The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
The upkeep of property or equipment.
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.

Bileaflet mechanical prostheses for aortic valve replacement in patients younger than 65 years and 65 years of age or older: major thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. (1/2752)

OBJECTIVE: To determine major thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications and predictive risk factors associated with aortic valve replacement (AVR), using bileaflet mechanical prostheses (CarboMedics and St. Jude Medical). DESIGN: A case series. SETTING: Cardiac surgical services at the teaching institutions of the University of British Columbia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients 2 age groups who had undergone AVR between 1989 and 1994 were studied. Group 1 comprised 384 patients younger than 65 years. Group 2 comprised 215 patients 65 years of age and older. RESULTS: The linearized rates of major thromboembolism (TE) occurring after AVR were 1.54%/patient-year for group 1 and 3.32%/patient-year for group 2; the rates for major TE occurring more than 30 days after AVR were 1.13%/patient-year for group 1 and 1.55%/patient-year for group 2. The crude rates for major TE occurring within 30 days of AVR were 1.04% for group 1 and 3.72% for group 2. The death rate from major TE in group 1 was 0.31%/patient-year and in group 2 was 0.88%/patient-year. Of the major TE events occurring within 30 days, 100% of patients in both age groups were inadequately anticoagulated at the time of the event, and for events occurring more than 30 days after AVR, 45% in group 1 and 57% in group 2 were inadequately anticoagulated (INR less than 2.0). The overall linearized rates of major hemorrhage were 1.54%/patient-year for group 1 and 2.21%/patient-year for group 2. There were no cases of prosthesis thrombosis in either group. The mean (and standard error) overall freedom from major TE for group 1 patients at 5 years was 95.6% (1.4%) and with exclusion of early events was 96.7% (1.3%); for group 2 patients the rates were 90.0% (3.2%) and 93.7% (3.0%), respectively. The mean (and SE) overall freedom from major and fatal TE and hemorrhage for group 1 patients was 90.1% (2.3%) and with exclusion of early events was 91.2% (2.3%); for group 2 patients the rates were 87.9% (3.1%) and 92.5% (2.9%), respectively. The 5-year rate for freedom from valve-related death for group 1 patients was 96.3% (2.1%) and for group 2 patients was 97.2% (1.2%). CONCLUSION: The thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications after AVR with bileaflet mechanical prostheses occur more frequently and result in more deaths in patients 65 years of age and older than in patients years younger than 65 years.  (+info)

Evaluation of the allograft-prosthesis composite technique for proximal femoral reconstruction after resection of a primary bone tumour. (2/2752)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and functional outcomes resulting from the allograft-composite technique used for proximal femoral osteoarticular reconstruction in patients who had limb salvage surgery for primary bone tumours. DESIGN: A retrospective review of a prospectively gathered database to provide a descriptive study. SETTING: A tertiary care musculoskeletal oncology unit in a university hospital. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Patients treated between 1987 and 1993 were eligible for inclusion in this study if they met the following criteria: they were treated surgically for a primary malignant bone tumour; and a proximal femoral allograft-implant composite technique was used for the reconstruction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Major postoperative complications with emphasis on mechanical complications in the reconstructive composite implant. Functional outcome in a subset of patients using the 1987 and 1994 versions of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society instrument, the Short-Form-36 and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score. RESULTS: There were 5 mechanical and 2 infectious complications requiring surgical intervention. Functional scores were generally low. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the perceived benefits of the composite technique may accrue only to a few patients, partly owing to the risk of mechanical complications. Although these can be reduced by avoiding the use of cement in the host femur, the generally poor functional outcomes suggest that this technique needs to be studied further in this group of patients and compared with other reconstructive techniques, particularly the prosthetic implant.  (+info)

Factors influencing the development of vein-graft stenosis and their significance for clinical management. (3/2752)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of clinical and graft factors on the development of stenotic lesions. In addition the implications of any significant correlation for duplex surveillance schedules or surgical bypass techniques was examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a prospective three centre study, preoperative and peroperative data on 300 infrainguinal autologous vein grafts was analysed. All grafts were monitored by a strict duplex surveillance program and all received an angiogram in the first postoperative year. A revision was only performed if there was evidence of a stenosis of 70% diameter reduction or greater on the angiogram. RESULTS: The minimum graft diameter was the only factor correlated significantly with the development of a significant graft stenosis (PSV-ratio > or = 2.5) during follow-up (p = 0.002). Factors that correlated with the development of event-causing graft stenosis, associated with revision or occlusion, were minimal graft diameter (p = 0.001), the use of a venovenous anastomosis (p = 0.005) and length of the graft (p = 0.025). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the minimal graft diameter was the only independent factor that significantly correlated with an event-causing graft stenosis (p = 0.009). The stenosis-free rates for grafts with a minimal diameter < 3.5 mm, between 3.5-4.5 and > or = 4.5 mm were 40%, 58% and 75%, respectively (p = < 0.05). Composite vein and arm-vein grafts with minimal diameters > or = 3.5 mm were compared with grafts which consisted of a single uninterrupted greater saphenous vein with a minimal diameter of < 3.5 mm. One-year secondary patency rates in these categories were of 94% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: A minimal graft diameter < 3.5 mm was the only factor that significantly correlated with the development of a graft-stenosis. However, veins with larger diameters may still develop stenotic lesions. Composite vein and arm-vein grafts should be used rather than uninterrupted small caliber saphenous veins.  (+info)

Frame dislocation of body middle rings in endovascular stent tube grafts. (4/2752)

OBJECTIVES: To understand the cause, and propose a mechanism for frame dislocation in endovascular grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five tube grafts were explanted due to secondary distal leakage 15-21 months after operation. One bifurcated graft was removed during emergency operation after aortic rupture caused by secondary leakage. A second bifurcated graft was harvested from a patient with thrombotic occlusion of one limb, who died after transurethral prostatic resection. The inside of the grafts were examined endoscopically. The stent was inspected after removal of the fabric, broken ligatures were counted and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The fabric strength was tested by probe puncture. RESULTS: We found 17-44% of the stent ligatures of the body middle rings to be loose. The knots were intact. Degradation of the polyester textile was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous movements in the grafted aorta and blood pressure impose permanent stress to the stent frame and the polyester fabric resulting in morphological changes in the body middle ring of grafts. The clinical implications of the suture breakages are unknown although they may be related to distal secondary leakage in tube grafts.  (+info)

Experimental assessment of proximal stent-graft (InterVascular) fixation in human cadaveric infrarenal aortas. (5/2752)

OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the radial deformation load of an aortic endoluminal prosthesis and determines the longitudinal load required to cause migration in a human cadaveric aorta of the endoprosthesis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The endovascular prosthesis under investigation was a 24 mm diameter, nitinol, self-expanding aortoaortic device (InterVascular, Clearwater, Florida, U.S.A.). Initially, a motorised digital force gauge developed an incremental load which was applied to the ends of five stent-grafts, to a maximum of 10 mm (42%) compression. Secondly, using a simple bench model, each ends of four stent-grafts were deployed into 10 cadaveric experimental aneurysm necks and a longitudinal load applied to effect distraction. RESULTS: Increasing load produced increasing percentage deformation of the stent-grafts. The mean longitudinal distraction load for an aneurysm neck of 20 mm was 409 g (200-480 g), for 15 mm was 277 g (130-410 g) and for 10 mm was 218 g (130-340 g). The aneurysm diameter and aortic calcification had p values of 0.002 and 0.047, respectively, while the p value for aneurysm neck length was less than 0.00001. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is a theoretical advantage of oversizing an aortic prosthesis and that sufficient anchorage is achieved in an aortic neck of 10 mm to prevent migration when fully deployed.  (+info)

