyte membranes. I. Isolation and ... Dahr W, Beyreuther K, Moulds JJ (July 1987). "Structural analysis of the major human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoprotein ... Tate CG, Tanner MJ (1988). "Isolation of cDNA clones for human erythrocyte membrane sialoglycoproteins alpha and delta". ... 1987). "Glycophorins B and C from human erythrocyte membranes. Purification and sequence analysis". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (12): ...
ISBN 978-0-7817-6519-0. Downes CP, Michell RH (1981). "The polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase of erythrocyte membranes". ... PLCs perform their catalytic function at the plasma membrane where their substrate PIP2 is present. This membrane docking is ... The PH domain of β2 and β3 plays a dual role, much like PLC-δ1, by binding to the plasma membrane, as well as being a site of ... It is important to note that research has also discovered that, in addition to the plasma membrane, PLCs also exist within ...
Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) is a multifunctional protein that mediates interactions between the erythrocyte ... "Entrez Gene: EPB41L1 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1". Ye K, Hurt KJ, Wu FY, Fang M, Luo HR, Hong JJ, Blackshaw S ... "A novel neuron-enriched homolog of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1". J. Neurosci. 19 (15): 6457-67. doi: ... The encoded protein binds and stabilizes D2 and D3 dopamine receptors at the neuronal plasma membrane. Multiple transcript ...
In the erythrocyte glycophorin C makes up ~4% of the membrane sialoglycoproteins. The average number of O linked chains is 12 ... Erythrocyte membrane cartoon GYPC+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Within the erythrocyte it interacts with band 4.1 (an 80-kDa protein) and p55 (a palmitoylated peripheral membrane ... GPC appears to be synthesized in excess in the erythrocyte and that the membrane content is regulated by band 4.1 (protein 4.1 ...
One of the major electrophoretic identifiable erythrocyte membrane proteins may be the cytochalasin B binding site of ... Taverna, RD; Langdon, RG (1973). "Reversible Association of Cytochalasin B with the Human Erythrocyte Membrane. Inhibition of ... followed by bulge formation in the membrane. The nucleus then moves to the outside of the membrane, but stays connected to the ... Extrusion could be assisted by the CB-induced weakening of the plasma membrane. It has been shown that cytochalasin B binds ...
"Entrez Gene: EPB41L2 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 2". Walensky LD, Gascard P, Fields ME, Blackshaw S, Conboy JG, ... interacts with a novel homologue of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1". The Journal of Cell Biology. 141 (1): ... interacts with a novel homologue of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1". The Journal of Cell Biology. 141 (1): ...
Steck TL (1972). "Cross-linking the major proteins of the isolated erythrocyte membrane". J. Mol. Biol. 66 (2): 295-305. doi: ...
This takes into account both the glycocalyx and spectrin layers of the erythrocyte membrane. This information is useful for ... "Solutions of non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for erythrocyte membrane". Brazilian Journal of Physics. 30 (2): 403-409. ... many reasons including the study of the mechanical stability of the erythrocyte membrane. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation can ... and membranes. This involves the equations being solved with simple boundary conditions such as constant surface potential. ...
The system is based on the affinity of dermaseptins for the plasma membrane of human erythrocytes. After transient loading of ...;2-w. Feder R, Nehushtai R, Mor A (October 2001). "Affinity driven molecular transfer from erythrocyte membrane to target ... greater affinity the dermaseptin derivative is spontaneously transferred to the microbial membrane where it exerts its membrane ... have the potential to form amphipathic helices in water or when integrated with the lipid bilayer of the bacterial membrane. ...
"Entrez Gene: EPB41L3 erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, ...
Shen BW, Josephs R, Steck TL (March 1986). "Ultrastructure of the intact skeleton of the human erythrocyte membrane". The ...
Tokumasu F, Ostera GR, Amaratunga C, Fairhurst RM (2012) Modifications in erythrocyte membrane zeta potential by Plasmodium ... Their membrane plays many roles in this. These functions are highly dependent on the membrane composition. The red blood cell ... with a plasma membrane as the sack. Approximately 2.4 million new erythrocytes are produced per second in human adults. The ... "Factors determining detergent resistance of erythrocyte membranes". Biophysical Chemistry. 135 (1-3): 14-8. doi:10.1016/j.bpc. ...
Steiner JP, Bennett V (1988). "Ankyrin-independent membrane protein-binding sites for brain and erythrocyte spectrin". J. Biol ... As opposed to alpha I-spectrin that is principally found in erythrocytes, alpha II-spectrin is expressed in most tissues. In ... Bennett PM, Baines AJ, Lecomte MC, Maggs AM, Pinder JC (2004). "Not just a plasma membrane protein: in cardiac muscle cells ... Davis LH, Bennett V (1990). "Mapping the binding sites of human erythrocyte ankyrin for the anion exchanger and spectrin". J. ...
HPP has been associated with a defect of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin and with spectrin deficiency. It was ... "A congenital haemolytic anaemia with thermal sensitivity of the erythrocyte membrane". Br J Haematol. 29 (4): 537-43. doi: ... Splenectomy is a possible treatment[citation needed] Erythrocyte Poikilocytosis List of hematologic conditions " ... recessive form of hemolytic anemia characterized by an abnormal sensitivity of red blood cells to heat and erythrocyte ...
Iqbal MS, Saeed M, Taqi SG (2008). "Erythrocyte membrane gold levels after treatment with auranofin and sodium aurothiomalate ... Less commonly, it can cause GI bleeds, dry mucous membranes and gingivitis. Rarely it can cause: aplastic anaemia, ulcerative ...
Hargreaves WR, Giedd KN, Verkleij A, Branton D (1981). "Reassociation of ankyrin with band 3 in erythrocyte membranes and in ... Steiner JP, Bennett V (1988). "Ankyrin-independent membrane protein-binding sites for brain and erythrocyte spectrin". J. Biol ... The protein encoded by this gene, Ankyrin 1, is the prototype of the ankyrin family, was first discovered in erythrocytes, but ... 1997). "Small, membrane-bound, alternatively spliced forms of ankyrin 1 associated with the sarcoplasmic reticulum of mammalian ...
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) interacts with uninfected erythrocytes. This 'stickiness', known ... The gene encodes a monomeric single-pass type I membrane glycoprotein found on erythrocytes, leukocytes, glomerular podocytes, ... Membrane cofactor protein is a widely distributed C3b/C4b binding regulatory glycoprotein of the complement system; decay- ... Erythrocyte rosetting causes obstruction of the blood flow in microcapillaries. There is a direct interaction between PfEMP1 ...
The trophozoite stage is separated from erythrocyte by a single membrane. This distinguishes them from other blood parasites ... They are minute rounded or pyriform parasites found within erythrocytes, or other circulating or endothelial cells of ... that usually have at least two membranes. An apical complex with a polar ring and rhopteries occurs, but without a conoid and ...
One good source of GLUT1 is erythrocyte membranes. GLUT1 accounts for 2 percent of the protein in the plasma membrane of ... GLUT1, found in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes, is a classic example of a uniporter. After glucose is transported into the ... Six of these membrane-spanning helices are believed to bind together in the membrane to create a polar channel in the center ... "Dematin and adducin provide a novel link between the spectrin cytoskeleton and human erythrocyte membrane by directly ...
Mangeat PH (1989). "Interaction of biological membranes with the cytoskeletal framework of living cells". Biol. Cell. 64 (3): ... Gardner K, Bennett V (1987). "Modulation of spectrin-actin assembly by erythrocyte adducin". Nature. 328 (6128): 359-62. doi: ...
When plasmin breaks down fibrin, a number of soluble parts are produced. These are called fibrin degradation products (FDPs). FDPs compete with thrombin, and thus slow down clot formation by preventing the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. This effect can be seen in the thrombin clotting time (TCT) test, which is prolonged in a person that has active fibrinolysis.. FDPs, and a specific FDP, the D-dimer, can be measured using antibody-antigen technology. This is more specific than the TCT, and confirms that fibrinolysis has occurred. It is therefore used to indicate deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, DIC and efficacy of treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Alternatively, a more rapid detection of fibrinolytic activity, especially hyperfibrinolysis, is possible with thromboelastometry (TEM) in whole blood, even in patients on heparin. In this assay, increased fibrinolysis is assessed by comparing the TEM profile in the absence or presence of the fibrinolysis inhibitor aprotinin. ...
... mucous membrane - Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study - multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - ... erythrocytes - etiology - exogenous - exotoxin - expanded access - experimental drug - expression system ...
They are rare in the blood, but numerous in the mucous membranes of the respiratory, digestive, and lower urinary tracts.[9] ... Erythrocyte, Promegakaryocyte, Megakaryocyte, Platelet ...
SVCT1 and SVCT2 import the reduced form of ascorbate across plasma membranes.[102] GLUT1 and GLUT3 are glucose transporters, ... "Erythrocyte Glut1 triggers dehydroascorbic acid uptake in mammals unable to synthesize vitamin C". Cell. 132 (6): 1039-48. doi: ... Scurvy leads to the formation of brown spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes. The spots are ... "Maturational loss of the vitamin C transporter in erythrocytes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 360 (1 ...
An X, Mohandas N (May 2008). "Disorders of red cell membrane". British Journal of Haematology 141 (3): 367-75. doi:10.1111/j. ... செங்குருதியணு அல்லது இரத்தச் சிவப்பணு (Erythrocytes or Red blood cell) (இலங்கை வழக்கு: செங்குருதிக் கலம் அல்லது செங்குருதிச் ... Erich Sackmann, Biological Membranes Architecture and Function., Handbook of Biological Physics, (ed. R.Lipowsky and E.Sackmann ...
