A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus ERWINIA, causing a necrotic disease of plants.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Diseases of plants.
A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC 3.2.1.15.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A species of Ralstonia previously classed in the genera PSEUDOMONAS and BURKHOLDERIA. It is an important plant pathogen.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE consisting of species that profusely produce pectinolytic enzymes in plant pathogenesis.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.

Enhanced resistance to bacterial diseases of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing sarcotoxin IA, a bactericidal peptide of insect. (1/411)

Sarcotoxin IA is a bactericidal peptide of 39 amino acids found in the common flesh fly, Sarcophaga peregrina. Many agronomically important bacteria in Japan are killed by this peptide at sub-micro molar levels, and the growth of tobacco and rice suspension cultured cells is not inhibited with less than 25 microM. Transgenic tobacco plants which overexpress the peptide, i.e. over 250 pmol per gram of fresh leaf, under the control of a high expression constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to the pathogens for wild fire disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) and bacterial soft rot disease (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora).  (+info)

Numerical taxonomy of some yellow-pigmented bacteria isolated from plants. (2/411)

Phenetic data on over 60 heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow chromogenic bacteria from plant material were collected and analysed using numerical taxonomic methods. Marker strains representing 42 taxa were included in the analyses. At similarity levels of 80% or above, eight distinct clusters were obtained, the first four of which included yellow chromogens. Custer I contained isolates from green healthy leaves of Agrostis tenuis, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanata, Lolium perenne and Poa pratensis, and clusters 2 and 3 consisted of isolates from Holcus lanata seeds and leaves of P. pratensis respectively. Cluster 4 contained seven subgroups and was equated with the family Enterobacteriaceae. Erwinia herbicola strains from a variety of sources formed a homogeneous subgroup, readily distinguishable from authentic strains of E. amylovora, E. carotovora, other representative erwiniae, and from all other enterobacteria studied. These data emphasize the heterogeneous nature of yellow-pigmented bacteria from plants, and support the inclusion of E. herbicola and other Erwinia species in the Enterobacteriaceae.  (+info)

Expression of the ferrioxamine receptor gene of Erwinia amylovora CFBP 1430 during pathogenesis. (3/411)

Mutants of Erwinia amylovora CFBP 1430 lacking a functional high-affinity iron transport system mediated by desferrioxamine are impaired in their ability to initiate fire blight symptoms (A. Dellagi, M.-N. Brisset, J.-P. Paulin, and D. Expert. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 11:734-742, 1998). In this study, a chromosomal transcriptional lacZ fusion was used to analyze the expression in planta of the E. amylovora ferrioxamine receptor gene foxR. LacZ activity produced by the strain harboring the fusion was highly induced in iron-restricted conditions and in inoculated apple leaf tissues. Microscopic observation revealed differential expression of this gene in relation to the localization and density of bacterial cells within the diseased tissue. Thus, the ability of bacterial cells to express their iron transport system in accordance with environmental conditions is likely important for disease evolution.  (+info)

Reclassification of non-pigmented Erwinia herbicola strains from trees as Erwinia billingiae sp. nov. (4/411)

Twenty-two Erwinia-like strains, isolated from trees since the late fifties and belonging to a distinct phenotypic group with resemblance to Pantoea agglomerans, were further characterized by conventional biochemical tests, the BIOLOG metabolic fingerprinting system and fatty acid analysis. Their phylogenetic positions were determined by comparing the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a representative strain to available sequences of Erwinia, Pantoea, Pectobacterium and Brenneria species. The strains were shown to belong to the genus Erwinia, with Erwinia rhapontici and Erwinia persicina as the closest phylogenetic relatives. The name Erwinia billingiae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LMG 2613T) and a description of the species is given.  (+info)

Erwinia pyrifoliae sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects Asian pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) (5/411)

A novel pathogen from Asian pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) was analysed by sequencing the 16S rDNA and the adjacent intergenic region, and the data were compared to related Enterobacteriaceae. The 16S rDNA of the Asian pear pathogen was almost identical with the sequence of Erwinia amylovora, in contrast to the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region of both species. A dendrogram was deduced from determined sequences of the spacer regions including those of several related species such as Erwinia amylovora, Enterobacter pyrinus, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and Escherichia coli. Dendrograms derived from 121 biochemical characteristics including Biotype 100 data placed the Asian pear pathogen close to Erwinia amylovora and more distantly to other members of the species Erwinia and to the species Pantoea and Enterobacter. Another DNA relatedness study was performed by DNA hybridizations and estimation of delta Tm values. The Asian pear strains constituted a tight DNA hybridization group (89-100%) and were barely related to strains of Erwinia amylovora (40-50%) with a delta Tm in the range of 5.2-6.8. The G + C content of DNA from the novel pathogen is 52 mol%. Therefore, it is proposed that strains isolated from Asian pears constitute a new species and the name Erwinia pyrifoliae is suggested; the type strain is strain Ep 16/96T (= CFBP 4172T = DSM 12163T).  (+info)

Sensitivity distribution of phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi to antibiotics. (6/411)

The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of various antibiotics and fungicides for Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas coronafaciens var. atropurpurea, P. lachrymans, Alternaria mali, A. kikuchiana, Pyricularia oryzae, Botrytis sp. and Sclerotinia sp. isolated from diseased plants in various localities of Japan were examined to enable the isolates to be gruoped into sensitive and resistant strains. To minimize the effects of various variable conditions, MIC of isolates were pooled for either 2 or 3 years and were plotted in a single figure. The grouping values were determined on the basis of MIC values of the antibiotics and agricultural chemicals on phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi under investigations. The relationships between grouping values for isolates of bacteria and fungi and the control of disease on the plants correlated to each other were studied.  (+info)

Mutation in a gene required for lipopolysaccharide and enterobacterial common antigen biosynthesis affects virulence in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica. (7/411)

Spontaneous bacteriophage-resistant mutants of the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca) SCRI1043 were isolated and, out of 40, two were found to exhibit reduced virulence in planta. One of these mutants, A5/22, showed multiple cell surface defects including alterations in synthesis of outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), enterobacterial common antigen (ECA), and flagella. Mutant A5/22 also showed reduced synthesis of the exoenzymes pectate lyase (Pel) and cellulase (Cel), major virulence factors for this pathogen. Genetic analysis revealed the pronounced pleiotropic mutant phenotype to be due to a defect in a single gene (rffG) that, in Escherichia coli, is involved in the production of ECA. We also show that while other enteric bacteria possess duplicate homologues of this gene dedicated separately to synthesis of LPS and ECA, Eca has a single gene.  (+info)

