Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Clarithromycin: A semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic derived from ERYTHROMYCIN that is active against a variety of microorganisms. It can inhibit PROTEIN SYNTHESIS in BACTERIA by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits. This inhibits the translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and prevents peptide chain elongation.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Tinidazole: A nitroimidazole antitrichomonal agent effective against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia lamblia infections.Lansoprazole: A 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxypyridyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS. Lansoprazole is a racemic mixture of (R)- and (S)-isomers.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Furazolidone: A nitrofuran derivative with antiprotozoal and antibacterial activity. Furazolidone acts by gradual inhibition of monoamine oxidase. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p514)Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Dracunculiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Dracunculus. One or more worms may be seen at a time, with the legs and feet being the most commonly infected areas. Symptoms include pruritus, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or asthmatic attacks.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Rabeprazole: A 4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridinyl derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Pan American Health Organization: WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Dracunculus Nematode: A genus of nematode parasites which inhabit the body cavity, serous membranes, and connective tissues of vertebrates. The parasitic species in humans is Dracunculus medinensis.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Antitrichomonal Agents: Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sulfoxides: Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone: Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.AfricaNucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Gastritis, Atrophic: GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Rubella Syndrome, Congenital: Transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.AfghanistanUnited Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
H. Bazin (19 January 2000). The eradication of smallpox: Edward Jenner and the first and only eradication of a human infectious ... and Nigeria reported over 20,000 measles cases and nearly 600 deaths from measles from January through March 2005. In 2006 ... Hundreds' dead in measles outbreak". IRIN. 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2008-02-10. "Polio vaccinators killed in Nigeria". 8 February ... "Outbreak of Measles Among Christian Science Students - Missouri and Illinois, 1994". Retrieved 2015-03-11. Congregation of ...
Sencer, D. J.; Dull, H. B.; Langmuir, A. D. (March 1967). "Epidemiologic basis for eradication of measles in 1967". Public ... In spite of this knowledge, efforts to control and eliminate measles were unsuccessful until mass vaccination using the measles ... called eradication. This method was used for the eradication of smallpox in 1977 and for the regional elimination of other ... Eradication can thus be considered the final effect or end-result of public health initiatives to control the spread of ...
Vaccination during the Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control Program in Niger, February 1969 ... Reinhardt, Bob H. (2015) The End of a Global Pox: America and the Eradication of Smallpox in the Cold War Era (U of North ... Smallpox and Its Eradication (History of International Public Health, No. 6). Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. 31, 125. ... Smallpox and Its Eradication (History of International Public Health, No. 6). Geneva: World Health Organization. pp. 366-418. ...
He directed the Smallpox Eradication/Measles Control Program in Sierra Leone. He has served as a consultant to the World Health ... 1, January - March 1998 The eradication of infectious diseases: report of the Dahlem Workshop on the Eradication of Infectious ... "The Guinea Worm Eradication Effort: Lessons for the Future", Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 4 No. ...
Currently, polio and measles are the targets of active worldwide eradication campaigns. 1797 First vaccine for smallpox (the ... 1963 First vaccine for measles 1967 First vaccine for mumps 1970 First vaccine for rubella 1974 First vaccine for chicken pox ...
In 1987, a measles epidemic occurred in Maricopa County, Arizona and another court case, Maricopa County Health Department vs. ... The WHO has targeted polio for eradication by the year 2018. Rational individuals will attempt to minimize the risk of illness ... For instance, a nationwide plan for eliminating measles and rubella began in 2001. Certain vaccinations in Italy are based on ... Partially in response to the statistic that less than 86% of Italian children receive the measles shot, the National ...
Press Release: Polio, measles eradication leader receives Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal Archived 2008-08-20 at the Wayback Machine ... Perspectives in Health 2005; 10(2). de Quadros C. Global eradication of poliomyelitis and measles: another quiet revolution. ... De Quadros played a critical role in developing the strategies now used worldwide in the eradication of polio. He led the team ... to eliminate polio and measles from the western hemisphere and being one of the most important scientists in the eradication of ...
Thus, in Spanish, "rubeola" refers to rubella and "sarampión" refers to measles. Viruses portal Eradication of infectious ... "Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)". cdc.gov. December 17, 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved ... Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often ... The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles. Swollen lymph nodes are common and may last a few weeks. A ...
1966 - CDC announced a national measles eradication campaign at the American Public Health Association meeting. 1967 - The ... 1977 - Global eradication of smallpox was achieved. 1978 - Alcorn County, Mississippi, reported cases of the first outbreak of ... the eradication of smallpox. 1963 - CDC tested the newly developed jet injector vaccine for smallpox. 1964 - The first Surgeon ... New surveillance systems added to the original National Surveillance Program of 1952 included measles, shigellosis, tetanus, ...