Fate of endoleaks after endoluminal repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms with the EVT device. (6/2752)

OBJECTIVE: we aim to describe our medium-term follow-up of 20 patients with an endoleak following repair of their abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) using the Endovascular Technologies (EVT) device. DESIGN: the experience of one centre in a prospective multicentre phase II trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 55 patients with an endovascular repair of their AAA and at least 6 months>> follow-up were reviewed. Intraoperative angiograms, next day duplex scans and computed tomography (CT) images were used to detect endoleaks. Follow-up with CT and duplex was performed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Persistent endoleaks at 6 months were evaluated by angiography and treated by endovascular coiling. RESULTS: there were three immediate conversions to open procedures. Twenty of 52 (38%) patients had an endoleak identified initially. One patient died from a myocardial infarction and three were not evident any longer by discharge CT. Sixteen endoleaks (31%) were present at discharge. Nine resolved spontaneously by 3-6 months and seven were still persistent at 6 months (14%). Six patients underwent coiling of their leak, all with successful radiographic seal after 1-3 sessions. CONCLUSIONS: endoleaks are frequent after endovascular AAA repair, but the majority close spontaneously. Coiling of the leaks and radiographic seal can be achieved in all cases still persistent at 6 months. Whether this method is clinically effective awaits further follow-up.  (+info)

Management of a rare complication of endovascular treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula. (7/2752)

A 30-year-old woman with direct carotid cavernous fistula underwent endovascular treatment with detachable balloons via a transarterial route. The patient returned with diplopia 1 year after therapy. On cranial MR imaging, one of the balloons was detected in the proximal portion of the superior ophthalmic vein and was deflated percutaneously with a 22-gauge Chiba needle under CT guidance. The patient's symptoms resolved after balloon deflation. This case report presents a unique complication of endovascular treatment of direct carotid cavernous fistula and its management.  (+info)

Is there a need for routine testing of ICD defibrillation capacity? Results from more than 1000 studies. (8/2752)

AIMS: Benefits and complications of postoperative implantable cardioverter-defibrillator tests are controversial matters. This study sought to assess the necessity of defibrillation function tests after implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analysed 1007 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator tests in 587 systems and 556 patients. Nine hundred and thirty implantable cardioverter-defibrillator tests (89.4%) were routinely performed. Seventy-one tests (7%) were performed after a change in the antiarrhythmic drug regimen and six tests (0.60%) because of a suspected dysfunction of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. During routine tests, four systems (0.4%) failed to defibrillate the patient. However, in all but one test, abnormalities of the system had been observed before the test. After the addition of antiarrhythmic drugs, two of 71 implantable cardioverter-defibrillator systems (2.8%) failed to defibrillate the patient. One of six systems tested due to a suspected dysfunction failed to defibrillate the patient. During 16 tests (1.6%), complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience demonstrates that postoperative tests of the defibrillation function of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators rarely reveal dysfunctions. As testing is unpleasant for the patient and not free of complications, tests might be restricted to those patients in whom a dysfunction is suspected and to those patients in whom class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs have been added to the antiarrhythmic drug regimen.  (+info)

There are two main types of heart failure:

1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.

Symptoms of heart failure may include:

* Shortness of breath
* Fatigue
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness

Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).

It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).


Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.


The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.


Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.


Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.

Imaging studies may include:

1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.


Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:

1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.


Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:

1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.

FTT is typically diagnosed when a child's weight or height is below the 10th percentile for their age, and they are not gaining weight or growing at a normal rate despite adequate nutrition and appropriate medical care. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Poor nutrition or inadequate caloric intake
* Genetic disorders that affect growth
* Chronic illnesses such as asthma, gastrointestinal problems, or heart disease
* Environmental factors such as poverty, neglect, or poor living conditions
* Hormonal imbalances

FTT can have significant long-term consequences for a child's health and development. Children who fail to thrive may be at increased risk for:

* Delayed cognitive and social development
* Behavioral problems such as anxiety or depression
* Poor school performance
* Increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease later in life.

Treatment for FTT depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Nutritional supplements or changes to the child's diet
* Medical treatment for any underlying chronic illnesses
* Addressing environmental factors such as poverty or neglect
* Hormone replacement therapy if hormonal imbalances are suspected
* Psychosocial interventions to address behavioral problems or other issues that may be contributing to the child's FTT.

It is important for parents and caregivers to monitor their child's growth and development and seek medical attention if they notice any signs of FTT, such as:

* Poor weight gain or growth rate
* Delayed physical milestones such as sitting, crawling, or walking
* Poor appetite or difficulty feeding
* Frequent illnesses or infections.


1. Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, or C)
2. Overdose of medications or supplements
3. Toxic substances (e.g., alcohol, drugs, or chemicals)
4. Sepsis or other infections that spread to the liver
5. Certain autoimmune disorders (e.g., hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease)
6. Cancer that has metastasized to the liver
7. Blood vessel blockage or clotting in the liver
8. Lack of blood flow to the liver


1. Jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes)
2. Nausea and vomiting
3. Abdominal swelling and discomfort
4. Fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite
5. Confusion or altered mental state
6. Seizures or coma
7. Pale or clay-colored stools
8. Dark urine


1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Laboratory tests (e.g., liver function tests, blood tests, imaging studies)
3. Biopsy of the liver tissue (to rule out other liver diseases)


1. Supportive care (fluids, nutrition, and medication to manage symptoms)
2. Addressing underlying causes (e.g., stopping alcohol or drug use, treating infections)
3. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), a procedure that creates a new pathway for blood to flow through the liver
4. Liver transplantation (in severe cases where other treatments have failed)

The prognosis for acute liver failure depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the liver damage. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome. However, acute liver failure can be a life-threatening condition, and the mortality rate is high, especially in cases where there is severe liver damage or no available donor liver for transplantation.

There are several causes of liver failure, including:

1. Alcohol-related liver disease: Prolonged and excessive alcohol consumption can damage liver cells, leading to inflammation, scarring, and eventually liver failure.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver, leading to liver failure.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring.
4. Drug-induced liver injury: Certain medications can cause liver damage and failure, especially when taken in high doses or for extended periods.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain inherited conditions, such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease, can cause liver damage and failure.
6. Acute liver failure: This is a sudden and severe loss of liver function, often caused by medication overdose or other toxins.
7. Chronic liver failure: A gradual decline in liver function over time, often caused by cirrhosis or NAFLD.

Symptoms of liver failure can include:

1. Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
2. Fatigue
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Abdominal pain
6. Confusion and altered mental state
7. Easy bruising and bleeding

Diagnosis of liver failure is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests to check for liver enzymes and bilirubin levels. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound and CT scans, may also be used to evaluate the liver.

Treatment of liver failure depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Other treatments may include medications to manage symptoms, such as nausea and pain, and supportive care to maintain nutrition and hydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat complications.

Prevention of liver failure is important, and this can be achieved by:

1. Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation
2. Maintaining a healthy weight and diet
3. Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure
4. Avoiding exposure to toxins, such as certain medications and environmental chemicals
5. Getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B
6. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of hepatitis B and C.

