The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.
The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.
Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The upkeep of property or equipment.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.
The destruction of germs causing disease.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures and regulations implemented to ensure household items, toys, and other consumer products are designed, manufactured, and distributed in a manner that minimizes risks of harm, injury, or death to consumers during normal use or foreseeable misuse.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Radioactive food contamination refers to the presence of radioactive substances in food or water supplies, often resulting from nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons testing, or improper disposal of radioactive waste, leading to potential health risks including radiation sickness and cancer upon consumption.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tools used in dentistry that operate at high rotation speeds.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.

Bloodstream infections can develop late (after day 100) and/or in the absence of neutropenia in children receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (1/857)

We retrospectively evaluated the incidence and time from transplantation of bloodstream infections occurring in children receiving bone marrow transplant (BMT) at G Gaslini Children's Hospital between September 1984 and December 1997. During this period the incidence was 35% after allogeneic and 26% after autologous BMT (P=0.08). Among these episodes, 38% after allogeneic BMT and 90% after autologous BMT were detected in the presence of neutropenia within the first 30 days from reinfusion (P < 0.001). Incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections was 40% after allogeneic and 8% after autologous BMT (P < 0.001). Bloodstream infections in the absence of neutropenia were 55% after allogeneic BMT vs 10% after autologous BMT (P < 0.001) and occurred later after reinfusion (mean 199 vs 41 days, P <0.001). Among the episodes occurring after allogeneic BMT and in the absence of neutropenia, 61% were related to the presence of a central venous catheter, 15% were related to the presence of GVHD, but 23% were not associated with any of major risk factors for infection. Finally, 38% of episodes following allogeneic BMT were detected after day 100 vs 1% after autologous BMT. We concluded that patients receiving allogeneic BMT experience a high incidence of bloodstream infections in the absence of neutropenia and that a significant proportion of these episodes is not clearly associated with well known risk factors such as GVHD or central venous catheters. Moreover, many episodes develop a long time after the transplantation procedure. Therefore, any febrile episode following allogeneic BMT even late and/or in the absence of neutropenia should be intensively managed.  (+info)

The presence and sequence of endotracheal tube colonization in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. (2/857)

Endotracheal tube colonization in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation was investigated. In the first part of this prospective study, the airway access tube was examined for the presence of secretions, airway obstruction and bacterial colonization, in cases undergoing extubation or tube change. In the second part of the study, the sequence of oropharyngeal, gastric, respiratory tract and endotracheal tube colonization was investigated by sequential swabbing at each site twice daily for 5 days in consecutive noninfected patients. In the first part, it was noted that all airway access tubes of cases undergoing extubation had secretions lining the interior of the distal third of the tube which were shown on scanning electron microscopy to be a biofilm. Gram-negative micro-organisms were isolated from these secretions in all but three cases. In the second part, it was noted that the sequence of colonization in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation was the oropharynx (36 h), the stomach (3660 h), the lower respiratory tract (60-84 h), and thereafter the endotracheal tube (60-96 h). Nosocomial pneumonia occurred in 13 patients and in eight cases identical organisms were noted in lower respiratory tract secretions and in secretions lining the interior of the endotracheal tube. The endotracheal tube of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation becomes colonized rapidly with micro-organisms commonly associated with nosocomial pneumonia, and which may represent a persistent source of organisms causing such infections.  (+info)

Adhesive tape and intravascular-catheter-associated infections. (3/857)

Adhesive tape is placed in close contact with intravascular catheters for extended periods and could theoretically contribute to local infections. We found that 74% of specimens of tape collected in one hospital were colonized by pathogenic bacteria. However, only 5% of specimens had significant growth from an inner layer obtained by discarding the outside layer from each roll. We suggest that adhesive tape is a potential source of pathogenic bacteria and that discarding the outer layer from a partially used roll might be a simple method for reducing the risk of infection to patients.  (+info)

Bronchoscopy-related infections and pseudoinfections--New York, 1996 and 1998. (4/857)

Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic technique that can be performed safely by trained specialists when the bronchoscopes in both inpatient and ambulatory-care settings are reprocessed properly to prevent transmission of infection. The New York State Department of Health received reports of three clusters of culture-positive bronchoscopy specimens obtained in 1996 and 1998 from patients at local health-care facilities. This report summarizes the results of investigations of these clusters, which indicated involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. intracellulare, or imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Between patient uses, bronchoscopes had been cleaned, visually inspected, leak tested, and processed by STERIS System 1 processors (STERIS, Mentor, Ohio).  (+info)

The role of syringe filters in harm reduction among injection drug users. (5/857)

OBJECTIVES: Three filters were tested for in situ efficacy in reducing bacterial contamination associated with injection drug use. METHODS: In a self-matched control design with blinded laboratory testing, injection drug users were asked to use 3 filters in random succession when loading their syringes with drug solute. RESULTS: The 0.22-micron filter proved significantly better than both the cigarette filter (relative risk [RR] = 18.0) and the 20-micron filter (RR = 4.5) in rendering syringes bacteria-free. CONCLUSIONS: The 15- to 20-micron syringe filter currently provided injection drug users in Switzerland does not significantly reduce contamination associated with common bacterial infections among users. Filters with pore width 1/100th as large are recommended.  (+info)

Cross contamination of blood cultures associated with a multiple use venting device. (6/857)

AIM: To investigate cross contamination of blood cultures associated with multiple use venting devices, which are widely used in clinical microbiology laboratories to reduce labour costs. METHODS: Systematic analysis of 13,880 blood culture results in a large teaching hospital where multiple use venting devices were employed. RESULTS: Nine series of potential cross contamination were identified in a 12 month period. Four series involved coagulase negative staphylococci and were unlikely to represent true cross contamination. Five series involved blood cultures which had significant bacterial growth at the time of venting. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple use venting devices can be associated with cross contamination of blood cultures. This may result from contamination of the internal lumen of the venting device which is not exposed to the biocide. Medical microbiologists should consider the possibility of cross contamination associated with venting procedures when interpreting blood culture results. Further development of multiple use venting devices is required to reduce the risk of cross contamination of cultures.  (+info)

Bacterial spores survive treatment with commercial sterilants and disinfectants. (7/857)

This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test suggest that commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged.  (+info)

Injections given in healthcare settings as a major source of acute hepatitis B in Moldova. (8/857)

BACKGROUND: Reported rates of acute hepatitis B are high in many former Soviet Union republics and modes of transmission are not well defined. METHODS: Two case-control studies were undertaken in Moldova to identify risk factors for acute hepatitis B in people aged 2-15 years (children) and > or =15 years (adults). Serologically confirmed acute hepatitis B cases occurring between 1 January 1994 and 30 August 30 1995, were matched on age, sex, and district of residence to three potential controls who were tested for hepatitis B markers to exclude the immune. Stratified odds ratios (SOR) were calculated using bivariate and multivariate methods. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, compared with the 175 controls, the 70 adult cases (mean age 25 years, 66% male) were more likely to report receiving injections in the 6 months before illness during a dental visit (SOR = 21; 95% CI: 3.7-120), a hospital visit (SOR = 35; 95% CI: 7.2-170), or a visit to the polyclinic (SOR = 13; 95% CI: 2.4-74). Among children, receiving injections during a hospital visit (SOR = 5.2; 95% CI: 1.2-23) was the only exposure reported significantly more often by the 19 cases (mean age 8 years, 68% male) compared with the 81 controls. CONCLUSION: These results, along with reported unsafe injection practices in Moldova, suggest that injections are a major source of hepatitis B virus transmission and highlight the importance of proper infection-control procedures in preventing transmission of blood-borne infections.  (+info)

Equipment contamination in a medical context refers to the presence of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, on the surfaces of medical equipment or devices. This can occur during use, storage, or transportation of the equipment and can lead to the transmission of infections to patients, healthcare workers, or other individuals who come into contact with the contaminated equipment.

Equipment contamination can occur through various routes, including contact with contaminated body fluids, airborne particles, or environmental surfaces. To prevent equipment contamination and the resulting infection transmission, it is essential to follow strict infection control practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of equipment, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper handling and storage of medical devices.