Isaacks, R.; Harkness, D.; Sampsell, J.; Adler, S.; Roth, C.; Kim, P.; Goldman, R. (1977). "Studies on Avian Erythrocyte ... This subtype increases oxygen affinity in order to transport oxygen across the allantoic membrane of the embryo.[73] This can ... Inositol Tetrakisphosphate: The Major Phosphate Compound in the Erythrocytes of the Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus)". ... "Studies on avian erythrocyte metabolism-II. Relationship between the major phosphorylated metabolic intermediates and oxygen ...
... and the major flavoprotein in erythrocyte. The measurement of the activity coefficient of erythrocyte glutathione reductase ( ... and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract.[29] Post-mortem studies in rhesus monkeys fed a ...
plasma membrane. · cell surface. · membrane. · cell junction. · axon. · dendrite. · anchored to membrane. · neuromuscular ... Evidence that the antigens of the Yt blood group system are located on human erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase.. Blood. 1992, 80 ... Brain ligatin: a membrane lectin that binds acetylcholinesterase.. J. Cell. Biochem. 1982, 18 (4): 447-59. PMID 7085778. doi: ... Modes of attachment of acetylcholinesterase to the surface membrane.. Eur. J. Biochem. 1988, 170 (1-2): 11-22. PMID 3319614. ...
Instead the eye is lubricated by the nictitating membrane, a third eyelid that moves horizontally.[92] The nictitating membrane ... Scott, Robert B. (March 1966). "Comparative hematology: The phylogeny of the erythrocyte". Annals of Hematology. 12 (6): 340-51 ... The nictitating membrane as it covers the eye of a masked lapwing ... with aberrant protrusion of the nictitating membrane in the ... a muscular chamber incorporating multiple tympanic membranes which diverges from the lower end of the trachea;[79] the trachea ...
High potassium concentrations in the plasma cause depolarization of the zona glomerulosa cells' membranes in the outer layer of ... erythrocytes). The increase in RBCs leads to an increased hematocrit in the blood, and subsequent increase in hemoglobin that ... where the chief cells sense the Ca2+ level by means of specialized calcium receptors in their membranes. The sensors for the ... but this time from the mucous membranes of the throat and mouth. ...
"Is hemoglobin an essential structural component of human erythrocyte membranes?". J Clin Invest. 42 (4): 581-88. doi:10.1172/ ... erythrocytes) of almost all vertebrates[4] (the exception being the fish family Channichthyidae[5]) as well as the tissues of ... or RBC membrane defects - or other problems, the RBC half-life is frequently shortened. In these individuals, an alternative ...
mitochondrial inner membrane. • respiratory chain. • nucleus. • mitochondrial intermembrane space. Biological process. • ... Passon PG, Hultquist DE (Jul 1972). "Soluble cytochrome b 5 reductase from human erythrocytes". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ... The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. ... UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes families/superfamily-78 - Calculated orientations of cytochromes c in the lipid ...
Tokumasu F, Ostera GR, Amaratunga C, Fairhurst RM (2012) Modifications in erythrocyte membrane zeta potential by Plasmodium ... Membrane lipids. The most common red blood cell membrane lipids, schematically disposed as they are distributed on the bilayer ... Their membrane plays many roles in this. These functions are highly dependent on the membrane composition. The red blood cell ... Rodi PM, Trucco VM, Gennaro AM (June 2008). "Factors determining detergent resistance of erythrocyte membranes". Biophysical ...
nuclear membrane. • membrane. • nuclear matrix. • nuclear envelope lumen. • cell nucleus. • extracellular region. • ... Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth ... moves to bind with phospholipids in the nuclear membrane and, probably, endoplasmic reticulum membrane; c) is able to accept ... An N-terminal C2-like domain which promotes its binding to ligand substrates, Ca2+, cellular phospholipid membranes, Coactin- ...
This includes cytoplasmic filaments in muscle cells, intracellular membranes, and extracellular fibers. ... Erythrocytes in cherry red. *Collagen in pale pink. *Mitochondria in pale pink ...
Babesia canis and B. bigemina are "large Babesia species" that form paired merozoites in the erythrocytes, commonly described ... As the levels of bilirubin (a byproduct of red blood cell lysis) continue to increase, the visible mucous membranes become ... Diagnosis is confirmed post mortem by observation of Babesia-infected erythrocytes sludged in the cerebral cortical capillaries ... In bovine species, the organism causes hemolytic anemia, so an infected animal shows pale mucous membranes initially. ...
Wang X, Quinn PJ (July 1999). "Vitamin E and its function in membranes". Progress in Lipid Research. 38 (4): 309-36. doi: ... "Peroxiredoxin II is essential for sustaining life span of erythrocytes in mice". Blood. 101 (12): 5033-8. doi:10.1182/blood- ... It has been claimed that the α-tocopherol form is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, and that it protects membranes ... Atkinson J, Epand RF, Epand RM (March 2008). "Tocopherols and tocotrienols in membranes: a critical review". Free Radical ...
The lipidated form of LC3, known as LC3-II, is attached to the autophagosome membrane. Autophagy and apoptosis are connected ... Eryptosis is a form of suicidal erythrocyte death. Aponecrosis is a hybrid of apoptosis and necrosis and refers to an ...
Laurence M Elandalloussi ja Pete J Smith, Preparation of pure and intact Plasmodium falciparum plasma membrane vesicles and ... Gavin J. Wright , Julian C. Rayner, Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Invasion: Combining Function with Immune Evasion, 20. ... Megan K. Dearnley, Jeffrey A. Yeoman, Eric Hanssen, Origin, composition, organization and function of the inner membrane ... Microtubules in Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and their importance for invasion of erythrocytes., Parasitology. nov 1998 ; ...
B. recurrentis infects the person via mucous membranes and then invades the bloodstream. ... "Relapsing fever Borrelia binds to neolacto glycans and mediates rosetting of human erythrocytes". PNAS. 106 (46): 19280-19285 ... "Relapsing fever Borrelia binds to neolacto glycans and mediates rosetting of human erythrocytes". PNAS. 106 (46): 19280-19285 ...
... showing vasoconstriction of a microvessel by pericytes and endothelial cells resulting in the deformation of an erythrocyte (E ... is returned to its basal level through a variety of protein pumps and calcium exchangers located on the plasma membrane and ...
where 1 is the core (in cellular terms, the cytoplasm), 2 is the shell (in a cell, the membrane). r1 is the radius from the ... Rousselet, G.H. Markx; Pethig, R. (1998). "Separation of erythrocytes and latex beads by dielectrophoretic levitation and ... A multi-shell model in a low conducting medium can be used to obtain information of the membrane conductivity and the ... the cell membrane) - then this can be represented by nested expressions for the shells and the way in which they interact, ...
cell membrane. • extracellular matrix. • collagen-containing extracellular matrix. Biological process. • apoptotic cell ... Recent studies show that tTG may not be involved in AD as studies show it is associated with erythrocyte lysis and is a ... intrinsic component of plasma membrane. • cytosol. • extracellular exosome. • focal adhesion. • mitochondrion. • endoplasmic ... Once synthesized, most of the protein is found in the cytoplasm, plasma membrane and ECM, but a small fraction is translocated ...
"Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and subsequent breast cancer: a prospective Italian study". Journal of the National Cancer ... High levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), however, the most abundant omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in erythrocyte (red ... blood cell) membranes, were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer.[5] The DHA obtained through the consumption of ...
"Excess heme in sickle erythrocyte inside-out membranes: possible role in thiol oxidation" (PDF). Blood. 71 (4): 876-82. doi: ... Like the T cell, B cells express a unique B cell receptor (BCR), in this case, a membrane-bound antibody molecule. All the BCR ... With the exception of non-nucleated cells (including erythrocytes), MHC class I is expressed by all host cells.[2] ... The most ancient Ig class, IgM, is membrane-bound and then secreted upon stimulation of cartilaginous fish B cells. Another ...
D-lactate dehydrogenase, membrane binding. crystal structure of d-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory ... A blood sample that has been handled incorrectly can show false-positively high levels of LDH due to erythrocyte damage. ... A cap-membrane-binding domain is found in prokaryotic lactate dehydrogenase. This consists of a large seven-stranded ... "The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory enzyme". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 ...
Some hemolysins damage the erythrocyte membrane by cleaving the phospholipids in the membrane. ... Upon investigating sheep erythrocytes, its toxic mechanism was discovered to be the hydrolysis of a specific membrane lipid, ... One way hemolysin lyses erythrocytes is by forming pores in phospholipid bilayers.[3][4] Other hemolysins lyse erythrocytes by ... causes the degradation of phagosome membranes, but they are not a potential danger for the cell's plasmatic membrane. ...
Cell membranes and wallsEdit. Biological cell membranes and cell walls are polyanionic surfaces. This has important ... "Spectrochemical Analysis of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc in Normal Human Erythrocytes". Journal of ... H+-ATPases maintain a constant ΔpH across the plasma membrane and the vacuole membrane. Mg2+ is transported into the vacuole ... across the membrane, which will be affected by the charge on the membrane surface. For example, the specific binding of Mg2+ to ...
... coli where the inner membrane ABC transporter HlyB interacts with an inner membrane fusion protein HlyD and an outer membrane ... to scavenge iron that is in complex with high-affinity iron-binding proteins or erythrocytes. These are high-affinity iron- ... Membranes are commercially available or can be prepared from various cells or even tissues e.g. liver canalicular membranes. ... The membrane-spanning region of the ABC transporter protects hydrophilic substrates from the lipids of the membrane bilayer ...