The definition of MOF varies depending on the context and the specific criteria used to define it. However, in general, MOF is characterized by:

1. The involvement of multiple organs: MOF affects multiple organs in the body, such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, and brain. Each organ failure can have a significant impact on the individual's overall health and survival.
2. Severe dysfunction: The dysfunction of multiple organs is severe enough to cause significant impairment in the individual's physiological functions, such as breathing, circulation, and mental status.
3. Lack of specific etiology: MOF often occurs without a specific identifiable cause, although it can be triggered by various factors such as infections, injuries, or medical conditions.
4. High mortality rate: MOF is associated with a high mortality rate, especially if left untreated or if the underlying causes are not addressed promptly.

The diagnosis of MOF requires a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment involves addressing the underlying causes, supporting the failing organs, and managing symptoms. The prognosis for MOF depends on the severity of the condition, the underlying cause, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.

It also provides IT equipment failure analysis service. Currently,[when?] the company has 30 offices around the world. "Case ... The company offers failure analysis, forensic investigations in the cause of various failures, including electrical systems, ... Services this company provides include damage assessment, repair and replacement cost valuation, equipment restoration ...
Pearson is also an International Society for Testing and Failure Analysis honoree. Pearson and Sandy Shaw are the authors of ... Pearson assisted with equipment design and experiments for NASA's Space Shuttle. ...
The equipment at Xradia was used to inspect the failure of interest in this analysis. An example of their findings is shown in ... Examination of the module shown in Figure 1 in the Failure Analysis Laboratory found no external evidence of the failure. ... as it was used to characterize this failure after the SQUID analysis, as an evaluation sample for an equipment vendor. The ... Failure Analysis of Short Faults on Advanced Wire-bond and Flip-chip Packages with Scanning SQUID Microscopy (PDF). IRPS 2004. ...
... equipment, subsystem, or system under investigation. Depending on the type of FMEA performed, failure mode may be described at ... Systematic technique for failure analysis Failure modes, effects, and diagnostic analysis (FMEDA) Failure rate - Frequency with ... SAE (2008). Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in Design (Design FMEA) and Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis ... The standard failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) procedures ...
Reliability of Systems, Equipment and Components Part 5: Guide to Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMEA and ... Failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) is an extension of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). FMEA is a ... Design Analysis Procedure For Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). Society for Automotive Engineers. 1967. ... Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) (pdf). International ...
The PRARE became non-operational shortly after launch; later analysis concluded that the failure was due to a memory latchup ... To accurately determine its orbit, the satellite included the PRARE (Precision Range and Range-Rate Equipment) and a laser ... Since the tape drive failure additional ground stations have been brought online to increase the data gathering abilities of ...
... in failure analysis refers to simulation in which we create environment/conditions to identify the cause of equipment failure. ... For example, electrical system failures, instrument failures, hydraulic system failures, and even flight control failures can ... in case of possible bank failure). This kind of analysis falls under the concepts of stress testing or scenario analysis. A ... This can be the best and fastest method to identify the failure cause. A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to model ...
... fault and failure (AFF) detection and analysis. Anomaly detection - another step in any AIOps process is based on the analysis ... of past behavior of users, equipment and applications. Anything that strays from that behavior baseline is considered unusual ... A very important use of AIOps platforms is related to the analysis of large and unconnected datasets, such as the Johns Hopkins ... Analysis of all incoming alerts; Remove duplicates; Identify the false positives; Early anomaly, ...
There are two main types of failure investigators will focus on: active failure and latent failure. Active failure is an unsafe ... For example, a crew underestimating the cost of maintenance will leave the airplane and equipment in bad condition. Unsafe ... The difference between active failure and latent failure is that the effect caused by active failure will show up immediately. ... Latent failure usually occurs from the high level management. Investigators may ignore this kind of failure because it may ...
The standard also set requirements for failure modes and effects analysis, and other issues relating to manufacturing, quality ... This standard drew attention to issues with a lot of existing equipment, and led to major improvements in open circuit ... In the European Union the standard EN250:2000 Respiratory equipment. Open-circuit self-contained compressed air diving ... Respiratory Equipment - Open Circuit Self-Contained Diving Apparatus for use with Compressed Nitrox and Oxygen - Requirements, ...
In addition it offered software for design debug, failure analysis and yield acceleration. Verigy announced its initial public ... Verigy website (Equipment semiconductor companies, Companies formerly listed on the Nasdaq, Electronic test equipment ... failure analysis and yield acceleration for complex semiconductor devices and processes. On June 15, 2009, Verigy acquired ... The resulting company was the largest manufacturer of semiconductor test equipment in the world. Trading of Verigy ordinary ...
Predicting the likely period of the equipment failure-free operation. Comparative analysis of various modes of the equipment ... and other pieces of equipment of the oil and gas industry. Monitoring and analysis of the condition of high-capacity power ... One of the areas of the long-term service was remote monitoring and control of the equipment technical condition which was ... The system can be applied to the equipment produced by Siemens, GE, Alstom, Ansaldo, LMZ, UTW, JSC United Engine Corporation, ...
... heading a lab that performed failure analysis on manufacturing equipment. Part of her job entailed climbing towers to check on ...
... including failure analysis and quality control. The equipment includes the following types of machinery: Precision cross- ... backside analysis Article discussing the applications of jet etch equipment (Industrial equipment). ... Article from MATERIALS WORLD Journal discussing the various sample preparation disciplines that allow for failure analysis of ... Sample preparation equipment refers to equipment used for the preparation of physical specimens for subsequent microscopy or ...
ZSA evaluates the potential for equipment interference. It also considers failure modes and maintenance errors that could have ... Independent failures, represented by an AND gate in a fault tree analysis, have a low probability of occurring in the same ... Zonal Safety Analysis (ZSA) is one of three analytical methods which, taken together, form a Common Cause Analysis (CCA) in ... The other two methods are Particular Risks Analysis (PRA) and Common Mode Analysis (CMA). Aircraft system safety requires the ...
Some of the key uses for CT scanning have been flaw detection, failure analysis, metrology, assembly analysis, image-based ... The main limitation of this type of CT is the bulk and inertia of the equipment (X-ray tube assembly and detector array on the ... For moderate kidney failure, the use of iodinated contrast should be avoided; this may mean using an alternative technique ... Dilute barium sulfate has the advantage that it does not cause allergic-type reactions or kidney failure, but cannot be used in ...
TDR equipment is also an essential tool in the failure analysis of modern high-frequency printed circuit boards with signal ... Time domain reflectometry is used in semiconductor failure analysis as a non-destructive method for the location of defects in ... Smolyansky, D. (2004). "Electronic Package Fault Isolation Using TDR". Microelectronics Failure Analysis. ASM International. pp ... Simple TDR made from lab equipment Simple TDR made from lab equipment TDR trace of a transmission line with an open termination ...
In addition to a circuit analysis, a WCCA often includes stress and derating analysis, failure modes and effects criticality ( ... It is a quantitative assessment of the equipment performance, accounting for manufacturing, environmental and aging effects. ... Catastrophic failures may be minimized through MTBF, stress and derating, and FMECA analyses that help to ensure that all ... Worst-case analysis is the analysis of a device (or system) that assures that the device meets its performance specifications. ...
