Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.
Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
Amphoteric macrolide antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces natalensis or S. chattanoogensis. It is used for a variety of fungal infections, mainly topically.
A synthetic antifungal agent.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
A macrolide antibiotic isolated from cultures of Streptomyces lucensis.
Possesses an unusual and selective cytotoxicity for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE cells in dogs and rats. Useful for experiments dealing with arterial injury, myocardial fibrosis or cardiac decompensation.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.
An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A genus of basiodiomycetous fungi in the family Coriolaceae. Members are known for infesting wood.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
A phenol obtained from thyme oil or other volatile oils used as a stabilizer in pharmaceutical preparations, and as an antiseptic (antibacterial or antifungal) agent. It was formerly used as a vermifuge.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.
A genus of basidiomyceteous fungi in the family POLYPORACEAE found mostly on living trees or dead wood.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Specific hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductases that utilize the cofactor NAD. In liver enzymes of this class are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi (ASCOMYCOTA), family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, that grows by infecting insect larvae or mature insects with spores that germinate often before the cocoon is formed.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Organic compounds that are acyclic and contain three acid groups. A member of this class is citric acid which is the first product formed by reaction of pyruvate and oxaloacetate. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p443)
A basidiomycetous fungal genus of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales, which includes the field mushroom (A. campestris) and the commercial mushroom (A. bisporus).
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
Supplies used in building.
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.

Transcriptional regulation of the squalene synthase gene (ERG9) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (1/600)

The ergosterol biosynthetic pathway is a specific branch of the mevalonate pathway. Since the cells requirement for sterols is greater than for isoprenoids, sterol biosynthesis must be regulated independently of isoprenoid biosynthesis. In this study we explored the transcriptional regulation of squalene synthase (ERG9) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the first enzyme dedicated to the synthesis of sterols. A mutant search was performed to identify genes that were involved in the regulation of the expression of an ERG9-lacZ promoter fusion. Mutants with phenotypes consistent with known sterol biosynthetic mutations (ERG3, ERG7, ERG24) increased expression of ERG9. In addition, treatment of wild-type cells with the sterol inhibitors zaragozic acid and ketoconazole, which target squalene synthase and the C-14 sterol demethylase respectively, also caused an increase in ERG9 expression. The data also demonstrate that heme mutants increased ERG9 expression while anaerobic conditions decreased expression. Additionally, the heme activator protein transcription factors HAP1 and HAP2/3/4, the yeast activator protein transcription factor yAP-1, and the phospholipid transcription factor complex INO2/4 regulate ERG9 expression. ERG9 expression is decreased in hap1, hap2/3/4, and yap-1 mutants while ino2/4 mutants showed an increase in ERG9 expression. This study demonstrates that ERG9 transcription is regulated by several diverse factors, consistent with the idea that as the first step dedicated to the synthesis of sterols, squalene synthase gene expression and ultimately sterol biosynthesis is highly regulated.  (+info)

The yeast multidrug resistance pump, Pdr5p, confers reduced drug resistance in erg mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/600)

Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae bearing lesions in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway exhibit a pleiotropic drug-sensitive phenotype. This has been reported to result from an increased permeability of the membranes of the mutant strains to different drugs. As disruption of the yeast multidrug resistance protein, Pdr5p, results in a similar pleiotropic drug-sensitive phenotype, the possibility that Pdr5p may be functioning with a reduced efficiency in these altered sterol backgrounds was examined. To do this, the function of Pdr5p in isogenic strains of S. cerevisiae that have disruptions in the late stages of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG6, ERG2, ERG3, ERG4) was studied. A reduced ability of Pdr5p to confer resistance to different drugs in these strains was observed, which did not appear to be dependent solely on the permeability of the membrane towards the drug. A simultaneous examination was made of how the lipid composition might be altering the efficiency of Pdr5p by similar studies in strains lacking phosphatidylserine synthase (encoded by CHO1). The results indicated that the drug sensitivity of the erg strains is, to a significant extent, a result of the reduced efficiency of the Pdr5p efflux pump, and that the membrane environment plays an important role in determining the drug resistance conferred by Pdr5p.  (+info)

Comprehensive evaluation of isoprenoid biosynthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing the Genome Reporter Matrix. (3/600)

Gene expression profiling is rapidly becoming a mainstay of functional genomic studies. However, there have been relatively few studies of how the data from expression profiles integrate with more classic approaches to examine gene expression. This study used gene expression profiling of a portion of the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore the impact of blocks in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway on the expression of genes and the regulation of this pathway. Approximately 50% of the genes whose expression was altered by blocks in isoprenoid biosynthesis were genes previously known to participate in the pathway. In contrast to this simple correspondence, the regulatory patterns revealed by different blocks, and in particular by antifungal azoles, was complex in a manner not anticipated by earlier studies.  (+info)

Differential inhibitory effects of protoberberines on sterol and chitin biosyntheses in Candida albicans. (4/600)

The anti-Candida potentials of 12 Korean medicinal plants were explored: methanol extracts from Coptis rhizoma and Phellodendron amurense caused significant inhibition of growth of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. The predominant active components of the extracts were the protoberberines berberine and palmatine; the most potent inhibition of growth was exhibited by berberine on C. krusei (MIC <4 mg/L) and palmatine on C. parapsilosis (MIC 16 mg/L). Both berberine and palmatine inhibited the in-vivo rate of incorporation of L-[methyl-14C]methionine into C-24 of ergosterol in C. albicans (50% inhibition concentration (IC50 values), 25 microM and 300 microM, respectively); this result suggests that sterol 24-methyl transferase (24-SMT) is one of the cellular targets for the antifungal activity of the protoberberines. In-vitro 24-SMT activity in microsomes from the yeast growth form of C. albicans was inhibited by both berberine (inhibition constant (Ki) 232 microM) and palmatine (Ki 257 microM) in a non-competitive manner; inhibition of 24-SMT was more marked for the mycelial form than for the yeast growth form of this organism. Palmatine inhibited chitin synthase from both the yeast and mycelial growth phases of C. albicans in a non-competitive manner (Ki 780 microM). The effects of protoberberines, extracted from established medicinal plants, on both sterol and cell wall biosyntheses in pathogenic fungi indicate that the potential of these compounds, or their semi-synthetic derivatives, as a novel class of antifungal agents should be investigated more fully.  (+info)

Microscopic fungi in dwellings and their health implications in humans. (5/600)

The article reviews the quantitative and qualitative incidence of microscopic filamentous fungi in dwellings, methods for their detection, mycotoxins, glucans and volatile organic compounds produced by microscopic fungi in the indoor air of homes. Characteristics and properties of the most important species of fungi in dwellings (Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Stachybotrys spp., and Wallemia spp.) and the health problems of occupants of the "moldy homes are also discussed.  (+info)

The 2.1 A structure of an elicitin-ergosterol complex: a recent addition to the Sterol Carrier Protein family. (6/600)

Elicitins, produced by most of the phytopathogenic fungi of the genus Phytophthora, provoke in tobacco both remote leaf necrosis and the induction of a resistance against subsequent attack by various microorganisms. Despite the recent description of the three-dimensional crystal structure of cryptogein (CRY), the molecular basis of the interactions between Phytophthora and plants largely remains unknown. The X-ray crystal structure, refined at 2.1 A, of a ligand complexed, mutated CRY, K13H, is reported. Analysis of this structure reveals that CRY is able to encapsulate a ligand that induces only a minor conformational change in the protein structure. The ligand has been identified as an ergosterol by gas chromatographic analysis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. This result is consistent with biochemical data that have shown that elicitins are a distinct class of Sterol Carrier Proteins (SCP). Data presented here provide the first structural description of the pertinent features of the elicitin sterol interaction and permit a reassessment of the importance of both the key residue 13 and the mobility of the omega loop for the accessibility of the sterol to the cavity. The biological implications thereof are discussed. This paper reports the first structure of a SCP/sterol complex.  (+info)

5-Fluorocytosine antagonizes the action of sterol biosynthesis inhibitors in Candida glabrata. (7/600)

The concentration-dependent antagonistic interaction between 5-fluorocytosine and a sterol biosynthesis inhibitor (SBI) was studied using intact cells and cell-free extracts of Candida glabrata. 5-Fluorocytosine promoted incorporation of radioactivity into 4-desmethylsterols (P < 0.01), and enhanced the relative and absolute increases of ergosterol (P < 0.05) in C. glabrata incubated aerobically with an SBI (miconazole or amorolfine). Further aerobic incubation of C. glabrata with combinations of a nucleic acid or protein synthesis inhibitor (rifampicin or chlortetracycline) and an SBI (miconazole) promoted a similar increase in ergosterol biosynthesis. In contrast, 5-fluorocytosine reduced the incorporation of radioactivity into 4,4-dimethylsterols (P < 0.01), but had no obvious effect on the absolute ergosterol level in C. glabrata incubated statically with miconazole. In cell-free extracts of cultures previously incubated with 5-fluorocytosine, ergosterol synthesis was less sensitive to the action of miconazole. Antagonism between 5-fluorocytosine and the SBI is thus mediated by a reversal of inhibition of intracellular ergosterol synthesis. The possible mechanisms underlying antagonism between 5-fluorocytosine and SBIs that inhibit different sites of the sterol biosynthesis pathway, as well as its clinical relevance to combination therapy, are discussed.  (+info)

Elicitins trap and transfer sterols from micelles, liposomes and plant plasma membranes. (8/600)

Using elicitins, proteins secreted by some phytopathogenic Oomycetes (Phytophthora) known to be able to transfer sterols between phospholipid vesicles, the transfer of sterols between micelles, liposomes and biological membranes was studied. Firstly, a simple fluorometric method to screen the sterol-carrier capacity of proteins, avoiding the preparation of sterol-containing phospholipidic vesicles, is proposed. The transfer of sterols between DHE micelles (donor) and stigmasterol or cholesterol micelles (acceptor) was directly measured, as the increase in DHE fluorescence signal. The results obtained with this rapid and easy method lead to the same conclusions as those previously reported, using fluorescence polarization of a mixture of donor and acceptor phospholipid vesicles, prepared in the presence of different sterols. Therefore, the micelles method can be useful to screen proteins for their sterol carrier activity. Secondly, elicitins are shown to trap sterols from purified plant plasma membranes and to transfer sterols from micelles to these biological membranes. This property should contribute to understand the molecular mechanism involved in sterol uptake by Phytophthora. It opens new perspectives concerning the role of such proteins in plant-microorganism interactions.  (+info)