Drug contamination refers to the presence of impurities or foreign substances in a pharmaceutical drug or medication. These impurities can include things like bacteria, chemicals, or other drugs that are not intended to be present in the final product. Drug contamination can occur at any stage during the production, storage, or distribution of a medication and can potentially lead to reduced effectiveness, increased side effects, or serious health risks for patients. It is closely monitored and regulated by various health authorities to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications.

Hospital equipment and supplies refer to the physical resources used in a hospital setting to provide patient care and treatment. This includes both reusable and disposable medical devices and items used for diagnostic, therapeutic, monitoring, or supportive purposes. Examples of hospital equipment include but are not limited to:

1. Medical beds and mattresses
2. Wheelchairs and stretchers
3. Infusion pumps and syringe drivers
4. Defibrillators and ECG machines
5. Anesthesia machines and ventilators
6. Operating room tables and lights
7. X-ray machines, CT scanners, and MRI machines
8. Ultrasound machines and other imaging devices
9. Laboratory equipment for testing and analysis

Hospital supplies include items used in the delivery of patient care, such as:

1. Syringes, needles, and IV catheters
2. Bandages, dressings, and wound care products
3. Gloves, gowns, and other personal protective equipment (PPE)
4. Sterile surgical instruments and sutures
5. Incontinence pads and briefs
6. Nutritional supplements and feeding tubes
7. Medications and medication administration supplies
8. Disinfectants, cleaning agents, and sterilization equipment.

Proper management of hospital equipment and supplies is essential for ensuring patient safety, providing high-quality care, and controlling healthcare costs.

'Equipment and Supplies' is a term used in the medical field to refer to the physical items and materials needed for medical care, treatment, and procedures. These can include a wide range of items, such as:

* Medical equipment: This includes devices and machines used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes, such as stethoscopes, blood pressure monitors, EKG machines, ventilators, and infusion pumps.
* Medical supplies: These are consumable items that are used once and then discarded, such as syringes, needles, bandages, gowns, gloves, and face masks.
* Furniture and fixtures: This includes items such as hospital beds, examination tables, chairs, and cabinets that are used to create a functional medical space.

Having the right equipment and supplies is essential for providing safe and effective medical care. The specific items needed will depend on the type of medical practice or facility, as well as the needs of individual patients.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Durable Medical Equipment (DME) is defined in the medical field as medical equipment that is:

1. Durable: able to withstand repeated use.
2. Primarily and customarily used for a medical purpose: intended to be used for a medical reason and not for comfort or convenience.
3. Generally not useful to a person in the absence of an illness or injury: not typically used by people who are healthy.
4. Prescribed by a physician: recommended by a doctor to treat a specific medical condition or illness.

Examples of DME include wheelchairs, hospital beds, walkers, and oxygen concentrators. These items are designed to assist individuals with injuries or chronic conditions in performing activities of daily living and improving their quality of life. DME is typically covered by health insurance plans, including Medicare and Medicaid, with a doctor's prescription.

DNA contamination refers to the unintended presence of extraneous DNA in a sample or experimental setup that can interfere with the accuracy and interpretation of the results. This can occur at various stages, including during sample collection, storage, extraction, amplification, or analysis. It is crucial to avoid DNA contamination in molecular biology research, genetic testing, and forensic science to prevent false positive or negative results. Common sources of DNA contamination include skin cells, hair, bodily fluids, microorganisms, reagents, and previous samples. Specific measures must be taken to minimize the risk of DNA contamination, such as using dedicated equipment, maintaining clean laboratory conditions, and implementing rigorous quality control procedures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports Equipment" is not a term that typically has a medical definition. It generally refers to the physical items or gear used in sports and athletic activities, such as balls, bats, helmets, protective pads, etc. If you're looking for a term related to sports that has a medical definition, I'd be happy to help with that!

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Protective devices, in the context of medical care, refer to equipment or products designed to prevent injury, harm, or infection to patients, healthcare workers, or others. They can include a wide range of items such as:

1. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Items worn by healthcare professionals to protect themselves from infectious materials or harmful substances, such as gloves, masks, face shields, gowns, and goggles.
2. Medical Devices: Equipment designed to prevent injury during medical procedures, such as tourniquets, safety needles, and bite blocks.
3. Patient Safety Devices: Items used to protect patients from harm, such as bed rails, pressure ulcer prevention devices, and fall prevention equipment.
4. Environmental Protection Devices: Equipment used to prevent the spread of infectious agents in healthcare settings, such as air purifiers, isolation rooms, and waste management systems.
5. Dental Protective Devices: Devices used in dental care to protect patients and dental professionals from injury or infection, such as dental dams, mouth mirrors, and high-speed evacuators.