... an equipment, a software or a process are formally reported through a standard form (Defect Report, Failure Report). Analysis ( ... A failure reporting, analysis, and corrective action system (FRACAS) is a system, sometimes carried out using software, that ... FRACAS records the problems related to a product or process and their associated root causes and failure analyses to assist in ... The FRACAS process is a closed loop with the following steps: Failure Reporting (FR). The failures and the faults related to a ...
... "developing methods for heuristic analysis, diagnosis and prediction of aviation failures." In July 1992, UzUGA entered into a ... "for those who do not know how and where to use the equipment, the 'healer' is ready to explain the principle of the magical ... "a study of the effect of aeronautical electronic equipment on pilots in flight to increase safety." In June 1994, the national ... and prediction of aviation failures". In January 1993, UzUGA sponsored Grabovoi for " ...
... ing analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or ... In many countries, engineering tasks such as the design of bridges, electric power plants, industrial equipment, machine design ... Baecher, G.B.; Pate, E.M.; de Neufville, R. (1979). "Risk of dam failure in benefit/cost analysis". Water Resources Research. ... Guide to failure modes effects and criticality analysis (FMEA and FMECA). Robinson, M. A. (2012). "How design engineers spend ...
Vibration analysis, when properly done, allows the user to evaluate the condition of equipment and avoid failures. The latest ... and to prevent unexpected equipment failures. The key is "the right infor equipment lifetime, increased plant safety, fewer ... Vibration analysis is most productive on high-speed rotating equipment and can be the most expensive component of a PdM program ... Infrared monitoring and analysis has the widest range of application (from high- to low-speed equipment), and it can be ...
... oven Failure rate Reliability theory Survival analysis Dielectric withstand test Shakedown (testing) Fenlon, Wesley (18 ... There is another use of the term by some audiophiles, who leave new audio equipment turned on for multiple days or weeks, to ... In a mature production it is not easy to determine whether there is a decreasing failure rate. To determine the failure time ... Replacing the weak components would prevent premature failure, infant mortality failure, or other latent defects. When the ...
... bottom-up analysis method aimed at analyzing the effects of single component or function failures on equipment or subsystems. ... Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a type of failure analysis in which an undesired state of a system is examined. This analysis ... Event tree analysis Failure mode and effects analysis Ishikawa diagram Reliability engineering Root cause analysis Safety ... The likelihood of failure, however, can often be reduced through improved system design. Fault tree analysis maps the ...
Analysis of failure monitoring results Reporting and memorization of failures Management of tests Built-in self-test Logic ... Built-in test equipment (BITE) for avionics primarily refers to passive fault management and diagnosis equipment built into ... Built-in test equipment includes multimeters, oscilloscopes, discharge probes, and frequency generators that are provided as ... v t e (Test equipment, Avionics, All stub articles, Aviation stubs). ...
... failure analysis, equipment calibration capabilities, test and system development, and support and fulfillment. The ... IMI serves original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in diversified markets that include those in the automotive, industrial, ... As initially an EMS company, the manufacturing arm of IMI produces products for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Some ... Aside from assembly services, IMI provides automotive tier 1 suppliers and original equipment manufacturer services such as ...
... experience with the system/equipment/component or upon engineering analysis of the probable failure rate for the equipment. ... Maintenance testing is a test that is performed to either identify equipment problems, diagnose equipment problems, or confirm ... It can be performed at either the system level (e.g., the HVAC system), the equipment level (e.g., the blower in an HVAC line ... the need to replace or upgrade equipment, and performance improvement opportunities. One level of maintenance testing is the in ...
... failure analysis, energy studies, space industry, lamination steels, mechanical tests, machinery and equipment, bio-mechanical ... transfer and storage of equipment and processes involving heat . The DETF was created with the restructuring of the FEC - ... including design and development of equipment, in the area of energy, including heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics ...
Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) Dimensional tolerance stack-up analysis using product and manufacturing information ( ... This includes: Measuring equipment management Goods inward inspection Vendor rating Attribute chart Statistical process control ...
... mechanical and structural analysis with finite element analysis. He also worked on structural and drivetrain engineering and ... Especially for building space craft the value of the components to be welded is very high: "When you're building equipment for ... His responsibilities also included training and assessing engineers on failure modes, electrical component sizing, and finite ... including structural analysis using the finite element method and hand calculations, as well as spindle design, drivetrain ...
His lack of influential allies in Whitehall led to the failure of this mission.[citation needed] At this time, many members of ... text, contemporary documents and 20th century analysis Houston, Alan, ed. Franklin: The Autobiography and other Writings on ... ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary for establishing another newspaper in Philadelphia. Discovering that Keith's ...
Bandwidth management - Capacity control on a communications network Cascading failure - Systemic risk of failure Choke exchange ... Some network equipment is equipped with ports that can follow and measure each flow and are thereby able to signal a too big ... Use and analysis. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. den Hartog, F., Raschella, A., Bouhafs, F., Kempker, P., Boltjes, B., & ... One solution is to use random early detection (RED) on the network equipment's egress queue. On networking hardware ports with ...
However, contemporary analysis of von Richthofen's autopsy suggested the fatal shot more than likely came from ground fire, ... Battle of Rautu - The White Guards cut off the rail line to Petrograd, preventing needed Russian ammo and equipment from ... The British completed their withdrawal across the Jordan River following their failure to capture Amman, Jordan. ...
Failure to remove much or all of such acidic molecules, mercury, and other impurities could result in damage to the equipment. ... A safety analysis was not required at the time, and none was performed during the planning, design or construction of the ... experienced a failure of an LNG tank. 128 people perished in the explosion and fire. The tank did not have a dike retaining ... "LNG Tank System Analysis". Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. "Development of LNG Fueling ...
A closer analysis comparing the figures for October 1977 compared with those of the same month in 1976 had shown an increase of ... There were numerous reasons for what was termed the biggest corporate failure in Britain at the time: Laker Airways had ... Laker Airways eventually became the first independent British airline to actually operate widebodied equipment when it ... the attempt was unsuccessful due to their failure to secure the necessary licensing. Laker, by now living in the Bahamas, got ...
Partially adjusted regression analyses produced similar results, as did analyses restricted to domestic and non-domestic mass ... He had purchased equipment and materials of the kind advertised and promoted in these magazines, including a Colt AR-15 semi- ... Johnson, Kevin (November 9, 2017). "Texas Church Shooting Background Check Failure". USA Today. Retrieved November 17, 2017. ... In 2018, the FBI Behavioral Analysis Unit released a survey of 63 active shooter cases between 2000 and 2013 that found that ...
Kelsey, Jane (9 July 1999). "LIFE IN THE ECONOMIC TEST-TUBE: New Zealand "experiment" a colossal failure". Archived from the ... Property-analysis company CoreLogic said[when?] that 45% of house purchases in New Zealand are now made by investors who ... commodities Machinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics Electricity Consumption ... "Deep freeze list - Finance industry failures". "Fran O'Sullivan: Treasury must front up over role in SCF ...
MSA is also different from multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, sometimes referred to as multiple organ failure, and from ... Social workers and occupational therapists can also help with coping with disability through the provision of equipment and ... revealed robust α-synuclein pathology in the pontine nuclei and medullary inferior olivary nucleus upon histological analysis ... pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy". Neurology. 46 (5): 1470. doi:10.1212/wnl.46.5.1470. PMID 8628505. S2CID ...
