Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
An erythematous eruption commonly associated with drug reactions or infection and characterized by inflammatory nodules that are usually tender, multiple, and bilateral. These nodules are located predominantly on the shins with less common occurrence on the thighs and forearms. They undergo characteristic color changes ending in temporary bruise-like areas. This condition usually subsides in 3-6 weeks without scarring or atrophy.
An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
A chronic communicable infection which is a principal or polar form of LEPROSY. This disorder is caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE and produces diffuse granulomatous skin lesions in the form of nodules, macules, or papules. The peripheral nerves are involved symmetrically and neural sequelae occur in the advanced stage.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).
Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.
Facial dermatoses refers to various skin conditions that affect the face, causing symptoms such as redness, inflammation, papules, pustules, scaling, or pigmentation changes, which can be caused by a range of factors including genetics, infections, allergies, and environmental factors.
Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
"Bites and stings refer to tissue damage or toxic reactions caused by the teeth, mouthparts, or venomous secretions of animals such as insects, spiders, snakes, and mammals during predatory or defensive attacks."
An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.
Recurrent cutaneous manifestation of GLUCAGONOMA characterized by necrolytic polycyclic migratory lesions with scaling borders. It is associated with elevated secretion of GLUCAGON by the tumor. Other conditions with elevated serum glucagon levels such as HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS may also result in similar skin lesions, which are referred to as pseudoglucagonoma syndrome.
Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.
Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.
Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
A nonspecific term used to denote any cutaneous lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type on the leg. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Any inflammation of the skin.
A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
Substances that suppress Mycobacterium leprae, ameliorate the clinical manifestations of leprosy, and/or reduce the incidence and severity of leprous reactions.
Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).
Coloration of the skin.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Rare chronic inflammatory disease involving the small blood vessels. It is of unknown etiology and characterized by mucocutaneous ulceration in the mouth and genital region and uveitis with hypopyon. The neuro-ocular form may cause blindness and death. SYNOVITIS; THROMBOPHLEBITIS; gastrointestinal ulcerations; RETINAL VASCULITIS; and OPTIC ATROPHY may occur as well.
Disorder characterized by a vasculitic syndrome associated with exposure to an antigen such as a drug, infectious agent, or other foreign or endogenous substance. Its pathophysiology includes immune complex deposition and a wide range of skin lesions. Hypersensitivity or allergy is present in some but not all cases.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.
A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.
Inflammation of a vein, often a vein in the leg. Phlebitis associated with a blood clot is called (THROMBOPHLEBITIS).
The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Hand dermatoses is a general term referring to various inflammatory skin conditions primarily affecting the hands, such as eczema, psoriasis, and contact dermatitis, characterized by erythema, scaling, vesiculation, fissuring, or lichenification.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.

Characteristics of spontaneous erythema appeared in hairless rats. (1/527)

The hairless rat (WBN/Kob-Ht), a dominant mutant rat derived from the Wistar strain, rarely develops spontaneous erythema of a progressive nature on its skin. Erythema was first observed at 8 weeks of age and the incidence at 20 weeks of age was about 4% in both males and females. Histopathologically, erythema was characterised by dermatitis induced by an immunological reaction. Areas of erythema in the skin were decreased by treatment with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or ciclosporin (25 or 50 mg/kg). These results suggested that erythema on the hairless rat could be used as an animal model of spontaneous dermatitis.  (+info)

Correction of bone marrow failure in dyskeratosis congenita by bone marrow transplantation. (2/527)

Dyskeratosis congenita is recognized by its dermal lesions and constitutional aplastic anemia in some cases. We report successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in two siblings with this disease from their sister, and their long term follow-up. We used reduced doses of cyclophosphamide and busulfan for conditioning instead of total body irradiation. Also, we report late adverse effects of transplantation which are not distinguishable from the natural course of disease.  (+info)

The UV waveband dependencies in mice differ for the suppression of contact hypersensitivity, delayed-type hypersensitivity and cis-urocanic acid formation. (3/527)

Solar radiation contains ultraviolet B (280-315 nm) and ultraviolet A (ultraviolet AII, 315-340 nm; ultraviolet AI, 340-400 nm) wavebands. Ultraviolet B is known to suppress certain aspects of cell mediated immunity. Using three ultraviolet lamps (the broad-band ultraviolet B TL-12, the narrow-band ultraviolet B TL-01 and an ultraviolet AI source), we investigated the dose and waveband dependencies for the suppression of contact hypersensitivity to oxazolone and delayed-type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus, plus the formation of cis-urocanic acid in C3H/HeN mice. A single exposure of 1500 J/m2 TL-12 or 10,000 J/m2 TL-01 or 500,000 J/m2 ultraviolet AI corresponded to 1 minimum erythema dose in this mouse strain. The percentage of cis-urocanic acid of the total urocanic acid rose from a background level of 1.7% to 40% with 1000 J/m2 TL-12 or 10,000 J/m2 TL-01, but only 17% cis-urocanic acid was obtained with 500,000 J/m2 ultraviolet AI. The contact hypersensitivity response was significantly suppressed after a minimum dose of 5000 J/m2 TL-12 or 50,000 J/m2 TL-01 or 500,000 J/m2 ultraviolet AI. The delayed-type hypersensitivity response was suppressed by a minimum dose of 100 J/m2 TL-12 or 10,000 J/m2 TL-01 or 1000 J/m2 ultraviolet AI. So, whereas a low dose of ultraviolet AI reduced the delayed-type hypersensitivity response, a 500-fold higher dose was required to suppress contact hypersensitivity. There was no correlation between the suppression of these responses and the concentration of cis-urocanic acid in the skin. Thus different mediators may modulate the various immune responses affected by ultraviolet exposure, depending on the wavelength of the radiation.  (+info)

Comparison of in vitro and in vivo human skin responses to consumer products and ingredients with a range of irritancy potential. (4/527)

Human skin equivalent cultures were investigated as possible pre-clinical skin irritation screens to aid safety assessments for chemicals and product formulations, and to facilitate design of safe and efficient human studies. In vitro responses in human skin equivalent cultures were compared directly to in vivo human skin responses from historic or concurrent skin tests for representative chemicals and products, including surfactants, cosmetics, antiperspirants, and deodorants. The in vivo data consisted of visual scores (i.e., erythema and edema) from skin-patch tests and diary accounts of skin irritation from product-use studies. In the in vitro studies, cornified, air-interfaced human skin cultures (EpiDerm) were evaluated using methods designed to parallel human clinical protocols with topical dosing of neat or diluted test substances to the stratum corneum surface of the skin cultures. The in vitro endpoints have previously been shown to be relevant to human skin irritation in vivo, including the MTT metabolism assay of cell viability, enzyme release (lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase), and inflammatory cytokine expression (Interleukin-1alpha). For surfactants, dose-response curves of MTT cell-viability data clearly distinguished strongly-irritating from milder surfactants and rank-ordered irritancy potential in a manner similar to repeat-application (3x), patch-test results. For the antiperspirant and deodorant products, all the in vitro endpoints correlated well with consumer-reported irritation (r, 0.75-0.94), with Interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) release, showing the greatest capacity to distinguish irritancy over a broad range. IL-1alpha release also showed the best prediction of human skin scores from 14-day cumulative irritancy tests of cosmetic products. These results confirm the potential value of cornified human skin cultures as in vitro pre-clinical screens for prediction of human skin irritation responses. A preliminary report of these results has been published.  (+info)

Low-dose UVA and UVB have different time courses for suppression of contact hypersensitivity to a recall antigen in humans. (5/527)

This study investigates the relative effects of low-dose solar-simulated ultraviolet, ultraviolet A, and ultraviolet B radiation on the elicitation of contact hypersensitivity to nickel in nickel-allergic volunteers. A xenon arc lamp with changeable filters was used to irradiate groups of volunteers daily, on separate areas of their lower backs, with both solar-simulated ultraviolet (ultraviolet B, ultraviolet AII + ultraviolet AI) and ultraviolet A (same ultraviolet AII content but twice the ultraviolet AI as the solar-simulated ultraviolet spectrum) for 1 and 2 d; 3, 4, and 5 d; and from 1 to 4 wk. A fourth group was irradiated for 1-5 d with the ultraviolet B component of solar-simulated ultraviolet. Following the final irradiation in each group, nickel-containing patches were applied to both ultraviolet-treated sites and adjacent, unirradiated control sites. Erythema caused by nickel contact hypersensitivity at each site was quantitated 72 h later with a reflectance erythema meter. By comparing the nickel reactions of irradiated and unirradiated skin, ultraviolet immunosuppression was assessed with the different spectra and durations of ultraviolet exposure. We found significant immunosuppression with daily doses of ultraviolet B and ultraviolet A equivalent to approximately 6 min of summer sun exposure, and that ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B exerted their maximal immunosuppressive effects at different times. Solar-simulated ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression was significant after one exposure, near-maximal after two exposures and remained elevated thereafter. Ultraviolet B-induced immunosuppression was lower than that induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet, but followed a similar time-course. In contrast, ultraviolet A-induced immunosuppression was transient, peaking after three exposures. Immune responses returned towards normal with subsequent ultraviolet A exposure, suggesting that an adaptive mechanism may prevent immunosuppression by continued ultraviolet A irradiation.  (+info)

Interferon-gamma is involved in photoimmunoprotection by UVA (320-400 nm) radiation in mice. (6/527)