The present study examines the effects of different fertilization treatments (chemical fertilization, farmyard manure, plant compost, and mycorrhiza-inoculated compost) on the soil fungi under a crop rotation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) in a long-term field experiment established in Mediterranean Turkey in 1996. Soil samples were collected in May, August, and October 2009. Soil pH, organic carbon, plant-available nitrogen and phosphorus, mycorrhizal colonization, and a series of biochemical markers (phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acid [PLFA and NLFA] profiles, soil ergosterol content, and glomalin related soil protein [GRSP] as indicators of abundance of bacteria, saprotrophic, and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungi) were assessed. No significant difference was observed in soil organic C and plant available N in relation to long-term fertilization treatments, but plant available P in soil changed significantly in relation to the fertilization treatment used and ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [S T de Macedo-Silva, G Visbal, J A Urbina, W de Souza, J C F Rodrigues].
Methylation step in ergosterol synthesis (from Uniprot) Inhibition of ergosterol synthesis can affect S-adenosyl methionine in yeast. The only experiments that I can find linking ergosterol synthesis with the methylation cycle in yeast do not involve anti-fungals. Rather, they involve yeast with mutations in the genes encoding enzymes of ergosterol synthesis. In a study performed by Shobayashi et al. (2006), mutants of the gene, Erg6, encoding the methyltransferase, resulted in the accumulation of S-adenosyl methionione (SAM). Clearly there are other methylation reactions in the cell which utilize SAM, but this suggests that the ergosterol synthesis pathway is so active in yeast that its disruption affects the concentrations of intermediates of the methylation cycle.. What is the relevance of this to methylation in humans?. Although the situation described above confirms a connection between the methylation cycle and ergosterol intermediates in yeast, as mentioned in the original clinical ...
The major limitation of these studies is the cross- sectional design, 2010). Often problems show up readily in the urine, with changes nome generico do keflex as hematuria, cloudiness, gneerico foul odor seen with infection or concentrated dark-amber urine seen with dehydration. Candida albicans mutations in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway and resistance to several antifungal agents.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cholesterol import fails to prevent catalyst-based inhibition of ergosterol synthesis and cell proliferation of Trypanosoma brucei. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Literature References: Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor. Prepn: A. Hubele, P. Riebli, GB 2098607 (1982 to Ciba-Geigy). Properties and antifungal activity: W. Ruess et al., Brighton Crop Prot. Conf. - Pests Dis. 1988, 543. Field studies: A. J. Leadbeater et al., ibid. 917; A. B. Bassi, Jr. et al., Br. Crop Prot. Counc. Monogr. 57, 91 (1994). Uptake and translocation in crops: H. Dahmen, T. Staub, Plant Dis. 76, 523 (1992). ...
Buy high quality (3β,5α,8α,22E)-5,8-[N,N-(4-Phenylurazole)]-ergosta-6,22-diene-3,24,25-triol 3-Acetate from toronto research chemicals Inc.
Transcriptional repressor and activator with two C2-H2 zinc fingers; involved in repression of a subset of hypoxic genes by Rox1p, repression of several DAN/TIR genes during aerobic growth, and repression of ergosterol biosynthetic genes in response to hyperosmotic stress; contributes to recruitment of the Tup1p-Cyc8p general repressor to promoters; involved in positive transcriptional regulation of CWP2 and other genes; can form the [MOT3+] prion ...
Transcriptional repressor and activator with two C2-H2 zinc fingers; involved in repression of a subset of hypoxic genes by Rox1p, repression of several DAN/TIR genes during aerobic growth, and repression of ergosterol biosynthetic genes in response to hyperosmotic stress; contributes to recruitment of the Tup1p-Cyc8p general repressor to promoters; involved in positive transcriptional regulation of CWP2 and other genes; can form the [MOT3+] prion ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Ergosterol is the major sterol found in the membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. While past studies have identified some ergosterol mutants in C. reinhardtii, very little is known about sterol biosynthesis pathways in this species. With the elucidation of the Chlamydomonas genome, bioinformatics analysis has allowed us to determine potential genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. With this knowledge, a working model of the pathway was designed for future analysis. Several of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes were analyzed in respect to their role and involvement in flagellar regeneration. These genes were upregulated during the regrowth of the flagella. Also Chlamydomonas strains lacking flagella were analyzed by Q-RT PCR to determine what role ergosterol biosynthetic genes played in the absence of their flagella. Finally, one of the genes with homology to the yeast sterol C-5 desaturase, ERG3, was chosen for further analysis. To test whether ERG3 of C. reinhardtii had a similar function, yeast
Theodore White, professor and dean of the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, will present The Ins and Outs of Antifungal Drug Resistance as part of the Division of Biology Seminar Series at 4 p.m. Friday, Oct. 14, in 221 Ackert Hall.. Whites lecture will provide a cross section of issues that contribute to antifungal drug resistance in pathogenic fungi. White will discuss the basic mechanisms, the transcriptional regulators and generalized mechanisms across funal species. He will present current understanding of how a series of 17 clinical isolates developed high level resistance. White also will discuss his recent work on how Azole antifungals are imported into cells, and genes in the ergosterol pathway and their contributions to antifungal resistance and to the responses to other environmental stressors.. ...
Soil samples originated at a long-term field experiment in Abisko, northern Sweden (681210N, 181490E). The samples are from 36 plots, with three subsamples from each plot (at two different horizons, one from the lower and two from the upper), giving a total of 108 samples. Soil organic matter (SOM) was measured as loss on ignition at 550 ˚C, and ergosterol concentration was determined through HPLC.. ...
Soil samples originated at a long-term field experiment in Abisko, northern Sweden (681210N, 181490E). The samples are from 36 plots, with three subsamples from each plot (at two different horizons, one from the lower and two from the upper), giving a total of 108 samples. Soil organic matter (SOM) was measured as loss on ignition at 550 ˚C, and ergosterol concentration was determined through HPLC.. ...
Shop Sterol uptake control protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Sterol uptake control protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Serine/threonine Akt kinase is a key regulator of a wide range of cellular pathways including growth, proliferation, and survival. Accordingly, deregulation of Akt plays a key role in the onset or propagation of cancer. We found that dynAP is a novel modulator of Akt activation, warranting dynAP as a potential target for developing anticancer drugs. In addition, the involvement of Akt in the metabolic control (lipid and glucose) has been widely accepted, and recently, the importance of Akt has been implicated in the neuronal function (17, 18). Expression of dynAP therefore may profoundly affect other disease conditions such as diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The cellular content of dynAP seemed to be correlated with its mRNA level, and SV40 transformation provoked dynAP expression in the normal fibroblasts that did not express dynAP. These results may suggest that the expression of the dynAP gene is under the control of a tumor suppressor (Rb or p53) at the transcriptional ...
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The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans is a commensal of the human oral, gastrointestinal, vaginal, cutaneous, and mucosal surfaces. In immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans causes cutaneous or subcutaneous infections such as vaginitis or oral thrush or infections of the nails and skin. In patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics or undergoing cancer chemotherapy, C. albicans can enter the bloodstream to cause serious systemic invasive disease (6, 38). Due to the difficulty in identifying antifungal targets unique to fungi that are not shared with the human host, only a restricted number of antifungal agents have been widely used for treating C. albicans systemic infections (12, 32). One such target unique to fungi is the sterol cell membrane component ergosterol.. Fluconazole is a member of the azole class of drugs that target an essential enzyme (Erg11; lanosterol 14α-demethylase) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway (36, 37). Fluconazole is the most ...
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetically tractable model organism to investigate sterol transport. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent sterol, dehydroergosterol (DHE), is challenged by C. elegans high autofluorescence in the same spectral region as emission of DHE. We present a method to detect DHE selectively, based on its rapid bleaching kinetics compared to cellular autofluorescence. Worms were repeatedly imaged on an ultraviolet-sensitive wide field (UV-WF) microscope, and bleaching kinetics of DHE were fitted on a pixel-basis to mathematical models describing the intensity decay. Bleach-rate constants were determined for DHE in vivo and confirmed in model membranes. Using this method, we could detect enrichment of DHE in specific tissues like the nerve ring, the spermateca and oocytes. We confirm these results in C. elegans gut-granule-loss (glo) mutants with reduced autofluorescence and compare our method with three-photon excitation microscopy of sterol in selected tissues. Bleach