The specific definition of protective devices may vary depending on the context and field of medicine.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

Decontamination is the process of removing, inactivating or destroying harmful contaminants from a person, object, environment or substance. In a medical context, decontamination typically refers to the removal of pathogens, toxic chemicals, or radioactive substances from patients, equipment, or surfaces in order to prevent infection or illness.

There are different methods and techniques for decontamination depending on the type and extent of contamination. For example, mechanical cleaning (such as washing with soap and water), chemical disinfection (using antimicrobial agents), radiation sterilization (using ionizing radiation), and heat sterilization (using steam or dry heat) are some common methods used in medical settings to decontaminate surfaces, equipment, and supplies.

Decontamination is an important process in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as in emergency response situations involving hazardous materials or bioterrorism incidents. Proper decontamination procedures can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, reduce the risk of chemical or radiation exposure, and protect the health and safety of patients, healthcare workers, and the public.

Dental equipment refers to the various instruments and devices used by dental professionals to perform oral health examinations, diagnose dental conditions, and provide treatment to patients. Here are some examples:

1. Dental chair: A specially designed chair that allows patients to recline while receiving dental care.
2. Examination light: A bright light used to illuminate the oral cavity during examinations and procedures.
3. Dental mirror: A small, angled mirror used to help dentists see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.
4. Explorer: A sharp instrument used to probe teeth for signs of decay or other dental problems.
5. Dental probe: A blunt instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
6. Scaler: A handheld instrument or ultrasonic device used to remove tartar and calculus from teeth.
7. Suction device: A vacuum-like tool that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during procedures.
8. Dental drill: A high-speed instrument used to remove decayed or damaged tooth structure and prepare teeth for fillings, crowns, or other restorations.
9. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber used to isolate individual teeth during procedures, keeping them dry and free from saliva.
10. Dental X-ray machine: A device that uses radiation to capture images of the teeth and surrounding structures, helping dentists diagnose conditions such as decay, infection, and bone loss.
11. Curing light: A special light used to harden dental materials, such as composite fillings and crowns, after they have been placed in the mouth.
12. Air/water syringe: A handheld device that delivers a stream of air and water to clean teeth and rinse away debris during procedures.

Water pollution is defined medically as the contamination of water sources by harmful or sufficient amounts of foreign substances (pathogens, chemicals, toxic compounds, etc.) which tend to interfere with its normal functioning and can have negative effects on human health. Such pollutants can find their way into water bodies through various means including industrial waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage and wastewater discharges, and accidental chemical releases, among others.

Exposure to polluted water can lead to a range of health issues, from minor problems like skin irritation or stomach upset, to severe conditions such as neurological disorders, reproductive issues, cancer, and even death in extreme cases. It also poses significant risks to aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems and leading to the decline or extinction of various species. Therefore, maintaining clean and safe water supplies is critical for both human health and environmental preservation.

Equipment safety in a medical context refers to the measures taken to ensure that medical equipment is free from potential harm or risks to patients, healthcare providers, and others who may come into contact with the equipment. This includes:

1. Designing and manufacturing the equipment to meet safety standards and regulations.
2. Properly maintaining and inspecting the equipment to ensure it remains safe over time.
3. Providing proper training for healthcare providers on how to use the equipment safely.
4. Implementing safeguards, such as alarms and warnings, to alert users of potential hazards.
5. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify and address any potential safety concerns.
6. Reporting and investigating any incidents or accidents involving the equipment to determine their cause and prevent future occurrences.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Disposable equipment in a medical context refers to items that are designed to be used once and then discarded. These items are often patient-care products that come into contact with patients or bodily fluids, and are meant to help reduce the risk of infection transmission. Examples of disposable medical equipment include gloves, gowns, face masks, syringes, and bandages.