Ultraviolet B radiation not only inflicts tumor-initiating DNA damage, but also impairs T cell-mediated immunity relevant to survival of the initiated cells. We have reported, however, that ultraviolet A radiation, in contrast, is immunologically innocuous in hairless mice and opossums, but renders the animals resistant to the immunosuppression by ultraviolet B, or its mediator cis-urocanic acid. Ultraviolet B irradiation of skin causes abundant release of numerous cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha); notably interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma do not appear to be upregulated. A recent report has indicated that interleukin-12 protects from photoimmunosuppression in mice, but it remains unclear whether interleukin-12 acts directly or via interferon-gamma, which it is known to stimulate. Here we investigate the possible role of interferon-gamma in UVA photoimmunoprotection, using interferon-gamma gene knockout mice in comparison with control C57/BL6 mice, and the systemic contact hypersensitivity reaction (induced by sensitization through a nonirradiated skin site) to measure immunity. interferon-gamma-/- mice raised normal contact hypersensitivity responses, and were unaffected, as were C57BL control mice, by ultraviolet A exposure. In response to ultraviolet B irradiation or topical cis-urocanic acid treatment, control mice became immunosuppressed by 69% and 27%, respectively, and interferon-gamma-/- mice by 79% and 27%. When ultraviolet B exposure or cis-urocanic acid was followed by ultraviolet A irradiation, however, contact hypersensitivity was totally restored in control mice, but remained suppressed by 55% and 25%, respectively, in interferon-gamma-/- mice. Injection of recombinant interferon-gamma in the interferon-gamma-/- mice restored the ultraviolet A protective effect against cis-urocanic acid-induced immunosuppression. These observations suggest that interferon-gamma plays a part in ultraviolet A immunoprotection from the suppressive effect of ultraviolet B radiation and, and that the mechanism appears to be via antagonism by this cytokine of the cis-urocanic acid immunosuppressive action.  (+info)

Acute systemic reaction and lung alterations induced by an antiplatelet integrin gpIIb/IIIa antibody in mice. (7/527)

Shock is frequently accompanied by thrombocytopenia. To investigate the pathogenic role of platelets in shock, we examined the in vivo effects of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against mouse platelet membrane proteins. Injection of the platelet-specific MoAb MWReg30 to the fibrinogen receptor (gpIIb/IIIa) rendered mice severely hypothermic within minutes. Isotype-matched control antibodies, even if they also recognized platelet surface antigens, did not induce comparable signs. MWReg30 induced early signs of acute lung injury with increased cellularity in the lung interstitium and rapid engorgement of alveolar septal vessels. Despite this in vivo activity, MWReg30 inhibited rather than stimulated platelet aggregation in vitro. MWReg30-binding to platelets led to phosphorylation of gpIIIa, but did not induce morphological signs of platelet activation. The MWReg30-induced reaction was abolished after treatment with MoAbs 2.4G2 to FcgammaRII/III and was absent in FcgammaRIII-deficient mice, clearly demonstrating the requirement for FcgammaRIII on involved leukocytes. Simultaneous administration of tumor necrosis factor exacerbated, whereas a tolerizing regimen of tumor necrosis factor or bacterial lipopolysaccharide completely prevented the reaction. These data suggest that platelet surface-deposited MWReg30-immune complexes lead to an acute Fc-mediated reaction with pulmonary congestion and life-threatening potential that could serve as an in vivo model of acute lung injury.  (+info)

Comparison study of combined DTPw-HB vaccines and separate administration of DTPw and HB vaccines in Thai children. (8/527)

The safety, immunogenicity and tolerability of two different DTPw-HBV combination vaccines, containing 5 and 10 microg of HBsAg; were investigated in comparison with separate administration of DTPw and HBV (10 microg of HBsAg). A three dose primary vaccination course at 2, 4 and 6 months of age was followed by a booster dose at 18 months. All vaccines were safe and well tolerated. The DTPw-HBV combination vaccine containing 10 microg of HBsAg elicited significantly higher anti-HBs titres than the other two vaccines after the primary and booster vaccination course. All vaccines elicited a high response against the other components. Based on these results, DTPw-HBV (10 microg HBsAg) was the most effective vaccine at this schedule.  (+info)

Erythema is a term used in medicine to describe redness of the skin, which occurs as a result of increased blood flow in the superficial capillaries. This redness can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, infection, trauma, or exposure to heat, cold, or ultraviolet radiation. In some cases, erythema may also be accompanied by other symptoms such as swelling, warmth, pain, or itching. It is a common finding in many medical conditions and can vary in severity from mild to severe.

Erythema nodosum is a type of inflammation that occurs in the fatty layer of the skin, causing painful, red or purple bumps (nodules) to form. It is a type of panniculitis, which refers to any condition that causes inflammation of the fatty layer of tissue beneath the skin.

Erythema nodosum is often associated with a variety of underlying conditions, such as infections (e.g., streptococcus, tuberculosis), medications (e.g., sulfa drugs, oral contraceptives), inflammatory bowel disease (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), and pregnancy.

The bumps associated with erythema nodosum typically appear on the shins, ankles, knees, or other areas of the legs, although they can also occur on the arms, hands, or face. The bumps may be tender to the touch, warm, and swollen, and they may cause pain or discomfort when walking or standing for prolonged periods.

In most cases, erythema nodosum resolves on its own within a few weeks to several months, although symptoms can be managed with medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids. Treating the underlying condition is also important for resolving erythema nodosum and preventing recurrences.

Benign migratory glossitis, also known as geographic tongue, is a medical condition characterized by the presence of denuded, irregularly shaped smooth patches on the dorsum of the tongue. These patches are usually red and often have a white or yellow border. The condition is called "benign migratory" because it is not harmful or cancerous, and the lesions can change in size, shape, and location over time.

The exact cause of benign migratory glossitis is unknown, but it has been associated with several factors such as stress, nutritional deficiencies (particularly vitamin B deficiency), allergies, and family history. The condition can be asymptomatic or may cause symptoms such as burning sensation, pain, or altered taste.

Treatment of benign migratory glossitis is usually not necessary unless the patient experiences discomfort or other symptoms. In such cases, topical anesthetics, antihistamines, or corticosteroids may be prescribed to alleviate the symptoms. However, if the underlying cause can be identified and addressed (such as nutritional deficiencies), the condition may improve on its own.

Lyme disease is not a "medical definition" itself, but it is a medical condition named after the town of Lyme, Connecticut, where it was first identified in 1975. Medical definitions for this disease are provided by authoritative bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to the CDC, Lyme disease is a "infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks."

The WHO defines Lyme borreliosis (LB), also known as Lyme disease, as "an infectious disease caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Ixodes spp. ticks."

Both definitions highlight that Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by tick bites, specifically from black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast) or deer ticks (Ixodes ricinus in Europe). The primary cause of the disease is the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.

Lepromatous leprosy is a type of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. In this form of the disease, there is a widespread and diffuse involvement of the skin, mucous membranes, and peripheral nerves. The bacteria multiply slowly and spread to the skin, upper respiratory tract, and peripheral nerves.

In lepromatous leprosy, the immune response is weak, allowing for extensive bacterial multiplication and widespread tissue damage. The skin lesions are typically numerous, pale, and have a smooth surface. Nerve involvement can lead to loss of sensation, muscle weakness, and deformities, particularly in the hands and feet.

Lepromatous leprosy is a more severe form of the disease compared to tuberculoid leprosy, which has a stronger immune response and localized skin lesions. Both forms of the disease are treatable with multidrug therapy (MDT), recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for all leprosy patients. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent disability and reduce transmission.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Rosacea is a chronic skin condition primarily characterized by persistent redness, inflammation, and visible blood vessels on the face, particularly the nose, cheeks, forehead, and chin. It can also cause small, red, pus-filled bumps. Rosacea typically affects adults between 30 and 50 years old, with fair skin types being more susceptible. The exact cause of rosacea is unknown, but it's believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including abnormal facial blood vessels, immune system issues, and certain triggers (such as sun exposure, emotional stress, hot or cold weather, heavy exercise, alcohol consumption, spicy foods, and certain skin care products). There is no cure for rosacea, but various treatments can help control its symptoms and improve the appearance of the skin. These may include topical medications, oral antibiotics, laser therapy, and lifestyle modifications to avoid triggers.

Acrodermatitis is a term that describes several inflammatory skin conditions characterized by redness, swelling, and blistering that typically affect the hands, feet, and face. The medical definition of acrodermatitis includes various subtypes, each with its own specific causes and symptoms. Here are some of the most common forms of acrodermatitis:

1. Acrodermatitis enteropathica: A rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency in zinc absorption. Symptoms include redness, swelling, blistering, and crusting around the mouth, eyes, and genitals, as well as the hands and feet.
2. Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau: A rare chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects the fingertips and toes. Symptoms include redness, swelling, blistering, and crusting, which can lead to nail deformities and loss.
3. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (acrodermatitis papulosa): A viral exanthem that typically affects children between 6 months and 15 years of age. Symptoms include red, raised bumps on the face, buttocks, and extremities, which can be itchy and painful.
4. Pustular acrodermatitis: A rare skin condition characterized by pustules (pus-filled bumps) that form on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Symptoms may also include fever, chills, and fatigue.
5. Infantile acrodermatitis: A rare inflammatory skin disorder that affects infants and young children. Symptoms include redness, swelling, and blistering around the mouth, eyes, and genitals, as well as the hands and feet.

Treatment for acrodermatitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, topical creams or ointments may be sufficient to manage symptoms, while in others, systemic treatments such as antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs may be necessary.