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a genetically tractable model organism to investigate sterol transport. In vivo imaging of the fluorescent sterol, dehydroergosterol (DHE), is challenged by C. elegans high autofluorescence in the same spectral region as emission of DHE. We present a method to detect DHE selectively, based on its rapid bleaching kinetics compared to cellular autofluorescence. Worms were repeatedly imaged on an ultraviolet-sensitive wide field (UV-WF) microscope, and bleaching kinetics of DHE were fitted on a pixel-basis to mathematical models describing the intensity decay. Bleach-rate constants were determined for DHE in vivo and confirmed in model membranes. Using this method, we could detect enrichment of DHE in specific tissues like the nerve ring, the spermateca and oocytes. We confirm these results in C. elegans gut-granule-loss (glo) mutants with reduced autofluorescence and compare our method with three-photon excitation microscopy of sterol in selected tissues. Bleach
Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal medication. The medication can be administered orally or topically as a cream. The topical treatment was officially approved by the FDA in 1993 and can be bought over the counter. The oral treatment was approved in 1996 and widely distributes in the central nervous system, hair and nail beds and may remain there for up to three months because of extended elimination from skin and adipose tissue. Terbinafine is metabolized in the liver and 70% is excreted in the urine.. Mechanism: Terbinafine has a fungicidal effect by inhibiting the enzyme squalene monooxygenase which is involved in the synthesis of sterol in fungi. This inhibits fungal sterol biosynthesis by decreasing ergosterol levels. Fungal membranes are not able to grow because ergosterol is one of the main components of the fungal cell membrane. Additionally, squalene accumulates which weakens the cell membrane. Orally, the drug is very effective due to its ability to concentrate within the ...
Wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not accumulate exogenous sterols under aerobic conditions, and a mutant allele conferring sterol auxotrophy (erg7) could be isolated only in strains with a heme deficiency. delta-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) fed to a hem1 (ALA synthetase-) erg7 (2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase-) sterol-auxotrophic strain of S. cerevisiae inhibited sterol uptake, and growth was negatively affected when intracellular sterol was depleted. The inhibition of sterol uptake (and growth of sterol auxotrophs) by ALA was dependent on the ability to synthesize heme from ALA. A procedure was developed which allowed selection of strains which would take up exogenous sterols but had no apparent defect in heme or ergosterol biosynthesis. One of these sterol uptake control mutants possessed an allele which allowed phenotypic expression of sterol auxotrophy in a heme-competent background.
Candida albicans is an endogenous opportunistic yeast that does not cause infections in healthy individuals. However, disruption of the balance between microbiome and microorganism, the commensal form becomes pathogenic with clinical manifestation. The aim ofthis study was to determine the effect of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol and their mechanism of action in C. albicans in vitro. Using the SQM approach for modulation ofergosterol synthesiswe found that oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in concentrations below the MIC after 18 hours of incubation at 35 °C showed their interference in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. The testing of the effect of hydroxytrosol and oleuropein on the inhibition of blastospore germination of C. albicans showed that after 3 hours of incubation at 37 °C oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibit the germination even in values below MIC affecting the cellular signal pathways (cAMP-PKA). The testing of inhibition of growth of filaments reveals that oleuropein and ...
In this study, we demonstrate that yeast ORPs can interact with two membranes simultaneously and facilitate regulated sterol transfer by a novel mechanism. Using Osh4p as a representative Osh protein, we identified a membrane-binding site on Osh4p that is distal to the membrane-binding surface near the mouth of the sterol-binding pocket. Our findings suggest that lipid content of the liposome interacting with the distal membrane-binding surface affects the rate of sterol extraction from and delivery to the second liposome. We confirmed the functional importance of the distal membrane-binding surface of Osh4p by altering it and showing that the mutant protein cannot replace the wild-type protein or facilitate sterol transfer in cells and that it is insensitive to the stimulatory effect of PI(4,5)P2 on sterol transfer in vitro. Because all yeast ORDs can bind two membranes simultaneously, they likely all have similar regulatory distal membrane-binding surfaces, although they almost certainly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification and reconstitution of sterol transfer by native mouse ABCG5 and ABCG8. AU - Wang, Jin. AU - Zhang, Da Wei. AU - Lei, Ying. AU - Xu, Fang. AU - Cohen, Jonathan C.. AU - Hobbs, Helen H.. AU - Xie, Xiao Song. PY - 2008/5/6. Y1 - 2008/5/6. N2 - ABCG5 (G5) and ABCG8 (G8) are ATP-binding cassette half-transporters that limit intestinal uptake and promote biliary secretion of neutral sterols. Here, we describe the purification of endogenous G5G8 from mouse liver to near homogeneity. We incorporated the native proteins into membrane vesicles and reconstituted sterol transfer. Native gel electrophoresis, density-gradient ultracentrifugation, and chemical cross-linking studies indicated that the functional native complex is a heterodimer. No higher order oligomeric forms were observed at any stage in the catalytic cycle. Sterol transfer activity by purified native G5G8 was stable, stereospecific, and selective. We also report that G5 but not G8 is S-palmitoylated and that ...
A post-doctoral position is available in the research group of Associate Prof. Maike Bublitz at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford. The project aims to understand the structure and function of fungal membrane transport proteins identified as potential new drug targets, using a combination of state-of-the-art structural (X-ray crystallography, cryo-EM) and biochemical/biophysical techniques.. Applicants should hold a PhD in a relevant subject area, such as membrane protein biochemistry or structural biology. Experience in native or recombinant membrane protein expression, purification and either structural determination or functional analysis using biochemical and biophysical techniques is essential. Ability to work in a team as well as contribute to supervision activities and excellent verbal and written communication skills are expected. Experience in protein X-ray crystallography and/or cryo-EM is an advantage.. To apply for this role and for further details, including the ...
Ojserkis, Bennett E., The effect of sterol composition on the activities of membrane-bound enzymes in mouse L cells. (1974). Summer and Academic Year Student Reports. 609 ...
C-5 Sterol Desaturase; Glycoprotein That Catalyzes The Introduction Of A C-5(6) Double Bond Into Episterol, A Precursor In Ergosterol Biosynthesis; Mutants Are Viable, But Cannot Grow On Non-fermentable Carbon Sources; Substrate Of The HRD Ubiquitin Ligase
C-5 Sterol Desaturase; Glycoprotein That Catalyzes The Introduction Of A C-5(6) Double Bond Into Episterol, A Precursor In Ergosterol Biosynthesis; Mutants Are Viable, But Cannot Grow On Non-fermentable Carbon Sources; Substrate Of The HRD Ubiquitin Ligase
Nervat e caktuara për zorrën e trashë, tek disa persona janë shumë të ndieshme, gjë e cila çon në çrregullimin e saj si pasojë e ngrënies së disa lloj ushqimesh të veçanta (intolerancës ndaj disa ushqimeve si ushqimeve të skuqura, alkoolit, qumështit, çokollatave, lëngut të domates, kafesë etj.), ose si pasojë e një çrregullimi nervor, ose si pasojë e ndonjë frike të madhe apo zemërimi të madh, e ngjashëm me këto gjendje emocionale. Atëherë, gazrat mblidhen në zorrë në përmasa të mëdha dhe ngrihen lart duke shtypur të dyja anët e barkut ose njërën prej tyre, sidomos anën e majtë, dhe kjo shkakton shtypje të stomakut dhe ndienjën e ngopjes dhe fryrjes, dhe si pasojë shtypjen e shtresës ndarëse, dhe kjo e fundit shkakton ngushtim në gjoks dhe në frymëmarrje. Ndonjëherë këto gazra ngjiten deri në tru dhe shkaktojnë dhimbje koke, gjendje e cila ndonjëherë çon në ndienjën e frikës apo mërzitjes së menjhershme dhe papritmas, mandje ...
Këngëtarja Fergie ka folur me guxim për luftën e saj ndaj varësisë prej narkotikëve.. Fergie ka hapur zemrën dhe ka folur për luftën me psikozën dhe demencën.. Gjatë kohës së ndarjes nga ish-bashkëshorti, Fergie ka zbuluar se si në moshë të re nuk e kishte aspak të lehtë.. Ajo thotë se eksperimentet me drogë e sollën deri te problemet e vështira shëndetësore.. Kisha prekur fundin. Kam vuajtur nga psikoza dhe demenca. Kisha halucinacione, ka pranuar Fergie.. Ajo ka zbuluar edhe pasojat që kishte bartur pas konsumimit të drogës.. Doja të ulesha në hapësirë të mbyllur ku më shfaqeshin bletë dhe lepuri, ka thënë këngëtarja.. Në fillim kjo i dukej argëtuese, por shumë shpejt kuptoi se deri ku kishte arritur.. Dita kur ndalova të argëtohesha ishte dita kur forca, besimi dhe shpresa ime u zgjuan për diçka më të mirë, tha ajo për Daily Mail.. Ajo në këtë intervistë po ashtu diskutoi shkurtimisht divorcin me Josh Duhamelit, pas tetë vjet ...
Semundjet kronike jane nje fenomen i ri ne historine e njerezimit. Perballja me to filloi qe pas luftes se dyte boterore, pikerisht kur filloi dhe i famshmi tranzicion ushqimor me industrializimin dhe globalizimin e ushqimit. Industrializimi solli sintetizimin e molekulave te reja per natyren, te panjohura me pare, rritjen e menjehershme te ekspozimit ndaj lendeve toksike te ambjentit, dhe uljen e aktivitetit fizik. Zakonet e reja sollen konsum te ushqimit jashte shtepise, dhe preference per ushqime te perpunuara dhe te zhveshura nga lendet ushqyese qe natyrshem gjenden ne to. Te gjithe keto ndryshime sollen rritje te konsumit te ushqimit ta gatshem, rrallimin e lendeve ushqyese dhe dendesimin e kalorive, uljen e konsumit te fruta perimeve dhe rritjen e konsumit te sheqerit dhe kripes. Keto ndryshime duket te kene ndikuar ne menyre dramatike ne shendetin tone sepse obeziteti ka thyer rekorde dhe semundjet kronike po shfaqen ne forme epidemike dhe madje edhe ne moshat e reja. ...