A simple purification method and morphology and component analyses for carotovoricin Er, a phage-tail-like bacteriocin from the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora Er. (8/411)

Carotovoricin Er has been isolated as a phage-tail-like bacteriocin from the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora Er [Kamimiya, S. et al., (1977), Agric. Biol. Chem. 41, 911-912]. However, the fine morphology and structural composition of carotovoricin Er remained to be studied because a large amount of contracted carotovoricin Er were present in the bacteriocin preparations so far obtained. To obtain intact carotovoricin Er and its major parts, we developed simple and efficient purification methods including the use of sucrose density gradient centrifugation in the presence of 10-20% (v/v) ethanol. Electron microscopy for the purified carotovoricin Er showed the presence of a novel antenna-like structure at the proximal end of the phage-tail-like particle, which consisted of a sheath-and-core part, a baseplate, and tail fibers. Contracted sheath and inner core were purified as hollow cylindrical structures with longitudinal lengths of 69 and 174 nm, respectively, and tail fibers were purified as a fibrous structure with length of 63 nm. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed the presence of single major proteins of 50, 20, and 68 kDa in the isolated sheath, core, and tail fiber, respectively. Three other minor proteins of 46, 44, and 35 kDa were also identified as the structural proteins of carotovoricin Er, which may be the candidate proteins for the antenna-like and the base plate structures. Thus carotovoricin Er consists of at least 6 protein components.  (+info)

Erwinia is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily plant pathogens. They are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family and can be found in soil, water, and plant surfaces. Some species of Erwinia cause diseases in plants such as fireblight in apples and pears, soft rot in a wide range of vegetables, and bacterial leaf spot in ornamental plants. They can infect plants through wounds or natural openings and produce enzymes that break down plant tissues, causing decay and wilting.

It's worth noting that Erwinia species are not typically associated with human or animal diseases, except for a few cases where they have been reported to cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

'Erwinia amylovora' is a species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that is a plant pathogen and the causative agent of fire blight, a destructive disease affecting members of the Rosaceae family, including apple and pear trees. The bacteria are capable of producing various virulence factors, such as cell wall-degrading enzymes and toxins, which contribute to their ability to cause disease in plants.

The bacteria typically enter the plant through wounds or natural openings, such as flowers, and then spread through the vascular system, causing wilting, discoloration, and death of infected tissues. In severe cases, fire blight can lead to the death of entire trees or orchards. The disease is difficult to control once it becomes established in an area, and management strategies typically involve a combination of cultural practices, such as pruning and sanitation, and the use of protective chemicals.

In addition to its economic impact on agriculture, 'Erwinia amylovora' has also been studied as a model organism for understanding plant-pathogen interactions and the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis.

"Pectobacterium chrysanthemi" is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a plant pathogen that causes soft rot disease in a wide range of plants, including ornamental and vegetable crops. The bacterium produces pectolytic enzymes that break down pectin, a major component of plant cell walls, leading to maceration and rotting of the plant tissue. It is primarily transmitted through contaminated seeds, soil, and water, and can cause significant economic losses in agriculture. In humans, it is not considered a pathogen and does not cause disease.

Pectobacterium carotovorum is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. These bacteria are known to cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants, including potatoes, carrots, and other vegetables. They produce pectinases, which are enzymes that break down pectin, a component of plant cell walls, leading to maceration and decay of the plant tissue.

The bacteria can enter the plant through wounds or natural openings, such as stomata, and spread systemically throughout the plant. They can survive in soil, water, and plant debris, and can be disseminated through contaminated seeds, tools, and equipment. The diseases caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum can result in significant economic losses for farmers and the produce industry.

In humans, Pectobacterium carotovorum is not considered a pathogen and does not cause disease. However, there have been rare cases of infection associated with contaminated food or water, which can lead to gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These infections are typically self-limiting and do not require antibiotic treatment.

Polysaccharide-lyases are a class of enzymes that cleave polysaccharides through a β-elimination mechanism, leading to the formation of unsaturated sugars. These enzymes are also known as depolymerizing enzymes and play an essential role in the breakdown and modification of complex carbohydrates found in nature. They have important applications in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels.

Polysaccharide-lyases specifically target polysaccharides containing uronic acid residues, such as pectins, alginates, and heparin sulfate. The enzymes cleave the glycosidic bond between two sugar residues by breaking the alpha configuration at carbon 4 of the uronic acid residue, resulting in a double bond between carbons 4 and 5 of the non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chain.

Polysaccharide-lyases are classified into several subclasses based on their substrate specificity and reaction mechanism. These enzymes have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of bacterial infections, cancer, and other diseases associated with abnormal glycosylation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malus" is not a medical term. It is a genus name in the plant kingdom, referring to the apple tree. If you have a different term or concept in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition or explanation.

Chicory is a plant species with the scientific name Cichorium intybus. It is a perennial herb that is native to Europe and parts of Asia, but has been naturalized in many other regions of the world, including North America. Chicory is known for its blue or lavender flowers and its long, tapering leaves.

In addition to being used as an ornamental plant, chicory has a number of medicinal uses. The roots and leaves of the plant contain various compounds that have been found to have potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and diuretic properties. Chicory is also sometimes used as a coffee substitute or additive, due to the fact that it contains certain compounds that can mimic the taste of coffee.

It's important to note that while chicory has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and risks. As with any herbal remedy or supplement, it's always a good idea to talk to your doctor before using chicory, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking any medications.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

Polygalacturonase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in polygalacturonic acid, which is a major component of pectin in plant cell walls. This enzyme is involved in various processes such as fruit ripening, plant defense response, and pathogenesis by breaking down the pectin, leading to softening and breakdown of plant tissues. It is also used in industrial applications for fruit juice extraction, tea fermentation, and textile processing.