Facial dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the face. These can include a wide range of disorders, such as:

1. Acne vulgaris: A common skin condition characterized by the formation of comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. It primarily affects the face, neck, chest, and back.
2. Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and visible blood vessels on the face, along with bumps or pimples and sometimes eye irritation.
3. Seborrheic dermatitis: A common inflammatory skin disorder that causes a red, itchy, and flaky rash, often on the scalp, face, and eyebrows. It can also affect other oily areas of the body, like the sides of the nose and behind the ears.
4. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): A chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes red, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin. While it can occur anywhere on the body, it frequently affects the face, especially in infants and young children.
5. Psoriasis: An autoimmune disorder that results in thick, scaly, silvery, or red patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the face.
6. Contact dermatitis: A skin reaction caused by direct contact with an allergen or irritant, resulting in redness, itching, and inflammation. The face can be affected when allergens or irritants come into contact with the skin through cosmetics, skincare products, or other substances.
7. Lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disorder that can cause a butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and nose, along with other symptoms like joint pain, fatigue, and photosensitivity.
8. Perioral dermatitis: A inflammatory skin condition that causes redness, small bumps, and dryness around the mouth, often mistaken for acne. It can also affect the skin around the nose and eyes.
9. Vitiligo: An autoimmune disorder that results in the loss of pigmentation in patches of skin, which can occur on the face and other parts of the body.
10. Tinea faciei: A fungal infection that affects the facial skin, causing red, scaly, or itchy patches. It is also known as ringworm of the face.

These are just a few examples of skin conditions that can affect the face. If you experience any unusual symptoms or changes in your skin, it's essential to consult a dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Hyperpigmentation is a medical term that refers to the darkening of skin areas due to an increase in melanin, the pigment that provides color to our skin. This condition can affect people of all races and ethnicities, but it's more noticeable in those with lighter skin tones.

Hyperpigmentation can be caused by various factors, including excessive sun exposure, hormonal changes (such as during pregnancy), inflammation, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions like Addison's disease or hemochromatosis. It can also result from skin injuries, such as cuts, burns, or acne, which leave dark spots known as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

There are several types of hyperpigmentation, including:

1. Melasma: This is a common form of hyperpigmentation that typically appears as symmetrical, blotchy patches on the face, particularly the forehead, cheeks, and upper lip. It's often triggered by hormonal changes, such as those experienced during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills.
2. Solar lentigos (age spots or liver spots): These are small, darkened areas of skin that appear due to prolonged sun exposure over time. They typically occur on the face, hands, arms, and decolletage.
3. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: This type of hyperpigmentation occurs when an injury or inflammation heals, leaving behind a darkened area of skin. It's more common in people with darker skin tones.

Treatment for hyperpigmentation depends on the underlying cause and may include topical creams, chemical peels, laser therapy, or microdermabrasion. Preventing further sun damage is crucial to managing hyperpigmentation, so wearing sunscreen with a high SPF and protective clothing is recommended.

The Borrelia burgdorferi group, also known as the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex, refers to a genetically related group of spirochetal bacteria that cause Lyme disease and other related diseases worldwide. The group includes several species, with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), B. afzelii, and B. garinii being the most common and best studied. These bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the United States and Ixodes pacificus on the West Coast; Ixodes ricinus in Europe).

Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder that can affect the skin, joints, nervous system, and heart. Early symptoms typically include a characteristic expanding rash called erythema migrans, fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle and joint pain. If left untreated, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe complications, such as arthritis, neurological problems, and carditis.

Diagnosis of Lyme disease is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, exposure history, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline, amoxicillin, or ceftriaxone, and is generally most effective when initiated early in the course of the illness. Preventive measures, such as using insect repellent, checking for ticks after being outdoors, and promptly removing attached ticks, can help reduce the risk of Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections.

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

"Bites and stings" is a general term used to describe injuries resulting from the teeth or venomous secretions of animals. These can include:

1. Insect bites: The bite marks are usually small, punctate, and may be accompanied by symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, and pain. Examples include mosquito, flea, bedbug, and tick bites.

2. Spider bites: Some spiders possess venomous fangs that can cause localized pain, redness, and swelling. In severe cases, systemic symptoms like muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing may occur. The black widow and brown recluse spiders are notorious for their venomous bites.

3. Snake bites: Venomous snakes deliver toxic saliva through their fangs, which can lead to local tissue damage, swelling, pain, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as paralysis, bleeding disorders, and respiratory failure.

4. Mammal bites: Animal bites from mammals like dogs, cats, and wild animals can cause puncture wounds, lacerations, and crush injuries. They may also transmit infectious diseases, such as rabies.

5. Marine animal stings: Stings from jellyfish, sea urchins, stingrays, and other marine creatures can result in localized pain, redness, swelling, and systemic symptoms like difficulty breathing, muscle cramps, and altered heart rhythms. Some marine animals' venoms can cause severe allergic reactions or even death.

Treatment for bites and stings varies depending on the type and severity of the injury. It may include wound care, pain management, antibiotics to prevent infection, and in some cases, antivenom therapy to counteract the effects of venom. Seeking immediate medical attention is crucial in severe cases or when systemic symptoms are present.

A glucagonoma is a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor that originates from the alpha cells of the pancreas, where the hormone glucagon is produced. This tumor can lead to an overproduction of glucagon, resulting in a characteristic syndrome known as the "glucagonoma syndrome."

The symptoms of glucagonoma syndrome may include:

1. A distinctive rash called necrolytic migratory erythema, which is characterized by red, swollen, and painful skin lesions that can affect various parts of the body.
2. Weight loss
3. Diabetes or high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)
4. Anemia
5. Deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the deep veins)
6. Depression and confusion
7. A decreased appetite
8. Fatigue and weakness
9. Diarrhea or steatorrhea (fatty stools)
10. High levels of amino acids, fatty acids, and zinc in the blood.

Glucagonomas are typically slow-growing tumors, but they can metastasize (spread) to other organs such as the liver, lymph nodes, and bones. Treatment options for glucagonoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the tumor's progression and manage any associated symptoms.

Necrolytic Migratory Erythema (NME) is a rare cutaneous manifestation characterized by sharply defined, irregular geographic erythematous plaques with vesicles, bullae, and crusting. The lesions often start as inflammatory erythematous patches or blisters that can appear anywhere on the body but are more commonly found on the lower legs, perineum, buttocks, hands, and feet. These lesions may have a raised border, central clearing, and can be pruritic or painful. The condition is often associated with glucagonoma, a rare neuroendocrine tumor that produces excessive amounts of glucagon, leading to metabolic derangements such as diabetes mellitus, anemia, and hypoaminoacidemia.

The exact pathogenesis of NME is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the effects of high levels of glucagon on the skin's metabolism, leading to nutrient deficiencies and inflammation. Treatment typically involves surgical resection or medical management of the underlying tumor, as well as supportive care for the cutaneous manifestations, such as topical steroids, antihistamines, and wound care.

A "drug eruption" is a general term used to describe an adverse skin reaction that occurs as a result of taking a medication. These reactions can vary in severity and appearance, and may include symptoms such as rash, hives, itching, redness, blistering, or peeling of the skin. In some cases, drug eruptions can also cause systemic symptoms such as fever, fatigue, or joint pain.

The exact mechanism by which drugs cause eruptions is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve an abnormal immune response to the medication. There are many different types of drug eruptions, including morphilliform rashes, urticaria (hives), fixed drug eruptions, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), which is a severe and potentially life-threatening reaction.

If you suspect that you are experiencing a drug eruption, it is important to seek medical attention promptly. Your healthcare provider can help determine the cause of the reaction and recommend appropriate treatment. In some cases, it may be necessary to discontinue the medication causing the reaction and switch to an alternative therapy.

'Borrelia burgdorferi' is a species of spirochete bacteria that is the primary cause of Lyme disease in humans. The bacteria are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis in the northeastern, midwestern, and eastern parts of the United States; Ixodes pacificus on the Pacific Coast).

The bacterium was first identified and named after Willy Burgdorfer, who discovered the spirochete in the mid-1980s. The infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, the infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system, leading to more severe complications.

Antibiotic treatment is usually effective in eliminating the bacteria and resolving symptoms, especially when initiated early in the course of the disease. However, some individuals may experience persistent symptoms even after treatment, a condition known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). The exact cause of PTLDS remains unclear, with ongoing research investigating potential factors such as residual bacterial infection, autoimmune responses, or tissue damage.

Photosensitivity disorders refer to conditions that cause an abnormal reaction to sunlight or artificial light. This reaction can take the form of various skin changes, such as rashes, inflammation, or pigmentation, and in some cases, it can also lead to systemic symptoms like fatigue, fever, or joint pain.

The two main types of photosensitivity disorders are:

1. Phototoxic reactions: These occur when a substance (such as certain medications, chemicals, or plants) absorbs light energy and transfers it to skin cells, causing damage and inflammation. The reaction typically appears within 24 hours of exposure to the light source and can resemble a sunburn.

2. Photoallergic reactions: These occur when the immune system responds to the combination of light and a particular substance, leading to an allergic response. The reaction may not appear until several days after initial exposure and can cause redness, itching, and blistering.

It is important for individuals with photosensitivity disorders to avoid excessive sun exposure, wear protective clothing, and use broad-spectrum sunscreens with a high SPF rating to minimize the risk of phototoxic or photoallergic reactions.

Dermatologic agents are medications, chemicals, or other substances that are applied to the skin (dermis) for therapeutic or cosmetic purposes. They can be used to treat various skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, fungal infections, and wounds. Dermatologic agents include topical corticosteroids, antibiotics, antifungals, retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and many others. They can come in various forms such as creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, and patches. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully to ensure safety and effectiveness.