Disposable equipment is intended for single use only and should not be reused or cleaned for reuse. This helps ensure that the equipment remains sterile and free from potential contaminants that could cause harm to patients or healthcare workers. Proper disposal of these items is also important to prevent the spread of infection and maintain a safe and clean environment.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Surgical equipment refers to the specialized tools and instruments used by medical professionals during surgical procedures. These devices are designed to assist in various aspects of surgery, such as cutting, grasping, retraction, clamping, and suturing. Surgical equipment can be categorized into several types based on their function and use:

1. Cutting instruments: These include scalpels, scissors, and surgical blades designed to cut through tissues with precision and minimal trauma.

2. Grasping forceps: Forceps are used to hold, manipulate, or retrieve tissue, organs, or other surgical tools. Examples include Babcock forceps, Kelly forceps, and Allis tissue forceps.

3. Retractors: These devices help to expose deeper structures by holding open body cavities or tissues during surgery. Common retractors include Weitlaner retractors, Army-Navy retractors, and self-retaining retractors like the Bookwalter system.

4. Clamps: Used for occluding blood vessels, controlling bleeding, or approximating tissue edges before suturing. Examples of clamps are hemostats, bulldog clips, and Satinsky clamps.

5. Suction devices: These tools help remove fluids, debris, and smoke from the surgical site, improving visibility for the surgeon. Examples include Yankauer suctions and Frazier tip suctions.

6. Needle holders: Specialized forceps designed to hold suture needles securely during the process of suturing or approximating tissue edges.

7. Surgical staplers: Devices that place linear staple lines in tissues, used for quick and efficient closure of surgical incisions or anastomoses (joining two structures together).

8. Cautery devices: Electrosurgical units that use heat generated by electrical current to cut tissue and coagulate bleeding vessels.

9. Implants and prosthetics: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged body parts, such as artificial joints, heart valves, or orthopedic implants.

10. Monitoring and navigation equipment: Advanced tools that provide real-time feedback on patient physiology, surgical site anatomy, or instrument positioning during minimally invasive procedures.

These are just a few examples of the diverse range of instruments and devices used in modern surgery. The choice of tools depends on various factors, including the type of procedure, patient characteristics, and surgeon preference.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Protective clothing refers to specialized garments worn by healthcare professionals, first responders, or workers in various industries to protect themselves from potential hazards that could cause harm to their bodies. These hazards may include biological agents (such as viruses or bacteria), chemicals, radiological particles, physical injuries, or extreme temperatures.

Examples of protective clothing include:

1. Medical/isolation gowns: Fluid-resistant garments worn by healthcare workers during medical procedures to protect against the spread of infectious diseases.
2. Lab coats: Protective garments typically worn in laboratories to shield the wearer's skin and clothing from potential chemical or biological exposure.
3. Coveralls: One-piece garments that cover the entire body, often used in industries with high exposure risks, such as chemical manufacturing or construction.
4. Gloves: Protective hand coverings made of materials like latex, nitrile, or vinyl, which prevent direct contact with hazardous substances.
5. Face masks and respirators: Devices worn over the nose and mouth to filter out airborne particles, protecting the wearer from inhaling harmful substances.
6. Helmets and face shields: Protective headgear used in various industries to prevent physical injuries from falling objects or impact.
7. Fire-resistant clothing: Specialized garments worn by firefighters and those working with high temperatures or open flames to protect against burns and heat exposure.

The choice of protective clothing depends on the specific hazards present in the work environment, as well as the nature and duration of potential exposures. Proper use, maintenance, and training are essential for ensuring the effectiveness of protective clothing in minimizing risks and maintaining worker safety.

Sterilization, in a medical context, refers to the process of eliminating or removing all forms of microbial life, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores, and any other biological agents from a surface, object, or environment. This is typically achieved through various methods such as heat (using autoclaves), chemical processes, irradiation, or filtration.

In addition, sterilization can also refer to the surgical procedure that renders individuals unable to reproduce. This is often referred to as "permanent contraception" and can be performed through various methods such as vasectomy for men and tubal ligation for women. It's important to note that these procedures are typically permanent and not easily reversible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Drug packaging refers to the process and materials used to enclose, protect, and provide information about a pharmaceutical product. The package may include the container for the medication, such as a bottle or blister pack, as well as any accompanying leaflets or inserts that contain details about the drug's dosage, side effects, and proper use.