The plane is visiting the island to conduct a series of flights to calibrate the airport's radio navigation equipment. 16 ... A Colombian Air Force CASA CN-235 carrying Colombian military personnel suffers engine failure and crashes at Codazzi, Colombia ... Ryan, Missy, "Pentagon: Initial analysis suggests Libya strike killed senior militant,", "U.S. planes target ... Russia has improved the airport to support military operations and moved military equipment to it over approximately the ...
Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Failure Modes and Effects Summary (FMES) Common Cause ... ARP4761, Guidelines and Methods for Conducting the Safety Assessment Process on Civil Airborne Systems and Equipment is an ... Analysis (CCA), consisting of: Zonal Safety Analysis (ZSA) Particular Risks Analysis (PRA) Common Mode Analysis (CMA) The ... The Common Mode Analysis (CMA) looks at the redundant critical components to find failure modes which can cause all to fail at ...
Failure to complete the cardinal movements of birth in the correct order may result in complications of labour and birth ... Wei SQ, Luo ZC, Xu H, Fraser WD (September 2009). "The effect of early oxytocin augmentation in labor: a meta-analysis". ... Hammond P, Johnson A (1986). "Tocodynamometer". In Brown M (ed.). The Medical Equipment Dictionary. London: Chapman & Hall. ... Hsia RY, Akosa Antwi Y, Weber E (January 2014). "Analysis of variation in charges and prices paid for vaginal and caesarean ...
The following equipment are reportedly used by the Para (SF): Pistol Beretta 92FS Semi-automatic Pistol Beretta Px4 Storm Semi- ... The Special Group (aka 4 Vikas/22 SF/22 SG), a clandestine special forces unit which operates under Research and Analysis Wing ... all of which resulted in a mission failure. The diver mission was aborted after the first team got bogged down. The commandos ... "Manipur: Operation 'Summer Storm' called off". Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Retrieved 7 March 2018. "Myanmar ...
A lead isotope analysis of a bullet fired during the robbery confirmed it to have the same isotopic composition as the bullets ... Pettersson's appeal succeeded for three main reasons: Failure of the prosecution to produce the murder weapon; Lack of a clear ... for wire-bugging devices or traces of such equipment, but did not find any.: 161 At 20:30 the Palmes left their apartment, ... The gun was transferred to the National Laboratory of Forensic Science in Linköping for further analysis. However, the ...
However, the failure, in its eyes, of the Peel Commission and the renewal of violence on the part of the Arabs caused the Irgun ... On April 10, 1931, commanders and equipment managers announced that they refused to return weapons to the Haganah that had been ... and analysis techniques. Of the Irgun's members, almost all were part-time members. They were expected to maintain their ... Likewise, critics of the leadership spoke out against alleged failures in the number of weapons, readiness of the movement and ...
Gordon, Michael R. (25 March 2003). "A Nation at War: Military Analysis; The Goal Is Baghdad, but at What Cost?". The New York ... Others argued that the failure of the 24 March mission was due to poor planning and breaches of operational security rather ... seizing Saddam Fedayeen strong points and capturing much equipment. By 4 April, the entire city was in American hands. "On ... was later destroyed by firing two MGM-140 ATACMS surface-to-surface missiles at it from long range to prevent its equipment ...
The primary purpose of couplings is to join two pieces of rotating equipment while permitting some degree of misalignment or ... Underlying reasons for failure, other than maintenance, include: Improper installation Poor coupling selection Operation beyond ... by any system is dictated by the characteristics of the specific connected machines and can be determined by detailed analysis ... Flanged rigid couplings are designed for heavy loads or industrial equipment. They consist of short sleeves surrounded by a ...
The failure to achieve higher levels of education attributes to the cycle of poverty which can continue for generations in the ... Women also have a higher risk of HIV transmission through the use of medical equipment such as needles. Because more women than ... Moss, Jennifer (2020-10-01). "Persistent Poverty and Cancer Mortality Rates: An Analysis of County-Level Poverty Designations ... Of those admitted to hospital in the United States for heart failure, women and African Americans were more likely to reside in ...
An analysis in Vox hypothesised that the minority government did not want to risk its hold on power by banning large gatherings ... "Covid: EU's von der Leyen admits vaccine rollout failures". BBC News. 10 February 2021. "Covid: What is happening with the EU ... did not participate in the European Union tender procedure for purchasing COVID-19 pandemic related medical equipment, until 17 ... "Mortality Analyses". Johns Hopkins University. 27 December 2020. Retrieved 27 December 2020. Hasell, Joe; Ortiz-Ospina, Esteban ...
The failure of e-government in developing countries: a literature review'. The Electronic Journal on Information System in ... Singel, Ryan (6 August 2007). "Analysis: New Law Gives Government Six Months to Turn Internet and Phone Systems into Permanent ... as long as they have a computer and Internet and any accessibility equipment they may need). Recent trials of e-government have ... One study found that 35% of e-government projects in developing countries resulted in total failures; and that 50% were partial ...
Navigational equipment of the sea shipping courses corresponds to the system of the International Association of Marine Aids to ... After the apparent failure of diplomatic efforts, the government of Romania, where most of the Danube Delta lies, is reportedly ... Analysis: Serpents Island, Bystraya Canal, And Ukrainian-Romanian Relations, RFE/RL Construction Threatens Danube's Natural ...
Analysis produced by the BBC suggests 4.5 million people may be asked to self-isolate before the rules in England change for ... The money will also be used to buy extra equipment and improve IT. Labour Party leader Sir Keir Starmer calls for legislation ... "Covid: UK's early response worst public health failure ever, MPs say". BBC News. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 13 October 2021. " ... Analysis by Which? for BBC's Panorama TV series has indicated UK holidaymakers are paying an average of £300 more for a holiday ...
godine" [The Conception and Failure of the Offensive Operation of the Yugoslav National Army in September 1991]. Journal of ... and other military equipment would be stored in strategic locations in Croatia and then in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Secret ... Our analysis of the behavior of the Muslim communities demonstrates that the morale, will, and bellicose nature of their groups ...
Battelle's analysis determined the tank failure was caused by a brittle steel fracture - the original steel predated World War ... heavy equipment manufacturing, and insurance marketing. Most of that portfolio was related to Ashland's core refining and ... economy entered a downturn that hurt both the insurance and heavy equipment industries. By 1984 it was clear that action was ...
"Analysis: Uniting the Syrian Opposition - The Components of the National Army and the Implications of the Unification" (PDF). ... Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu has stated that Russia would need to deploy additional troops and equipment to Syria to ... Kreß, Claus (14 October 2019). "A Collective Failure to Prevent Turkey's Operation 'Peace Spring' and NATO's Silence on ... Business, Analysis by Brian Stelter, CNN (15 October 2019). "Questions swirl after ABC airs video from Kentucky gun range, ...
Begin said that Shaw had been responsible for the failure to evacuate the hotel: "A police officer called Shaw and told him, ' ... see Sir John Shaw controversy) American author Thurston Clarke's analysis of the bombing gave timings for calls and for the ... Soon after the explosion, rescuers from the Royal Engineers arrived with heavy lifting equipment. Later that night, the sappers ... and calling into fault the British for what they saw as a failure to respond to the warnings.[citation needed] A year later, on ...
Parliamentary Research Service (1995). "The UN's Role in the Former Yugoslavia: the Failure of the Middle Way" (PDF). Research ... "Bosnian war News, Research and Analysis". The Conversation. Engelberg, Stephen (1 September 1991). "Carving Out a Greater ... and hospitals lacked basic equipment. Along with this, supply links were cut, which meant that the Yugoslav economy could not ...
... and fatigue play a primary role in their failure. Failure modes may differ. Some capacitors may experience a gradual loss of ... Audio equipment, for example, uses several capacitors in this way, to shunt away power line hum before it gets into the signal ... Fourier analysis allows any signal to be constructed from a spectrum of frequencies, whence the circuit's reaction to the ... The usual methods of network analysis can then be applied. In other cases, such as with breakdown voltage, the effect is non- ...