A blister is a small fluid-filled bubble that forms on the skin due to friction, burns, or contact with certain chemicals or irritants. Blisters are typically filled with a clear fluid called serum, which is a component of blood. They can also be filled with blood (known as blood blisters) if the blister is caused by a more severe injury.

Blisters act as a natural protective barrier for the underlying skin and tissues, preventing infection and promoting healing. It's generally recommended to leave blisters intact and avoid breaking them, as doing so can increase the risk of infection and delay healing. If a blister is particularly large or painful, medical attention may be necessary to prevent complications.

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a specific neurological manifestation of Lyme borreliosis, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is characterized by inflammation of the nervous system, particularly the peripheral and central nervous systems.

Involvement of the peripheral nervous system can present as radiculoneuropathy or cranial neuritis, leading to symptoms such as radiating pain, paresthesia, muscle weakness, and/or sensory loss in the affected areas. Involvement of the central nervous system may result in meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), or myelitis (inflammation of the spinal cord). These manifestations can cause symptoms such as headache, stiff neck, cognitive impairment, memory loss, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and, in rare cases, seizures.

LNB is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory tests (such as serological analysis or CSF examination), and sometimes supported by imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy, which can be administered either orally or intravenously, depending on the severity and extent of the infection. Early diagnosis and treatment significantly improve the prognosis for LNB patients.

A patch test is a method used in clinical dermatology to identify whether a specific substance causes allergic inflammation of the skin (contact dermatitis). It involves applying small amounts of potential allergens to patches, which are then placed on the skin and left for a set period of time, usually 48 hours. The skin is then examined for signs of an allergic reaction such as redness, swelling or blistering. This helps in identifying the specific substances that an individual may be allergic to, enabling appropriate avoidance measures and treatment.

Foot dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the feet. These can include inflammatory conditions like eczema and psoriasis, infectious diseases such as athlete's foot (tinea pedis), fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections (like plantar warts caused by HPV), and autoimmune blistering disorders. Additionally, contact dermatitis from irritants or allergens can also affect the feet. Proper diagnosis is essential to determine the best course of treatment for each specific condition.

Leg dermatoses is a general term that refers to various skin conditions affecting the legs. This can include a wide range of inflammatory, infectious, or degenerative diseases that cause symptoms such as redness, itching, scaling, blistering, or pigmentation changes on the leg skin. Examples of specific leg dermatoses include stasis dermatitis, venous eczema, contact dermatitis, lichen planus, psoriasis, and cellulitis among others. Accurate diagnosis usually requires a thorough examination and sometimes a biopsy to determine the specific type of dermatosis and appropriate treatment.

Dermatitis is a general term that describes inflammation of the skin. It is often characterized by redness, swelling, itching, and tenderness. There are many different types of dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nummular dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin condition that often affects people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever. It typically causes dry, scaly patches on the skin that can be extremely itchy.

Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen, such as poison ivy or certain chemicals. This type of dermatitis can cause redness, swelling, and blistering.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common condition that causes a red, itchy rash, often on the scalp, face, or other areas of the body where oil glands are located. It is thought to be related to an overproduction of oil by the skin's sebaceous glands.

Nummular dermatitis is a type of eczema that causes round, coin-shaped patches of dry, scaly skin. It is more common in older adults and often occurs during the winter months.

Treatment for dermatitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or lotions may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. Prescription medications, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, may be necessary in more severe cases. Avoiding triggers and irritants can also help prevent flare-ups of dermatitis.

Radiodermatitis is a cutaneous adverse reaction that occurs as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. It is characterized by inflammation, erythema, dryness, and desquamation of the skin, which can progress to moist desquamation, ulceration, and necrosis in severe cases. Radiodermatitis typically affects areas of the skin that have received high doses of radiation therapy during cancer treatment. The severity and duration of radiodermatitis depend on factors such as the total dose, fraction size, dose rate, and volume of radiation administered, as well as individual patient characteristics.

Leprosstatic agents are substances or drugs that have a specific effect on the bacterium that causes leprosy, also known as Mycobacterium leprae. These agents are used in the treatment and prevention of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease that primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, and mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract.

The most common leprostatic agents are antibiotics, which target the bacterial cells and inhibit their growth or kill them. The two main antibiotics used to treat leprosy are dapsone and rifampicin, which are often given in combination with other drugs such as clofazimine to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of the bacteria.

Leprosstatic agents are usually administered orally or by injection, and the duration of treatment can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the patient's response to therapy. It is important to note that early detection and treatment of leprosy can help prevent the progression of the disease and reduce the risk of transmission to others.

Skin irritancy tests are experimental procedures used to determine the potential of a substance to cause irritation or damage to the skin. These tests typically involve applying the substance to intact or abraded (damaged) skin of human volunteers or animals, and then observing and measuring any adverse reactions that occur over a specified period. The results of these tests can help assess the safety of a substance for use in consumer products, pharmaceuticals, or industrial applications. It is important to note that the ethical considerations and regulations surrounding animal testing have led to an increased focus on developing alternative methods, such as in vitro (test tube) tests using reconstructed human skin models.

PUVA therapy is a type of treatment that uses both medication and light to treat certain skin conditions, such as psoriasis, eczema, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The name "PUVA" stands for Psoralen + UVA, which refers to the two main components of the therapy:

1. Psoralen: This is a medication that makes the skin more sensitive to light. It can be taken orally or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream or bath.
2. UVA: This stands for Ultraviolet A, which is a type of light that is part of the natural sunlight spectrum. In PUVA therapy, the skin is exposed to a controlled dose of UVA light in a special booth or room.

When psoralen is introduced into the body, it absorbs into the skin and makes it more sensitive to UVA light. When the skin is then exposed to UVA light, it triggers a chemical reaction that slows down the growth of affected skin cells. This helps to reduce inflammation, scaling, and other symptoms associated with the skin condition being treated.

It's important to note that PUVA therapy can have side effects, including sunburn, itching, redness, and an increased risk of skin cancer over time. As such, it is typically used as a second-line treatment when other therapies have not been effective, and it is closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure its safe and effective use.

Skin pigmentation is the coloration of the skin that is primarily determined by two types of melanin pigments, eumelanin and pheomelanin. These pigments are produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells located in the epidermis. Eumelanin is responsible for brown or black coloration, while pheomelanin produces a red or yellow hue.

The amount and distribution of melanin in the skin can vary depending on genetic factors, age, sun exposure, and various other influences. Increased production of melanin in response to UV radiation from the sun helps protect the skin from damage, leading to darkening or tanning of the skin. However, excessive sun exposure can also cause irregular pigmentation, such as sunspots or freckles.

Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can result from various medical conditions, including albinism (lack of melanin production), vitiligo (loss of melanocytes leading to white patches), and melasma (excessive pigmentation often caused by hormonal changes). These conditions may require medical treatment to manage or improve the pigmentation issues.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

An ointment is a semi-solid preparation, typically composed of a mixture of medicinal substance with a base, which is usually greasy or oily. The purpose of the base is to act as a vehicle for the active ingredient and allow it to be applied smoothly and evenly to the skin or mucous membranes.

Ointments are commonly used in dermatology to treat various skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, rashes, burns, and wounds. They can also be used to deliver medication for localized pain relief, muscle relaxation, and anti-inflammatory or antibiotic effects.

The base of an ointment may consist of various ingredients, including petrolatum, lanolin, mineral oil, beeswax, or a combination of these. The choice of the base depends on the desired properties such as consistency, spreadability, and stability, as well as the intended route of administration and the specific therapeutic goals.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Behçet syndrome is a rare inflammatory disease that can cause symptoms in various parts of the body. It's characterized by recurrent mouth sores (aphthous ulcers), genital sores, and inflammation of the eyes (uveitis). The condition may also cause skin lesions, joint pain and swelling, and inflammation of the digestive tract, brain, or spinal cord.

The exact cause of Behçet syndrome is not known, but it's thought to be an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy cells and tissues. The condition tends to affect men more often than women and typically develops during a person's 20s or 30s.

There is no cure for Behçet syndrome, but treatments can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics to reduce inflammation, as well as pain relievers and other supportive therapies.

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis, cutaneous is a type of vasculitis that is limited to the skin. Vasculitis refers to inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause damage to the vessel walls and impair blood flow to various tissues in the body. In leukocytoclastic vasculitis, the small blood vessels (capillaries and venules) in the skin become inflamed, leading to damage and destruction of the vessel walls.

The term "leukocytoclastic" refers to the presence of nuclear debris from white blood cells (leukocytes) that have been destroyed within the affected blood vessels. This type of vasculitis is often associated with the deposition of immune complexes (formed by the interaction between antibodies and antigens) in the walls of the blood vessels, which triggers an inflammatory response.

Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis typically presents as palpable purpura (small to large, raised, purple or red spots on the skin), usually located on the lower extremities, but can also affect other areas of the body. Other symptoms may include burning or itching sensations in the affected area, and in some cases, ulcers or necrosis (tissue death) may occur.

The diagnosis of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis is typically made based on clinical presentation, laboratory tests, and histopathological examination of a skin biopsy specimen. Treatment usually involves addressing any underlying causes or triggers, as well as managing symptoms with medications such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents.

Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare form of tuberculosis that affects the skin. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum. CTB can occur as a primary infection after direct inoculation of the skin with the bacteria, or it can be secondary to a distant focus of infection such as lung or lymph node TB.