The packaging of drugs serves several important functions:

1. Protection: Proper packaging helps to protect the medication from physical damage, contamination, and degradation due to exposure to light, moisture, or air.
2. Child-resistance: Many drug packages are designed to be child-resistant, meaning they are difficult for young children to open but can still be easily accessed by adults.
3. Tamper-evidence: Packaging may also include features that make it easy to detect if the package has been tampered with or opened without authorization.
4. Labeling: Drug packaging must comply with regulatory requirements for labeling, including providing clear and accurate information about the drug's ingredients, dosage, warnings, and precautions.
5. Unit-dose packaging: Some drugs are packaged in unit-dose form, which means that each dose is individually wrapped or sealed in a separate package. This can help to reduce medication errors and ensure that patients receive the correct dosage.
6. Branding and marketing: Drug packaging may also serve as a tool for branding and marketing the product, with distinctive colors, shapes, and graphics that help to differentiate it from similar products.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

I cannot provide a medical definition for "equipment reuse" as it is not a term that is commonly used in the medical field. However, I can give you some general information about equipment reuse in healthcare settings.

Equipment reuse refers to the practice of using previously owned or disposable medical equipment and supplies multiple times after they have been sterilized or disinfected according to established protocols. This practice is often adopted by healthcare facilities as a way to reduce costs, conserve resources, and minimize waste.

Examples of medical equipment that may be reused include anesthesia breathing circuits, blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, and electronic thermometers. It's important to note that any reprocessed or reused medical equipment must undergo strict cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures to ensure the safety of patients and healthcare workers.

Reusing medical equipment can have benefits such as reducing costs and waste, but it also carries risks if not done properly. Proper training and adherence to established protocols are crucial to ensuring that reused equipment is safe for use.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

In the context of medicine, "maintenance" generally refers to the ongoing care or support required to maintain or prevent the deterioration of a person's health, particularly in chronic conditions or disabilities. This may include:

1. Medical treatment: Regular administration of medications, therapies, or procedures to manage a medical condition and prevent complications.
2. Rehabilitation: Continuous support and guidance to help individuals with disabilities or injuries regain their functional abilities and maintain their independence.
3. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, and immunizations to detect potential health issues early and prevent them from becoming more severe.
4. Lifestyle modifications: Encouragement and support for maintaining healthy habits such as regular exercise, balanced diet, stress management, and smoking cessation.
5. Psychological support: Counseling, therapy, or support groups to help patients cope with their medical conditions and maintain their emotional well-being.
6. Case management: Coordination of various healthcare services and resources to ensure that the patient receives comprehensive and continuous care.
7. Home care or residential care: Provision of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in the patient's home or a specialized care facility to support their independence and quality of life.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

An operating room, also known as an operating theatre or surgery suite, is a specially equipped and staffed hospital department where surgical procedures are performed. It is a sterile environment with controlled temperature, humidity, and air quality to minimize the risk of infection during surgeries. The room is typically equipped with medical equipment such as an operating table, surgical lights, anesthesia machines, monitoring equipment, and various surgical instruments. Access to the operating room is usually restricted to trained medical personnel to maintain a sterile environment and ensure patient safety.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Environmental pollution is the introduction or presence of harmful substances, energies, or objects in the environment that can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecosystems. These pollutants can be in the form of chemical, physical, or biological agents that contaminate air, water, soil, or noise levels, exceeding safe limits established by environmental regulations.

Examples of environmental pollution include:

1. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air that can cause respiratory and other health problems.
2. Water pollution: Contamination of water sources with chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, or other pollutants that can harm aquatic life and make the water unsafe for human consumption or recreational use.
3. Soil pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial waste in soil that can reduce soil fertility, contaminate crops, and pose a risk to human health.
4. Noise pollution: Excessive noise levels from transportation, industrial activities, or other sources that can cause stress, sleep disturbances, and hearing loss in humans and animals.
5. Light pollution: The excessive use of artificial light that can disrupt ecosystems, affect human circadian rhythms, and contribute to energy waste.