ISBN 978-0-85435-210-4. Turner, John (2014). Analysis Of German Operation Art Failures, The Battle Of Britain, 1940. Lucknow [ ... The new bases in France were emergency strips, short of essential equipment and inadequately camouflaged for permanent ... The failure of the offensive in January 1945 led to the Western Allied invasion of Germany in March 1945. JG 27 remained in ... This analysis is supported by other authors. Brown states: "Clearly in the combat of 15 September, there could not have been ...
System is "close to failure" as PM's council raises tax for social care The Guardian "Lack of money" prompts care firms to end ... These include community support and activities, advisory services and advocacy, provision of equipment to manage disabilities, ...[bare URL image file] "New analysis ... Merrick, Rob (4 July 2019). "Theresa May condemned over "national scandal" of social care failure as 400,000 people stripped of ...
... although infrastructure equipment is exempt in some countries) Consumer equipment Lighting equipment - including light bulbs ... However, these failures pre-date RoHS. They also do not involve consumer electronics, and therefore may employ RoHS-restricted ... The study results are providing the industry with an objective analysis of the life-cycle environmental effects of leading ... equipment which is specifically designed, and is to be installed, as part of another type of equipment that is excluded or does ...
Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures.Volume 11A is intended to be used in conjun ... Preface, Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures, Vol 11A, ASM Handbook, Edited By Brett A. Miller, Roch J ... Recipient(s) will receive an email with a link to Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures , Preface and ... Welcome to the 2021 edition of ASM Handbook, Volume 11A, Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures. ...
... sensitive and precise equipment for the skin colour analysis. ... Equipment Design * Equipment Failure Analysis * Erythema / ... sensitive and precise equipment for the skin colour analysis. ...
Equipment Design • Equipment Failure Analysis • Erbium • Ethanol • Female • Filtration • Fluorescence • Fluorescent Dyes • ... Spectrum Analysis • Spectrum Analysis, Raman • Stars, Celestial • Students • Subtraction Technique • Thermography • Time ... Numerical analysis • Optical Devices • Optical Fibers • Optical materials • Optical Phenomena • Optical Processes • Optics and ... Fluorine Compounds • Fourier Analysis • Gallium compounds • Holography • Humans • Image compression • Image Enhancement • Image ...
Structural analysis; Structural failure; Structural engineering; Height factors; Sand; Excavation equipment; Equipment ... 3. Conduct a thorough job hazard analysis (JHA) before construction begins on any project involving stacked ecology blocks. 4. ... Region-10; Accidents; Injuries; Leg injuries; Surgery; Falling objects; Concretes; Construction materials; Heavy equipment; ... Weight factors; Accident prevention; Accident analysis; Injury prevention; Safety practices; Training; Humans; Men; Safety ...
Failure-analysis; Statistical-analysis ... Safety-equipment; Safety-measures; Occupational-hazards; ... which divides injury events for analysis into three phases and three factors: pre-event, event, and post-event, and host/human ...
Applied Technical Services conducts machine shaft failure analysis for commercial and industrial operations. ... Rotating Equipment Vibration Analysis * Thermal Imaging Electrical Inspections * Thermal Imaging Inspection * Thermographic ... Machine shaft failure analysis is an investigative tool used to evaluate the potential causes of shaft failure. The process can ... conducts machine shaft failure analysis for commercial and industrial operations. While shaft failure is far from a daily ...
Failure analysis. *In situ characterization using x-rays and neutrons. *Small-scale testing and applications ... Mechanics, characterization techniques, and equipment. *Testing of joined and integrated components and structures ... Correlations between processing and service conditions/environment that lead to failure of ceramics by fracture, fatigue, or ...
Equipment fabrication problem resolution. *Failure analysis. *Welding specification review. *Painting and coating system ...
Validation of equipment. *Failure mode and effect analysis for risk management. *Continuous competency improvement of staff: ... Establishment of an equipment maintenance system. *Upgrading laboratory biosafety with appointment of a biosafety officer, ... Development of Standard Operating Procedures for laboratory tests and equipment to assure that testing is performed in a ...
New investments in plants/facilities: this means the customer will be in a position to purchase new equipment.. - New products ... Using Data Analysis to Avoid 4 Common Causes of Business Failure. CRMData MiningMarket ResearchSocial DataSocial Media ... Using Data Analysis to Avoid 4 Common Causes of Business Failure. Last updated: 2013/01/20 at 4:43 PM. ... The failure to conduct proper market analysis is a common oversight and as a result business owners and CEOs are often ...
Predicting equipment issues before they occur. What You Get:. Operational visibility and analysis to reduce asset failures, ... GeoSpatial Analysis (GSA). Share data across the enterprise, empowering visualization, query, analysis and reporting ... Software , Geospatial Asset Management , Geospatial Analysis Geospatial Analysis ... Equipment Downtime Prevention. SmartSignal is part of a holistic predictive maintenance strategy and is available on-premises ...
Personal protective equipment; Equipment design; Equipment reliability; Equipment testing; Failure analysis; Safety equipment; ... Lifting; Hoisting equipment; Construction equipment; Scaffolds; Falls; Fall protection; Safety research; Occupational hazards; ... This study found that when the equipment was erected and used according to the manufacturers recommendations during a fall- ... the mast climber stability and the workers using it by creating fall-arrest impact forces that are transmitted to the equipment ...
... inadequate failure analysis by the pilots; non-compliance with basic procedural instructions during the approach; COPIs ... pilots not aware of the possibility of incorrect indications in the NAV equipment in use (without flag-alarm); ...
In this study, survival analysis techniques were used to compare fatigue failure responses of elderly motion segments to a ... Comparison of MERV 16 and HEPA Filters for Cab Filtration of Underground Mining Equipment ... This paper presents the results of a hypothetical cost comparison analysis of the PDM with the current MSHA-required coal mine ... A Comparison of Fatigue Failure Responses of Old Versus Middle-Aged Lumbar Motion Segments in Simulated Flexed Lifting ...
Failure modes and effects analysis. Munitions. Also known as: SAE AIR 4288 ... Military vehicles and equipment. Bus systems. Fiber optics. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) ...
The role adds value by assisting the Maintenance and Operating teams in the areas of preventative maintenance, failure analysis ... Knowledge of Overall Equipment Effectiveness principles *Initiative and self-motivation to learn the process and move projects ... Assist with failure analysis and solutions with our teams and Reliability engineer. ... Standardize equipment and processes between the 3 teams. *Analyze and provide solutions for the efficient inputting of ...
Failure Analysis: Identified the source of a failure responsible for escalated product returns in a critical product category. ... Automated Test Equipment: Improved reliability and time to market via automated product testing. This enables the OEM to ... Semiconductor Equipment OEM Marks 15 Years Relying on Boston Engineerings Product Innovation. 1-minute read 10 October, 2021 ... After the design update implementation, there were no service calls or product returns related to this failure. ...
... determination of the fracture mechanism is a critical step in the failure analysis process. ... Food processing equipment - stress corrosion cracking (stainless steel). *Water filter housing - creep rupture (nylon) ... determination of the fracture mechanism is a critical step in the failure analysis process. MEE technical staff are experts in ... Representative fracture analysis projects completed by MEE staff:. *ATV ball joint - ductile fracture (alloy steel) ...
The most common causes for missing data were insufficient BAL fluid collected for analysis, equipment failure or sample ... Statistical analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using R version 3.2.5 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ... Linear mixed model analysis was used to determine the relationships between CT and BAL outcomes, adjusting for age and with ... For the CT analysis, all surveillance visits prior to August 22, 2015 that included a volumetric inspiratory CT scan were ...