The clinical presentation of CTB is varied and can include papules, nodules, pustules, ulcers, plaques, or scaly lesions. The lesions may be painless or painful, and they can be associated with systemic symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

CTB can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical examination, skin biopsy, culture, and PCR testing. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics, often for six to nine months or more. The most commonly used drugs are isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Surgical excision may be necessary in some cases.

Prevention measures include early detection and treatment of pulmonary TB, BCG vaccination, and avoiding contact with people with active TB.

Parvoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Parvoviridae family. These viruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The most well-known member of this family is the human parvovirus B19, which is responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations such as:

1. Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease): A common childhood exanthem characterized by a "slapped cheek" rash and a lace-like rash on the extremities.
2. Transient aplastic crisis: A sudden and temporary halt in red blood cell production, which can lead to severe anemia in individuals with underlying hematologic disorders.
3. Hydrops fetalis: Intrauterine death due to severe anemia caused by parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women, leading to heart failure and widespread fluid accumulation in the fetus.

Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded DNA genome. They primarily infect and replicate within actively dividing cells, making them particularly harmful to rapidly proliferating tissues such as bone marrow and fetal tissues. In addition to parvovirus B19, other Parvoviridae family members can cause significant diseases in animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock.

A medical definition of "ticks" would be:

Ticks are small, blood-sucking parasites that belong to the arachnid family, which also includes spiders. They have eight legs and can vary in size from as small as a pinhead to about the size of a marble when fully engorged with blood. Ticks attach themselves to the skin of their hosts (which can include humans, dogs, cats, and wild animals) by inserting their mouthparts into the host's flesh.

Ticks can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and babesiosis. It is important to remove ticks promptly and properly to reduce the risk of infection. To remove a tick, use fine-tipped tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin's surface as possible and pull upward with steady, even pressure. Do not twist or jerk the tick, as this can cause the mouthparts to break off and remain in the skin. After removing the tick, clean the area with soap and water and disinfect the tweezers.

Preventing tick bites is an important part of protecting against tick-borne diseases. This can be done by wearing protective clothing (such as long sleeves and pants), using insect repellent containing DEET or permethrin, avoiding wooded and brushy areas with high grass, and checking for ticks after being outdoors.

Irritant contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis) that results from exposure to an external substance that directly damages the skin. It can be caused by both chemical and physical agents, such as solvents, detergents, acids, alkalis, friction, and extreme temperatures. The reaction typically occurs within hours or days of exposure and can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, and pain. Unlike allergic contact dermatitis, which requires sensitization to a specific allergen, irritant contact dermatitis can occur after a single exposure to an irritant in sufficient concentration or after repeated exposures to lower concentrations of the substance.

Phototoxic dermatitis is a skin reaction that occurs when certain chemicals (known as photosensitizers) in a substance come into contact with the skin and then are exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light. This results in an exaggerated sunburn-like reaction, characterized by redness, swelling, itching, and sometimes blistering of the skin. The reaction usually occurs within a few hours to a couple of days after exposure to the offending agent and light. Common causes include certain medications, essential oils, fragrances, and plants like limes, celery, and parsley. Once the irritant is no longer in contact with the skin and sun exposure is avoided, the symptoms typically resolve within a week or two. Prevention includes avoiding the offending agent and protecting the skin from sunlight through the use of clothing, hats, and broad-spectrum sunscreens.

Phlebitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of a vein, usually occurring in the legs. The inflammation can be caused by blood clots (thrombophlebitis) or other conditions that cause irritation and swelling in the vein's lining. Symptoms may include redness, warmth, pain, and swelling in the affected area. In some cases, phlebitis may lead to serious complications such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), so it is essential to seek medical attention if you suspect you have this condition.

Ultraviolet (UV) therapy, also known as phototherapy, is a medical treatment that uses ultraviolet light to treat various skin conditions. The UV light can be delivered through natural sunlight or artificial sources, such as specialized lamps or lasers.

In medical settings, controlled doses of UV light are used to target specific areas of the skin. The most common type of UV therapy is narrowband UVB (NB-UVB) phototherapy, which uses a specific wavelength of UVB light to treat conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, vitiligo, and dermatitis.

The goal of UV therapy is to reduce inflammation, slow skin cell growth, and improve the overall appearance of the skin. It is important to note that while UV therapy can be effective in treating certain skin conditions, it also carries risks such as skin aging and an increased risk of skin cancer. Therefore, it should only be administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a rare, serious and potentially life-threatening skin reaction that usually occurs as a reaction to medication but can also be caused by an infection. SJS is characterized by the detachment of the epidermis (top layer of the skin) from the dermis (the layer underneath). It primarily affects the mucous membranes, such as those lining the eyes, mouth, throat, and genitals, causing painful raw areas that are prone to infection.

SJS is considered a severe form of erythema multiforme (EM), another skin condition, but it's much more serious and can be fatal. The symptoms of SJS include flu-like symptoms such as fever, sore throat, and fatigue, followed by a red or purplish rash that spreads and blisters, eventually leading to the detachment of the top layer of skin.

The exact cause of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is not always known, but it's often triggered by medications such as antibiotics, anti-convulsants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and antiretroviral drugs. Infections caused by herpes simplex virus or Mycoplasma pneumoniae can also trigger SJS.

Treatment for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome typically involves hospitalization, supportive care, wound care, and medication to manage pain and prevent infection. Discontinuing the offending medication is crucial in managing this condition. In severe cases, patients may require treatment in a burn unit or intensive care unit.

Hand dermatoses is a general term used to describe various inflammatory skin conditions that affect the hands. These conditions can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, blistering, scaling, and cracking of the skin on the hands. Common examples of hand dermatoses include:

1. Irritant contact dermatitis: A reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with irritants such as chemicals, soaps, or detergents.
2. Allergic contact dermatitis: A reaction that occurs when the skin comes into contact with allergens, such as nickel, rubber, or poison ivy.
3. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): A chronic skin condition characterized by dry, itchy, and inflamed skin.
4. Psoriasis: A chronic skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches that can occur anywhere on the body, including the hands.
5. Dyshidrotic eczema: A type of eczema that causes small blisters to form on the sides of the fingers, palms, and soles of the feet.
6. Lichen planus: An inflammatory skin condition that can cause purple or white patches to form on the hands and other parts of the body.
7. Scabies: A contagious skin condition caused by mites that burrow into the skin and lay eggs, causing intense itching and a rash.

Treatment for hand dermatoses depends on the specific diagnosis and may include topical creams or ointments, oral medications, phototherapy, or avoidance of triggers.

Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. It primarily affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The disease mainly spreads through droplets from the nose and mouth of infected people.

Leprosy is characterized by granulomatous inflammation, which leads to the formation of distinctive skin lesions and nerve damage. If left untreated, it can cause progressive and permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. However, with early diagnosis and multidrug therapy (MDT), the disease can be cured, and disability can be prevented or limited.

The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies leprosy into two types based on the number of skin lesions and bacteriological index: paucibacillary (one to five lesions) and multibacillary (more than five lesions). This classification helps determine the appropriate treatment regimen.

Although leprosy is curable, it remains a public health concern in many developing countries due to its stigmatizing nature and potential for social exclusion of affected individuals.

Edema is the medical term for swelling caused by excess fluid accumulation in the body tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but it's most commonly noticed in the hands, feet, ankles, and legs. Edema can be a symptom of various underlying medical conditions, such as heart failure, kidney disease, liver disease, or venous insufficiency.

The swelling occurs when the capillaries leak fluid into the surrounding tissues, causing them to become swollen and puffy. The excess fluid can also collect in the cavities of the body, leading to conditions such as pleural effusion (fluid around the lungs) or ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity).

The severity of edema can vary from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as skin discoloration, stiffness, and pain. Treatment for edema depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or medical procedures.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

Photoallergic dermatitis is a type of contact dermatitis that occurs as a result of an allergic reaction to a substance after it has been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. This means that when the substance (allergen) comes into contact with the skin and is then exposed to UV light, usually from the sun, an immune response is triggered, leading to an inflammatory reaction in the skin.

The symptoms of photoallergic dermatitis include redness, swelling, itching, and blistering or crusting of the skin. These symptoms typically appear within 24-72 hours after exposure to the allergen and UV light. The rash can occur anywhere on the body but is most commonly found in areas that have been exposed to the sun, such as the face, neck, arms, and hands.

Common allergens that can cause photoallergic dermatitis include certain medications, fragrances, sunscreens, and topical skin products. Once a person has become sensitized to a particular allergen, even small amounts of it can trigger a reaction when exposed to UV light.

Prevention measures for photoallergic dermatitis include avoiding known allergens, wearing protective clothing, and using broad-spectrum sunscreens that protect against both UVA and UVB rays. If a reaction does occur, topical corticosteroids or oral antihistamines may be prescribed to help relieve symptoms.

Sunscreening agents, also known as sunscreens or sunblocks, are substances that protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. They work by absorbing, reflecting, or scattering UV radiation, preventing it from reaching the skin and causing damage such as sunburn, premature aging, and skin cancer.

Sunscreening agents can be chemical or physical. Chemical sunscreens contain organic compounds that absorb UV radiation and convert it into heat, which is then released from the skin. Examples of chemical sunscreens include oxybenzone, avobenzone, octinoxate, and homosalate.

Physical sunscreens, on the other hand, contain inorganic compounds that reflect or scatter UV radiation away from the skin. The most common physical sunscreen agents are zinc oxide and titanium dioxide.