"Pantoea" is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as soil, water, and plant surfaces. Some species of Pantoea can cause infections in humans, usually associated with healthcare settings or following trauma. These infections may include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and urinary tract infections. However, human infections caused by Pantoea are relatively rare compared to other bacterial pathogens.

Rosaceae is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an family of flowering plants. However, many physicians and dermatologists are familiar with some members of this family because they cause several common skin conditions.

Rosaceae refers to a family of plants that include roses, strawberries, blackberries, and many other ornamental and edible plants. Some genera within this family contain species known to cause various dermatologic conditions in humans, particularly affecting the face.

The most well-known skin disorders associated with Rosaceae are:

1. Acne rosacea (or rosacea): A chronic inflammatory skin condition primarily affecting the central face, characterized by flushing, persistent erythema (redness), telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels), papules, pustules, and sometimes rhinophyma (enlarged, bulbous nose).
2. Erythematotelangiectatic rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by persistent central facial erythema, flushing, and telangiectasia without papules or pustules.
3. Phymatous rosacea: A subtype of rosacea characterized by thickening skin, irregular surface nodularities, and enlargement, particularly of the nose (rhinophyma).
4. Ocular rosacea: Inflammation of the eyes and eyelids associated with rosacea, causing symptoms like dryness, grittiness, foreign body sensation, burning, stinging, itching, watering, redness, and occasional blurry vision.

While not a medical term itself, Rosaceae is an essential concept in dermatology due to the skin conditions it encompasses.

Pectins are complex polysaccharides that are commonly found in the cell walls of plants. In the context of food and nutrition, pectins are often referred to as dietary fiber. They have a variety of important functions within the body, including promoting digestive health by adding bulk to stools and helping to regulate bowel movements.

Pectins are also used in the medical field as a demulcent, which is a substance that forms a soothing film over mucous membranes. This can be helpful in treating conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

In addition to their use in medicine, pectins are widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, and stabilizer. They are commonly found in jams, jellies, and other preserved fruits, as well as in baked goods and confectionery products.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Asparaginase is a medication that is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It is an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid asparagine, which is a building block of proteins. Some cancer cells are unable to produce their own asparagine and rely on obtaining it from the bloodstream. By reducing the amount of asparagine in the blood, asparaginase can help to slow or stop the growth of these cancer cells.

Asparaginase is usually given as an injection into a muscle (intramuscularly) or into a vein (intravenously). It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's medical history, the type and stage of cancer being treated, and how well the person tolerates the medication.

Like all medications, asparaginase can cause side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and changes in liver function tests. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, pancreatitis, and blood clotting problems. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of asparaginase with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

"Solanum tuberosum" is the scientific name for a plant species that is commonly known as the potato. According to medical and botanical definitions, Solanum tuberosum refers to the starchy, edible tubers that grow underground from this plant. Potatoes are native to the Andes region of South America and are now grown worldwide. They are an important food source for many people and are used in a variety of culinary applications.

Potatoes contain several essential nutrients, including carbohydrates, fiber, protein, vitamin C, and some B vitamins. However, they can also be high in calories, especially when prepared with added fats like butter or oil. Additionally, potatoes are often consumed in forms that are less healthy, such as French fries and potato chips, which can contribute to weight gain and other health problems if consumed excessively.

In a medical context, potatoes may also be discussed in relation to food allergies or intolerances. While uncommon, some people may have adverse reactions to potatoes, including skin rashes, digestive symptoms, or difficulty breathing. These reactions are typically caused by an immune response to proteins found in the potato plant, rather than the tubers themselves.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Rosales" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term used in the classification of plants. Rosales is an order of flowering plants that includes roses, as well as many other plants such as apples, cherries, almonds, and strawberries. The plants in this group are characterized by having flowers with multiple stamens and styles. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, please let me know!

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

4-Butyrolactone, also known as gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) or 1,4-butanolide, is a chemical compound with the formula C4H6O2. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used in various industrial and commercial applications, including as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals, as a solvent, and as a flavoring agent.

In the medical field, 4-butyrolactone has been studied for its potential use as a sleep aid and muscle relaxant. However, it is not currently approved by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for these uses. It is also known to have abuse potential and can cause intoxication, sedation, and other central nervous system effects when ingested or inhaled.

It's important to note that 4-butyrolactone is not a medication and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional for approved medical purposes.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

"Ralstonia solanacearum" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped soil-borne bacterium that is a plant pathogen capable of causing bacterial wilt in a wide range of plants, including many economically important crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers. The bacteria are seed-borne and can also survive in water and plant debris, making them difficult to control. They infect the vascular system of the plant, leading to wilting, yellowing, and often death of the plant. The bacterium is known to have a wide geographical distribution and is considered a quarantine pathogen in many countries due to its impact on agriculture.

Pectobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen. These bacteria are known to cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants, including important crops such as potatoes and vegetables. They produce pectinases, enzymes that break down pectin, a major component of plant cell walls, leading to maceration and decay of plant tissues.

Some notable species of Pectobacterium include:

* Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora), which is known to cause soft rot in many vegetables, fruits, and ornamental plants.
* Pectobacterium atrosepticum (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica), which primarily causes blackleg and soft rot diseases in potatoes.
* Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly Erwinia wasabiae), which is associated with wasabi root rot.

Pectobacterium spp. are typically motile, having a single polar flagellum or multiple lateral flagella. They can survive in soil, water, and plant debris, and can be disseminated through infected seeds, contaminated tools, and irrigation water. Infections caused by Pectobacterium can lead to significant economic losses in agriculture due to reduced crop yield and quality.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Plant Nectar" is not a term used in medical definitions. Nectar is a sweet liquid produced by plants in flowers to attract pollinators such as insects and birds. It's a sugar-rich substance that serves as a source of energy for these animals. While it may have some nutritional value, it's not something that would be relevant to medical definitions or human health in a direct sense.