Use websites such as UPC Database, Scandit and UPC Machine to look up Universal Product Code (UPC) codes for Walmart products. Another way to look up UPC codes is to enter them in the Google search...
Kuize dhe Teste të ndryshme. Kuize nga Biologjia. Kuize dhe Teste nga Kimia. Kuize dhe Teste nga Matematika, Gjuha Shqipe, Letërsia Shqipe.
Ndërtimi dhe montimi i objekteve munden të paraqesin shumë rreziqe, pasoja te cilat do të shkaktonin humbje të mëdha financiare. Sigurimi i objekteve gjatë ndërtimit dhe montimit përkatësisht ofrojnë mbulim për dëmet ndaj objektit ndërtimor dhe pajisjet montuese. Dëmtimet themelore që do të mbulohen janë nga: zjarri, goditje e rrufesë, eksplodimi, stuhia, breshri, manifestimi demonstratave, goditje nga mjete motorike, rrjedhje e ujit prej instalimeve, shembjen dhe uljen e tokës, ngricën, akulli, pesha e borës, shiu, aksidente ndërtimore, paaftësia apo pakujdesi të punëtorëve, qellim keqe të punëtorët, vjedhja me thyerje. Nga mbulimet plotësuese që ofrohen janë: vërshimet, rrëshqitja e tokës, tërmeti, përgjegjësitë ndaj palëve të treta, përgjegjësitë kontraktuale, dhe të tjerë. Shield Brokers do të ju ndihmoj në analizën e rrezikut e juaj duke ua kjartësu të gjitha mundësitë për të qenë i mbuluar gjatë ndërtimit dhe montimit e objektit ...
Lutfi Haziri njihet për aktivitetin e tij të shpeshtë në rrjete sociale. Ndërsa këtë herë Mika, vendosi të tregojë se ajo dhe bashkëshorti i saj, Lutfiu janë veshur dhe rregulluar bukur...
UPC 603403017851 NRS Mens Crux Drysuit - The Mens Crux Drysuit by NRS gives kayakers a new standard of freedom of movement and dry comfort, with its innovative , also find 603403017851 barcode , images and shopping info of UPC 603403017851
Një burim arsimor gjithëpërfshirës i krijuar nga ekspertë kryesorë për komunitetin global të hemofilisë për tju ndihmuar të qëndroni në krah të shkencës në zhvillim dhe përparimeve të fundit klinike në terapinë e gjeneve në hemofili.
The rightmost digit in a UPC is a checksum, because it provides some insurance that all the other numbers are right by performing the above calculation on them. The system is not foolproof, but if any number is wrong then you will typically get a wrong checksum. ...
Shqip, programe,libra,fjalor,analiza,referate,kuriozitete,fjale te urta,takvimi,gramatike,gjuhe dhe letersi,mjekesi,namazi, shendetesi,lojra,
Shqip, programe,libra,fjalor,analiza,referate,kuriozitete,fjale te urta,takvimi,gramatike,gjuhe dhe letersi,mjekesi,namazi, shendetesi,lojra,
Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone, derived from Acnistus arborescens, Withania somnifera (Indian Winter cherry or Ashwagandha in Sanskrit) and other members of Solanaceae family. It has been traditionally used in ayurvedic medicine. It is the first member of the withanolide class of ergostane type product to be discovered. This natural product has wide range of pharmacological activities including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and anti-carcinogenic properties. Withanolides are a group of naturally occurring C28- steroidal lactones. They contain four cycloalkane ring structures, three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring. Withaferin A is highly reactive because of the ketone-containing unsaturated A ring, the epoxide in the B ring, and the unsaturated lactone ring. The double bond in ring A and the epoxide ring are mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity. The 22nd and 26th carbons of the ergostane skeleton in withaferin A and ...
Purpose: : Withaferin A (WA) is a naturaceudical product derived from Withania somnifera that has demonstrated anti-cancer activity against several cancer types including leukemia, colon, pancreas, thyroid, head and neck, breast, glioblastoma, and cutaneous and uveal melanoma. Control Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) cells were exposed to WA and revealed an IC50 = 1.8µM in a comparable range to the IC50s of many other cancer lines [Leukemia SUPB15 = 0.13 µM, Thyroid DRO81-1 = 0.65 µM, KAT4B = 0.9 µM, Breast MCF-7 = 0.58 µM, MDA-MB231 = 0.54 µM, Melanoma SKMEL28 = 0.62 µM, UM 92.1= 2.50 µM, OMM 2.3 = 1.0 µM, and Fibroblast MRC-5 = 3.95 µM as systemic control]. Further in vivo and vitro experiments were conducted to observe any cytotoxic effects of Withaferin A on RPE Cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: : In addition to MTS assay, cell proliferation and viability assay were performed through trypan blue exclusion assay to confirm RPE suppression. To determine if apoptosis was the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 4-Methyl sterols regulate fission yeast SREBP-Scap under low oxygen and cell stress. AU - Hughes, Adam L.. AU - Lee, Chih Yung S.. AU - Bien, Clara M.. AU - Espenshade, Peter J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/8/17. Y1 - 2007/8/17. N2 - In fission yeast, orthologs of mammalian SREBP and Scap, called Sre1 and Scp1, monitor oxygen-dependent sterol synthesis as a measure of cellular oxygen supply. Under low oxygen conditions, sterol synthesis is inhibited, and Sre1 cleavage is activated. However, the sterol signal for Sre1 activation is unknown. In this study, we characterized the sterol signal for Sre1 activation using a combination of Sre1 cleavage assays and gas chromatography sterol analysis. We find that Sre1 activation is regulated by levels of the 4-methyl sterols 24-methylene lanosterol and 4,4-dimethylfecosterol under conditions of low oxygen and cell stress. Both increases and decreases in the level of these ergosterol pathway ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro assays to identify compounds suitable for progression in Chagas disease drug discovery. AU - MacLean, Lorna. AU - Thomas, John. AU - Lewis, Michael D.. AU - Cotillo, Ignacio. AU - Gray, David. AU - De Rycker, Manu. N1 - Funding: Wellcome Trust grant 355 808114 (Wellcome Centre for Anti-Infective Research) PY - 2018/7/12. Y1 - 2018/7/12. N2 - Chagas disease is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in Latin America. Current treatments display variable efficacy and have adverse side effects, hence more effective, better tolerated drugs are needed. However, recent efforts have proved unsuccessful with failure of the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor posaconazole in phase II clinical trials despite promising in vitro and in vivo studies. The lack of translation between laboratory experiments and clinical outcome is a major issue for further drug discovery efforts. Our goal was to identify cell-based assays that could ...
Cervical cancer is caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) expressing E6 and E7 oncoproteins, which are known to inactivate tumor suppressor proteins p53 and pRb, respectively. Repression of HPV oncoproteins would therefore result in reactivation of tumor suppressor pathways and cause apoptosis in cancer cells. Withaferin A (WA), the active component of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, has exhibited inhibitory effects against several different cancers. We examined the activity of WA on human cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. WA potently inhibited proliferation of the cervical cancer cells, CaSki (IC(50) 0.45 ? 0.05 ?M). Mechanistically, WA was found to (i) downregulate expression of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, (ii) induce accumulation of p53, (iii) increase levels of p21(cip1/waf1) and its interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), (iv) cause G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, associated with modulation of cyclin B1, p34(cdc2) and PCNA levels, (v) decrease the levels of ...
Withaferin A induces p53-dependent apoptosis by repression of HPV oncogenes and upregulation of tumor suppressor proteins in human cervical cancer cells ...
Background: In contrast to the increasing numbers of agents for the treatment of invasive fungal infections, discoveries of new antifungal agents with therapeutic value in dermatomycoses are reported only rarely. Methods: Abafungin (chemical abstracts service registry No. 129639-79/8) is the first member of a novel class of synthetic antifungal compounds, the arylguanidines. It was first synthesized at Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany, and its antifungal action was discovered during the screening of H-2-receptor antagonists based on the structure of famotidine. To obtain insight into its mode of action and antifungal activity, various tests were carried out with different fungal pathogens in vitro. Results: Abafungin was found to have potent antifungal activity. Furthermore, mode-of-action studies suggested that abafungin exerts its antifungal activity regardless of whether the pathogens are growing or in a resting state. One target of abafungin was found to be the inhibition of transmethylation at ...
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rho-type GTPase Cdc42 regulates polarized growth through its effectors, including the p21-activated kinases (PAKs) Ste20, Cla4, and Skm1. Previously, we demonstrated that Ste20 interacts with several proteins involved in sterol synthesis that are crucial for cell polarization. Under anaerobic conditions, sterols cannot be synthesized and need to be imported into cells. Here, we show that Ste20, Cla4, and Skm1 form a complex with Sut1, a transcriptional regulator that promotes sterol uptake. All three PAKs can translocate into the nucleus and down-regulate the expression of genes involved in sterol uptake, including the Sut1 targets AUS1 and DAN1 by a novel mechanism. Consistently, deletion of either STE20, CLA4, or SKM1 results in an increased sterol influx and PAK overexpression inhibits sterol uptake. For Ste20, we demonstrate that the down-regulation of gene expression requires nuclear localization and kinase activity of Ste20. Furthermore, the Ste20