Sunscreening agents are usually formulated into creams, lotions, gels, sprays, or sticks and are applied to the skin before sun exposure. They should be reapplied every two hours or after swimming, sweating, or toweling off to ensure continued protection. It is recommended to use a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF (Sun Protection Factor) of at least 30, which blocks both UVA and UVB radiation.

... marginatum Erythema migrans Erythema multiforme (EM) Erythema nodosum Erythema toxicum Erythema elevatum diutinum ... Erythema ab igne Erythema chronicum migrans Erythema induratum Erythema infectiosum (or fifth disease) ... Erythema is a common side effect of radiotherapy treatment due to patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Erythema disappears ... Look up erythema in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erythemas. (Webarchive template ...
... major Erythema multiforme minor Toxic epidermal necrolysis Stevens-Johnson syndrome "Erythema multiforme: ... erythema multiforme minor and erythema multiforme major). Erythema multiforme was first described by von Hebra in 1860. The ... Consensus classification: Erythema multiforme minor-typical targets or raised, edematous papules distributed acrally Erythema ... "Erythema Multiforme". Pubmed Health. Retrieved 28 November 2012. "Erythema Multiforme". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. 7 ...
... is a skin condition characterized by redness of the skin following exposure to ultraviolet light, not to be ...
More recently, nitric oxide has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of palmar erythema. Palmar erythema has no specific ... Palmar erythema is reddening of the palms at the thenar and hypothenar eminences.: 139 It is associated with various ... Toxic erythema List of cutaneous conditions James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Basic pathology 8th edition p 646 Saario R, Kalliomaki JL (Dec 1985), "Palmar erythema in rheumatoid ...
... is a moth in the family Oecophoridae. It was described by Walsingham in 1912. It is found in Guyana, Brazil and ...
"Erythema marginatum rheumaticum" "Erythema marginatum perstans" The diagnosis of erythema marginatum can be made during ... Erythema marginatum (also known as chicken wire erythema) is an acquired skin condition which primarily affects the arms, trunk ... Erythema Marginatum Pictorial CME Burke, J. B. (1955-08-01). "Erythema Marginatum". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 30 (152 ... Hinzey, E (June 2023). Arredondo M (ed.). "Erythema Marginatum". Patient Education Reference Center (PERC). "erythema ...
Classical types include: Erythema annulare centrifugum Erythema marginatum rheumaticum Erythema chronicum migrans Erythema ... Figurate erythema is a form of erythema that presents in a ring or an arc shape. An example is erythema marginatum. ... Boehner, Alexander; Neuhauser, Ruth (28 May 2021). "Figurate erythemas - update and diagnostic approach". JDDG: Journal der ... Erythemas, All stub articles, Cutaneous condition stubs). ...
... or erythema chronicum migrans is an expanding rash often seen in the early stage of Lyme disease, and can also ... This erythema is also sometimes called erythema migrans or EM. The associated infectious agent has not been determined. ... are talking about erythema migrans. However, the appearance of erythema migrans can vary considerably: while some look like a ... The initial sign of about 80% of Lyme infections is an erythema migrans (EM) rash at the site of a tick bite, often near skin ...
... lesion in a person with light skin and tuberculosis A single lesion of erythema nodosum Several lesions of ... Less common variants of erythema nodosum include: Ulcerating forms, seen in Crohn's disease Erythema contusiforme, when a ... Gilchrist, Heidi; Patterson, James W. (2010). "Erythema nodosum and erythema induratum (nodular vasculitis): Diagnosis and ... Erythema nodosum migrans (also known as subacute nodular migratory panniculitis), a rare form of chronic erythema nodosum ...
... is a panniculitis on the calves. It occurs mainly in women, but it is very rare now. Historically, when it ... Media related to Erythema induratum at Wikimedia Commons PatientPlus v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ...
... is a skin condition that may be caused by medications, bacterial toxins, or viral infections.: 139 ... Necrolytic acral erythema List of cutaneous conditions James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases ...
Erythema causes redness of the skin, which is generally associated with inflammation and irritation. Including erythema and ... Keratolytic Winter erythema (also known as Oudtshoorn disease or Oudtshoorn skin) is a rare autosomal dominant skin disease of ... Erythema in KWE has been attributed to necrobiosis (cellular death) within the Malpighian layer (the innermost layer of the ... Yi, S. W.; Kim, E. H.; Kang, H. Y.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, E. -S. (Aug 2007). "Erythema Nodosum: Clinicopathologic Correlations and ...
... is a red, blistering rash that spreads across the skin. It particularly affects the skin around ... Pujol RM, Wang CY, el-Azhary RA, Su WP, Gibson LE, Schroeter AL (January 2004). "Necrolytic migratory erythema: ... Mignogna MD, Fortuna G, Satriano AR (December 2008). "Small-cell lung cancer and necrolytic migratory erythema". The New ... Compton, Nicholas L.; Chien, Andy J. (May 2013). "A Rare but Revealing Sign: Necrolytic Migratory Erythema". The American ...
... (also known as ashy dermatosis, and dermatosis cinecienta) is an uncommon skin condition with ... Because EDP is an uncommon disease of the skin, it is important to consider other skin diseases that may resemble erythema ...
... (LGE) is a periodontal disorder diagnosed based on distinct clinical characteristics. It was ...
... is an unusual reaction virtually always associated with antibiotic ingestions, characterized by ...
140 Erythema multiforme minor is sometimes divided into papular and vesiculobullous forms. Erythema Diascopy Erythema ... Erythema multiforme is usually a reaction of the skin and mucous membranes that occurs suddenly. It appears as a symmetrical ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Erythemas, All stub articles, Cutaneous condition ...
... is a form of rash with skin loss or epidermal detachment. The term "erythema multiforme majus" is ... However, a consensus classification separates erythema multiforme minor, erythema multiforme major, and SJS/TEN as three ... "Erythema Multiforme: eMedicine Emergency Medicine". 2019-02-02. Archived from the original on 2010-08-06. {{cite journal}}: ... and erythema multiforme". Arch Dermatol. 129 (1): 92-6. doi:10.1001/archderm.129.1.92. PMID 8420497.[permanent dead link] 5. ...
... is a medical condition characterized by uncontrollable and frequently unprovoked facial ... a patient is diagnosed with idiopathic craniofacial erythema. The female protagonist in the South Korean drama Heart to Heart ...
... erythema ab igne has been reported in both young and elderly individuals. Women have a higher incidence of erythema ab igne ... Erythema ab igne (Latin for 'redness from fire') EAI, also known as hot water bottle rash, is a skin condition caused by long- ... If the erythema ab igne lesions demonstrate pre-cancerous changes, the use of 5-fluorouracil cream has been recommended.[ ... DermNet vascular/erythema-ab-igne New England Journal of Medicine Image Challenge (Articles with short description, Short ...
... is not harmful and does not require any treatment. The exact prevalence of erythema toxicum ... Health professionals can diagnose erythema toxicum neonatorum with a skin exam. Most cases of erythema toxicum neonatorum can ... The name erythema toxicum neonatorum was first used by Dr. Karl Leiner in 1912 because he believed that the rash was caused by ... Erythema toxicum neonatorum usually appears during the first week of life, most often on day two. It may develop several days ...
Necrolytic migratory erythema and erythema migrans are some of many other skin conditions that may appear similar. Treatment ... Necrolytic migratory erythema, erythema migrans, tinea corporis, erythrokeratodermia variabilis, and subacute cutaneous lupus ... Erythema gyratum repens characteristically presents as wavy red lines on the skin. These regular whirly rings rapidly and ... Erythema gyratum repens is a skin condition that has a strong association with internal cancers. It characteristically presents ...
... is a cutaneous condition that is a manifestation of hepatitis C viral infection or zinc deficiency. ... ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Erythemas, Hepatitis C virus- ... "Orphanet: Zinc responsive necrolytic acral erythema". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 16 May 2019. Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L ... eruption bearing clinical and histologic similarity to other necrolytic erythemas such as necrolytic migratory erythema, ...
... erythema perstans, erythema gyratum perstans, erythema gyratum repens, darier erythema (deep gyrate erythema) and erythema ... Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC), is a descriptive term for a class of skin lesion presenting redness (erythema) in a ring ... Erythema annulare centrifugum". Can Fam Physician. 42: 2148, 2151. PMC 2146938. PMID 8939316. (Articles with short description ... Cancer (especially the type known as erythema gyratum perstans, in which there are concentric and whirling rings). Primary ...
... is a form of vasculitis.: 835 It has been described as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Cutaneous small- ... ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. Liu TC, Chen IS, Lin TK, Lee JY, Kirn D, Tsao CJ (June 2008). "Erythema elevatum diutinum as a ...
... is a skin condition reported in children roughly six months in age, characterized by transitory ...
However, acral erythema due to tyrosine kinase inhibitors seems to differ somewhat from acral erythema due to classic ... "Hand-foot syndrome , DermNet NZ". Apisarnthanarax N, Duvic MM (2003). "Acral Erythema". Acral Erythema -Holland-Frei Cancer ... toxic erythema of the palms and soles, palmar-plantar erythema, and Burgdorf's reaction. Common abbreviations are HFS and PPE. ... Acral erythema typically disappears within a few weeks after discontinuation of the offending drug. The symptoms can occur ...
... is a type of erythema (skin redness) and refers to: Erythema nodosum (EN) Erythema multiforme ( ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Erythemas, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
... is an unusual condition that presents 2-3 days after a throat infection as a fine ... diffuse macular erythema of the perineal region. Brill-Zinsser disease List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia ...
Clinically, EPP is characterized by erythema, edema, shallow scars, and waxy induration of the skin, particularly on the face. ... Pseudoporphyria is clinically characterized by increased skin fragility; erythema; and the appearance of tense bullae and ...