... aphidicola Erwinia billingiae Erwinia endophytica Erwinia gerundensis Erwinia iniecta Erwinia mallotivora Erwinia oleae ... Erwinia papayae Erwinia persicina Erwinia piriflorinigrans Erwinia psidii Erwinia pyrifoliae Erwinia rhapontici Erwinia ... tasmaniensis Erwinia teleogrylli Erwinia toletana Erwinia tracheiphila Erwinia typographi Erwinia uredovora Erwinia uzenensis ... Species in Erwinia are: Erwinia amylovora (Fire blight) ... Erwinia rhapontici has been identified as a plant pathogen that ...
Type strain of Erwinia psidii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e v t e (Articles with short description, ... Erwinia psidii is a Gram-negative bacterium and a phytopathogen of the common guava (Psidium guajava), causing rot in branches ... 2005). "Acyl-homoserine lactones from Erwinia psidii R. IBSBF 435T, a guava phytopathogen (Psidium guajava L.)". Journal of ...
Geiderd, K (1999). "Erwinia pyrifoliae, an Erwinia species different from Erwinia amylovora, causes a necrotic disease of Asian ... Erwinia pyrifoliae is a Gram-negative bacterium and a phytopathogen of Asian pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia), causing necrotic ... doi:10.1046/j.1365-3059.1999.00376.x. Kim, W.-S.; Gardan, L.; Rhim, S.-L.; Geider, K. (1999). "Erwinia pyrifoliae sp. nov., a ... LPSN Type strain of Erwinia pyrifoliae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e v t e (Articles with short ...
... is a Gram-negative, straight rod bacterium with peritrichous flagella, so diagnosis can be made using a Gram ... Erwinia papayae is a bacteria species causing bacterial crown rot, or bacterial canker, a noteworthy and grave disease of ... Webb, R.R. (1985). Epidemiology and Control of Bacterial Canker of Papaya Caused by an Erwinia sp. on St. Croix, U.S. Virgin ... Type strain of Erwinia papayae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description, Short ...
The new genus Dickeya was named after him in 2005 for his research on the "Erwinia chrysanthemi complex". Erwinia chrysanthemi ... Erwinia Winslow, Broadhurst, Buchanan, Krumwiede, Rogers and Smith 1920". In Krieg, N. R.; Holt, J. G. (eds.). Bergey's Manual ... Dickey, R. S.; Victoria, J. I. (1 January 1980). "Taxonomy and Emended Description of Strains of Erwinia Isolated from Musa ... Formerly Erwinia cancerogena)". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 38 (4): 371-374. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-4- ...
30 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1099/00207713-30-1-1. Chung, Y. R.; Kim, B.S.; Kim, H.T.; Cho, K.Y. (1990). "Erwinia pirina sp. nov., a ... The proposed name for the species was Erwinia pirina, but this name was not validly published. In 1993, further research ...
... the name Erwinia is still in use. As such, the disease is sometimes called Erwinia rot today. It is a very destructive disease ... Erwinia carotovara subsp. atroseptica is a bacterial soft rot pathogen that is responsible for the disease Blackleg of Potato ( ... Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica has been detected in the rhizosphere of native vegetation and on weed species such as ... Erwinia caratovara subsp betavascularum was not discovered in Montana until 1998. When it first appeared, beet vascular ...
The causal pathogen is Erwinia amylovora, a Gram-negative bacterium in the genus Erwinia, order Enterobacterales. It is a short ... "Erwinia Amylovora (fireblight)." The Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2016. Norelli ... Type strain of Erwinia amylovora at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Images of symptoms (973) and database, UC ... Erwinia amylovora) on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of ...
Erwinia chrysanthemi) taking over? The ecology of a blackleg pathogen" (PDF). Retrieved 7 November 2012. Forbes GA. " ...
What is fire blight? Who is Erwinia amylovora? How to control it? Fire blight: the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia ... Fire blight: the disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora.:37-53. Erskine JM. 1973. Characteristics of Erwinia ... Isolation of Erwinia amylovora Bacteriophage from Aerial Parts of Apple Trees. Phytopathology 77:101. Steiner PW. 1996. What We ... Fire blight of pome fruits, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al., is the most severe disease of ...
... s include: Bacterial wilt of cucurbits is cause by the bacteria Erwinia tracheiphila, it affects cucumber, squash, ... ". "Bacterial wilt: Erwinia tracheiphila". Archived from the original on 2002-01-26. Prior, Philippe; Allen, Caitilyn; ...
Erwinia chrysanthemi) in Poland". Plant Pathology. 58 (4): 794. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02028.x. Komatsu, Tsutomu; Horita ... Type strain of Erwinia chrysanthemi at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description, Short ... It was formerly known as Erwinia chrysanthemi but was reassigned as Dickeya dadantii in 2005. Members of this family are ... Robert-Baudouy J, Nasser W, Condemine G, Reverchon S, Shevchik VE, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N (2000) Pectic enzymes of Erwinia ...
Erwinia chrysanthemi) taking over? The ecology of a blackleg pathogen" (PDF). Retrieved 7 November 2012. Coakley SM, Scherm H, ...
stem canker (Enterobacter sp.) postharvest fruit rot (Erwinia sp.) stem canker (Flavobacterium sp.) stem canker (Pseudomonas sp ...
nov., and Erwinia mediterraneensis sp. nov., three new species isolated from the human skin". New Microbes and New Infections. ...
"Erwinaze (asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi) for injection, intramuscular use Initial U.S. Approval: 2011" (PDF). U.S. Food and ... "FDA approves asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant) for leukemia and lymphoma". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... "FDA approves asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi (recombinant) for leukemia and lymphoma". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... It is often made from Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Erwinia chrysanthemi. The development of JZP-458 as a therapeutic agent for ...
Moran F, Nasuno S, Starr MP (1968). "Oligogalacturonide trans-eliminase of Erwinia carotovora". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 125 (3 ...
Erwinia dacicola" Capuzzo et al. 2005 "Ca. Evansia muelleri" Kuechler et al. 2013 "Ca. Flaviluna lacus" Hahn 2009 "Ca. ...
Minimal nutritive requirements of the genus Erwinia". Journal of Bacteriology. 60 (5): 669-672. doi:10.1128/JB.60.5.669- ...
The causal organisms are Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora and Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis. The rot symptoms can ...
"Reclassification of non-pigmented Erwinia herbicola strains from trees as Erwinia billingiae sp. nov". International Journal of ... The non-pathogenic species Erwinia billingiae is named after her. It may act antagonistically to the causal agents of fire ... It is caused by Erwinia amylovora bacteria. She introduced Billing's integrated system, a modelling system to predict the ... was a UK plant pathologist specialising in diseases of fruit trees especially fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora bacteria ...