Asaria P, MacMahon E. Measles in the United Kingdom: can we eradicate it by 2010?. BMJ. 2006;333(7574):890-5. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... Mass vaccination and surveillance/containment in the eradication of smallpox. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. ... measles, mumps and rubella.[195] Smallpox infections have been eradicated.[196] Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen ... Smallpox virus devastated numerous societies throughout history before its eradication. There are only two centres in the world ...
Measles control has been an interest of Halsey's, and he supports ongoing measles and polio eradication efforts. Halsey has ...
"Measles-United States, January 1 - April 25, 2008". Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57 (18): 494-8. May 2008. PMID 18463608. "WHO ... Major achievements included the development of the polio vaccine in the 1950s and the eradication of smallpox during the 1960s ... Other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox, and typhoid are nowhere near as common as they were a ... In 1958, there were 763,094 cases of measles in the United States; 552 deaths resulted. After the introduction of new vaccines ...
Rubella (German measles), is a major cause of birth defects that can be prevented through vaccination. Cordero, whose work has ... been published in many national and international journals, has promoted the eradication of the disease. He has also promoted ...
Polio eradication history Archived 2007-04-28 at the Wayback Machine. - Last accessed June 1, 2007. Operation MECACAR - New ... Eighteen countries and WHO join forces to fight poliomyelitis and measles Archived 2007-07-29 at the Wayback Machine.. World ... currently it is also used to coordinated measles and rubella vaccination efforts). The name of the operation was derived from ... MECACAR's objectives became maintaining polio-free status in the region and also achieve measles and rubella elimination. On ...
In 1991, UNICEF chose three health programs: Community Agents, Lay Midwives and Eradication of measles as the best in the world ...
NB: In recent years, "elimination" is the preferred term for "regional eradication" of a disease; the term "eradication" is ... CDC, "Measles - United States, 2011", Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), April 20, 2012 / 61(15);253-257. CDC, " ... Although no fixed rule always applies, many infectious diseases (e.g., measles) are considered eliminated when no cases have ... The stated goal of "eradication" of hookworm from the southeast US (1915-20) was not achieved, although the hookworm-infection ...
Mobilizing resources in support of the eradication of polio with Rotary International, the Gates Foundation, and the World Bank ... Initiating a global campaign to diminish the impact of measles with the American Red Cross, the Centers for Disease Control and ...
Measles Eradication and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Prevention programs initiated by the foundation in Azerbaijan, Georgia, and ... "Measles Eradication and CRS Prevention - Rostropovich Vishnevskaya Foundations". rostropovich.org. "Deworming - Rostropovich ...
1967) Smallpox eradication and measles-control programs in West and Central Africa: Theoretical and practical approaches and ... Henderson DA (2010) The global eradication of smallpox: Historical Perspective and Future Prospects in The Global Eradication ... Henderson DA (1998). "The challenge of eradication: lessons from past eradication campaigns (The Pittsfield Lecture)". Int J ... measles, tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough. Now targeted for eradication are poliomyelitis and Guinea Worm disease; after ...
... measles, and diphtheria. "Smallpox Overview". 2016. Mackenzie, Alexander (1801), Voyages from Montreal, London: Printed for T. ... inoculation program paved the way for the global public health system that is responsible for the control and eradication of ...
Kezaala headed Measles Control for the Africa Region of WHO, when the Africa region registered a reduction in measles mortality ... for CDC's global Polio Eradication Initiative. Since June 2012, Dr Kezaala has served as Senior Health Advisor at the UNICEF ... "Measles Outbreak". YouTube. 2015-02-05. Retrieved 2017-02-24. "Eighty-six percent decline in measles cases brings Western ... "Introducing Robert Kezaala, Head of Measles & Rubella, UNICEF - Measles & Rubella Initiative". Measlesrubellainitiative.org. ...
Their use has resulted in the eradication of smallpox and a dramatic decline in illness and death caused by infections such as ... polio, measles, mumps and rubella. Vaccines are available to prevent over fourteen viral infections of humans and more are used ...
In the U.S., immunizations have resulted in the eradication of smallpox, polio, measles, and rubella, and disease rates from ...
Ireland measles outbreak: "Measles outbreak feared". BBC News. May 30, 2000. McBrien J, Murphy J, Gill D, Cronin M, O'Donovan C ... Fenner, Frank; Henderson, D.A.; Arita, I.; Jezek, Z.; Ladnyi, I.D. (1988). Smallpox and its Eradication. Geneva: World Health ... In spring 2017, a measles outbreak occurred in Minnesota. As of June 16, 78 cases of measles had been confirmed in the state, ... In Romania, there were about 9300 cases of measles, and 34 people - all of whom were unvaccinated - had died of measles. This ...