Erythema marginatum Erythema migrans Erythema multiforme (EM) Erythema nodosum Erythema toxicum Erythema elevatum diutinum ... Erythema ab igne Erythema chronicum migrans Erythema induratum Erythema infectiosum (or fifth disease) ... Erythema is a common side effect of radiotherapy treatment due to patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Erythema disappears ... Look up erythema in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erythemas. (Webarchive template ...
Erythema nodosum is an inflammatory disorder. It involves tender, red bumps (nodules) under the skin. ... Erythema nodosum is an inflammatory disorder. It involves tender, red bumps (nodules) under the skin. ... Erythema nodosum is most common on the front of the shins. It may also occur on other areas of the body such as buttocks, ... Erythema nodosum is uncomfortable, but not dangerous in most cases.. Symptoms most often go away within about 6 weeks, but may ...
Erythema multiforme may be present within a wide spectrum of severity. ... Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition that is considered to be a type IV ... Most cases of erythema multiforme (EM) are self-limited. In erythema multiforme minor, the lesions evolve over 1-2 weeks and ... Erythema multiforme may be present within a wide spectrum of severity. Erythema multiforme minor represents a localized ...
Help support Wordnik (and make this page ad-free) by adopting the word erythema toxicum. ...
Erythema multiforme may be present within a wide spectrum of severity. ... Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition that is considered to be a type IV ... Most cases of erythema multiforme (EM) are self-limited. In erythema multiforme minor, the lesions evolve over 1-2 weeks and ... Erythema multiforme may be present within a wide spectrum of severity. Erythema multiforme minor represents a localized ...
Erythema elevatum diutinum is a rare disease that should be considered in patients with violaceous nodular plaques located over ... Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of erythema elevatum diutinum and treatment with dapsone produced ... Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a rare cutaneous neutrophilic vasculitis with many associated diseases reported in the ... Erythema elevatum diutinum is a rare disease that should be considered in patients with violaceous nodular plaques located over ...
Erythema multiforme on the hands. Erythema multiforme on the hands: These lesions are circular and may appear in concentric ... Erythema multiforme on the leg. The red spots on this persons back appear where blisters (bullae) caused by Erythema ... Erythema multiforme, target lesions on the palm. Erythema multiforme lesions are often referred to as target lesions because of ... Erythema multiforme on the hand. This individual has erythema multiforme minor, with "target" lesions on his hands. His ...
Image Gallery: Seronegative necrolytic acral erythema.. Y Xiaoling, J Hongzhong, Q Tao. British Journal of Dermatology 2018 ...
... Er`y*the"ma, n. [NL., fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? to redden, fr. eryqro`s red.] (Med.) A disease of the skin, in which ... Erythema - Not to be confused with Arrythmia. Erythema Classification and external resources Characteristic bull s eye rash ( ... Erythema nodosum - Classification and external resources Erythema nodosum in a person who had recently had streptococcal ... Erythema - Erythem bei einer Lyme Borreliose Erythem (Erythema, von altgriechisch ἐρύθημα (erýthema) „Röte", „Entzündung"[1]) ...
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Erythema Infectiosum (Parvovirus B19 Infection) - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the ... Erythema Infectiosum (Arm). This image shows a maculopapular rash resulting from erythema infectiosum. ... Erythema Infectiosum (Parvovirus B19 Infection) (Fifth Disease; Slapped-Cheek Disease). By Brenda L. Tesini , MD, University of ... Pathophysiology of Erythema Infectiosum Parvovirus B19 is a single-stranded DNA virus that causes transient suppression of ...
Erythema nodosum is presumed to be a hypersensitivity reaction. It is often a dermatological manifestation of infectious, or ... Erythema nodosum symptoms2 3 The eruptive phase of erythema nodosum begins with fever, aching and arthralgia, accompanied by a ... Erythema Nodosum. ; Primary Care Dermatology Society. *Whig J, Mahajan V, Kashyap A, et al. ; Erythema nodosum: Atypical ... Erythema Nodosum. *Schwartz RA, Nervi SJ. ; Erythema nodosum: a sign of systemic disease. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Mar 1;75(5): ...
Your search - erythema multiforme - did not match any resources. Skip to content ... Performing a fuzzy search may retrieve terms with similar spellings: erythema multiforme~. ...
Erythema multiforme may be present within a wide spectrum of severity. ... Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition that is considered to be a type IV ... encoded search term (Erythema Multiforme) and Erythema Multiforme What to Read Next on Medscape ... Persistent erythema multiforme: a report of three cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001 Jan. 15(1):54-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ...
This was followed by progressive severe fatigue that required hospital admission, where he was diagnosed with erythema nodosum ... Two months after discontinuing the estrogen patches the erythema nodosum, and associated symptoms, had fully resolved, and to ... Rheumatologists and dermatologists should add estrogen therapy to their differential diagnosis of men presenting with erythema ... we describe what we believe to be the first report in the literature of erythema nodosum as a result of estrogen therapy in a ...
... erythema infectiosum) answers are found in the Diagnosaurus powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... Parvovirus Infection (erythema Infectiosum) [Internet]. In: Diagnosaurus. McGraw-Hill Education; 2014. [cited 2024 April 12]. ... Zeiger, Roni F.. "Parvovirus Infection (erythema Infectiosum)." Diagnosaurus, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. Medicine ... TY - ELEC T1 - Parvovirus infection (erythema infectiosum) ID - 115034 A1 - Zeiger,Roni F, Y1 - 2014/12/01/ BT - Diagnosaurus ...
Erythema multiforme may be present within a wide spectrum of severity. ... Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition that is considered to be a type IV ... encoded search term (Erythema Multiforme) and Erythema Multiforme What to Read Next on Medscape ... Persistent erythema multiforme: a report of three cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2001 Jan. 15(1):54-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link ...
RUI, Graciele et al. Unusual case of erythema multiforme. RFO UPF [online]. 2016, vol.21, n.1, pp. 96-101. ISSN 1413-4012. ... Introduction: Erythema multiforme (EM) is a disease that may affect skin and mucous membranes, and has major clinical ... Palavras-chave : Antidepressive agents.; Erythema multiforme.; Diagnosis.; Therapy.. · resumo em Português · texto em Português ...
Herbal Remedies for Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans, Signs of Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans, Symptoms of Erythema Dyschromicum ... Treatment of Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans in Ayurveda March 4, 2021. March 4, 2021. Dr. Vikram Chauhan 0 Comments Causes of ... Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans (EDP) is characterised by irregular or well-circumscribed oval to round patches predominantly ... Along with these alterations in lifestyle the use of these herbal formulations are very much beneficial in treating Erythema ...
PONTIAC FEVER ASSOCIATED WITH ERYTHEMA NODOSUM. Author(s):*Hilal Bektas Uysal, Hulki Meltem SÃ Æ Ã Â¶nmez, Sertan Bulut, Murat ...
Navigating the Journey: Joining Erythema Multiforme Support Groups for Relief January 12, 2024 No Comments ... Finding Your Glow: Strengthening Self-Esteem with Erythema Multiforme January 12, 2024 No Comments ... Love in the Face of Erythema Multiforme: Strengthening Relationships January 12, 2024 No Comments ... Natures Toolbox: Natural Remedies for Managing Erythema Multiforme January 12, 2024 No Comments ...
... skin erythema and wound appearance. Conclusions: C. asiatica might enhance wound healing resulting from improved angiogenesis. ... 3.3.4. Skin Erythema and Wound Appearance. In a recent trial carried out by Damkerngsuntorn et al. [62], 30 patients suffering ... Erythema, ↑ Wound appearance, ↑ Epithelialisation AS: asiaticoside; ECa 223: 51% madecosside and 38% asiaticoside; SSD: Silver ... After the treatment, the skin treated with C. asiatica showed improved erythema (p = 0.009, 0.0061, 0.012) and wound appearance ...
Limiting Lyme does not provide any medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. We recommend that you communicate with a qualified health provider regarding any medical conditions concerning Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections.. © 2019-2021 Limiting Lyme (201-936-9877). ...
Erythema ab igne is a skin condition caused by prolonged heat exposure.. Erythema ab igne is typically benign and can be ... Untreated Erythema ab igne can result in secondary cutaneous malignancy.. So, if you have Erythema ab igne, its important to ... You can get Erythema ab igne from a hot lap top on your legs, heating pads, hot shower water, heating blankets, hot water ... If you have Erythema ab igne, please do your best to reduce heat exposure to your skin! ...
The number of bacteria M. leprae in multibacillary (MB) type leprosy and acute inflammatory process in Erythema Nodosum ... Prabawaningrum, K., Astari, L., & Agusni, I. (2016). Higher Level Zinc Serum in Multibacillary Leprosy With Erythema Nodosum ... Higher Level Zinc Serum in Multibacillary Leprosy With Erythema Nodosum Leprosum compared to Patients Without Reaction https:// ...
Commonly reported mild adverse events from postmarketing data include pain (3% to 29%), erythema (3%), swelling (3%), fever (1 ...
Thalidomide effective in chronic erythema multiforme. Sep. 6, 1996. No Comments. BTG licenses analgesic combination to Forest. ...
Erythema. 1. 1. Bone Fracture(s). 1. 1. Abscess. 1. 1. Awareness during Anaesthesia. 1. 1. ...
  • Erythema multiforme on the hands: These lesions are circular and may appear in concentric rings (often called target lesions). (health32.com)
  • Erythema multiforme lesions are often referred to as target lesions because of the concentric rings the lesions produce. (health32.com)
  • This individual has erythema multiforme minor, with "target" lesions on his hands. (health32.com)
  • In the first week of having erythema nodosum the lesions become tense, hard and painful. (patient.info)
  • Leprosy can produce a clinical picture of erythema nodosum, although the histological picture of the lesions is different. (patient.info)