Environmental pollution is a significant global health issue that requires urgent attention and action from governments, industries, and individuals to reduce pollutant emissions, promote sustainable practices, and protect the environment for future generations.

Protective gloves are a type of personal protective equipment (PPE) used to shield the hands from potential harm or contamination. They can be made from various materials such as latex, nitrile rubber, vinyl, or polyethylene and are designed to provide a barrier against chemicals, biological agents, radiation, or mechanical injuries. Protective gloves come in different types, including examination gloves, surgical gloves, chemical-resistant gloves, and heavy-duty work gloves, depending on the intended use and level of protection required.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. The "food processing industry" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe the branch of manufacturing that involves transforming raw agricultural ingredients into food products for commercial sale.

The food-processing industry includes activities such as:

1. Cleaning and grading raw food materials
2. Preservation through canning, freezing, refrigeration, or dehydration
3. Preparation of food by chopping, cooking, baking, or mixing
4. Packaging and labeling of the final food product

While not a medical term, it is still relevant to the medical field as processed foods can impact human health, both positively and negatively. For example, processing can help preserve nutrients, increase food safety, and make certain foods more accessible and convenient. However, overly processed foods often contain high levels of added sugars, sodium, and unhealthy fats, which can contribute to various health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Water pollutants refer to any substances or materials that contaminate water sources and make them unsafe or unsuitable for use. These pollutants can include a wide range of chemicals, microorganisms, and physical particles that can have harmful effects on human health, aquatic life, and the environment as a whole. Examples of water pollutants include heavy metals like lead and mercury, industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, agricultural runoff containing pesticides and fertilizers, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and microplastics. Exposure to water pollutants can cause a variety of health problems, ranging from minor irritations to serious illnesses or even death in extreme cases. Additionally, water pollution can have significant impacts on the environment, including harming or killing aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems, and reducing biodiversity.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Hand disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms on the hands, using a medically approved product such as an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or soap and water. The goal of hand disinfection is to prevent the spread of infections and maintain a clean and hygienic environment, particularly in healthcare settings. It is an essential component of standard precautions to prevent the transmission of pathogens and ensure patient safety. Proper hand disinfection techniques include applying enough product to cover all surfaces of the hands, rubbing the product over all areas for at least 20-30 seconds, and allowing the product to dry completely before touching anything else.

Antisepsis is the process of preventing or limiting the growth and reproduction of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) that can cause infection or disease. This is typically achieved through the use of antiseptic agents, which are substances that inhibit the growth of microorganisms when applied to living tissue or non-living material like surfaces.

Antiseptics work by either killing the microorganisms outright (bactericidal) or preventing them from reproducing and growing (bacteriostatic). They can be applied topically, in the form of creams, ointments, gels, sprays, or washes, to prevent infection in wounds, cuts, burns, or other types of skin damage. Antiseptics are also used in medical devices and equipment to maintain sterility and prevent cross-contamination during procedures.

Examples of antiseptic agents include alcohol, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, and povidone-iodine. The choice of antiseptic depends on the type of microorganism being targeted, the location and severity of the infection, and any potential adverse effects or interactions with other medications or medical conditions.

It's important to note that antisepsis is different from sterilization, which involves the complete destruction of all living organisms, including spores, using methods such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. Sterilization is typically used for surgical instruments and other medical equipment that come into direct contact with sterile tissues or bodily fluids during procedures.

Chemical water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater) with harmful chemicals or substances that negatively impact water quality and pose a threat to human health, aquatic life, and the environment. These chemical pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural activities, waste disposal, oil spills, and chemical accidents. Examples of chemical pollutants include heavy metals (such as mercury, lead, and cadmium), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other hazardous substances. These chemicals can have toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic effects on living organisms and can disrupt ecosystems, leading to decreased biodiversity and impaired ecological functions.

'Infection Control' is a set of practices, procedures, and protocols designed to prevent the spread of infectious agents in healthcare settings. It includes measures to minimize the risk of transmission of pathogens from both recognized and unrecognized sources, such as patients, healthcare workers, visitors, and the environment.