"Measles , Vaccination , CDC". 2018-02-05.. *^ Orenstein WA, Bernier RH, Dondero TJ, Hinman AR, Marks JS, Bart KJ, Sirotkin B ( ... Vaccines led to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious and deadly diseases in humans.[25] Other diseases such ... "Measles--United States, January 1-April 25, 2008". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 57 (18): 494-8. May 2008. PMID ... In 1958, there were 763,094 cases of measles in the United States; 552 deaths resulted.[23][24] After the introduction of new ...
Eradication of infectious diseases. *Every Child by Two. *List of vaccine topics ...
Measles eradication policies. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 284 :1559 ... Measles eradication policies.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1982; 284 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.284.6328.1559-d (Published 22 ...
The United States has confirmed 695 measles cases so far this year, the highest level since the country declared it had ... Measles has been on the rise globally. More than 110,000 cases were reported in the first three months of 2019, according to ... As of Wednesday, the number of measles cases so far this year exceeds the 667 cases reported in all of 2014, which had been the ... Read more -Fear, blame and anti-vaxxers: Measles makes a comeback in the USA ...
The United States has confirmed 695 measles cases so far this year, the highest level since the country declared it had ... Measles has been on the rise globally. More than 110,000 cases were reported in the first three months of 2019, according to ... As of Wednesday, the number of measles cases so far this year exceeds the 667 cases reported in all of 2014, which had been the ... "The United States is seeing a resurgence of measles, a disease that had once been effectively eliminated from our country," he ...
Measles deaths have gone up, not down, in the last year. Progress towards elimination of the disease that kills and disables ... But measles slipped down the worlds agenda as it appeared the battle to get rid of it was being won - just as is happening ... Measles deaths have gone up, not down, in the last year. Progress towards elimination of the disease that kills and disables ... But it has not taken a catastrophe of the scale of Ebola to de-rail the attempt to stamp out measles, a killer of small ...
Feasibility of Measles Eradication Conclusions: Based on the success of efforts to control measles in the Western Hemisphere ... Strong support for measles eradication can be expected in many developing countries, where measles is recognized as a major ... Obstacles to Eradication Conclusions: The major obstacles to measles eradication are perceptual, political, and financial. The ... Although measles eradication is a logical addition to and extension of the poliomyelitis eradication initiative, the effort ...
By Jonathan Allen NEW YORK (Reuters) - The United States has confirmed 695 measles cases so far this year, the highest level ... U.S. measles cases hit highest level since eradication in 2000 By Jonathan Allen NEW YORK (Reuters) - The United States has ... Measles has been on the rise globally. More than 110,000 cases were reported in the first three months of 2019, according to ... As of Wednesday, the number of measles cases so far this year exceeds the 667 cases reported in all of 2014, which had been the ...
NEWS SCAN: 3 poultry-linked Salmonella outbreaks, measles & rubella in Europe, polio eradication plans. Filed Under: ... Measles cases in 29 European Union (EU) and European Economic Area countries plus Croatia, which will join the EU in July, ... Big increases in measles, rubella incidence in Europe. The year-long period from March 2012 through February 2013 saw the ... Infants less than 1 year old had the highest rate of measles, with 249 cases per 1 million population, followed by children 1 ...
Rinderpest eradication: Lessons for measles eradication?. Publication. Publication. Current Opinion in Virology , Volume 2 - ... de Swart, R.L, Duprex, W.P, & Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. (2012). Rinderpest eradication: Lessons for measles eradication?. Current ... Here, we discuss how lessons learned from the global eradication of rinderpest may help in the future eradication of measles. ... measles, measles vaccination, mortality, neurologic disease, neurological complication, nonhuman, phocine distemper, phylogeny, ...
Programme updates : measles elimination ; hepatitis B control and poliomyelitis eradication ; tobacco control ; mental health, ... Programme updates : measles elimination ; hepatitis B control and poliomyelitis eradication ; tobacco control ; mental health, ...
Measles Eradication: Recommendations from a Meeting Cosponsored by the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health ... Is global measles eradication feasible? * Is measles eradication feasible with current vaccines? * What are the appropriate ... Is global measles eradication feasible? * Is measles eradication feasible with current vaccines? * What are the appropriate ... Feasibility of Measles Eradication-- Conclusions: Based on the success of efforts to control measles in the Western Hemisphere ...