... , such as hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis, usually present with abnormal red cell ... Structure of the erythrocyte membrane. A membrane skeleton lies on the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte ... 1996) Anion exchanger 1 (band 3) is required to prevent erythrocyte membrane surface loss but not to form the membrane skeleton ... Erythrocyte Membrane Disorders. Willian T Tse, Childrens Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA ...
Interaction of Bartonella bacilliformis with human erythrocyte membrane proteins.. Buckles EL1, McGinnis Hill E. ... Both the hematic and tissue phases of the disease involve the initial attachment of the organism to erythrocytes and ... A comparison of the molecular weights of these putative receptors with known erythrocyte proteins and their immunoreactivity to ... Moreover, there was a complete abrogation of binding to these proteins following exposure of erythrocytes to sodium ...
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Erythrocyte membrane antigen frequencies in patients with Type II congenital smell loss.. Stateman WA1, Henkin RI2, Knöppel AB3 ... Presence of the erythrocyte surface antigens A, B, M, N, S, s, Fy(a), Fy(b), D, C, c, E, e, K, Jk(a), and Jk(b) was analyzed by ... The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and ... There were no significant differences between patients and controls in the expression frequencies for all other erythrocyte ...
It is well known that various mammalian erythrocyte membranes contain different types of major glycosphingolipid which are ... It is well known that various mammalian erythrocyte membranes contain different types of major glycosphingolipid which are ... Immunological Properties of Glycolipids Including Some Gangliosides in Mammalian Erythrocyte Membranes. In: Svennerholm L., ... Specific antibodies against individual glycosphingolipids are useful for various purposes in immunochemical and membrane ...
Erythrocytes of diabetic patients have abnormal membrane properties. We examined in vivo membrane lipid peroxidation in ... There was a significantly increased membrane lipid peroxidation in diabetic erythrocytes compared with nondiabetic erythrocytes ... Erythrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes. Sushil K Jain, Robert McVie, John Duett, John ... Erythrocyte Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Diabetes. Sushil K Jain, Robert McVie, John Duett, John ...
Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholines was determined by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography in ... 2009) Trans Isomeric and LCPUFA Are Inversely Correlated in Erythrocyte Membrane Lipids at Mid-gestation. In: Koletzko B., ... Trans Isomeric and LCPUFA Are Inversely Correlated in Erythrocyte Membrane Lipids at Mid-gestation. ... Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholines was determined by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography in ...
Chemical Characterization and Surface Orientation of the Major Glycoprotein of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane. V. T. Marchesi, ... The major glycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane has been isolated by treatment with lithium di-iodosalicylate and ... Chemical Characterization and Surface Orientation of the Major Glycoprotein of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane ... Chemical Characterization and Surface Orientation of the Major Glycoprotein of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane ...
Reductions of erythrocyte membrane viscoelastic coefficients reflect spectrin deficiencies in hereditary spherocytosis.. ... the principal structural protein of the erythrocyte membrane-skeleton. We have examined 20 different individuals from 10 ... suggesting that membrane shear elasticity is directly proportional to the surface density of spectrin on the membrane (P less ... the apparent membrane bending stiffness, and whole cell recovery time constant for the different cell populations. The membrane ...
Trigg, P. I., Hirst, S. I., Shakespeare, P. G. & Tappenden, L. (‎1977)‎. Labelling of membrane glycoprotein in erythrocytes ...
Kholhring Lalchhandama (2017), "Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1", WikiJournal of Medicine, 4 (1), doi: ... Kholhring Lalchhandama (2017), "Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1", WikiJournal of Medicine, 4 (1), doi: ... Wikipedia: Content from this work is used in the following Wikipedia article: Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane ... This article provides a useful overview of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1. The article is well-written ...
THE STRUCTURE OF ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANES STUDIED BY FREEZE-ETCHING. Thomas W. Tillack, Robert E. Scott, Vincent T. Marchesi ... The results show that the receptors for these labels are distributed uniformly over the surfaces of normal red cell membranes ... The distribution of these labels was studied on intact human red cells, isolated ghost membranes, and trypsin-treated ghost ... These results provide further support for the idea that membrane-bound glycoproteins are oriented so that their carbohydrate- ...
... family mediates cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to human endothelium. Antibodies blocking cytoadhesion are important ... The var gene encoded hyper-variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) ... Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 diversity in seven genomes--divide and conquer PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Sep ... The var gene encoded hyper-variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates cytoadhesion ...
Erythrocyte Membranes 3 : Recent Clinical and Experimental Advances. Erythrocyte Membranes 3 : Recent Clinical and Experimental ... Kruckeberg, Walter C. is the author of Erythrocyte Membranes 3 : Recent Clinical and Experimental Advances, published 1984 ...
EPB41L1, erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 1. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC ...
... erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) were extensively studied. Much has been learnt particularly concerning their metabolism ... Abstract: In the sixties and seventies, erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) were extensively studied. Much has been learnt ... Taking into consideration the cellular functions of the erythrocyte, the clarification of the role of those adhesion molecules ... has contributed for a renewed interest on the erythrocyte. Recent studies have provided us with a more detailed and ...
The mechanism by which unesterified fatty acids are translocated across plasma membranes remains unclear and is the object of ... 1986) A Model for Studying Membrane Fatty Acid Transport : Acyl-Coenzyme a Synthesis in Human Erythrocyte Ghosts. In: Freysz L ... A Model for Studying Membrane Fatty Acid Transport : Acyl-Coenzyme a Synthesis in Human Erythrocyte Ghosts. ... The mechanism by which unesterified fatty acids are translocated across plasma membranes remains unclear and is the object of ...
Fractionation of Plasmodium knowlesi-induced antigens of rhesus monkey erythrocyte membranes*. View/. Open. Full Text (‎1.050Mb ... Fractionation of Plasmodium knowlesi-induced antigens of rhesus monkey erythrocyte membranes*. Bulletin of the World Health ...
Membrane vesiculation protects erythrocytes from destruction by complement.. K Iida, M B Whitlow and V Nussenzweig ... Membrane vesiculation protects erythrocytes from destruction by complement. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Nucleated cells can resist attack by C by exocytosis or endocytosis of the terminal C components C5b-9 (membrane attack complex ... can eliminate the MAC from the membrane in the form of microvesicles and escape destruction. When guinea pig or human E are ...
... erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3), Authors: Sunny Y Wong. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... EPB41L3 (erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3). Written. 2008-05. Sunny Y Wong. ... cytoskeleton plasma membrane plasma membrane cell-cell junction apoptotic process cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane ... cytoskeleton plasma membrane plasma membrane cell-cell junction apoptotic process cytoskeletal anchoring at plasma membrane ...
Onaran I, Yalçin AS, Sultuybek G. Effect of donor age on the susceptibility of erythrocytes and erythrocyte membranes to cumene ... where an erythrocyte membrane lipidomic analysis will be performed for the characterization of membrane phospholipids, in order ... Isolated Erythrocyte Membrane Susceptibility to Photo-oxidative Stress in Alzheimers Disease. The safety and scientific ... Moreover, using isolated erythrocyte membranes allows for a greater specificity in the evaluation of MDA produced, and reduces ...
Erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus M Suhail M Suhail ... 1. The erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase activity is significantly (P less than 0.001) decreased in insulin-dependent ... M Suhail, S I Rizvi; Erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Biochem J 1 May ...
Regulation of membrane-cytoskeletal interactions by tyrosine phosphorylation of erythrocyte band 3. Blood 117, 5998-6006 (2011 ... Kinetic study of the interaction of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobins with the erythrocyte membrane. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, ... Rate of rupture and reattachment of the band 3-ankyrin bridge on the human erythrocyte membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 22360- ... Oxygen tension-mediated erythrocyte membrane interactions regulate cerebral capillary hyperemia. By Sitong Zhou, Michael ...
P. falciparum erythrocytes membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1)3 is a parasite encoded protein expressed on the surface of infected ... Limited cross-reactivity among domains of the 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family. Infect. Immun. ... Expression of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in experimentally infected humans. Malar. J. 4: 21. ... Immunoglobulin G antibody reactivity to a group A Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 and protection from P. ...
The orientation of the immobilized membrane was identified with selective fluorescence labels. When the right-side-out (RSO) ... We report the orientation selective immobilization of human erythrocyte membranes on planar solid supports. ... Orientation selective immobilization of human erythrocyte membranes on ultrathin cellulose films Motomu Tanaka,*a Stefan ... Orientation selective immobilization of human erythrocyte membranes on ultrathin cellulose films M. Tanaka, S. Kaufmann, J. ...
... we offer a new model of the human erythrocyte membrane that incorporates our current understanding of erythrocyte membrane ... Analysis of integral membrane protein contributions to the deformability and stability of the human erythrocyte membrane. J ... Adducin forms a bridge between the erythrocyte membrane and its cytoskeleton and regulates membrane cohesion. William A. Anong ... Restoration of normal membrane stability to unstable protein 4.1-deficient erythrocyte membranes by incorporation of purified ...
Erythrocyte and brain forms of spectrin in cerebellum: distinct membrane-cytoskeletal domains in neurons ... Erythrocyte and brain forms of spectrin in cerebellum: distinct membrane-cytoskeletal domains in neurons ... Erythrocyte and brain forms of spectrin in cerebellum: distinct membrane-cytoskeletal domains in neurons ... Erythrocyte and brain forms of spectrin in cerebellum: distinct membrane-cytoskeletal domains in neurons ...