The type genus of this family is Erwinia. The name Erwiniaceae is derived from the Latin term Erwinia, referring the type genus ... Most species are positive for Voges-Proskauer test, with the exception of Erwinia toletana, Erwinia ypographi and some strains ... Together, Erwiniaceae refers to a family whose nomenclatural type is the genus Erwinia. These bacteria are catalase-positive, ... of Erwinia oleae. 12 conserved signature indels (CSIs) were identified through genomic analyses as exclusive for this family in ...
Cheetham PS (1984). "The extraction and mechanism of a novel isomaltulose-synthesizing enzyme from Erwinia rhapontici". Biochem ... Cheetham PS, Imber CE, Isherwood J (1982). "The formation of isomaltulose by immobilized Erwinia rhapontici". Nature. 299 (5884 ...
The PGs from bacteria like Erwinia carotovora and Bacillus subtilis have also been crystallized. The active site of Fusarium ... Pickersgill R, Smith D, Worboys K, Jenkins J (September 1998). "Crystal structure of polygalacturonase from Erwinia carotovora ...
It is quite susceptible to Erwinia and common scab. Also, it is resistant to golden nematode RO 1 and 4 and it is susceptible ...
Müller I, Lurz R, Geider K (July 2012). "Tasmancin and lysogenic bacteriophages induced from Erwinia tasmaniensis strains". ...
"Variability of aggressiveness and virulence of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovorum causing the soft rot on potato tubers in ...
KILGORE WW, STARR MP (1959). "Catabolism of galacturonic and glucuronic acids by Erwinia carotovora". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2227- ...
Kilgore WW, Starr MP (1959). "Catabolism of galacturonic and glucuronic acids by Erwinia carotovora". J. Biol. Chem. 234: 2227- ...
The Erwinia Phage Phi-Ea1h Holin (EPPE-Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.58) consists of a single protein, holin of Erwinia Phage Phi-Ea1h ( ... The Erwinia Phage Phi-Ea1h Holin (EPPE-Hol) Family", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons ... The Erwinia Phage Phi-Ea1h Holin (EPPE-Hol) Family". TCDB. Retrieved 2016-03-29. Portal: Biology As of this edit, this article ...
Erwinia aphidicola Erwinia billingiae Erwinia endophytica Erwinia gerundensis Erwinia iniecta Erwinia mallotivora Erwinia oleae ... Erwinia papayae Erwinia persicina Erwinia piriflorinigrans Erwinia psidii Erwinia pyrifoliae Erwinia rhapontici Erwinia ... tasmaniensis Erwinia teleogrylli Erwinia toletana Erwinia tracheiphila Erwinia typographi Erwinia uredovora Erwinia uzenensis ... Species in Erwinia are: Erwinia amylovora (Fire blight) ... Erwinia rhapontici has been identified as a plant pathogen that ...
Asparaginase Erwinia Chrysanthemi Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to asparaginase erwinia ... Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected into a muscle by a doctor or nurse in a ... Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go ...
... however we were only able to detect infection of Erwinia and the closely related strains of Pantoea. ... we were only able to detect infection of Erwinia and the closely related strains of Pantoea. ... Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogen from the Erwiniaceae family and a causative agent of the devastating agricultural disease ... Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogen from the Erwiniaceae family and a causative agent of the devastating agricultural disease ...
Erwinia herbicola; (Pantoea agglomerans). Biochemical. Streptomycin and penicillin; NA. No. Recovered. (4). ... Erwinia tasmaniensis (E. tasmaniensis. 16S rRNA‡. Ciprofloxacin; 2 weeks. Yes. Recovered. (9). ... Erwinia strains of the lathyri-herbicola group. Biochemical. NA; NA. No. NA. (3). ... Erwinia strains of the lathyri-herbicola group. Biochemical. Chloramphenicol; NA. No. Recovered. (3). ...
Workshop on Fire Blight AcrAB-TolC DIRECTS EFFLUX-MEDIATED RESISTANCE TOWARDS PHYTOALEXINS IN THE PLANT PATHOGEN ERWINIA ... The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight on several plant species with economic importance such as apple and ... AcrAB-TolC DIRECTS EFFLUX-MEDIATED RESISTANCE TOWARDS PHYTOALEXINS IN THE PLANT PATHOGEN ERWINIA AMYLOVORA ...
793_10 ANTHERS ACT AS "TINDER" AND "RESERVOIR" FOR ERWINIA AMYLOVORA TO INFECT PEAR BLOSSOMS - OBSERVATION OF ERWINIA AMYLOVORA ... 793_80 USING REAL-TIME PCR TO STUDY COMPETITION BETWEEN ERWINIA AMYLOVORA AND ERWINIA PYRIFOLIAE ... The ubiquitous plasmid pEA29 of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora has been well documented as affecting virulence on ... 793_4 EPIPHYTIC GROWTH OF A PATHOGENIC AND AN AVIRULENT STRAIN OF ERWINIA AMYLOVORA ON PEAR AND APPLE FLOWERS IN RELATION TO ...
... were tested against an Erwinia species, and compared with benzylpenicillin. DL-α-Aminobenzylpenicillin, DL-3-chloro-α- ... concluded that the side chain of these penicillins is not essential for the inhibition of growth and division of this Erwinia ... Grula E. A., Grula M. M. 1962; Cell division in a species of Erwinia. III. Reversal of inhibition of cell division caused by d- ... Grula E. A. 1960b; Cell division in a species of Erwinia. II. Inhibition of division by d-amino acids. J. Bact. 80:375 ...
Erwinia) wilt (214) - Worldwide. On banana, and many other crops and ornamentals. A minor disease of banana. On mature plants ... Banana wilt, Erwinia wilt. There does not seem to be any accepted common name for this disease. Bacterial heart rot (of banana ... is also thought to be caused by Erwinia species.. Scientific Name. Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (now renamed ... Photo 1. Wilt of banana, caused by Erwinia spp. Note the older leaves have collapsed and are hanging around the pseudostem. ...
Pringle RT, Robinson K, Wale S, Burnett G. Comparison of the effect of storage environment on tuber contamination with Erwinia ... Désirée contaminated with Erwinia carotovora were held in four different types of farm stores. In general, contamination fell ... Désirée contaminated with Erwinia carotovora were held in four different types of farm stores. In general, contamination fell ... Désirée contaminated with Erwinia carotovora were held in four different types of farm stores. In general, contamination fell ...
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Erwinia chrysanthemi answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, ... "Erwinia Chrysanthemi." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine ... nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/766520/0/Erwinia_chrysanthemi. Erwinia chrysanthemi. In: Venes DD, ed. Tabers Medical ... Erwinia Chrysanthemi [Internet]. In: Venes DD, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. [cited 2023 ...
Asparaginase (Erwinia) published on Jun 2018 by American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ...