620 children under the age of 5 against polio and around 1.8 million children aged from 6 months to 15 years against measles ... measles and rubella campaign was launched today in the Sanaa governorate of Yemen. The 5-day campaign supported by WHO, UNICEF ... Polio Eradication Initiative , News , National polio, measles and rubella campaign launched in Yemen ... "The measles and rubella campaign is equally much needed to prevent an occurrence of any fatal outbreaks; increasing the ...
Rashed Karim and WHOs Representative in Iraq Dr Syed Jaffar Hussain have agreed to launch a vaccination campaign for measles ... Polio Eradication Initiative , News , WHO and Kurdistan regional government launch measles/polio vaccination campaign ... Reports issued by the Independent Monitoring Board (IMB) of the Global Polio Eradication Initative ... Rashed Karim and WHOs Representative in Iraq Dr Syed Jaffar Hussain have agreed to launch a vaccination campaign for measles ...
Meeting of the Combined Subregional Committees for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication and Verification of Measles ... Meeting of the Combined Subregional Committees for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication and Verification of Measles ... Meeting of the Combined Subregional Committees for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication and Verification of Measles ... Meeting of the Combined Subregional Committees for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication and Verification of Measles ...
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... technical aspects of measles eradication have concluded that measles satisfied all criteria required for eradication. To date, ... Notably, no measles eradication resolution is likely until member states are satisfied that polio eradication is accomplished. ... However, if previous eradication efforts have been marathons, measles eradication will need to be a sprint. ... Lessons from these past eradication programs should inform development of a time-limited measles eradication program. ...
Can measles be eradicated?. In addition to smallpox and polio, measles is one of the few virus infections for which eradication ... Measles vaccines and the potential for worldwide eradication of measles. Pediatrics 2004;114: 1065-9. ... US Centers for Disease Control (www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/submenus/sub_measles.htm)-information on measles and measles ... Measles in the United Kingdom. Measles has been a notifiable disease in England and Wales since 1940. In the era before vaccine ...
Measles is a highly contagious virus that spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can ... and innovative vaccination solutions can accelerate the elimination of measles worldwide. ...
Measles is most common in children but may appear in older persons who escaped it earlier in life. Measles is so highly ... Measles, contagious viral disease marked by fever, cough, conjunctivitis, and a characteristic rash. ... Measles vaccine and eradication efforts. Mortality caused by measles declined steadily in the 20th century as the health of ... The widespread use of measles vaccine, beginning in the late 1960s, raised hopes for the eventual eradication of the disease. ...
Manisha Patel to answer all of our measles eradication questions. This episode was sponsored by the Task Force for Global ... If measles has been eliminated from North America, whats up with these outbreaks? Is it even possible to get rid of it ... A PICU nurse contemplates swabbing a measles patients to infect her own child. A nurse practitioner makes a video about how to ... Walter Orenstein, both of whom have played critical roles in eliminating measles.. Duration:. 00:44:29. ...
Four European states lose measles eradication status. Tweet on Twitter Share on Facebook Google+ Pinterest ... Measles has been declared eliminated in 35 of the 53 countries in the WHOs European region for 2018, down from 37 in 2017. ... Measles is considered eliminated when there is no endemic disease transmission for 12 months or more in a specific geographic ... Measles is a highly contagious airborne infection causing fever, coughing and rashes. While it can be fatal, with 37 deaths ...
Measles is life threatening in countries where children have limited or no access to medical treatment. Measles outbreaks are ... How you can help! We have an immediate opportunity to put a stop to measles forever. The American Red Cross and our Measles & ... 315 Children die from measles complications every day UNDER $2 - Cost to vaccinate a child against both measles and rubella in ... California and Nebraska have all been linked to unvaccinated Americans traveling to measles hotspots. Measles is a highly ...
Morgan, OW; (2004) Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles? BMC Int Health Hum ... DISCUSSION: Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only ... Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles? ... SUMMARY: Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is ...
Global Health Seminars: "Measles Eradication-Should it be a Priority? 29Sep201517:00 ... Read more about Global Health Seminars: "Measles Eradication-Should it be a Priority? ...
Eradication; Infectious diseases; Measles; Rinderpest; Smallpox. In veterinary medicine, rinderpest has represented one of the ... Measles incidence has decreased substantially in regions where vaccination has been instituted, and measles in the developing ... Eradication campaigns were launched. The most important programme, the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP), was ... thus supporting the potential for successful eradication strategies, measles might be candidate as the next eradicated ...