There are conflicting results regarding the erythrocyte membrane cholesterol and phospholipid content in patients with primary ... erythrocyte membrane cholesterol, phospholipids and integral proteins. PHC patients showed increased erythrocyte membrane ... Erythrocyte membrane composition in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia Article type: Research Article ... Our results suggest that there is a slight increase in erythrocyte membrane cholesterol in patients with PHC. Given the ...
Interplay between erythrocyte peroxidases and membrane. Melo D, Rocha S, Coimbra S, Santos-Silva A. In the book "Erythrocyte", ... Voc est em: In cio , Biology of anemia associated to erythrocyte membrane protein deficiencies ... Biology of anemia associated to erythrocyte membrane protein deficiencies. Several anemias of different etiologies are ... Peroxiredoxin 2, Glutathione Peroxidase and Catalase in the cytosol and membrane of erythrocytes under H2O2-induced oxidative ...
The Isolation of Erythrocyte Membranes from Peripheral Blood. Blood in the amount of 10 ml was collected to the vials with ... The aim of the study was to analyze the fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes among 55 patients with NAFLD who were subjected to ... revealed that saturation index in erythrocytes membrane was a helpful tool in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD [15]. In ... M. Pandey, L. B. Sharma, S. Singh, and V. K. Shukla, "Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile and saturation index in ...
  • OBJECTIVE To examine the factors that might alter the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients. (
  • Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was determined by fluorescence polarization using 6-(9-anthroyloxy stearic acid as fluorescent probe. (
  • CONCLUSIONS The factors that most influence membrane fluidity in IDDM patients appear to be hyperglycemia and ketone bodies. (
  • It is suggested that increased lysis results from oxidative damage to the erythrocyte membrane, causing a decrease in membrane fluidity and reducing its ability to withstand osmotic changes. (
  • Background: Hypercholesterolemia increases cholesterol concentration in erythrocyte membranes, which results in decrease of membrane fluidity and decreases the deformability of red blood cells. (
  • Material/Methods: The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of 2-month supplementation of extract from Aronia melanocarpa (100 mg Aronox, three times per day) on cholesterol concentration, lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity, level of thiol groups and activity of ATPase in erythrocytes from patients with hypercholesterolemia. (
  • Results: The 2-month Aronia supplementation resulted in a decrease of cholesterol concentration (by 22%) and a decrease of lipid peroxidation (by 40%), and an increase of membrane fluidity. (
  • In the treatment before and after, membrane-cholesterol(C)/membrane-phosphatide(P), membrane fluidity(F) and deformability of erythrocyte were determined. (
  • The results showed that low level laser irradiation on blood (LLLIB) can sure reduce the ratio of (C)/(P), can heighten fluidity and improve deformability of erythrocyte .Thus the metabolism ability of erythrocyte membrane-lipid ,the blood circulation and the properties of hemorheology can be improved. (
  • Using a reductionist model membrane system with synthetic lipid vesicles, we confirmed the importance of membrane fluidity and the glycocalyx in regulating amph-AuNP/ membrane interactions. (
  • Taurine (TAU) and compounds representing a TAU analog (hypotaurine $=$ HYTAU) or homolog (aminomethanesulfonic acid $=$ AMSA, homotaurine $=$ HMTAU) were tested for their counteracting effects against alterations in erythrocyte (RBC) morphology, membrane fluidity and cytoskeletal spectrin distribution due to diabetes, alcoholism and diabetes-alcoholism in male Goto-Kakizaki rats (made diabetic with a high fat diet and alcoholic upon feeding on a flavored alcohol solution) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (serving as controls). (
  • Both diabetes and alcoholism changed the RBC discoidal biconcave shape to a spiculated one, lowered membrane fluidity, and caused spectrin to become marginalized. (
  • Cooper RA (1978) Influence of increased membrane cholesterol on membrane fluidity and cell function in human red blood cells. (
  • The following parameters were measured: erythrocyte aggregation, haemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin concentrations, hematocrit, plasma osmolality and erythrocyte membrane fluidity (fluorescence polarisation probes TMA-DPH and DPH). (
  • Recent genomic research has shown that defects in proteins that constitute the erythrocyte membrane skeleton are often the causes of these disorders. (
  • The peripheral membrane proteins ankyrin, protein 4.2, actin and protein 4.1 anchor the spectrin scaffold to the lipid bilayer by attaching to the major erythrocyte integral membrane proteins, band 3 and the glycophorins. (
  • Interaction of Bartonella bacilliformis with human erythrocyte membrane proteins. (
  • Using two different approaches, preliminary evidence is provided that B. bacilliformis interacts with multiple surface-exposed proteins on human erythrocytes. (
  • Utilizing Western blot analysis, it was demonstrated that the organism binds several biotinylated erythrocyte proteins with approximate molecular masses of 230, 210, 100, 83 and 44 kDa. (
  • Moreover, there was a complete abrogation of binding to these proteins following exposure of erythrocytes to sodium metaperiodate oxidation, indicating the significance of carbohydrate moieties in the interactions of Bartonella with the erythrocyte. (
  • In a second approach, similar binding proteins or putative receptors were identified when Bartonella was co-incubated with isolated membrane proteins from red cell ghosts. (
  • These results provide further support for the idea that membrane-bound glycoproteins are oriented so that their carbohydrate-rich segments, which bear the antigenic sites and receptors, are exposed to the external medium, while hydrophobic segments of the same molecules interact with lipids, and possibly other proteins, to form the intramembranous particles. (
  • 21 ⇓ - 23 The complex of cytoskeletal proteins at this nexus (primarily actin, dematin, tropomyosin, adducin, protein 4.1, and tropomodulin) forms a junctional complex from which spectrin tetramers extend radially into a 2-dimensional lattice that provides mechanical stability to the overlying membrane. (
  • We have analysed in 33 patients with PHC (12 male, 31 female) aged 43±12 years and in 33 healthy normolipaemic volunteers (9 male, 24 female) aged 43±13 years plasma lipids, along with, erythrocyte membrane cholesterol, phospholipids and integral proteins. (
  • The infected erythrocytes of FCR3S1.2 were studied for their capacity to adhere to soluble fluorescence-labeled receptor proteins as follows. (
  • The alterations in membrane proteins did not directly cause lysis of the cells. (
  • The binding of the inactive toxins to erythrocytes was investigated by immunoblotting saline-washed, toxin-treated cells with monoclonal antibodies after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis separation of membrane proteins. (
  • The lipid bilayer consists of phospholipids, integral membrane proteins, peripheral proteins and cholesterol. (
  • In HS and HE, connections in the vertical and horizontal directions between components of the RBC membrane (see Fig. 1(a)), are disrupted due to defective proteins, leading to loss of the structural and functional integrity of the membrane (1-2). (
  • Moreover, disruptions of either the vertical interactions or horizontal interactions affect the lateral diffusivity of the mobile band 3 proteins, as the motion of band 3 in the RBC membrane is confined by the cytoskeleton (3). (
  • Interaction between complement proteins C5b-7 and erythrocyte membrane sialic acid. (
  • objective: to investigate the activity of non-purified calpain i in hemolysates against the erythrocytic membrane proteins, rather than against other substrates. (
  • main measurements: red cell membrane proteins were incubated with and without protease inhibitors and with and without calcium chloride and underwent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (
  • Plasmodium falciparum parasites remodel the surface of human erythrocytes on invasion by the insertion of parasite-derived proteins in knob-like protrusions. (
  • Palmitoylation of endogenous and viral acceptor proteins by fatty acyltransferase (PAT) present in erythrocyte ghosts and in placental membranes. (
  • This gene encodes the prototype of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family proteins. (
  • PI and PII represent 50 of the total membrane proteins and contain very small quantities of lipid, carbohydrate and sialic acid. (
  • Studies of detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) rafts in mature erythrocytes have facilitated identification of proteins that regulate formation of endovacuolar structures such as the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) induced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum . (
  • Here, we use primaquine to perturb the erythrocyte membrane and induce detergent-free buoyant vesicles, which are enriched in cholesterol and major raft proteins flotillin and stomatin and contain low levels of cytoskeleton, all characteristics of raft microdomains. (
  • 4 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 10 These highly buoyant, lipid-rich complexes have also been isolated from various other cell types and appear to be enriched for proteins and lipids present in lipid rafts of cellular membranes. (
  • When human erythrocytes are invaded by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , selected DRM proteins (major proteins flotillin-1 and flotillin-2, and at least 13 additional proteins) are exclusively internalized into the newly formed PVM. (
  • Since DRM proteins are not detected in large membrane domains at the erythrocyte surface, it is presumed that they exist in small dynamic rafts, and a subset of these components is recruited into the PVM in response to parasite stimuli. (
  • In this extended abstract, we develop a two-component CGMD human RBC membrane model that explicitly comprises both the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton. (
  • This suggests that peroxidation of membrane lipids and accumulation of MDA occurs in erythrocytes of diabetic patients. (
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the correlation between the degree of peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids, erythrocyte alpha tocopherol content, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and serum albumin concentration in twelve patients with uremia not undergoing hemodialysis and fifteen patients on maintenance hemodialysis. (
  • CONCLUSION: This study suggested that serum albumin inhibits peroxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and that hemodialysis induces recovery of serum reductivity. (
  • These findings indicate that choleglobin extracts lipids from cell membranes regardless of headgroup or acyl chain length, through a process of direct hydrophobic interaction with the membrane surface. (