Keywords : Microbiology; Antibacterial activity; Erwinia chrysanthemi; chemical bactericides; Plant extracts; Source : Download ... Isolation of Erwinia chrysanthemi rhizome rot bacteria from infected rhizome of banana plants in Twentay Township, Yangon ... Antibacterial activity on Erwinia chrysanthemi from the nine selected plant species and the four chemical bactericides were ... Effects of Plant Extracts and Commercial Bactericides on Erwinia Chrysanthemi Rhizome Rot Bacteria in Banana Plants. Journal: ...
name=GcvA regulon. species= Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica SCRI1043. (optional)size=2. ...
Molecular Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Resistance to the Bacterial Pathogen Erwinia amylovora, Causal Agent of Fire Blight ... Dive into the research topics of Molecular Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Resistance to the Bacterial Pathogen Erwinia ...
Bast by Pectinolytic Enzymes from Erwinia carotovora. ...
Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) susceptibility of old Hungarian apple cultivars Published: August 12, 2005 ... Tóth, M., Honty, K., & Hevesi, M. (2005). Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) susceptibility of old Hungarian apple cultivars. ... Erwinia amylovora) in 1996 motivated us to search new resistant sources principally from old traditional apple cultivars. First ...
Characterization of the lytic bacteriophage phiEaP-8 effective against both Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae causing ... Kang I.-J., Park D. H., Lee Y.-K., Han S.-W., Kwak Y.-S., Oh C.-S.. 2021;Complete genome sequence of Erwinia amylovora strain ... Park D. H., Lee Y.-G., Kim J.-S., Cha J.-S., Oh C.-S.. 2017;Current status of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora and ... Choi J. H., Kim J.-Y., Park D. H.. 2022b;Evidence of greater competitive fitness of Erwinia amylovora over E. pyrifoliae in ...
... were compared with reference strains of Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae, both of which are pathogenic to species of ... On the basis of these and previous results, the novel isolates represent a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the ... Phenotypic analyses clustered the novel isolates into one phenon, distinct from other species of the genus Erwinia, showing ... name Erwinia piriflorinigrans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CFBP 5888T (=CECT 7348T). ...
Fleischer, SJ, De Mackiewicz, D, Gildow, FE & Lukezic, FL 1999, Serological Estimates of the Seasonal Dynamics of Erwinia ... N2 - Serological assays were used to estimate the proportion of Acalymma vittata (F.) that harbored Erwinia tracheiphila (E. F ... AB - Serological assays were used to estimate the proportion of Acalymma vittata (F.) that harbored Erwinia tracheiphila (E. F ... Serological assays were used to estimate the proportion of Acalymma vittata (F.) that harbored Erwinia tracheiphila (E. F. ...
We have studied dose- and time-dependent antitumor and cytotoxic effects of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ECAR LANS) and ... et al., Antitumor activity of L-asparaginase from Erwinia Carotovora from against different leukemic and solid tumours cell ... Antitumor activity of L-asparaginase from Erwinia Carotovora from against different leukemic and solid tumours cell lines. ... Antitumor activity of L-asparaginase from Erwinia Carotovora from against different leukemic and solid tumours cell lines // ...
The roles of Hrp-dependent proteins and hrp gene regulation as determinants of virulence and host-specificity in Erwinia ... The operon for cytokinin biosynthesis in the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg) has been previously ... The operon for cytokinin biosynthesis in the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae (Ehg) has been previously ... The genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola pv. gypsophilae: Characterization and role in gall formation ...
The leaves of the plants were inoculated with Erwinia amylovora suspensions by pricking with clamps, cutting with scissors, ... Evaluation of four whole-plant inoculation methods to analyze the pathogenicity of Erwinia amylovora under quarantine ...
Erwinia deJaffa: Companion to Queen Victoria How did letters from Queen Victorias daughters end up in the Little Traverse ...
Report of outbreak of Erwinia amylovora in Rep. of Korea in 2020. Publication Date. Tue, 30 Jun 2020, 08:59. 最后更新与. June 30, ... Erwinia amylovora (Ea) was confirmed in 462 pear and apple orchards in Korea by 19 June 2020 based on molecular diagnostic ... Erwinia amylovora - (ERWIAM). Report Status. Final. Hosts. Chaenomeles sinensis Koene, Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Linl. Malus ...
Return to Article Details PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT BUSUK LUNAK UMBI KENTANG (Erwinia carotovora) DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN AGENS HAYATI ...
Oh, C. S., Kim, J. F., & Beer, S. V. (2005). The Hrp pathogenicity island of Erwinia amylovora and identification of three ... Oh, Chang Sik ; Kim, Jihyun F. ; Beer, Steven V. / The Hrp pathogenicity island of Erwinia amylovora and identification of ... Oh, CS, Kim, JF & Beer, SV 2005, The Hrp pathogenicity island of Erwinia amylovora and identification of three novel genes ... N2 - Sequence analysis of the region bordering the hrp/dsp gene cluster of Erwinia amylovora strain Ea321, which causes fire ...
between the entry for Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. [ERWIAM] and the entry for Pseudomonas syringae pv. ... propagating material and fruit plants of the basic category shall be produced in areas known to be free from Erwinia amylovora ... propagating material and fruit plants of the certified category shall be produced in areas known to be free from Erwinia ... and any propagating material and fruit plants showing symptoms of Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. and any ...
Identification of Erwinia rhapontici as the Causal Agent of Crown and Shoot Rot and Pink Seed of Pea in Nebraska - Texas A&M ... Identification of Erwinia rhapontici as the Causal Agent of Crown and Shoot Rot and Pink Seed of Pea in Nebraska Academic ... One of the emerging pathogens of pea in the region is Erwinia rhapontici. In a Nebraska disease survey, a pea field exhibited a ...
  • Species in Erwinia are: Erwinia amylovora (Fire blight) Erwinia aphidicola Erwinia billingiae Erwinia endophytica Erwinia gerundensis Erwinia iniecta Erwinia mallotivora Erwinia oleae Erwinia papayae Erwinia persicina Erwinia piriflorinigrans Erwinia psidii Erwinia pyrifoliae Erwinia rhapontici Erwinia tasmaniensis Erwinia teleogrylli Erwinia toletana Erwinia tracheiphila Erwinia typographi Erwinia uredovora Erwinia uzenensis Dickeya dadantii was formerly classified as Erwinia chrysanthemi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erwinia amylovora is a plant pathogen from the Erwiniaceae family and a causative agent of the devastating agricultural disease fire blight. (frontiersin.org)