Heart failure care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med 2014;11:e1001699. doi: ... Data analysis. We analysed the availability of essential equipment and medications required for diagnosis and treatment of nine ... Few hospitals had equipment or medications needed to diagnose and manage heart failure and rheumatic heart disease, which ... Systematic reviews of heart failure in LICs have identified a high burden of non-ischaemic heart failure and high utilisation ...
Enable remote equipment monitoring, health scoring and predictive failure analysis with ADLINK Edge Machine Health solutions ... Enable remote equipment monitoring, health scoring and predictive failure analysis with ADLINK Edge Machine Health solutions ... Enable remote equipment monitoring, health scoring and predictive failure analysis with ADLINK Edge Machine Health solutions ... Enable remote equipment monitoring, health scoring and predictive failure analysis with ADLINK Edge Machine Health solutions ...
... how-to info about industrial heating equipment for manufacturing processes. ... Routine analysis ensures problems are detected before failure occurs, preventing downtime and unexpected maintenance expenses. ... Fluid degradation is normal over time, but can be accelerated by equipment malfunctions, poor system design or operational ... Using Data Gathering and Analysis to Manage Industrial Thermal Processes. Play Listen ...
Performs inspections, field audits, criticality assessments, and failure analyses. Prepares specifications, designs, and work ... Ensures pipeline and equipment integrity and maintains protection from corrosion using cathodic protection programs, pigging ... Reads and interprets maps, GPS data, drawings, and specifications used to install cathodic protection systems and equipment. ... Reads and interprets maps, GPS data, drawings, and specifications used to install cathodic protection systems and equipment. ...
... commercial and industrial equipment and systems. He specializes in failure analysis of automobile components/systems and... ...
... hydraulics and oil analysis for industrial maintenance and reliability professionals ...
Failure data from each of these categories must be collected to ensure a successful Root Cause Analysis. Lets briefly review ... As failure investigators, we can learn a lot from homicide detectives. When a significant failure occurs, we should treat it as ... In order to "FREEZE" the failure scene, we often suggest to students, that the failure response team be equipped with brightly ... Its amazing how quickly failure data (evidence) can disappear after a failure has occurred. Following such an unexpected ...
Home Page Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Information Center ... Reasons for failure, for every piece of equipment have been ... Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a structured method of approaching gear failures and their potential causes. Care ... These instruments include of FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis), APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning Process), PPAP ... FMEA Info Centre - Home Page Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Information Center. ...
... based on relevant fire or failure scenarios drawn from service experience and engineering analysis, is established. The ... Written for the electrical engineer responsible for the safety of electrical systems and equipment, this guide provides ... A method for practical fire hazard assessment for electrical equipment containing insulating materials, ... based on relevant fire or failure scenarios drawn from service experience and engineering analysis, is established. The ...
  • Reliability Testing Services, a member of the Applied Technical Services family, conducts machine shaft failure analysis for commercial and industrial operations. (
  • Acquire and use practical and technical knowledge of the plant process to improve reliability of equipment. (
  • Assist with failure analysis and solutions with our teams and Reliability engineer. (
  • These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices. (
  • And we recognize that our audience wishes to both understand the causes of failures and prevent future occurrences. (
  • Failure from corrosion and wear are rare occurrences that often leave physical evidence of their presence. (
  • Separate volumes on failure analysis were published in 1975 and again in 1986. (
  • An article detailing the comparative analysis of two different types of filters--MERV 16 and HEPA--and their respective efficiency in the enclosed cab systems of two separate pieces of mining equipment. (
  • The notes (in a separate section of this document) may be very important in data analyses. (
  • Rather than maintaining all technical expertise internally, executives at a global semiconductor equipment provider selected Boston Engineering to play an integral role in advancing the company's innovation pipeline. (
  • Correlations between processing and service conditions/environment that lead to failure of ceramics by fracture, fatigue, or deformation are essential. (
  • When a product fails through fracture of one of more components, determination of the fracture mechanism is a critical step in the failure analysis process. (
  • Fracture analysis through characterization of the macroscopic and microscopic fracture features is an indispensable tool for understanding the mechanism (or mode) of fracture and identifying physical conditions of the component that may have contributed to the failure. (
  • Continuous employee training and preventive equipment maintenance can help prevent chlorine releases from occurring and minimize exposure to the general public. (
  • The role adds value by assisting the Maintenance and Operating teams in the areas of preventative maintenance, failure analysis, organization, training, continuous improvement, and research and development. (
  • As stated in the title, the focus of this Volume is components and equipment, beginning with the design process and including life assessment, manufacturing, and maintenance. (
  • If it is truly defective, then the analysis should determine whether the defect originates in the design, manufacture (fabrication and assembly), materials selection/processing, or an unanticipated service environment. (
  • After the design update implementation, there were no service calls or product returns related to this failure. (
  • Fluid degradation is normal over time, but can be accelerated by equipment malfunctions, poor system design or operational error. (
  • A lithium ion battery fires expert witness is an individual who are called upon to provide their professional opinion on issues related to various aspects of lithium-ion batteries, including design, manufacture, performance, safety, and failure analysis. (
  • Written for the electrical engineer responsible for the safety of electrical systems and equipment, this guide provides guidelines for design of insulation systems and selection of insulating materials and aids in the use of codes, regulations, standards, product listings, and testing to improve safety. (
  • Thermal Engineering International-TEi- has installations across the globe and is backed by more than 165 years of experience in the design and manufacture of high quality Pressure Vessels and Heat Transfer Equipment for the power generation and process industries. (
  • Two aspects of HHANES, especially, should be taken into account when conducting any analyses: the sample weights and the complex survey design. (
  • Welcome to the 2021 edition of ASM Handbook , Volume 11A, Analysis and Prevention of Component and Equipment Failures . (
  • Volume 11A is intended to be used in conjunction with ASM Handbook , Volume 11, Failure Analysis and Prevention . (
  • Machine shaft failure results from one or more of the following four failure mechanisms, corrosion, fatigue, overload, or wear. (
  • Ensures pipeline and equipment integrity and maintains protection from corrosion using cathodic protection programs, pigging operations, and inspection processes. (
  • He next described an epidemiologic tool, the Hadden Matrix, which divides injury events for analysis into three phases and three factors: pre-event, event, and post-event, and host/human, agent/vehicle, and environment. (
  • Fortunately, our highly trained technicians can determine the cause of the failure by assessing the various contributing factors. (
  • Equipment failure and human error were the most frequent factors leading to an event. (
  • The purpose of specific control methods such as the use of engineering controls, good work practices, and personal protective equipment is to protect workers at known and potential discharge points of EtO in the sterilizer system. (
  • Standardize equipment and processes between the 3 teams. (
  • The state-of-the-art nanoscience and nanotechnology equipment that underpins the MEC MNM programme will be made available through this programme to the academic community in the UK.The R&D services offered under this programme will focus on fabrication, processing and characterisation processes which were identified to have the greatest demand in NanoEquip2007, a recently conducted survey by the EPSRC. (
  • The nine welding points didn't present any union failures, cracks or empty spaces and comparing this result with previous studies, there was improvement in the processes' quality. (