  • Balkan J, Oztezcan S, Aykaç-Toker G, Uysal M (2002) Effects of added dietary taurine on erythrocyte lipids and oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet. (
  • Importantly, erythrocyte raft lipids recruited to the invasion junction by mechanical stimulation may be remodeled by the malaria parasite to establish blood-stage infection. (
  • Fatty acids are critical organic compounds involved in the synthesis of other lipids like phospholipids and glycolipids constituting lipid bilayer of all cell membranes, besides they are an important source of chemical energy [ 1 ]. (
  • As with other members of the Protein 4.1 superfamily, Protein 4.1B likely functions to link cellular receptors with the cytoskeleton, and thus localizes to the plasma membrane. (
  • Nucleoside transport in erythrocytes of various species is inhibited by the binding of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) to high affinity sites associated with nucleoside transport elements of the plasma membrane. (
  • Secretion of Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry protein into the plasma membrane of host erythrocytes. (
  • The protein is located in the plasma membrane of the newly invaded erythrocyte. (
  • Lipid mass spectrometry revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol are depleted in endovesicles while phosphoinositides are highly enriched, suggesting raft-based endovesiculation can be achieved by simple (non-receptor-mediated) mechanical perturbation of the erythrocyte plasma membrane and results in sorting of inner leaflet phospholipids. (
  • The leading definition of membrane rafts suggests that they may consist of small dynamic domains in the plasma membrane stabilized by cholesterol 11 and in response to various stimuli coalesce into a larger, less mobile zone, as shown in T cells. (
  • Lipid peroxidation was assessed in fresh, untreated erythrocytes by quantitating thiobarbituric acid reactivity and an adduct of phospholipids and malonyldialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, with thin-layer chromatography of lipid extract of diabetic erythrocytes. (
  • A portion of the blood sample (500 µL) will be sent to the laboratory of Lipinutragen (spin-off of CNR- National Research Center Bologna, Italy) where an erythrocyte membrane lipidomic analysis will be performed for the characterization of membrane phospholipids, in order to determinate the different lipid components (saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated, trans fatty acids), each one characterized by a different oxidative reactivity. (
  • At the same time, the different units used and the fact that the cholestero l and phospholipids are not expressed in relation with integral protein membrane content, produces contradictory results. (
  • In erythrocytes made echinocytic with exogenous phospholipid, addition of hemoglobin oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or Vitamin C (conditions that result in the formation of significant quantities of choleglobin), but not ferricyanide (which produces predominantly methemoglobin), induced dose-dependent shape reversion to less echinocytic forms, consistent with extraction of phospholipids from the exofacial side of the membrane. (
  • The article summarizes new insights into the molecular mechanisms for the maintenance and regulation of the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in human erythrocyte membranes. (
  • They refer the main component of biological membranes of tissue cell formations on various levels of their phylogenesis differentiation, namely phospholipids (PL). Among PL known by their wide spectrum of structural-functional and metabolic properties, the most interesting appeared to be the fraction of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), which was noticeable increased in its contents on the background of effects of ds-RNA certain concentrations [12]. (
  • The var gene encoded hyper-variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes to human endothelium. (
  • The binding is mediated by members of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. (
  • Acquisition of Antibodies Against Endothelial Protein C Receptor-Binding Domains of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 in Children with Severe Malaria. (
  • Background: Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates parasite sequestration in postcapillary venules in P. falciparum malaria. (
  • The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family plays a central role in antigenic variation and cytoadhesion of P. falciparum infected erythrocytes. (
  • In the present study, investigation of Xanthones as probable anti malarial molecules, was carried out targeted against Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) via molecular docking studies. (
  • The variant surface antigen PfEMP1 ( Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) encoded by the polymorphic multi-copy var gene family plays an important role in parasite biology and the host-parasite interactions. (
  • Agrawal MR, Ozarkar AD, Gupta S, Deobagkar DN, Deobagkar DD: Comparative study of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1- DBLα domain variants with respect to antigenic variations and docking interaction analysis with glycosaminoglycans. (
  • CD4 T cells from malaria-nonexposed individuals respond to the CD36-Binding Domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 via an MHC class II-TCR-independent pathway. (
  • We have studied the human CD4 T cell response to a functionally conserved domain of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, cysteine interdomain region-1alpha (CIDR-1alpha). (
  • CD4 T cell responses to a variant antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, erythrocyte membrane protein-1, in individuals living in malaria-endemic areas. (
  • Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1) is a variant antigen on the surface of malaria-infected red blood cells. (
  • Gallagher PG and Benz Jr EJ (2000) The erythrocyte membrane and cytoskeleton: structure, function, and disorders. (
  • The erythrocyte membrane skeleton is the best understood cytoskeleton. (
  • Red blood cell (RBC) membrane comprises the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton network. (
  • The membrane cytoskeleton is modeled as a canonical exagonal network of entropic springs that behave as Worm-Like-Chains (WLC). (
  • The implicit representations of either the lipid bilayer or the cytoskeleton in these membrane models limit their applications in the membrane instability problems in HS and HE. (
  • It will be evaluated the release of malondialdehyde (MDA) from ex-vivo photo-oxidized erythrocyte ghosts, through a very easy and convenient lab procedure for the preparation of erythrocyte membrane samples. (
  • When the right-side-out (RSO) ghosts were incubated with planar glass cover slides, no adsorption or rupture of erythrocytes could be observed. (
  • There are conflicting results regarding the erythrocyte membrane cholesterol and phospholipid content in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia (PHC), due to methodological problems in obtaining haemoglobin-free ghosts. (
  • The present study examined binding of [3H]NBMPR to unsealed ghosts and to sealed right-side-out vesicles (ROVs) and inside-out vesicles (IOVs) prepared from pig erythrocytes. (
  • Kd values for NBMPR dissociation from the ligand-site complex in unsealed ghosts, ROVs and IOVs were similar (1.6-2.4 nM), and Bmax values (mean +/- SD) were, respectively, 22.2 +/- 5.5, 25.8 +/- 6.4, and 37.3 +/- 4.0 molecules/fg of protein, reflecting differences in the protein content of the membrane preparations. (
  • When temperatures were decreased from 22 degrees to 4 degrees, NBMPR binding to erythrocyte membrane preparations was reduced in IOVs relative to that in unsealed ghosts and ROVs. (
  • At 22 degrees, the association of NBMPR molecules with IOVs was slower than with ROVs and unsealed ghosts, differences that were virtually eliminated by permeabilization of the membrane preparations with saponin. (
  • Thus, the binding sites were more accessible to external NBMPR in sealed ROVs and unsealed ghosts than in sealed IOVs, indicating that the NBMPR sites are located on the extracellular aspect of the membrane. (
  • For solid-state NMR analysis, we isolated native membranes from erythrocyte ghosts and bacterial protoplasts and prepared them as macroscopically oriented samples. (
  • The orientation of the immobilized membrane was identified with selective fluorescence labels. (
  • The fluorescence labeling demonstrated that immobilized erythrocyte membranes selectively inverted their native orientation. (
  • The membrane damage induced by NV-PLA 2 was assessed by measuring the decrease in the relative intensity of fluorescence using cis-parinaric acid (PnA) as a monitor molecule. (
  • Erythrocytes preloaded with radiolabeled phosphatidylcholine or NBD-labeled phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid, exhibited greatest extraction of radiolabel or fluorescence signal with exogenous hemoglobin oxidized via H2O2 or Vitamin C, but not ferricyanide. (
  • Positive fluorescence reactivity was observed within the cytoplasm and with membrane structures but not on the surface of intact P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. (
  • Erythrocyte membrane disorders, such as hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis, usually present with abnormal red cell shapes, hemolysis and anemia. (
  • Tse WT and Lux SE (1999) Red blood cell membrane disorders. (
  • It is well known that various mammalian erythrocyte membranes contain different types of major glycosphingolipid which are considerably species-specific (Table I). These glycosphingolipids are not only structural components of membranes but also important antigenic sites on cell surfaces. (
  • These findings suggest that the glycoprotein is oriented at the cell surface with its oligosaccharide-rich N-terminal end exposed to the exterior, while its C-terminal segment interacts with other components in the interior of the membrane to form intramembranous particles. (
  • Micropipettes were used to perform single-cell micromechanical measurements of approximately 1,000 individual cells to determine the membrane elastic shear modulus, the apparent membrane bending stiffness, and whole cell recovery time constant for the different cell populations. (
  • The results show that the receptors for these labels are distributed uniformly over the surfaces of normal red cell membranes in the same apparent distribution as that of the 75-A particles within the membrane. (
  • Isolated and purified red blood cell membranes will be in vitro exposed to oxidative stress by UV-B radiation. (
  • The extent of cell membrane damage will be quantified by the fluorometric determination of MDA. (
  • We will investigate the relationship between 24h excretion of urinary cortisol and the level of malondialdehyde, produced by isolated and purified red blood cell membranes, in vitro exposed to oxidative stress by UV-B radiation. (
  • Such ultrathin (thickness 5-10 nm), biological polysaccharide films have a large potential to immobilize native cell membranes without denaturing their structure, membrane orientation, and functions. (