  • Acyclovir reduces the duration of symptomatic erythema multiforme lesions (EM). (medscape.com)
  • Detection of a herpes simplex viral antigen in skin lesions of erythema multiforme. (medscape.com)
  • Early congenital syphilis and erythema multiforme-like bullous targetoid lesions in a 1-day-old newborn: detection of Treponema pallidum genomic DNA from the targetoid plaque using nested polymerase chain reaction. (medscape.com)
  • The clinical manifestation of Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans include the pigmented lesions which may be unilateral or symmetrical in distribution. (planetayurveda.net)
  • These hyperpigmented lesions of Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans (EDP) do not have a known etiology. (planetayurveda.net)
  • Positive association between your meals additive and occurrence of lesion and R788 scientific appearance from the lesions result in medical diagnosis of erythema multiforme main. (biodiversityhotspot.org)
  • Erythema infectiosum is caused by acute infection with human parvovirus B19. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Erythema infectiosum, often referred to as fifth disease, is caused by human parvovirus B19. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Zeiger, Roni F.. "Parvovirus Infection (erythema Infectiosum). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Contact your provider if you develop symptoms of erythema nodosum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PDT laser treatment Reduction of the symptoms of erythema and redness as well as inflammation for the relief and strengthening of capillary and sensitive skin. (lyrashop.eu)
  • It reduces the symptoms of erythema and redness as well as the symptoms of irritation and inflammation of various origins. (lyrashop.eu)
  • Under the influence of negative stimuli (atmospheric factors, stress, poor diet), the capillaries rapidly shrink and expand, which causes excessive reddening of the skin, i.e. the symptoms of erythema. (lyrashop.eu)
  • The number of bacteria M. leprae in multibacillary (MB) type leprosy and acute inflammatory process in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) reaction affect the levels of zinc. (unair.ac.id)
  • Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a rare cutaneous neutrophilic vasculitis with many associated diseases reported in the literature. (cdlib.org)
  • Histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of erythema elevatum diutinum and treatment with dapsone produced significant clinical improvement within few weeks. (cdlib.org)
  • Erythema elevatum diutinum is a rare disease that should be considered in patients with violaceous nodular plaques located over the extensor regions of the limbs. (cdlib.org)
  • Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of erythema multiforme: a review for the practicing dermatologist. (medscape.com)
  • The unexpected onset positive medication history with previously listed features result in diagnosis of dental erythema multiforme. (biodiversityhotspot.org)
  • Furthermore, the EM rash clearing and peripheral erythema, molecular analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • The eruptive phase of erythema nodosum begins with fever, aching and arthralgia, accompanied by a painful rash. (patient.info)
  • Nettis E, Giordano D, Pierluigi T, Ferrannini A, Tursi A. Erythema multiforme-like rash in a patient sensitive to ofloxacin. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical characteristics of childhood erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in Taiwanese children. (medscape.com)
  • Introduction: Erythema multiforme (EM) is a disease that may affect skin and mucous membranes, and has major clinical importance because of the frequency and variety of entities that it may represent. (bvsalud.org)
  • Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans along with the clinical appearance, features, possible causes, and the best Ayurvedic formulations for the treatment of the disease. (planetayurveda.net)
  • Erythema (from Greek erythros 'red') is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythema - A redness of the skin resulting from inflammation, for example, as caused by sunburn. (en-academic.com)
  • Erythema multiforme is a skin disorder due to an allergic reaction or infection. (health32.com)
  • Erythema multiforme may be associated with herpes simplex infection, mycoplasma pneumonia, or other medical conditions such as streptococcal infection, tuberculosis (TB), or may result from exposure to chemicals or medications. (health32.com)
  • Erythema multiforme and latent herpes simplex infection. (medscape.com)
  • Carducci M, Latini A, Acierno F, Amantea A, Capitanio B, Santucci B. Erythema multiforme during cytomegalovirus infection and oral therapy with terbinafine: a virus-drug interaction. (medscape.com)
  • Gonzalez-Delgado P, Blanes M, Soriano V, Montoro D, Loeda C, Niveiro E. Erythema multiforme to amoxicillin with concurrent infection by Epstein-Barr virus. (medscape.com)
  • Ease the discomfort of erythema multiforme with our coping strategies for inflammation and pain relief. (colorlightphotography.com)
  • Help support Wordnik (and make this page ad-free) by adopting the word erythema toxicum . (wordnik.com)
  • Most erythema multiforme is associated with herpes simplex or mycoplasma infections. (health32.com)
  • Recurrent erythema multiforme in association with recurrent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. (medscape.com)
  • Erythema ab igne is a skin condition caused by prolonged heat exposure. (yuyubottle.eu)
  • Erythema ab igne is typically benign and can be resolved with discontinued heat exposure. (yuyubottle.eu)
  • Untreated Erythema ab igne can result in secondary cutaneous malignancy. (yuyubottle.eu)
  • So, if you have Erythema ab igne, it's important to reduce heat exposure. (yuyubottle.eu)
  • You can get Erythema ab igne from a hot lap top on your legs, heating pads, hot shower water, heating blankets, hot water bottles, etc. (yuyubottle.eu)
  • If you have Erythema ab igne, please do your best to reduce heat exposure to your skin! (yuyubottle.eu)
  • The pathophysiology of erythema multiforme (EM) is still not completely understood, but it is probably immunologically mediated and appears to involve a hypersensitivity reaction that can be triggered by a variety of stimuli, particularly bacterial, viral, or chemical products. (medscape.com)
  • Erythema is a common side effect of radiotherapy treatment due to patient exposure to ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythema multiforme due to griseofulvin with positive re-exposure test. (medscape.com)
  • Dermal and ocular exposure by ricin in powder or mist form can cause erythema and pain of the skin and eyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers reported burning, swelling, erythema, and dermatitis of the skin following exposure to the phototoxic chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition that is considered to be a type IV hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections, medications, and other various triggers. (medscape.com)
  • Erythema multiforme is a type of allergic reaction that occurs in response to medications, infections, or illness. (health32.com)
  • Erythema nodosum is presumed to be a hypersensitivity reaction. (patient.info)
  • Cohen DM, Bhattacharyya I. Cinnamon-induced oral erythema multiformelike sensitivity reaction. (medscape.com)
  • 2 3 Erythema multiforme could be induced by adverse medication reaction using a frequency greater than 1% [3]. (biodiversityhotspot.org)
  • Erythema disappears on finger pressure (blanching), whereas purpura or bleeding in the skin and pigmentation do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erythema multiforme minor represents a localized eruption of the skin with minimal or no mucosal involvement. (medscape.com)
  • The red spots on this person's back appear where blisters (bullae) caused by Erythema multiforme have ruptured and the overlying skin removed (denuded). (health32.com)
  • erythema - n. flushing of the skin due to dilatation of the blood capillaries in the dermis. (en-academic.com)
  • The trikatu helps in digesting the endotoxins of the body by enhancing the jatharagni (digestive fire), and triphala helps in eliminating the remaining endotoxins of blood and body out of the system that will facilitate in fast recovery of the various skin diseases, including Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans. (planetayurveda.net)
  • Sulfur mustards are absorbed by the skin, causing erythema and blisters. (cdc.gov)
  • Erythema and pain of eyes and skin. (cdc.gov)
  • A major cause of erythema multiforme is the herpes virus (HSV). (medscape.com)
  • In fact, recent or recurrent herpes has been reported as the principle risk factor for erythema multiforme. (medscape.com)
  • Prophylaxis for recurrence of herpes-associated erythema multiforme (HAEM) should be considered in patients with more than 5 attacks per year. (medscape.com)
  • Kämpgen E, Burg G, Wank R. Association of herpes simplex virus-induced erythema multiforme with the human leukocyte antigen DQw3. (medscape.com)
  • Because this condition may be related to recurrent HSV, recurrences of erythema multiforme may follow, with many affected individuals experiencing several recurrences per year. (medscape.com)
  • Recurrent erythema multiforme: tissue typing in a large series of patients. (medscape.com)
  • Examples of erythema not associated with pathology include nervous blushes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Ayurveda, the features of the disease Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans (EDP) closely resemble the Vyanga . (planetayurveda.net)
  • Hong SJ, Chang CH. Erythema multiforme-like generalized allergic contact dermatitis caused by Alpinia galanga. (medscape.com)
  • Systemic corticosteroid therapy is controversial in erythema multiforme (EM), and some believe it may predispose to complications. (medscape.com)
  • Erythema multiforme occurs primarily in children and young adults. (health32.com)
  • Erythema Gyratum Repens Secondary to Pulmonary Tuberculosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Erythema multiforme major is a more severe, potentially life-threatening disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Desk/Fig-6a & 6b ]: Follow-up photos showing comprehensive regression from the lesion on the proper & still left buccal mucosa and higher & lower lip Debate Erythema multiforme is normally a kind of reactive mucocutaneous disorder. (biodiversityhotspot.org)
  • Your search - erythema multiforme - did not match any resources. (muni.cz)
  • You may find the Erythema nodosum article more useful, or one of our other health articles . (patient.info)
  • Erythema nodosum is uncomfortable, but not dangerous in most cases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Persistent erythema multiforme: a report of three cases. (medscape.com)