  • One such bacterial infection caused by a phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora ( Zwet and Keil, 1979 ) is called fire blight and mainly affects ornamental plants of the Rosaceae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight on several plant species with economic importance such as apple and pear. (actahort.org)
  • Erwinia amylovora f.sp. (salbiahkarantina.com)
  • The outbreak of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in 1996 motivated us to search new resistant sources principally from old traditional apple cultivars. (unideb.hu)
  • The primary aim of this study was to screen for potential antagonistic bacteria that suppress Erwinia amylovora . (online-rpd.org)
  • The occurrence of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora in apple and pear trees in Korea showed regularity in terms of newly infected orchards that were contaminated in the vicinity of already infected orchards. (online-rpd.org)
  • Eight Erwinia strains, isolated from necrotic pear blossoms in València, Spain, were compared with reference strains of Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae , both of which are pathogenic to species of pear tree, and to other species of the family Enterobacteriaceae using a polyphasic approach. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Sensitive and species-specific detection of Erwinia amylovora by PCR analysis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Identification of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora , by PCR assays with chromosomal DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Exploring diversity among Spanish strains of Erwinia amylovora and possible infection sources. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Erwinia amylovora (Ea) was confirmed in 462 pear and apple orchards in Korea by 19 June 2020 based on molecular diagnostic techniques. (ippc.int)
  • The leaves of the plants were inoculated with Erwinia amylovora suspensions by pricking with clamps, cutting with scissors, local infiltration, and painting a bacterial suspension onto the leaves with a paintbrush. (udg.edu)
  • The disease and its causative agent, Erwinia amylovora. (scirp.org)
  • Sequence analysis of the region bordering the hrp/dsp gene cluster of Erwinia amylovora strain Ea321, which causes fire blight, revealed characteristics of pathogenicity islands (PAIs). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Comparative genomics of several strains of Erwinia amylovora, a plant pathogenic bacterium causal agent of fire blight disease, revealed that its diversity is primarily attributable to the flexible genome comprised of plasmids. (udg.edu)
  • Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi is an enzyme that interferes with natural substances necessary for cancer cell growth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected into a muscle by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi powder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor probably will not want you to receive asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi . (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while receiving asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you miss an appointment to receive a dose of asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi, call your doctor right away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your body's response to asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nursing Central , nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/766520/0/Erwinia_chrysanthemi. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Isolation of Erwinia chrysanthemi rhizome rot bacteria from infected rhizome of banana plants in Twentay Township, Yangon Region was conducted in Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Yangon. (researchbib.com)
  • Antibacterial activity on Erwinia chrysanthemi from the nine selected plant species and the four chemical bactericides were evaluated by paper disc diffusion methods. (researchbib.com)
  • Anteriormente se denominaba Erwinia chrysanthemi y Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. (bvsalud.org)
  • Erwinia carotovora ssp. (lucidcentral.org)
  • Désirée contaminated with Erwinia carotovora were held in four different types of farm stores. (sruc.ac.uk)
  • Regulon of GcvA in Erwinia carotovora subsp. (lbl.gov)
  • species= Erwinia carotovora subsp. (lbl.gov)
  • We have studied dose- and time-dependent antitumor and cytotoxic effects of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ECAR LANS) and Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (MEDAC) on human leukemic cells and human and animal solid tumor cells. (msk.ru)
  • Resistance induced in potato tubers by treatment with acetyl salicylic acid to soft rot produced by Erwinia carotovora subsp. (scialert.net)
  • Salicylic acid induced resistance to Erwinia carotovora subsp. (scialert.net)
  • Erwinia is a genus of Enterobacterales bacteria containing mostly plant pathogenic species which was named for the famous plant pathologist, Erwin Frink Smith. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erwinia aphidocola and E. persicina species were both observed to be present within the floral nectar microbial community of seven different orchid (Epipactis) flower species. (wikipedia.org)
  • By using growth and division-inhibition at 16 hr as indices of activity, eight penicillins, differing in the side chain, were tested against an Erwinia species, and compared with benzylpenicillin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cell division in a species of Erwinia. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bacterial heart rot (of banana) is also thought to be caused by Erwinia species. (lucidcentral.org)
  • Phenotypic analyses clustered the novel isolates into one phenon, distinct from other species of the genus Erwinia , showing that the novel isolates constituted a homogeneous phenotypic group. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • On the basis of these and previous results, the novel isolates represent a novel species of the genus Erwinia , for which the name Erwinia piriflorinigrans sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In this paper, we present the draft genome sequences of six Philippine E. mallotivora isolates to provide insights into the genes involved in host-pathogen interactions and compare their genomes to other Erwinia species. (qld.gov.au)
  • This study provides the first draft whole-genome sequences of Philippine isolates of E. mallotivora, thus expanding the genomic knowledge for this species in comparison with other members of the genus Erwinia. (qld.gov.au)
  • Serological assays were used to estimate the proportion of Acalymma vittata (F.) that harbored Erwinia tracheiphila (E. F. Smith) Holland, the causal agent of bacterial wilt in cucurbits. (psu.edu)
  • The causal agent of bacterial wilt is Erwinia tracheiphila (Smith) Bergey et al. (apsnet.org)
  • The operon for cytokinin biosynthesis of Erwinia herbicola pv. (agri.gov.il)
  • The operon for cytokinin biosynthesis in the gall-forming bacterium Erwinia herbicola pv. (agri.gov.il)