  • Conclusion The good quality observed in these laboratorial processes were due to the improvement of the technician's learning curve, observation of the laboratorial protocols, the correction of possible defects in the equipment used and the application of statistical process control (SPC). (
  • 3. Conduct a thorough job hazard analysis (JHA) before construction begins on any project involving stacked ecology blocks. (
  • The failure to conduct proper market analysis is a common oversight and as a result business owners and CEOs are often blindsided by their lack of preparedness in dealing with unanticipated events. (
  • In addition, companies should conduct customer sentiment analysis to discover reactions to competitor brands and to determine if there is sufficient demand for your product or service. (
  • Emergency Events Surveillance system were used to conduct a retrospective analysis on the public health consequences from acute chlorine releases in 16 states during 1993 through 2000. (
  • These instruments include of FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis), APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning Process), PPAP (Production Part Approval Process), SPC (Statistical Process Control) and MSA (Measurement System Analysis). (
  • This research project investigated those safety concerns with respect to the mast climber stability and the workers using it by creating fall-arrest impact forces that are transmitted to the equipment and by subsequently observing the movement of the mast climber and the working deck used by the workers. (
  • Due to the increasing use of MCWPs at construction sites, there is a corresponding need for evidence and science-based safety guidelines or regulations and further research should be conducted to continue to fill the knowledge gap with MCWP equipment. (
  • Safety related parts of a machine control systems and/or their protective equipment, as well as their components, shall be designed, constructed, selected, assembled and combined in accordance with relevant standards so that they can withstand the expected influence. (
  • We work together with you to enhance the availability, safety, and profitability of your plants and equipment. (
  • Although crane equipment is often rented, construction contractors and subcontractors should have inspection procedures in place to ensure the safety of their workers (9). (
  • In 1986 the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) embarked on a major research effort to develop technology that can substantially reduce worker exposure to face hazards simply by relocating the equipment operators to an area of relative safety. (
  • The interim analysis of a prospective extension study of 749 women previously enrolled in 12-week trials also identified no new safety signals from long-term repeated Botox use. (
  • Linear mixed model analysis, accounting for repeat visits and adjusted for age, was used to determine associations. (
  • The frequency counts may be useful to determine which analyses may be worthwhile. (
  • Routine analysis ensures problems are detected before failure occurs, preventing downtime and unexpected maintenance expenses. (
  • Fatigue Failure occurs when cyclical stresses act on the material, causing crack propagation at ever-increasing speeds. (
  • In this study, survival analysis techniques were used to compare fatigue failure responses of elderly motion segments to a middle-aged sample. (
  • Experienced analysts are often frustrated when, despite extensive engineering research, investigations, and reports, the same types of failures occur again and again. (
  • Overload failure occurs when applied stress exceeds a material's yield or tensile strength. (
  • The symptoms associated with overload failure will vary depending on the material's brittleness or ductility. (
  • Classification of heart failure is based on symptoms and calculated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). (
  • A method for practical fire hazard assessment for electrical equipment containing insulating materials, based on relevant fire or failure scenarios drawn from service experience and engineering analysis, is established. (
  • It was recognized that additional information was needed on the overall process and tools of failure analysis, and this need was addressed with the 2002 Volume 11 , which then was expanded, revised, and updated in early 2021. (
  • The Process Heating Podcast focuses exclusively on industrial thermal processing equipment, components and supplies used in the process industries. (
  • Through the Struthers Wells brand TEi also has a broad portfolio of solutions for specialty High Pressure Heat Exchangers, Process Fired Heaters and Heat Transfer Equipment targeted at the Oil, Gas and Chemical Industry as well as process applications where specialty thermal fluids and conditions are part of the heat transfer process. (
  • General control methods such as equipment maintenance and workplace monitoring assure safe operation and provide timely feedback about the effectiveness of controls. (
  • Antera 3D(®) , such as Mexameter(®) MX-18 and Colorimeter(®) CL-400, are robust, sensitive and precise equipment for the skin colour analysis. (
  • We offer you comprehensive advice, professional materials testing, precise failure analyses, and detailed expert reports - all to enhance the quality of your products. (
  • Dr. Stichter is a Mechanical Engineer at ARCCA with extensive experience in automotive, recreational, transportation, agricultural, commercial and industrial equipment and systems. (
  • In the area of maintenance and materials testing, our experts at TÜV Rheinland can support you with integrated solutions designed to assess the condition of your plants and equipment. (
  • TEi offers a full range of services from Consultancy and Spares to Manufacture and Installation of new system designs, replacements and upgrade equipment. (
  • To avoid this potentially ruinous scenario, companies should carry out a full-scale market analysis by setting up a web monitoring system that will surface any information relating to their target market: who are the main players? (
  • In 2019, 32.8% of nonfatal injuries resulting in days away from work in construction were caused by contact with an object or equipment (3). (
  • Because the results of a failure investigation are often painstakingly scrutinized by multiple parties, and different interpretations of the evidence are possible, it is important to follow a scientific approach. (
  • This paper presents the results of a hypothetical cost comparison analysis of the PDM with the current MSHA-required coal mine dust personal sampling unit (CMDPSU). (
  • Results 265 children (683 scans) were included for analysis, with BAL history comprising 1161 visits. (
  • He specializes in failure analysis of automobile components/systems and. (
  • As depicted in Figure 1, from 2011 to 2017, just over 50% of fatalities involving cranes in all industries were caused by a worker being struck by an object or equipment. (
  • In 1948, ASM International published a one-volume Metals Handbook , which included a section from the Subcommittee on Service Failures. (
  • Reads and interprets maps, GPS data, drawings, and specifications used to install cathodic protection systems and equipment. (
  • As with all the previous editions, the goal of the editors and authors is to provide the "go-to" reference for those who are confronted with the failure of a machine or component. (
  • Computed tomography is usually not required, but multidetector-row gated CT scanning may provide excellent analysis of the heart. (
  • To assess these public health consequences specific to chlorine, the analysis was restricted to events where only one substance (chlorine) was released. (
  • This Volume builds on a more than 70-year history of ASM International's leadership in failure analysis. (
  • Thus, the analyst should strive to uncover the underlying, or root, cause of the failure. (
  • This study also evaluates the influence of bone mineral content on cycles to failure. (
  • Encompassing a number of highly respected legacy brands including Struthers Wells , Perfex, EFCO, Southwestern Engineering Company (SWECO), Senior Engineering Company, Marley and Westinghouse Feedwater Heaters, TEi has an unmatched pedigree in technology and experience in its field and prides itself in its ability to support a massive installed base of equipment. (
  • This study found that when the equipment was erected and used according to the manufacturer's recommendations during a fall-arrest condition, destabilizing forces were very small and there were no signs of potential of MCWP collapse. (
  • Caution Notice CAUTION BEFORE USING THIS DATA TAPE, PLEASE READ THIS PAGE * Read the accompanying description of the survey, 'The Plan and Operation of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey', DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 85-1321 before conducting analyses of the data on this tape. (
  • Analyses should not be conducted on data combined from the three portions of the survey (Mexican-American, Cuban-American, Puerto Rican). (
  • Examine the range and frequency of values of a variable before conducting an analysis of data. (
  • The interim analysis presented by Dr. Rechberger involved data up to June 2013. (