  • The model of the erythrocyte membrane presented in cell biology, hematology, and biochemistry textbooks shows 2 major protein bridges that span between the phospholipid bilayer and the spectrin/actin skeleton. (
  • Cerebellum also expresses polypeptides antigenically related to the beta subunits of erythrocyte spectrin and these are also found in association with cerebellar alpha-spectrin but are confined to the plasmalemma of the neuronal cell bodies. (
  • This suggests that there is a mechanism for segregating different spectrin complexes into distinct membrane domains within a single cell. (
  • The aim of our research studies is to study the biology of these anemia, the patterns of antioxidant response and the OS lesions, by studying the antioxidant enzymes in pathological erythrocytes from patients with Hereditary Spherocytosis , Sickle Cell Anemia, β-Thalassemia and Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency. (
  • N-Ethylmaleimide inhibited the Ba(2+)-sensitive pathway that mediates most of the ouabain-resistant influx of K+ into the cell under physiological conditions but stimulated a Cl(−)-dependent, B(2+)-resistant K+ transport pathway that was inhibited by compounds that inhibit Cl(−)-dependent K+ transport in the human erythrocyte. (
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited blood disorders in which clinical illness results from the presence of erythrocytes with sickled haemoglobin (HbS). (
  • Fatty Acids VL - 74 IS - 1 N2 - Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited blood disorders in which clinical illness results from the presence of erythrocytes with sickled haemoglobin (HbS). (
  • The rhoptry is an organelle of the malarial merozoite which has been suggested to play a role in parasite invasion of its host cell, the erythrocyte. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene, together with spectrin and actin, constitute the red cell membrane cytoskeletal network. (
  • The in vivo aging of human erythrocytes is accompanied by a progressive increase in red cell specific gravity. (
  • Membranes were isolated from cell fractions of different age and subjected to carbohydrate analysis. (
  • The finding for N-acetyl-neuraminic acid was confirmed and additional decreases were observed in galactose, glucose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine of old cell membranes. (
  • Changes in cell surface carbohydrates have also been detected by studying the relative susceptibility to agglutination of erythrocytes of different in vivo age using a number of agglutinins. (
  • Since trypsin treatment of erythrocytes produced cells which mimicked vivo aged cells in their behaviour with agglutinins, the findings presented here are consistent with erythrocyte in vivo aging being accompanied by proteolysis of the external membrane surface of the red cell. (
  • 19F NMR analysis of the antimicrobial peptide PGLa bound to native cell membranes from bacterial protoplasts and human erythrocytes. (
  • Bound hemolysin increased the calcium permeability of the cell membranes as evidenced by calcium-induced membrane protein alterations. (
  • The effects of transportation stress and pretreatment with non-enzymic antioxidants vitamins C and E on the erythrocyte osmotic fragility, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell and white blood cell counts, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and the differential leucocyte counts were investigated using the domestic chicken. (
  • Erythrocytes are attractive as potential cell-based drug carriers because of their abundance and long life-span in vivo. (
  • Cell Electrofusion in Centrifuged Erythrocyte Pellets Assessed by Dielectric Spectroscopy Asami, Koji 2015-09-25 00:00:00 We have characterized cell electrofusion in cell pellets by dielectric spectroscopy. (
  • Cell pellets were formed from horse erythrocyte suspensions by centrifugation and were subjected to intense AC pulses. (
  • In an effort to evaluate the role of the band 3-ankyrin linkage in maintenance of red blood cell membrane integrity, solution conditions were sought that would selectively dissociate the band 3-ankyrin linkage, leaving other membrane skeletal interactions intact. (
  • A haemolytic syndrome associated with the complete absence of red cell membrane protein 4.2 in two Tunisian siblings. (
  • It is speculated that decreases in membrane sialic acid content due to subchronic low-level Pb exposure shortens red cell life span as observed by increases in osmotic fragility. (
  • The apparent ease of this model in combining the spectrin network with the lipid bilayer presents a major advantage over conventional continuum methods such as finite element or finite difference methods for cell membranes. (
  • The initial phase of membrane attack by complement is the interaction between C5b6, C7, and the cell membrane that leads to the insertion of C5b-7. (
  • Here we investigate the role of sialic acid residues in the assembly of C5b-7 intermediates on erythrocyte cell membranes. (
  • We measured the sera levels of malondialdehyde, products of lipid peroxidation, Na+-K+/Mg++ Adenosine 5 triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca++/Mg++ Adenosine 5 triphosphatase, erythrocyte membrane enzymes, in patients with sickle cell anemia and compared their levels with that of normal controls. (
  • However, erythrocyte membrane Na+-K+/Mg++ and Ca++/Mg++ ATPase levels of patients with sickle cell anemia were significantly lower than the, Na+-K+/Mg++ and Ca++/Mg++ ATPase levels of normal controls. (
  • These data strengthen previous observations that P. falciparum interacts directly with human dendritic cells, and suggests that the interaction between CIDR-1alpha and the host cell may be responsible for regulation of the CD4 T cell and cytokine responses to P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes reported previously. (
  • Both serum and purified immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) were able to agglutinate infected erythrocytes, and purified anti-DBL1{alpha} IgGs bound to the live infected red blood cell surface in a punctate surface pattern, confirming that the IgGs recognize native PfEMP1. (
  • membranes and organelles, any effect of a drug on In control rats, the osmotic fragility (O.F.) profile is the osmotic hemolysis can be interpreted as an almost a sigmoidal curve whereas in indomethacin effect on the cell membrane. (
  • 0.01) decreased in indomethacin tant component of red cell membranes and as- treated rats. (
  • Live-cell imaging of lipid-specific protein probes showed that phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) is highly concentrated in primaquine-induced vesicles, confirming that it is an erythrocyte raft lipid. (
  • The mature erythrocyte is a terminally differentiated, nonendocytic cell in nature. (
  • However, these cells are readily invaded by malaria parasites, which involute the red cell 1 , 2 to generate a host-derived parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM). (
  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) are strongly affected by this reactivity, and structures rich in PUFAs can consequently be damaged by ROS, like cell membranes and lipoproteins [ 14 , 15 ]. (
  • Erythrocyte Membrane-Wrapped pH Sensitive Polymeric Nanoparticles for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Therapy. (
  • Herein, by using red blood cell membrane (RBCm) wrapping and pH sensitive technology, we prepared RBCm wrapped pH sensitive poly(l-γ-glutamylcarbocistein)-paclitaxel (PGSC-PTX) nanoparticles ( [email protected] NPs), to prolong the circulation time in blood and release PTX timely and adequately in acidic tumor environment. (
  • However, the particular drug/phospholipid ratios were relatively constant for the drugs investigated, indicating that the membranes were a major distribution phase for these drugs. (
  • Huestis, Wray 2016-01-13 00:00:00 This investigation examines oxidation conditions under which hemoglobin extracts membrane phospholipid from erythrocytes and model membranes. (
  • This investigation examines oxidation conditions under which hemoglobin extracts membrane phospholipid from erythrocytes and model membranes. (
  • The non-specific phospholipid transfer protein purified from bovine liver has been used to modify the phospholipid content and phospholipid composition of the membrane of intact human erythrocytes. (
  • Phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) has been defined as a Ca2+-activated scramblase that is completely suppressed by membrane cholesterol under low Ca2+ concentrations. (
  • It is show that remission period and especially the stage of acute fit of this disease are accompanied by the significant disorders in the physiologically established stability of phospholipid-phospholipid interrelation in the different biological systems in the organism, particularly in the erythrocytes and especially in the lymphocytes membranes. (
  • This complex plays a critical role in erythrocyte shape and deformability. (
  • These malaria- resistant erythrocytes from donors in Papua New Guinea show a three-fold decrease in deformability. (
  • The decreased deformability and ovalocytic shape of these erythrocytes was found to be associated with a dramatic decrease in band 3 mobility. (
  • Cluster of erythrocyte band 3: a potential molecular target of exhaustive exercise-induced dysfunction of erythrocyte deformability. (
  • Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholines was determined by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography in Spanish (n = 120), German (n = 78) and Hungarian (n = 43) expectant women at the 20th week of gestation. (
  • Metabolic utilization including activation, esterification and oxidation pathways follows fatty acid uptake and membrane translocation which are discussed hereby. (
  • We have tested the possibility that HbSC and HbSS patients have different membrane fatty acid composition consistent with the difference in their clinical severity. (
  • In this study, the effects of high Trans Fatty Acid (TFA) intake on fatty acid contents in erythrocyte membranes were examined. (
  • Membrane vesiculation protects erythrocytes from destruction by complement. (
  • 12 ⇓ - 14 Manual rupture of this bridge by addition of competing fragments of either band 3 or ankyrin, or by addition of competing monoclonal antibodies, or mutation of the ankyrin binding site on band 3 induces spontaneous membrane vesiculation and fragmentation. (
  • Although a number of coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) RBC membrane models have been developed in the past two decades, very few RBC membrane models have been used to study the disordered band 3 diffusion and membrane vesiculation in HS and HE. (
  • The proposed model allows us to measure the band 3 lateral mobility and simulate the process of membrane vesiculation in the membrane with protein defects. (
  • Our results suggest that there is a slight increase in erythrocyte membrane cholesterol in patients with PHC. (
  • Given the increasing importance of erythrocyte membrane cholesterol in the stability of the atheroma plaque due its possible contribution to the clinical signs of ischaemic heart disease, it seems relevant to determine this parameter in risk populations. (
  • Daniels CK, Goldstein D (1982) Movement of free cholesterol from lipoproteins or lipid vesicles into erythrocytes Acceleration by ethanol in vitro. (