  • IS 1327, a new insertion-like element in the pathogenicity-associated plasmid of Erwinia herbicola pv. (agri.gov.il)
  • Detection of Erwinia herbicola pv. (agri.gov.il)
  • The genes involved in cytokinin biosynthesis in Erwinia herbicola pv. (agri.gov.il)
  • Regulation of hsvG, a host-specific virulence gene from Erwinia herbicola pv. (agri.gov.il)
  • The roles of Hrp-dependent proteins and hrp gene regulation as determinants of virulence and host-specificity in Erwinia stewartii and E. herbicola pvs. (agri.gov.il)
  • Faenia rectivirgula) and Erwinia herbicola (syn. (cdc.gov)
  • These bacteriophages appear to be most similar to bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas and Ralstonia rather than Enterobacteriales bacteria by protein similarity, however, we were only able to detect infection of Erwinia and the closely related strains of Pantoea . (frontiersin.org)
  • E. tasmaniensis (98.9%), E. toletana (98.8%), and E. billingiae (98.1%) (EzTaxon Database, https://everipedia.org/wiki/lang_en/EzTaxon_Database ). (cdc.gov)
  • Erwinia rhapontici has been identified as a plant pathogen that produces a distinct diffusible pink pigment on sucrose-peptone agar and creates pink seeds in the hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology and Epidemiology of Erwinia rhapontici, Causal Agent of Pink Seed and Crown Rot of Plants" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the emerging pathogens of pea in the region is Erwinia rhapontici. (tamu.edu)
  • Erwinia mallotivora is one of the most important bacterial pathogens of papaya and causes bacterial crown rot disease in the Philippines. (qld.gov.au)
  • Case reports from the literature of infection caused by Erwinia spp. (cdc.gov)
  • It was concluded that the side chain of these penicillins is not essential for the inhibition of growth and division of this Erwinia sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Erwinia pyrifoliae , an endemic pathogen to Korea, causes shoot blight in Asian pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia ). (ishs.org)
  • Background: Erwinia pyrifoliae is a newly described necrotrophic pathogen, which causes fire blight on Asian (Nashi) pear and is geographically restricted to Eastern Asia. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Comparative genomics with the pome fruit epiphyte Erwinia tasmaniensis Et1/99 showed that both species are overall highly similar, although specific differences were identified, for example the presence of some phage gene-containing regions and a high number of putative genomic islands containing transposases in the E. pyrifoliae DSM 12163T genome. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • E. tasmaniensis (98.9%), E. toletana (98.8%), and E. billingiae (98.1%) (EzTaxon Database, https://everipedia.org/wiki/lang_en/EzTaxon_Database ). (cdc.gov)
  • Erwinia rhapontici has been identified as a plant pathogen that produces a distinct diffusible pink pigment on sucrose-peptone agar and creates pink seeds in the hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erwinia species: an emerging human pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • Erwinia, most well known as a plant pathogen, has only very rarely been isolated from human infection (1). (cdc.gov)
  • 5. Population Pharmacokinetic Model Development and Simulation for Recombinant Erwinia Asparaginase Produced in Pseudomonas fluorescens (JZP-458). (nih.gov)
  • Quorum sensing (QS), a population-density-sensing mechanism, controls the production of the main virulence determinants, the plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) of the soft-rot phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. (apsnet.org)
  • Regulon of YdcR in Erwinia carotovora subsp. (lbl.gov)
  • Ultrastructural alterations of Erwinia carotovora subsp. (gc.ca)
  • Bacteriophages and the control of Erwinia carotovora subsp. (hutton.ac.uk)
  • 11. Erwinia asparaginase after allergy to E. coli asparaginase in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Allergic reactions to Erwinia asparaginase in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had previous allergic reactions to Escherichia coli asparaginase. (nih.gov)
  • Between October 1970 and March 1, 1971, eight United States Hospitals in seven states experienced 150 bacteremias caused by Enterobacter cloacae or Gramnegative organisms of the Erwinia group. (cdc.gov)
  • Erwinia may be confused with members of the Klebsiella-Enterobacter group, and a rather detailed series of biochemical tests, with special emphasis on decarboxylase reactions, are needed to reliably differentiate the organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • North America was the largest regional market for Erwinia asparaginase in 2018, followed by Europe and Asia Pacific respectively. (industrygrowthinsights.com)
  • Escherichia coli is the most commonly used type of Erwinia asparaginase in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. (industrygrowthinsights.com)
  • 6. Activity and Toxicity of Intravenous Erwinia Asparaginase Following Allergy to E. coli-Derived Asparaginase in Children and Adolescents With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Outcome of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma with hypersensitivity to pegaspargase treated with PEGylated Erwinia asparaginase, pegcrisantaspase: A report from the Children's Oncology Group. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Plasma asparaginase activity, asparagine concentration, and toxicity after administration of Erwinia asparaginase in children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Phase I/II clinical trial in Japan. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Comparison of Escherichia coli-asparaginase with Erwinia-asparaginase in the treatment of childhood lymphoid malignancies: results of a randomized European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Children's Leukemia Group phase 3 trial. (nih.gov)
  • Infections caused by microorganisms of the genus Erwinia. (nih.gov)
  • Biology and Epidemiology of Erwinia rhapontici, Causal Agent of Pink Seed and Crown Rot of Plants" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • The global Erwinia asparaginase market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 5.5% during the forecast period, from 2021 to 2030. (industrygrowthinsights.com)
  • Four hospitals which isolated and identified Erwinia had not previously encountered infections with these organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • These microscopicly small organisms can also cause damage to plants (Erwinia and Pseudomona). (appropedia.org)
  • Lack of awareness about Erwinia L-Asparaginase among consumers and physicians is one factor that may hamper the growth rate. (industrygrowthinsights.com)
  • Increasing incidence of cancer and rising awareness about the benefits of Erwinia L-Asparaginase are some factors that are driving the growth of this market. (industrygrowthinsights.com)
  • The effectiveness of the CleanLight UV-c irradiation method against pectolytic Erwinia spp. (cleanlight.nl)