... and is quite distinct from immunization programmes for other childhood infectious diseases such as measles. ... In The eradication of infectious diseases (eds Dowdle WR, Hopkins DR), pp. 61-74. Chichester, UK: Wiley. ... 2012 Path to polio eradication in India: a major milestone. Indian Pediatr. 49, 95-98. doi:10.1007/s13312-012-0018-4 (doi: ... 2012 Reaching the last one per cent: progress and challenges in global polio eradication. Curr. Opin. Virol. 2, 188-198. doi: ...
  • Adam Weiss served as a Carter Center technical advisor to national Guinea worm eradication programs in Ethiopia and Ghana between 2005 and 2011, providing technical and program management support for all interventions to stop the transmission of Guinea worm disease. (cartercenter.org)
  • How this works out is that 93% to 95% of the population must be immune to prevent a single case of measles from spreading. (npr.org)
  • But one possibility he raises relates to the way public health authorities north and south of the border respond to reports of an imported case of measles. (reddeeradvocate.com)
  • When those pockets are small - a few kids in a school full of vaccinated children - a case of measles brought back from a country where the virus circulates won't trigger a big outbreak because there are few unprotected kids to infect. (reddeeradvocate.com)
  • In early 2010, there was a serious outbreak of measles in the Philippines with 742 cases, leaving four unvaccinated children dead in the capital city of Manila. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anyone who has perused a news site or suffered through a CNN broadcast over the past week can guess why: An outbreak of measles that erupted in Disneyland now has spread to at least seven states and resulted in almost 100 cases, with no sign of abating . (berkeley.edu)
  • In countries attempting to eliminate indigenous measles, all isolated cases of measles and at least one case in each chain of transmission should be confirmed by laboratory tests. (cdc.gov)
  • In the Western Hemisphere, the two-dose measure of MMR vaccinations has been so successful that there are no reported cases of indigenous measles reported from northern Canada to Terra del Fuego in Argentina," Schaffner said. (healthline.com)
  • The two-dose strategy has been credited with elimination of indigenous measles in several countries ( 9 ), and the live attenuated MV vaccine is considered to be one of the safest and most cost-effective health tools available ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Primarily a childhood viral illness spread through airborne droplets from nasal secretions, measles ranks among the top four childhood killers worldwide, especially among young, malnourished children with undeveloped or compromised immune systems. (pbs.org)
  • After challenge with a pathogenic MV strain (Davis 87 ), control naive monkeys showed a classic measles rash and high viral loads. (asm.org)
  • Nationwide, the number of measles cases doubled between 2016 and 2017. (princeton.edu)
  • For Sindh province, Masood had provided the number of measles cases appearing each week in the first half of 2017, along with extensive parameter data. (princeton.edu)
  • The disease burden imposed by measles should be documented, particularly in industrialized countries, so that this information can be used to educate parents, medical prac-titioners, public health workers, and political leaders about the benefits of measles eradication. (cdc.gov)
  • The major obstacles to eradication cited by the task force were the contagiousness of measles, the lack of a vaccine that is effective among children aged less than 9 months (most of whom have maternal antibody to measles that protects them from disease but which also inhibits the immune response to the vaccine virus), and the incorrect perception that measles is a mild illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Infants, elderly people, and those with compromised immune systems may become severely ill with measles and die. (pbs.org)
  • Typically, babies have been presumed to be immune to measles for a year due to their mothers' antibodies. (upi.com)
  • The Punjab Health Department on Sunday decided to launch anti-measles campaign across the province from Oct 15. (pakobserver.net)
  • In Punjab, special National Anti-Measles campaign is continuing across the province. (pakistankakhudahafiz.com)
  • Mr Imran assured the health teams of full protection during the anti-measles campaign in Landi Kotal. (dawn.com)
  • An illustration provides a 3D graphical representation of a spherical-shaped, measles virus particle studded with glycoprotein tubercles in this handout image obtained by Reuters April 9, 2019. (reuters.com)
  • 1 , 2 More cases of measles have been reported in the United States so far in 2019 than in any year since the 1990s. (cmaj.ca)
  • Measles cases reported by year as of July 18, 2019. (asm.org)
  • The introduction of routine measles second dose, in the context of EPI systems strengthening, is paramount to endemic developing countries. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • 1 2 Cases are occurring in inadequately vaccinated children and in young adults, leading to concerns that endemic measles could re-emerge. (bmj.com)
  • 3 The Americas were declared free from endemic measles transmission in 2002, 3 w2 but cases still occur as a result of importation from other countries, with over a third of US cases linked to Europe. (bmj.com)
  • In fact, the virus is no longer endemic in the countries of the Americas, which are in the process of trying to be certified as having eliminated measles. (reddeeradvocate.com)
  • Through this effort, Latin American and Caribbean nations brought down the number of measles cases from 250,000 in 1990 to 537 in 2001. (pbs.org)