  • Sphingomyelin in erythrocyte membranes increases the total cholesterol content of erythrocyte membranes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. (
  • To investigate whether the sphingomyelin content of erythrocyte membranes (SEM) is changed in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and determine the correlation between SEM and the total cholesterol content of erythrocyte membranes (CEM). (
  • 4 Host cholesterol is also detected in the PVM, and depletion of erythrocyte cholesterol (which disrupts DRM complexes but has no effect on membrane deformation or cellular ATP levels) blocks infection. (
  • The major glycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane has been isolated by treatment with lithium di-iodosalicylate and found to be a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of about 50,000. (
  • their order in the molecule has been determined by sequential tryptic digestion of intact erythrocyte membranes and partially digested glycoprotein fragments. (
  • Phytohemagglutinin conjugated to ferritin has been used to map the distribution of glycoprotein receptors over the surfaces of intact erythrocytes by freeze-etching and electron microscopy. (
  • Analysis of the major protein components of the membranes of fractionated cells by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that aging was accompanied by the appearance of two new polypeptides of approximate molecular weights 63,000 and 25,000, with probable degradation of component 3- an extracellular surface membrane glycoprotein. (
  • Recent studies have provided us with a more detailed and comprehensive picture on the composition and organization of its cellular membrane that will be the main subject of this minireview. (
  • For this purpose erythrocytes were equilibrated overnight in nutrient-containing buffers at a range of elevated pHs and then examined for changes in mechanical stability and membrane skeletal composition. (
  • The nonspecific lipid transfer protein used here appeared to be a suitable tool to modify lipid content and composition of the erythrocyte membrane, and possible applications of this approach are discussed. (
  • Peroxiredoxin 2, Glutathione Peroxidase and Catalase in the cytosol and membrane of erythrocytes under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. (
  • Stewart GW and Turner EJ (1999) The hereditary stomatocytoses and allied disorders: congenital disorders of erythrocyte membrane permeability to Na and K. Baillière's Best Practice and Research: Clinical Haematology 12: 707-727. (
  • To explore the possibility of absorption of lanthanides via digestive duct and their effects on the membrane structure and permeability of erythrocytes, the fine structure of erythrocyte membrane from Wistar rats, fed for 70 days of daily administration per os with 20 mg CeCl 3 /kg weight, was imaged by means of atomic force microscopy and FT-IR deconvolution spectra. (
  • This structure might be responsible for the increasing permeability of erythrocyte membrane. (
  • The reaction of lanthanide ions with n-doxyl stearic acids and its utilization for the ESR study on the permeability of lipid-bilayer of erythrocyte membrane to gadolinium ions, J. Inorg. (
  • 1. The erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase activity is significantly (P less than 0.001) decreased in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (
  • Treatment of the erythrocyte membrane with 0.1 mM EDTA (pH 8.0) extracted more than 90 percent of the spectrin and actin and concomitantly removed filamentous meshworks underlying the membranes, followed by fragmentation into small inside-out vesicles. (
  • When such spectrin-depleted vesicles were incubated with the EDTA extract (crude spectrin), a filamentous meshwork, similar to those of the original membranes, was reformed on the cytoplasmic surface of the vesicles. (
  • the donor vesicles to the erythrocyte and sphingomyelin transfer in the opposite direction. (
  • The expression frequencies of 16 erythrocyte antigens among patients with Type II congenital smell loss were determined and compared to those of a large control group. (
  • Acquired antibodies directed towards antigens expressed on the surface of merozoites and infected erythrocytes play an important role in protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (
  • A quick-freezing and deep-etching method in combination with erythrocyte spitting was used to examine the cytoplasmic aspect of whole-mount human erythrocyte membranes. (
  • Membrane replicas of the exposed cytoplasmic side of erythrocyte membranes were then prepared by evaporation of platinum at an angle of 24^O and subsequently of carbon at an angle of 90^O. The membrane replicas were routinely treated in household bleach and placed on Formvar-coated copper grids. (
  • During erythrocyte reinvasion by the extracellular merozoite, immunofluorescence shows the rhoptry protein discharging from the merozoite and spreading around the surface of the erythrocyte. (
  • However, it was subsequently proposed that the RBC membrane provides the main resistance to NO uptake rather than the process of extracellular diffusion (Vaughn, M. W., Huang, K. T., Kuo, L., and Liao, J. C. (2000) J. Biol. (
  • Simulation of the competition data indicates that the main resistance to NO uptake by RBCs is caused by extracellular diffusion in the unstirred layer surrounding each RBC but not by the RBC membrane. (
  • This extracellular diffusion resistance is responsible for preventing interference of NO signaling in the endothelium without the need for special NO uptake by intracellular hemoglobin or a unique membrane resistance mechanism. (
  • The distribution of these labels was studied on intact human red cells, isolated ghost membranes, and trypsin-treated ghost membranes. (
  • We find that human and guinea pig E, but not SRBC, can eliminate the MAC from the membrane in the form of microvesicles and escape destruction. (
  • We report the orientation selective immobilization of human erythrocyte membranes on planar solid supports. (
  • Reassociation of spectrin and actin with human erythrocyte membranes was studied by stereoscopic electron microscopy of thin sections combined with tannic acid- glutaraldehyde fixation. (
  • We determined the ability of mixed gangliosides (16% GD1b, 19% GT1b, 21% GM1, and 40% GD1a) and individual gangliosides GM1 and GD1b to modulate the NV-PLA 2 induced human erythrocyte ghost membrane damage. (
  • The RBC membranes isolated from healthy human blood showed 72% damage on treatment with NV-PLA 2 (2 mg) when compared to untreated membranes. (
  • Peroxidation of human erythrocyte membranes was followed in vitro with head space analysis of ethane and pentane and a thiobarbituric acid assay in a standardized system liberating free oxygen radicals. (
  • Tb 3+ binding to human erythrocyte spectrin resulting in conformation change and aggregation, J. Inorg. (
  • In membranes prepared from normal human erythrocytes, band 3 appears to exist as a heterogeneous population of aggregates with different mobilities. (
  • Associations of human erythrocyte band 4.2. (
  • Identification of a functional role for human erythrocyte sialoglycoproteins beta and gamma. (
  • It is suggested that the reversible membrane skeletal changes in the flexible areas which resist the external forces are important for maintaining the normal framework of biconcave human erythrocytes. (
  • An immunocytochemical study of changes in the human erythrocyte membrane skeleton produced by stretching examined by the quick-freezing anddeep-etching method' J. Anat.190 (in press). (
  • Three-dimensional ultrastructure of in situmembrane skeletons in human erythrocytes by quick-freezing and deep-etching method. (
  • These recent molecular findings establish the importance of the maintenance and regulation of phosphatidylserine distribution for both the survival and death of human erythrocytes. (
  • The isolated membrane skeleton of human erythrocytes was studied by high resolution negative staining electron microscopy. (
  • Protein Components of Human Erythrocyte Membrane. (
  • This change was shown to be due to a generalised loss of sialic acid from all of the major membrane sialoglycoproteins. (
  • In the present study, the effect of ingested Pb on erythrocyte membrane sialic acid content and osmotic fragility of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits was studied. (
  • Similarly, exposure to Pb significantly decreased erythrocyte sialic acid content and increased the erythrocyte osmotic fragility of Pb-treated animals. (
  • the presence of sialic acid inhibits the generation of C5b6, but once the membrane attack pathway is initiated, sialic acid enhances complement lysis. (
  • Erythrocyte membrane antigen frequencies in patients with Type II congenital smell loss. (
  • These findings describe the presence of a previously unrevealed genetic tendency among patients with Type II congenital smell loss related to erythrocyte surface antigen expression. (
  • P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP-1), a variant surface antigen, has been shown to be anchored in these knobs and mediates adhesion to various host endothelial receptors. (
  • The immune response against the Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a key component of clinical immunity against falciparum malaria. (
  • A membrane skeleton lies on the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and is important in maintaining the structural integrity of red blood cells. (
  • Hereditary spherocytosis is a common hemolytic anemia associated with deficiencies in spectrin, the principal structural protein of the erythrocyte membrane-skeleton. (
  • Biological membranes are vital components of living cells as they function to maintain the structural integrity of the cells. (
  • Previous studies have documented structural and functional changes induced by ethanol-erythrocyte membrane interaction. (
  • Amino acid analysis and molecular weight determination show that PI might be the structural membrane protein spectrin isolated by other investigators. (
  • Reductions of erythrocyte membrane viscoelastic coefficients reflect spectrin deficiencies in hereditary spherocytosis. (
  • 9 ⇓ - 11 Defects or deficiencies in either band 3 or ankyrin lead to a decrease in cohesion between the lipid bilayer and membrane skeleton, resulting in loss of membrane surface area and a pathology termed hereditary spherocytosis. (
  • Linkage of typically cytosolic peroxidases to erythrocyte membrane - a possible mechanism of protection in Hereditary Spherocytosis. (
  • While some of these decreases are probably attributable to glycolipid losses, which are known to accompany aging, part of the galactose/N-acetyl-galactosamine depletion has been related, to the sialoglyeoproteins of the membrane. (
  • It has been pointed out that lipid peroxidation decreases erythrocyte membrane PUFA as a consequence of acute physical exercise and training [ 18 ]. (
  • Membrane fragility was determined from the degree of lysis caused by incubation in hypotonic saline. (
  • Contrary to the expectation, the erythrocyte osmotic fragility was lower in the transported, untreated birds than the control while those pretreated with vitamins C and E had higher osmotic fragility. (