The increasing availability of omics databases provide important platforms for yeast engineering strategies since they offer a lot of information on the physiology of the cells under diverse growth conditions, including environmental stresses. Notably, only a few of these approaches have considered a performance under recombinant protein production conditions. Recently, we have identified a beneficial effect of low oxygen availability on the expression of a human Fab fragment in Pichia pastoris. Transcriptional analysis and data mining allowed for the selection of potential targets for strain improvement. A first selection of these candidates has been evaluated as recombinant protein secretion enhancers. Based on previous transcriptomics analyses, we selected 8 genes for co-expression in the P. pastoris strain already secreting a recombinant Fab fragment. Notably, WSC4 (which is involved in trafficking through the ER) has been identified as a novel potential target gene for strain improvement, with up
The main chemical constituents are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. These include tropine and cuscohygrine. The leaves contain the steroidal lactones, withanolides, notably withaferin A, which was the first to be isolated from the plant.[citation needed] Tropine is a derivative of tropane containing a hydroxyl group at third carbon. It is also called 3-tropanol. Benzatropine and etybenzatropine are derivatives of tropine. It is also a building block of atropine, an anticholinergic drug prototypical of the muscarinic antagonist class. Cuscohygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid found in coca.
Itraconazole is a synthetic triazole agent with antimycotic properties. Formulated for both topical and systemic use, itraconazole preferentially inhibits fungal cytochrome P450 enzymes, resulting in a decrease in fungal ergosterol synthesis ...
Sterols are unevenly distributed within cellular membranes. How their biosynthetic and transport machineries are organized to generate heterogeneity is largely unknown. We previously showed that the yeast sterol transporter Osh2 is recruited to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-endocytic contacts to facilitate actin polymerization. We now find that a subset of sterol biosynthetic enzymes also localizes at these contacts and interacts with Osh2 and the endocytic machinery. Following the sterol dynamics, we show that Osh2 extracts sterols from these subdomains, which we name ERSESs (ER sterol exit sites). Further, we demonstrate that coupling of the sterol synthesis and transport machineries is required for endocytosis in mother cells, but not in daughters, where plasma membrane loading with accessible sterols and endocytosis are linked to secretion ...
File Title: Physiological, biochemical, and genetic studies on the [delta]24 sterol methyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
Njësia matëse e tensionit të gjakut është mmHg.. Tensioni matet me dy shifra.. Shifra e parë tregon tensionin sistolik ose pikën më të lartë të presionit ndaj zemrës.. Shifra e dytë tregon tensionin diastolik ose pikën më të ulët të presionit.. Kjo tregon kur zemra qetësohet mes çdo rrahjeje.. Në këtë hapësirë, zemra mbushet me gjak dhe ushqehet me oksigjen.. Nëse matësi i tensionit tregon vlerat 90/60 mmHg (pra 9 me 6 sic thuhet zakonisht) ose më pak, atëherë tensioni i gjakut konsiderohet i ulët.. Nëse matësi tregon vlerat midis 90/60 dhe 120/80 atëherë tensioni i gjakut është i shëndetshëm dhe në nivel ideal.. Nëse matësi tregon vlerat midis 120/80 dhe 140/90 atëherë tensioni i gjakut është pak më i lartë se mesatarja.. Nëse matësi tregon vlerat mbi 140/90 atëherë tensioni i gjakut është i lartë dhe klasifikohet si hipertension.. Nëse vlerat e të dy njësive arrijnë mbi 180 dhe 110 atëherë duhet duhet të shkoni menjëherë te mjeku. ...
Grupi Patriotik Atdhetar Çamëria eshte organ i Shoqerive Politike Atdhetare Çamëria ne Diaspore. Qellimi i ketij grupi eshte informimi, sensibilizimi dhe MOBILIZIMI i publikut shqiptar, nderkombetar dhe te huaj rreth GJENOCIDIT DHE DRAMES ÇAME dhe zgjidhjes se saj. Kjo liste organizon here pas here studime dhe debate konstruktive per zgjidhjen dhe nderkombetarizimin e çeshtjes çame. Çdo anetar eshte i lire te postoje edhe shkrime qe nuk kane lidhje me Çamërine por qellimi kryesor i kesaj liste eshte dhe mbetet çeshtja çame, islame dhe shqiptare ne Ballkan. Per te pare fotot dhe deshmite e vjetra historike te Çamerise lexuesit duhet te behen anetare te grupit. Motoja jone eshte: = | MOS PYET CFARE KA BERE CAMERIA PER TY | = = | POR THUAJ CFARE KAM BERE UNE PER CAMERINE! | =
Grupi Patriotik Atdhetar Çamëria eshte organ i Shoqerive Politike Atdhetare Çamëria ne Diaspore. Qellimi i ketij grupi eshte informimi, sensibilizimi dhe MOBILIZIMI i publikut shqiptar, nderkombetar dhe te huaj rreth GJENOCIDIT DHE DRAMES ÇAME dhe zgjidhjes se saj. Kjo liste organizon here pas here studime dhe debate konstruktive per zgjidhjen dhe nderkombetarizimin e çeshtjes çame. Çdo anetar eshte i lire te postoje edhe shkrime qe nuk kane lidhje me Çamërine por qellimi kryesor i kesaj liste eshte dhe mbetet çeshtja çame, islame dhe shqiptare ne Ballkan. Per te pare fotot dhe deshmite e vjetra historike te Çamerise lexuesit duhet te behen anetare te grupit. Motoja jone eshte: = | MOS PYET CFARE KA BERE CAMERIA PER TY | = = | POR THUAJ CFARE KAM BERE UNE PER CAMERINE! | =
Përdorimi dhe botimi i lajmeve mund të bëhet vetëm me kusht që autorësia të ruhet dhe të vendoset në mënyrë të qartë burimi i lajmit dhe materialit. Çfarëdo kundërveprimi në këtë drejtim do të bëhet subjekt i procedurave përkatëse. Lajmet dhe materialet të vendosura në të cilat janë të huazuara nga mediume apo portale të tjera mbeten e drejtë e patjetërsueshme e mediumeve përkatëse.. Përdorimi dhe botimi i lajmeve mund të bëhet vetëm me kusht që autorësia të ruhet dhe të vendoset në mënyrë të qartë burimi i lajmit dhe materialit. Çfarëdo kundërveprimi në këtë drejtim do të bëhet subjekt i procedurave përkatëse. Lajmet dhe materialet të vendosura në të cilat janë të huazuara nga mediume apo portale të tjera mbeten e drejtë e patjetërsueshme e mediumeve përkatëse.. Për më shumë drejtohuni në [email protected]. ...
Përdorimi dhe botimi i lajmeve mund të bëhet vetëm me kusht që autorësia të ruhet dhe të vendoset në mënyrë të qartë burimi i lajmit dhe materialit. Çfarëdo kundërveprimi në këtë drejtim do të bëhet subjekt i procedurave përkatëse. Lajmet dhe materialet të vendosura në të cilat janë të huazuara nga mediume apo portale të tjera mbeten e drejtë e patjetërsueshme e mediumeve përkatëse.. Përdorimi dhe botimi i lajmeve mund të bëhet vetëm me kusht që autorësia të ruhet dhe të vendoset në mënyrë të qartë burimi i lajmit dhe materialit. Çfarëdo kundërveprimi në këtë drejtim do të bëhet subjekt i procedurave përkatëse. Lajmet dhe materialet të vendosura në të cilat janë të huazuara nga mediume apo portale të tjera mbeten e drejtë e patjetërsueshme e mediumeve përkatëse.. Për më shumë drejtohuni në [email protected]. ...
Nga Lorena Stroka. Pjesa dërrmuese e njerëzve anembanë botës e nis ditën me kafe, ankesa dhe shumë ankth për angazhimet vijuese. Një rutinë e trashguar, e cila sa vjen e përkeqësohet…. Sipas kanalit shkencor ASAP, koha më e papërshtatshme për të konsumuar kafe është mëngjesi, për shkak të vlerave të larta të kortizolit në trupin e njeriut, kryesisht gjatë asaj ore.. Kjo do të thotë se konsumi i kafesë në këtë kohë krijon dy probleme madhore: Së pari, kafeina ndikon prodhimin e kortizolit në organizëm, një hormoni që lirohet si përgjigje ndaj stresit dhe niveleve të ulta të glukozës në gjak. Kështu, trupi prodhon më pak kortizol dhe bazohet më shumë te kafeina për të plotësuar mangësinë. Së dyti, të gjithë ata që konsumojnë kafe në mëngjes, pa e ditur, rrisin rezistencën e trupit ndaj kafeinës, për shkak të të lartpërmendurave.. Pas të gjitha këtyre, mendoj se ka ardhur koha që popullsia botërore të ndryshojë zakon. Sipas ...
A.B.I Exchange eshte nje kompani me eksperience ne fushen e kombimit valutor ne Tirane, Shqiperi.. Historiku i shoqerise. Shoqeria A.B.I Exchange sh.p.k eshte krijuar ne 11 Janar 2006 dhe eshte pajisur me licensen e Bankes se Shqiperise ne daten 17.02.2006. Vendodhja. Kjo shoqeri operon ne nje njesi qe ndodhet ne adresen Bulevardi Zogu i Pare, ish godina e Zerit te Popullit nr 8.. Vizioni. Kjo shoqeri ushtron aktivitetin e saj ne Tirane prej mese shtate vitesh. Mund te themi qe ka nje aktivitet solid dhe eshte nje nga zyrat e kembimit valutor me shume ndikim ne kete treg. A.B.I Exchange sh.p.k ofron kurse konkuruese dhe se shpejti do te shtrihet dhe me gjere ne qytetin e Tiranes.Ofron transparence dhe korrektesi ndaj klienteve te saj.Shoqëria A.B.I Exchange sh.p.k e kryen aktivitetin e saj ne perputhje te plote me dispozitat ligjore dhe nën ligjore në fuqi në fushen e parandalimit të pastrimit të parave.. ...
Ekipet italiane siguruar nj fitore, nj humbje dhe nj barazim gjat ndeshjeve t mesjav s n kuad r t rundit t par eliminues t Lig s s Kampion ve. N tek
Bora dhe moti i ftohtë ka bllokuar shumë rrugë dhe ka izoluar disa zona në veri dhe lindje të Shqipërisë. Ushtria po ndihmon në hapjen e rrugëve. Moti i ftohtë ka përfshirë edhe Kosovën. Sipas zëdhënësit të policisë së Kosovës, Refki Morina, janë regjistruar mbi 100 aksidente trafiku si pasojë...
Stresi, dietë të varfër dhe ekologji e keqe dhe shumë faktorë të tjerë, duke përfshirë infeksionit dhe aborteve të kaluarën shpesh shkaktojnë përçarje të vezoreve. Sipas burimeve të ndryshme, ata...
AASraw një prodhues për prodhimin e pjesa më e madhe 2-Aminoisoheptane (28292-43-5) sipas rregullores CGMP, dhe siguron shitje online, sintetike kimike dhe të përshtatur
Gjeni dhoma gjumi, poltrone e divanet qe deshironi per ambientet tuaja prodhuar nga industrite lider te kesaj fushe me perkushtimin dhe cilesine e duhur
erg.. Το 2015 απόκτησε την: «Πιστοποίηση στην Κολποσκόπηση», στα πλαίσια του 13ου Ευρωπαϊκού Σεμιναρίου Κολποσκόπησης & Παθολογίας Τραχήλου, Αθήνα, 20/6/2015.. Απόκτησε τον τίτλο του Διδάκτορα της Ιατρικής Σχολής του Πανεπιστημίου Αθηνών τον 6ο/2016, μετά από την υποστήριξη του θέματος: «Η αξία των μεθοδολογιών λήψης απόφασης στην αύξηση της διαγνωστικής ακρίβειας της κυτταρολογίας του ενδομητρίου».. Το χρονικό διάστημα μεταξύ 9/2013 - 8/2016 διετέλεσε Πανεπιστημιακός υπότροφος (τ. βαθμίδα Λέκτορα) της Γ Μαιευτικής και Γυναικολογικής κλινικής της Ιατρικής Σχολής ...