  • Osmotic fragility profile of erythrocytes. (
  • Indomethacin, a non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was found to in-duce slight membrane changes in erythrocytes.²We studied the effect of indomethacin on erythrocyte osmotic fragility to ascertain its membrane stabilizing effect. (
  • The osmotic fragility determinations were done by the method of Dacie and Lewis.³ The NaCl concentration of 50% hemolysis was taken as a measure of mean erythrocyte fragility (MEF). (
  • The stabilizing effect treated animals the O.F. profile is shifted to the left of indomethacin on erythrocyte membrane may be which is due to decreased osmotic fragility showing membrane stabilization (Figure 1). (
  • Zurück zum Zitat Ahyayauch H, Sansar W, Rendón-Ramírez A, Goñi FM, Bennouna M, Gamrani H (2013) Effects of chronic and acute lead treatments on the biophysical properties of erythrocyte membranes, and a comparison with model membranes. (
  • Antigènes excrétés-sécrétés par Plasmodium falciparum en cultures in vitro. (
  • In order to perform an in vitro study on the effect of different ethanol concentrations on erythrocyte hemorheologic properties, blood samples were collected from 21 male donors at the Hospital of Santa Maria. (
  • Various external forces induced alterations in membrane skeletal organization during the splitting procedure. (
  • These changes resulted in a different distribution of membrane skeletal components between central rigid and peripheral flexible areas in biconcave erythrocytes. (
  • The protein mediates binding between the infected erythrocytes and receptors on the vascular lining and allows parasites to sequester in the peripheral circulation ( 5 ). (
  • Restriction of band 3 motion is probably due, at least in part, to interactions with the peripheral membrane protein, ankyrin. (
  • The initial change was elogation in the peripheral part of the membrane skeleton, examined by immunostaining with a monoclonal antispectrin antibody. (
  • Particle interaction with RBC membranes occurred rapidly at physiological temperature. (
  • context: it has been reported that the equilibrium between the erythrocyte protease calpain i and its physiological inhibitor calpastatin is disrupted in patients with essential hypertension. (
  • We studied the Na + + K + ATPase activity of erythrocyte membranes from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). (
  • Analysis of membrane bound Na + K + and Ca 2+ Mg 2+ ATPase indicated a 3 fold and 2 folds decrease in their activities on NV-PLA 2 treatment when compared to untreated membranes. (
  • ATP11C, a P-IV ATPase, has been identified as a major flippase in analyses of patient erythrocytes with a 90% reduction in flippase activity. (
  • We examined in vivo membrane lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of diabetic subjects and its possible relationship with hyperglycemia. (
  • There was a significantly increased membrane lipid peroxidation in diabetic erythrocytes compared with nondiabetic erythrocytes. (
  • A significant negative correlation was observed between the erythrocyte alpha tocopherol content and the degree of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation in chronic hemodialysis patients. (
  • There was a statistically significant difference in the degree of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation between patients with chronic hemodialysis-associated hypoalbuminemia and chronic hemodialysis patients having normal serum albumin levels. (
  • Are ethane and pentane evolution and thiobarbituric acid reactivity specific for lipid peroxidation in erythrocyte membranes? (
  • Eichenberger K, Böhni P, Winterhalter KH, Kawato S, Richter C (1982) Microsomal lipid peroxidation causes an increase in the order of the membrane lipid domain. (
  • Jain SK, McVie R, Duett J, Herbst JJ (1989) Erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes. (
  • Severe malaria is brought about at least in part by the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes (parasited RBCs [pRBCs]) in postcapillary venules. (
  • P . falciparum -infected erythrocytes that both adhere to the vascular endothelium and form rosettes are more frequently found in individuals with severe than in those with mild malaria ( 14 )( 15 )( 16 )( 17 )( 18 ). (
  • P. falciparum erythrocytes membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) 3 is a parasite encoded protein expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes ( 4 ). (
  • The exceptional binding activity of the PfEMP1 head structure and its relatively conserved nature argues that it holds an important role in erythrocyte sequestration and therefore in the virulence of the malaria parasite. (
  • There is compelling evidence that P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is an adhesin ( 10 )( 12 )( 20 )( 21 )( 22 )( 23 )( 24 ), but whether it is the only adhesin and how it is involved in binding to different receptors remain to be explored. (
  • P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), the major parasite component of the infected erythrocyte surface, has been implicated in malaria pathology, parasite sequestration and host immune evasion. (
  • The required relocation of part of the band 3 population to the spectrin/actin junctional complex and its formation of a new bridge with adducin necessitates a significant revision of accepted models of the erythrocyte membrane. (
  • The second bridge connecting the membrane bilayer to the spectrin-actin skeleton consists of the membrane-spanning protein, glycophorin C (GPC), tethered to spectrin via the adapter protein 4.1. (
  • 24 , 25 However, recent observations demonstrate that the decreased membrane stability of GPC-deficient red cells is the consequence of a secondary deficiency of protein 4.1, and that reconstitution of the spectrin-actin binding domain of protein 4.1 into these defective membranes restores membrane mechanical stability without re-establishing the tether to GPC. (
  • Two modes of association of actin filaments with the membrane were seen: end-to-membrane and side-to- membrane associations. (
  • In the end-to-membrane association, each actin filament was bound with several filamentous components exhibiting a spiderlike configuration, which was considered to be the unit of the filamentous meshwork of the original erythrocyte membrane. (
  • Truncation studies have also suggested that the U2 region of 4.1B contains the minimal growth suppressive domain when tethered to the membrane by FERM domain-mediated protein-protein interactions. (
  • Using ex vivo microfluidics and in vivo two-photon microscopy, we examined RBC capillary velocity as a function of P O 2 and showed that deoxygenated hemoglobin and band 3 interactions on RBC membrane are the molecular switch that responds to local P O 2 changes and controls RBC capillary velocity. (
  • 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 The more prominent bridge, a linkage from the integral membrane protein, band 3, to spectrin via ankyrin, is composed of multiple high-affinity protein-protein interactions. (
  • Regulation of membrane-cytoskeletal interactions by tyrosine phosphorylation of erythrocyte band 3. (
  • The membrane skeleton comprises a hexagonal network of α‐ and β‐spectrin peptides intertwined to form a strong but flexible scaffold. (
  • 1996) Anion exchanger 1 (band 3) is required to prevent erythrocyte membrane surface loss but not to form the membrane skeleton. (
  • Modern textbooks portray the membrane as a 2-dimensional spectrin-based membrane skeleton attached to a lipid bilayer through 2 linkages: band 3-ankyrin-β-spectrin and glycophorin C-protein 4.1-β-spectrin. (
  • Visualization of the hexagonal lattice in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. (
  • The regularly ordered network extends over the entire membrane skeleton. (
  • These observations are compatible with the presence of spectrin tetramers and oligomers in the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. (
  • In the sixties and seventies, erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) were extensively studied. (
  • A local excessive accumulation of both pRBCs and uninfected erythrocytes (RBCs) leading to cessation of the local blood supply is thought to be one explanation for the occurrence of cerebral and most other forms of severe malaria ( 1 ). (
  • Here, we characterized the properties of amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (amph-AuNPs), comprised of a similar to 2.3 nm gold core and an amphiphilic ligand shell, which are able to embed spontaneously within erythrocyte membranes and might provide a means to load drugs into red blood cells (RBCs) directly in vivo. (
  • The process of NO transfer into erythrocytes (RBCs) is of critical biological importance because it regulates the bioavailability and diffusional distance of endothelial-derived NO. It has been reported that the rate of NO reaction with oxyhemoglobin (Hb) within RBCs is nearly three orders of magnitude slower than that by equal amounts of free oxyhemoglobin. (
  • Isolation and characterization of the hemichrome-stabilized membrane protein aggregates from sickle erythrocytes. (
  • An increase in phosphatidylcholine content in the erythrocyte membrane from 90 to 282 nmol per 100 μl packed cells was observed. (
  • We have found that band 3 has a highly restricted mobility in membranes prepared from malaria-infected erythrocytes. (
  • The abnormalities in erythrocyte in LCPUFA which is manifested by an increase in AA and a decrease in EPA and DHA in HbSS relative to HbSC disease observed in this study are consistent with the contrast in clinical severity between the two entities. (
  • Simultaneously, the decrease of the membrane palmitic, linoleic, arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid was monitored. (
  • High TFA intake could decrease polyunsaturated fatty acids in the erythrocyte membrane, especially ω-3 fatty acids, and decrease the ratios of ω-3 to TFA and saturated fatty acids. (
  • Time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy has been used to follow the rotational diffusion of band 3, the major integral membrane protein of erythrocytes. (
  • The structure and function of erythrocytes are strongly modulated by membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). (
  • 3. No alterations of membrane structure of erythrocytes of deoxycorticosterone-treated rats and renal hypertensive rats were found. (
  • The various membrane abnormalities of sickle erythrocytes may result from excessive accumulation of oxidant damage. (
  • We observed that a parasitemia of 20 to 200 infected erythrocytes per 嬠was required to trigger an antibody response to DBL1{alpha} and that antibodies against one DBL1{alpha} variant cross-react with other DBL1{alpha} variants. (
  • 17 ⇓ ⇓ - 20 Taken together, these data support the importance of the ankyrin-spectrin bridge in maintaining membrane integrity. (
  • Based on the finding that GPC-deficient red cells exhibit decreased membrane mechanical stability, it has been inferred that the GPC-protein 4.1 bridge is essential to erythrocyte integrity. (
  • 2. Microviscosity of hydrophobic areas of erythrocyte membrane of spontaneously hypertensive rats was found to be increased compared with that of membranes from normotensive control rats. (