No data available that match "ergosterol"

Lanosterol synthase, an essential enzyme that catalyzes the cyclization of squalene 2,3-epoxide, a step in ergosterol ...
... catalyzes the isomerization of the delta-8 double bond to the delta-7 position at an intermediate step in ergosterol ...
... recently issued a favorable opinion on the safety of bread that is UV-treated to turn ergosterol, present in the bread because ...
It decreases an important constituent of the cell membrane of fungi (ergosterol), thereby exhibiting its fungicidal activity. ...
ergosterol ergosterol [gr.], (24R)-24-metylcholesta-5,7,22-trién-2b-ol, C28H44O - rastlinný sterol, mykosterol. Najdôležitejší ...
... based on the similarity of the biochemical route of cholesterol and ergosterol formation, being the ergosterol a component of ... à do ergosterol, componente da membrana plasmática desses protozoários. Foram realizadas avaliações in vitro e in vivo das ...
Noinart, J., Buttachon, S., Dethoup, T., Gales, L., et al. (2017). A new ergosterol analog, a new bis-anthraquinone and anti- ...
Noinart, J., Buttachon, S., Dethoup, T., Gales, L., et al. (2017). A new ergosterol analog, a new bis-anthraquinone and anti- ...
Plant species affect acid phosphatase, ergosterol and microbial P in a Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata Donn ex Sm.) forest in ...
Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for deoxynivalenol and ergosterol estimation in wheat samples  Femenias, Antoni; Gatius ... NIR spectroscopy to assess the presence of DON and ergosterol presence in wheat samples through prediction and classification ...
Ergosterol. *L-Ergothioneine. *Beta-glucans. *Chitin-glucan. *Glucosamine, Chitin, Chitosan. *Vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7 ...
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ergosterol ergot ergot alkaloid See More Nearby Entries Cite this Entry. "Ergophobia." Medical Dictionary, ...
Ergosterol Standard for Crude Drugs Determination. β-Eudesmol Standard for Crude Drugs Determination. ...
Correct Answer: A. Blockade of ergosterol synthesis. Tinea corporis or ringworm is a fungal infection. An effective treatment ... for this infection is a topical azole that acts by blocking ergosterol synthesis and thereby increasing fungal membrane ...
negative regulation of ergosterol biosynthetic process. GO:0010895. 1. 0.023. regulation of mitotic cell cycle. GO:0007346. 107 ...
Amphotericin B bildet Poren am Ergosterol. *Durch die Pore wird die Zellmembran undicht, leakage ...
ergosterol 264,7±18,2 ppm. * Campesterol 27,0±0,14 ppm ...
Vitamín D (ergosterol, kalciferol, viosterol) Obsahuje minerální látky Zinek Zinek Hořčík Hořčík ...
Triterpenes: Inotodiol, Lanosterol, Ergosterol, Betulinic acid (Betulin) (10). Mechanism of Action. Chaga demonstrated ...
Vitamín D (ergosterol, kalciferol, viosterol) Vitamín C Vitamín C (kyselina askorbová) Vitamín B6 Vitamín B6 (pyridoxin) ...
Vitamín D (ergosterol, kalciferol, viosterol) Kyselina listová Kyselina listová (folacin, folát, vitamín B9) ...
Vitamín D (ergosterol, kalciferol, viosterol) Obsahuje minerálne látky Draslík Draslík Meď Meď ...
Ergosterol Content in Relation to Grain Kernel Weight.. S. Regneir, J. Schnurer, and A. Jonsson.. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE ...
Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. ... The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, ...
  • Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells. (
  • Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in fungi, and named for ergot, the common name of members of the fungal genus Claviceps from which ergosterol was first isolated. (
  • The two fungal enzymes, C-14 sterol reductase (gene ERG24 in budding yeast and erg3 in Neurospora crassa) and C-24(28) sterol reductase (gene ERG4 in budding yeast and sts1 in fission yeast), are involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. (
  • Research on the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway in fungi has focused on the identification of the specific sterol structure required for normal membrane structure and function and for completion of the cell cycle. (
  • The remaining eight genes encode enzymes which metabolize the first sterol, lanosterol, to ultimately form ergosterol. (
  • Our experimental findings suggest that SJA-95 binds more avidly to ergosterol, the sterol in fungal cell membranes, than to cholesterol found in mammalian cell membranes. (
  • Ergosterol (Erg) is the major sterol component in the plasma membranes of fungi. (
  • In order to determine the regulation mechanisms of ergosterol biosynthesis in yeast, we developed growth conditions leading to high or limiting ergosterol levels in wild type and sterol-auxotrophic mutant strains. (
  • Zn[2]-Cys[6] binuclear transcription factors Upc2p and Ecm22p regulate the expression of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis and exogenous sterol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • We found that mixing ergosterol with phospholipids into a single phase became increasingly difficult with higher sterol concentrations and also with higher concentrations of unsaturated lipid chains. (
  • Experiments dealing with the effect of respiratory inhibitors on sterol synthesis in nonprofilerating cell suspensions suggest that the synthesis and physiological form of ergosterol is intimately related to the integrity of the respiratory apparatus and that the DNA encoding for the synthesis and regulation of ergosterol is located in the mitochondria. (
  • Ergosterol, a 5,7-diene sterol, is synthesized by fungi and phytoplankton but not in the animal kingdom ( Holick, 2003 ). (
  • Ergosterol is a major membrane sterol in fungi ( Bracher, 2003 ) and can serve as the precursor for the synthesis of vitamin D 2 via UV irradiation ( Holick, 2003 ). (
  • α-Bisabolol inhibits Aspergillus fumigatus Af239 growth via affecting microsomal ∆24-sterol methyltransferase as a crucial enzyme in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. (
  • In fact the sterol for the plant kingdom is ergosterol and any plant product therefore can be labelled as cholesterol free. (
  • Ergosterol (Erg) is a type of sterol lipid. (
  • Ergosterol is the major sterol lipid in fungi and also some unicellular eukaryotes. (
  • By exploiting the sterol-auxotrophic hem1Δ yeast strain we obtained cells in which endogenous ergosterol was quantitatively replaced with dehydroergosterol (DHE), a closely related fluorescent sterol that functionally and accurately substitutes for ergosterol in vivo. (
  • Ergosterol was identified as the major free sterol of Aspergillus nidulans by thin-layer chromatography, alumina column chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, highperformance liquid chromatography, UV spectroscopy, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectral analysis. (
  • In the steryl ester material, however, lanosterol was usually more abundant than ergosterol, suggesting that the esters serve as storage compounds for the membrane sterol precursors. (
  • Ergosterol is the major sterol found in the membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (
  • While past studies have identified some ergosterol mutants in C. reinhardtii, very little is known about sterol biosynthesis pathways in this species. (
  • Ergosterol is a kind of important plant sterol (see steride) and extracted from yeast and ergot through physical purification.It is a steroid compounds. (
  • SMT is a membrane-bound enzyme which catalyzes the coupled C-methylation-deprotonation reaction of sterol acceptor molecules generating the 24-alkyl sterol side chains of fungal ergosterol and plant sitosterol. (
  • The sterol C-14 reductase Erg24 is responsible for ergosterol biosynthesis and ion homeostasis in Aspergillus fumigatus. (
  • Facultative sterol uptake in an ergosterol-deficient clinical isolate of Candida glabrata harboring a missense mutation in ERG11 and exhibiting cross-resistance to azoles and amphotericin B. (
  • However, when grown on sterol-supplemented (glc)YM (+ ergosta 7,22-dienol, ergosterol, cholestanol, cholesterol, Δ(7)-cholestenol or desmosterol), CG156 cultures exhibited shorter lag-phases, reached higher cell densities and showed alterations in cellular sterol composition. (
  • Using a measurement of the fungal sterol, ergosterol, we aimed to understand how much grey mould of grapes can be tolerated before there is a perceivable impact on wine sensory characteristics. (
  • The "azole" class of antifungal agents inhibit the enzyme that performs these demethylation steps in the biosynthetic pathway between lanosterol and ergosterol. (
  • Ergosterol biosynthesis: a fungal pathway for life on land? (
  • The identification of a gene family in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. (
  • Ergosterol peroxide from Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) exhibits anti-cancer activity by down-regulation of theβ-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer. (
  • Nine of the eleven genes in the portion of the pathway committed exclusively to ergosterol biosynthesis have been cloned, and their essentiality for aerobic growth has been determined. (
  • Measurements of the specific activities of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) synthase and HMG-CoA reductase (the first three enzymes of the pathway), show that in cells deprived of ergosterol, acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and HMG-CoA synthase are generally increased. (
  • These results show that ergosterol could regulate its own synthesis, at least partially, by repression of the first two enzymes of the pathway. (
  • SA signaling pathway, together with calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and nitric oxide, was demonstrated to play an important role in the induction of defense-related genes following ergosterol treatment. (
  • A possible candidate for this SA-independent pathway is the spermine pathway, as elevated spermine levels were detected following ergosterol treatment. (
  • Blocks at different points in the ergosterol pathway lead to Pdr1 activation as well as to induction of other genes in this pathway. (
  • Delivery of the signal from the ergosterol pathway to Pdr1 involves the transcription factor Upc2A, an ERG gene regulator. (
  • These changes suggest that another gene in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway could be mutated or misregulated. (
  • As a result, ergosterol and its biosynthetic pathway serve as targets for a number of antifungal agents, including the polyene amphotericin B. The polyene class of drugs are known to bind ergosterol in the cell membrane, creating pores and causing cell lysis, and amphotericin B is one of the more efficacious antifungals because of its fungicidal activity ( 17 ). (
  • Yeasts use HMG-CoA reductase for the same enzymatic step as humans, but in yeasts the main end-product of the pathway is ergosterol rather than cholesterol. (
  • The cyp51A gene encodes the target of azoles, lanosterol 14[alpha]-demethylase, and this enzyme catalyzes a step in the biosynthetic pathway of ergosterol (an essential cell membrane component of filamentous fungi). (
  • Ergosterol peroxide downregulates the β-catenin, preventing the Wnt signaling pathway. (
  • This subpathway is part of the pathway ergosterol biosynthesis, which is itself part of Steroid metabolism. (
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes ergosterol from zymosterol , the pathway ergosterol biosynthesis and in Steroid metabolism . (
  • Examination of the implicated genes revealed a specific biochemical pathway-ergosterol biosynthesis-where the expression of multiple genes has been subject to selection for reduced levels. (
  • Upc2, a transcriptional regulator of ergosterol biosynthesis pathway genes, is critical for resistance to triazoles. (
  • Ergosterol biosynthesis is energetically expensive process that involves mevalonate pathway. (
  • A further transcriptomics-based strategy to modify the yeast secretion system was focused on the ergosterol pathway, an aerobic process strongly affected by oxygen depletion. (
  • Current knowledge regarding the essential genes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway is still limited in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. (
  • Compared to the single Dap proteins found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe , we suggest that this complex Dap family regulatory system emerged during the evolution of fungi as an adaptive means to regulate ergosterol synthesis in response to environmental stimuli. (
  • Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (
  • Sensitivity to polyenes in the related fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans requires the ergosterol biosynthetic gene ERG6 . (
  • Here, we therefore constructed single or double gene deletion mutants of the last four enzymes in ergosterol biosynthesis in a prototrophic genetic background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • Prior, Bernard A. / Implications of FPS1 deletion and membrane ergosterol content for glycerol efflux from Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (
  • Objective of this study was to optimize ergosterol production by yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the use of computer controlled feeding of cultivation medium. (
  • El objetivo de este estudio fue optimizar la producción de ergosterol por una cepa de levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae , controlando la alimentación de medio de cultivo por computadora. (
  • Because many fungi and protozoa cannot survive without ergosterol, the enzymes that synthesize it have become important targets for drug discovery. (
  • Because ergosterol is present in cell membranes of fungi, yet absent in those of animals, it is a useful target for antifungal drugs. (
  • Fungi are also grown industrially so that ergosterol can be extracted and converted to Vitamin D for sale as a dietary supplement and food additive. (
  • Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is naturally synthesized from ergosterol by invertebrates, fungi, and plants in response to ultraviolet B irradiation, while vitamin D3 synthesis (cholecalciferol) is uniq. (
  • mammalian cells utilize cholesterol, whereas fungi employ ergosterol. (
  • Eleven species of common fungi from compost were analysed for their content of ergosterol and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) after growth on agar media. (
  • Thus, the ergosterol and the PLFA content were related to the hyphal diameter of the fungi, where fungi with thinner hyphae had higher ergosterol concentrations than fungi with thicker hyphae. (
  • Ergosterol serves an important structural role in the cell membrane of fungi and also forms lipid rafts - similar to cholesterol in animal cells. (
  • Unlike animal cells, ergosterols can be found in the cell membranes of most fungi and protozoans (for now we'll focus on fungi cell membranes). (
  • The addition of Bacillus coagulans to culture of fungi resulted in inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis in mycelium. (
  • [3] In fungi , CYP51 catalyzes the demethylation of lanosterol to create an important precursor that is eventually converted into ergosterol . (
  • The demethylated products of the CYP51 reaction are vital intermediates in pathways leading to the formation of cholesterol in humans, ergosterol in fungi, and other types of sterols in plants. (
  • The CMEO induced the death of fungi through elevating intracellular reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, and depleting ergosterol content. (
  • With the elucidation of the Chlamydomonas genome, bioinformatics analysis has allowed us to determine potential genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. (
  • Ergosterol derivatives ( 1 - 14 ) were isolated and purified from the lipid enriched fraction of G. lucidum . (
  • Amphotericin binds to a lipid molecule called ergosterol, prevalent in fungus and yeast cells, as the first step in forming the complexes that make ion channels. (
  • The inhibition rates of the lipid peroxide due to the ergosterol were 57.42%, at 2 μg/mL in vitro. (
  • Ergosterol from Monascus anka was thus found to have strong anti-lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capabilities, and the ability to protect and repair damaged cells. (
  • We provide MS-based lipid analysis of Ergosterol in yeast samples and deliver results in as little as two weeks. (
  • Transbilayer lipid asymmetry is a fundamental characteristic of the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane (PM). While PM phospholipid asymmetry is well documented, the transbilayer distribution of PM sterols such as mammalian cholesterol and yeast ergosterol is not reliably known. (
  • Ergosterol, a major lipid present in the fungal cell membrane, is considered as an effective antifungal drug target. (
  • Fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, and myclobutanil work in a different way, inhibiting synthesis of ergosterol from lanosterol by interfering with 14α-demethylase. (
  • Lanosterol, the initial cyclized precursor of ergosterol, was identified as a minor component of the free sterols. (
  • The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14alpha-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14alpha-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. (
  • The influence of addition of various chemicals like sorbitol, bovine albumin, cholesterol and ergosterol to the assay medium (Sabouraud s broth) was studied by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of SJA-95 against Candida albicans. (
  • In this study, we examined the importance of membrane ergosterol and sphingolipids in the drug susceptibilities of Candida albicans . (
  • Simvastatin reduces ergosterol levels, inhibits growth and causes loss of mtDNA in Candida glabrata. (
  • The aims of this study were to analyse the ergosterol and gene expression profiles of ERG genes in Candida albicans treated with carvacrol. (
  • The novel azole R126638 is a selective inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp. (
  • R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microspgrum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations IC(50)s) similar to those of itraconazole. (
  • Azoles bind to cytochrome P-450 fungal enzyme, resulting in a decrease in synthesis of ergosterol and an increase in permeability of the membrane. (
  • High concentrations of ethanol and hypoxia reduce the synthesis of ergosterol, while higher concentrations of glucose in the medium helps the synthesis of ergosterol. (
  • The combination of EAHD and FLZ exhibited synergy against FLZ-resistant C. albicans through decreasing the synthesis of ergosterol , and resulting in the breakage of cell membrane . (
  • Documented research findings suggest antifungal activity of polyenes largely attributable to their binding to cholesterol and ergosterol, the two principal sterols found in eukaryotic cell membranes [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Most trypanosomatids have an essential requirement for ergosterol and other 24-alkyl sterols, which are absent in mammalian cells. (
  • Availability of plant sterols in the growth medium had no clear effect on ergosterol concentrations in two species tested. (
  • Lovastatin treatment enhanced the expression of ergosterol biosynthetic genes, ERG2 and ERG3 in wild-type and upc2BΔ but not in upc2AΔ cells. (
  • Our findings reveal that mutation or altered expression of ergosterol biosynthetic genes can result in resistance to amphotericin B in C. lusitaniae . (
  • Several of the ergosterol biosynthetic genes were analyzed in respect to their role and involvement in flagellar regeneration. (
  • Also Chlamydomonas strains lacking flagella were analyzed by Q-RT PCR to determine what role ergosterol biosynthetic genes played in the absence of their flagella. (
  • 3.45 × 10 3 , and 3.74 × 10 3 CFU for 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, respectively), likely as a consequence of membrane ergosterol solubilization. (
  • Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate for the first time that there is an interaction between membrane ergosterol and sphingolipids, that a reduction in the content of either of these two components results in a disruption of this interaction, and that this disruption has deleterious effects on the drug susceptibilities of C. albicans cells. (
  • Other mutants with deficiencies in glycerol metabolism were studied to investigate any possible link between membrane ergosterol content and intracellular glycerol accumulation. (
  • In these mutants a modification in intracellular glycerol concentration, or in intra- to extracellular glycerol ratio was accompanied by a reduction in plasma membrane ergosterol content. (
  • Ergosterol peroxide (5α,8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol) is a steroid derivative. (
  • Similar to cholesterol, the structure of ergosterol consists of four linked hydrocarbon rings, the steroid structure. (
  • a fat-soluble steroid, found esp in fish-liver oils, produced by the action of ultraviolet radiation on ergosterol. (
  • Any of a group of predominantly unsaturated solid alcohols of the steroid group, such as cholesterol and ergosterol, present in the fatty tissues of plants and animals. (
  • Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for different endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of microbial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, and ergosterol and evaluate inflammatory responses in human monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells with various dust samples. (
  • The results suggested that nitric oxide participates in defense-related gene activation following ergosterol treatment but does not directly participate in activation of reactive oxygen species production. (
  • Using two different means of genetically inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis, we demonstrated that Pdr1 activity and target gene expression are elevated in the absence of azole drug. (
  • Our studies argue for a physiological link between ergosterol biosynthesis and Pdr1-dependent gene regulation that is not restricted to efflux of azole drugs. (
  • C. lusitaniae amphotericin B-resistant isolates were found to have increased levels of ERG6 transcript as well as reduced ergosterol content. (
  • Further, a range of antifungal drugs targets ergosterol by either binding to it in the cell membrane to cause cellular leakage, or by preventing ergosterol synthesis. (
  • Some protozoa, including Trichomonas and Leishmania are inhibited by drugs that target ergosterol synthesis and function Ergosterol is a biological precursor of vitamin D2, the chemical name of which is ergocalciferol. (
  • Preparations of irradiated ergosterol containing a mixture of previtamin and vitamin D2 were called Viosterol in the 1930s. (
  • Ergosterol or provitamin D2 is a biological precursor of Vitamin D2. (
  • The aim of this study was to test the ability of human P450scc to metabolize ergosterol, the vitamin D 2 precursor, and define the structure of the major products. (
  • Characterization analysis indicated that the ergosterol obtained by yeast from corn straw hydrolysates has achieved high purity, and could be used as one of the widely used feedstock for Vitamin D 2 . (
  • In view of the fact that the chemical changes taking place in the formation of vitamin D on irradiating ergosterol remain still unexplained, it was hoped to obtain some information on the nature of these changes by a study of the monomolecular surface films on water of some of the best defined fractions of the mixture of products formed. (
  • Live yeast cells respond to UV light in the same way that human skin responds to sunlight, by transforming ergosterol into vitamin D, resulting in a yeast that's naturally rich in vitamin D. (
  • Mushrooms contain a high level of the ingredient ergosterol , needed for vitamin D. (
  • Ergosterol is a precursor of vitamin D2, production raw materials of brassinolide. (
  • Amphotericin B, an antifungal drug, targets ergosterol. (
  • Ergosterol is a major and specific component of the fungal plasma membrane, and thus, the cytochrome P450 enzymes (Erg proteins) that catalyze ergosterol synthesis have been selected as valuable targets of azole antifungals. (
  • Simply put, ketoconazole is effective because it targets ergosterol, making an otherwise impermeable cell membrane permeable. (
  • Identification of smal molecules and their targets will lead to the discovery of novel pathways and mechanisms that control ergosterol homeostasis and triazole resistance. (
  • Such studies allowed for the identification of novel targets related with protein trafficking and ergosterol biosynthesis for improved recombinant protein production. (
  • Ergosterol is a component of yeast and other fungal cell membranes, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells. (
  • Ergosterol is also present in the cell membranes of some protists, such as trypanosomes. (
  • It binds physically to ergosterol within the membrane, thus creating a polar pore in fungal membranes. (
  • Chen C, Tripp CP (2012) A comparison of the behavior of cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ergosterol in phospholipid membranes. (
  • In dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine, ergosterol made the membranes thinner, opposite to the effect of cholesterol. (
  • [4] Because ergosterol constitutes a fundamental component of fungal membranes, many antifungal medications have been developed to inhibit 14α-demethylase activity and prevent the production of this key compound. (
  • In the present study, the role of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and spermine signaling pathways after ergosterol elicitation were evaluated. (
  • This screen revealed a requirement of several enzymes regulating the synthesis of sphingolipids and ergosterol in the correct and efficient delivery of the marker protein to the cell surface. (
  • In an excess of ergosterol, in anaerobiosis, the same enzymes are strongly decreased. (
  • The metabolism of ergosterol by cytochrome P450 enzymes may, therefore, result in the production of derivatives of both physiological and pharmacological importance. (
  • The only condensing effect of ergosterol was found in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, although the effect was less than one-third of the effect of cholesterol. (
  • The researchers have analyzed the effect of ergosterol peroxide extracted from the Chaga mushroom on the human colorectal cancer cell lines and the colitis induced colorectal cancer cells developed by the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium in the mouse model. (
  • Our data suggest that ergosterol peroxide suppresses the proliferation of CRC cell lines and effectively inhibits colitis-associated colon cancer in AOM/DSS-treated mice. (
  • We investigated the anti-proliferative and apoptosis mechanisms of ergosterol peroxide associated with its anti-cancer activities in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and tested its anti-tumor effect on colitis-induced CRC developed by Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in a mouse model. (
  • Cholesterol and ergosterol were obtained from Sigma Chemicals (St. Louis, Mo). (
  • any of a group of solid, mostly unsaturated, polycyclic alcohols, as cholesterol and ergosterol , derived from plants or animals. (
  • Ergosterol, a principal compound of the fungal plasma membrane, is regarded as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. (
  • Here we show that a subset of cargoes depends on the ArfGAP2/3 Glo3 and ergosterol to maintain their proper localization at the plasma membrane. (
  • While interfering with neither ArfGAP2/3 activity nor ergosterol biosynthesis individually significantly altered plasma membrane localization of the tryptophan transporter Tat2, the general amino acid permease Gap1 and the v-SNARE Snc1, in a Δ glo3 Δ erg3 strain those proteins accumulated in internal endosomal structures. (
  • The S. cerevisiae fps1Δ strain respectively contained 18 and 26% less ergosterol than the wild-type strain, at the whole-cell level and at the plasma membrane level. (
  • The results obtained suggest that a higher ergosterol content facilitates the flux of glycerol across the plasma membrane of S. cerevisiae cells. (
  • Since ergosterol shortage provokes alterations in the plasma membrane composition, an important role of this cellular structure in protein secretion is suggested. (
  • Pure ergosterol peroxide was also tested for anti-proliferative and apoptosis as a control. (
  • At last, to confirm whether the inhibition of cell proliferation observed in the colorectal cancer cell lines is due to apoptosis or not, researchers had analyzed the cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis during which they found that ergosterol peroxide-induced subG1 arrest in all the colorectal cancer cell lines. (
  • This result confers that the ergosterol peroxide is the one which causes apoptosis in the CRC cell lines by inducing the expression of the poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. (
  • Caspase-3 activated by the ergosterol peroxide helps to cleave the PARP leading to the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. (
  • The ergosterol-related compounds identified by the yeast cell-based high-throughput screen abrogated activation of Akt and induced apoptosis in a dynAP-dependent manner. (
  • To convert ergosterol contents determined in field samples to biomass values of aquatic hyphomycetes, a general multiplicative factor of 182 is proposed. (
  • The total yield of ergosterol was determined by both the biomass and ergosterol content in yeast cells which depend not only on the hydrolyze condition, but also on the culture conditions. (
  • According to the fermentation stabilized experiment, the mean values of biomass and ergosterol average content were up to 8.5 gL -1 and 2.35%, respectively. (
  • Based on results from the fungal isolates, conversion factors were calculated (5.4 mg ergosterol g(-1) biomass C and 11.8 mumol 18:2omega6,9 g(-1) biomass Q and applied to compost samples in which both the ergosterol and the PLFA 18:2omega6,9 content had been measured. (
  • A new process is described for the two phase extraction of ergosterol and trehalose from microbial biomass. (
  • Ergosterol analysis indicated that the fungal biomass of the five batches of grapes was 0.06, 0.28, 0.87, 1.50 and 4.25 g dry mass of fungus per kg wet mass. (
  • The researchers currently are working to synthesize a derivative that will bind to ergosterol in yeast cells, but will not bind to cholesterol in human cells, to see if that could kill an infection without harming the patient. (
  • The complex can be isolated from commercial yeast extract to which ergosterol has been added or directly from whole yeast cells. (
  • ergosterol in this solution is metabolically available to yeast cells to which it is added. (
  • They created a derivative that could bind ergosterol but could not form ion channels , and tested it against the original amphotericin. (
  • Ergosterol content in different parts of the raw material and products of G. lucidum was quantified. (
  • Improvements of estimates with species-specific factors may be limited, however, by intraspecific variability in fungal ergosterol content. (
  • Results on the stability of ergosterol content in yeast cell extraction solution, crystallize ergosterol productivity and the mean extraction yield values are shown to be 2.35, 2.05, 87.24%, respectively. (
  • Based on the similarities between the phenotypes of the erg6Δ mutant and clinical isolates of C. lusitaniae resistant to amphotericin B, we analyzed ERG6 expression levels and ergosterol content in multiple clinical isolates. (
  • Mean content of ergosterol was 3.1 mg g(-1) dw of fungal mycelium (range 1-24 mg g(-1) dw). (
  • There was a good correlation between the content of the two fungal marker molecules, ergosterol and the PLFA 18:2omega6,9, with a mean content of 1 mg ergosterol being equivalent to 2.1 mumol of 18:2omega6,9. (
  • Intriguingly, exogenous addition of high iron or genetic deletion of sreA in the Δ srbA background was able to partially rescue the hypoxia growth, triazole drug susceptibility, and decrease in ergosterol content phenotypes of Δ srbA . (
  • Major findings of the study were that the ergosterol content was not dependent on intracellular oil content and that 1-butanol and alkaline pH were needed to protect ergosterol. (
  • Antifungal susceptibility test, time-kill study, ergosterol binding assay and ergosterol content were investigated. (
  • This phytoconstituent acted by binding to ergosterol in the fungal membrane and caused a reduction of 52% of the ergosterol content compared to the untreated growth control. (
  • However, there was no direct correlation between ergosterol content and intracellular glycerol concentration. (
  • By specifically partially inhibiting ergosterol synthesis with the antifungal agent fluconazole (inhibiting Erg11p), we tried to mimic the hypoxic conditions, in which the cellular ergosterol content was significantly decreased. (
  • HPLC and qRT- PCR were utilized to evaluate the changes of ergosterol content and expressions of related genes , respectively. (
  • Changes in Soil Ergosterol Content, Glom. (
  • No statistically significant change was observed in ergosterol content. (
  • Biological activity such as ergosterol, spore count, and endotoxin levels were higher on the first floor of the Hall of Education and in the Stadium Hall, both areas where high numbers of animals were housed. (
  • Additionally, the surface localization of green fluorescent protein-tagged Cdr1p, a major drug efflux pump protein of C. albicans , revealed that any disruption in ergosterol and sphingolipid interactions also interfered with its proper surface localization and functioning. (
  • This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes ergosterol from zymosterol. (
  • β -cd complexes block yeast growth via ergosterol extraction, permeabilizing the membrane by creating cluster-like structures within the cell membrane, possibly due to high amounts of hydrogen bonding. (
  • Heleno SA, Prieto MA, Barros L, Rodrigues AR, Barreiro MF, Ferreira ICFR (2016) Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of ergosterol from Agaricus bisporus L. by-products using response surface methodology. (
  • For extraction, the Soxhlet technology was used and the highest ergosterol yield (around 12%) was achieved in the 5 th cycle, yielding 58.53 ± 1.72 µg of ergosterol per 100 g of mushroom (dry weight). (
  • Saponification for 3-4 h at 85-100 °C followed by extraction of the reaction mixture with toluene gave the maximal ergosterol yield. (
  • P450scc incorporated into the bilayer of phospholipid vesicles converted ergosterol to two major and four minor products with a k cat of 53 mol · min −1 · mol P450scc −1 and a K m of 0.18 mol ergosterol/mol phospholipid, similar to the values observed for cholesterol metabolism. (
  • 3-OHFA, muramic acid, and ergosterol were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (
  • IMPORTANCE Knowledge of the ergosterol biosynthesis route in fungal pathogens is useful in the design of new antifungal drugs and could aid in the study of antifungal-drug resistance mechanisms. (
  • Antifungal drugs, like ketoconazole, work by targeting ergosterol. (
  • Ergosterol-related compounds were purchased from Sigma (compounds 4, 6, and 7), Nacalai Tesque (1 and 2), and Tokyo Kasei Kogyo (3). (
  • We evaluated 35 azole-nonwildtype A. fumigatus isolates that were collected during 2017-2018 using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to detect alterations in the genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis as well as other genes associated with azole resistance. (
  • Concentrations of ergosterol in fungal mycelium ranged from 2.3 to 11.5 mg/g of dry mass. (
  • Stationary-phase mycelium had ergosterol contents 10 to 12% lower or higher than mycelium harvested during the growth phase, but these differences were only significant for one of four species examined. (
  • Exposure to ultraviolet light causes a photochemical reaction that converts ergosterol to ergocalciferol. (
  • Also known as ergocalciferol, this form is manufactured by UV irradiation of ergosterol from yeast (Figure 2). (
  • A water-soluble complex containing ergosterol together with a component of yeast has been isolated. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that three cytochrome b 5 -like Dap proteins coordinately regulate the azole resistance and ergosterol biosynthesis catalyzed by cytochrome P450 proteins. (
  • Thus, we conclude that the fungal SREBP, SrbA, is critical for coordinating genes involved in iron acquisition and ergosterol biosynthesis under hypoxia and low iron conditions found at sites of human fungal infections. (
  • Among them, one component showed the most effective growth inhibition and was identified as ergosterol peroxide by NMR analysis. (
  • Inhibition of Ergosterol Biosynthesis in Fungal Plant Pathogens by Bacillus sp. (
  • Potent In Vitro Antiproliferative Synergism of Combinations of Ergosterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors against Leishmania amazonensis. (
  • The erg-1 disruption mutant, which is unable to synthesise ergosterol, survived and recovered from the hypo-osmotic shock more successfully when the concentration of exogenously supplied ergosterol was increased. (
  • Inactivation of Erg24 leads to the disruption of ion homeostasis and affects ergosterol biosynthesis. (
  • Cell injury can increase the level of intracellular ROS, but its levels in the damaged cells were reduced after the ergosterol treatments, and the reduction increased with the increasing concentrations. (
  • They act by reducing double bonds in precursors of ergosterol [ PMID: 8125337 ]. (
  • Loss of one homolog of Erg24 impairs hyphal growth, conidiation, and virulence but has no effect on ergosterol biosynthesis. (
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate the critical role of Erg24 in ergosterol biosynthesis and ion homeostasis in A. fumigatus, which may have important implications for antifungal discovery. (
  • Ergosterol peroxide administration showed a tendency to suppress tumor growth in the colon of AOM/DSS-treated mice, and quantification of the IHC staining showed a dramatic decrease in the Ki67-positive staining and an increase in the TUNEL staining of colonic epithelial cells in AOM/DSS-treated mice by ergosterol peroxide for both prevention and therapy. (
  • This revealed the ergosterol peroxide treatment doesn't affect the tumor incident but tends to suppress the tumor growth in the colon of the AOM/DSS-treated mouse. (
  • Ergosterol assessment and counting colony forming units (CFU) carried out determination of fungal growth. (