Infection control strategies may include:

* Hand hygiene (handwashing and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers)
* Use of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, masks, gowns, and eye protection
* Respiratory etiquette, including covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Environmental cleaning and disinfection
* Isolation precautions for patients with known or suspected infectious diseases
* Immunization of healthcare workers
* Safe injection practices
* Surveillance and reporting of infections and outbreaks

The goal of infection control is to protect patients, healthcare workers, and visitors from acquiring and transmitting infections.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Cesium radioisotopes are different forms of the element cesium that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation. Some commonly used medical cesium radioisotopes include Cs-134 and Cs-137, which are produced from nuclear reactions in nuclear reactors or during nuclear weapons testing.

In medicine, cesium radioisotopes have been used in cancer treatment for the brachytherapy of certain types of tumors. Brachytherapy involves placing a small amount of radioactive material directly into or near the tumor to deliver a high dose of radiation to the cancer cells while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues.

Cesium-137, for example, has been used in the treatment of cervical, endometrial, and prostate cancers. However, due to concerns about potential long-term risks associated with the use of cesium radioisotopes, their use in cancer therapy is becoming less common.

It's important to note that handling and using radioactive materials requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures taken to ensure that products intended for consumer use are free from unreasonable risks of injury or illness. This is typically overseen by regulatory bodies, such as the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in the United States, which establishes safety standards, tests products, and recalls dangerous ones.

The definition of 'Consumer Product' can vary but generally refers to any article, or component part thereof, produced or distributed (i) for sale to a consumer for use in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (ii) for the personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (iii) for sensory evaluation and direct physical contact by a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise.

The safety measures can include various aspects such as design, manufacturing, packaging, and labeling of the product to ensure that it is safe for its intended use. This includes ensuring that the product does not contain any harmful substances, that it functions as intended, and that it comes with clear instructions for use and any necessary warnings.

It's important to note that even with these safety measures in place, it is still possible for products to cause injury or illness if they are used improperly or if they malfunction. Therefore, it is also important for consumers to be aware of the risks associated with the products they use and to take appropriate precautions.

An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption. It is also known as a slaughterhouse. The term "abattoir" comes from the French word "abattre," which means "to take down" or "slaughter." In an abattoir, animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens are killed and then butchered into smaller pieces of meat that can be sold to consumers.

Abattoirs must follow strict regulations to ensure the humane treatment of animals and the safety of the meat products they produce. These regulations cover various aspects of the slaughtering and processing process, including animal handling, stunning, bleeding, evisceration, and inspection. The goal of these regulations is to minimize the risk of contamination and ensure that the meat is safe for human consumption.

It's important to note that while abattoirs play an essential role in providing a reliable source of protein for humans, they can also be controversial due to concerns about animal welfare and the environmental impact of large-scale animal agriculture.

Radioactive food contamination refers to the presence of radioactive substances in food or agricultural products. This can occur through various means such as nuclear accidents, improper disposal of radioactive waste, or use of phosphate fertilizers that contain low levels of radioactivity. The consumption of radioactively contaminated food can lead to internal exposure to radiation, which may pose risks to human health, including increased risk of cancer and other diseases. It's important to note that regulatory bodies set limits on the acceptable levels of radioactivity in food to minimize these risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Play" and "Playthings" are not medical terms. "Play" is a fundamental aspect of child development, encompassing all types of activities that children engage in for enjoyment and recreation. These activities can include physical play (such as running, climbing, or riding a bike), social play (interacting with others), creative play (drawing, building, or pretending), and quiet play (reading, puzzles, or listening to music).

"Playthings," on the other hand, refer to objects or toys used during play. These can range from traditional toys like dolls, cars, and balls to more open-ended items like blocks, art supplies, or natural materials.

While there is no medical definition for "play" or "playthings," it's important to note that play has a significant role in children's physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development. Play allows children to explore their environment, learn new skills, develop problem-solving abilities, build relationships, and express themselves creatively. Access to diverse playthings can support and enhance these developmental processes.

There isn't a specific medical definition for "Hospital Design and Construction," but I can provide you with a general definition that is relevant to the medical field:

Hospital Design and Construction refers to the process of planning, designing, and building healthcare facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, medical offices, and other specialized treatment centers. This multidisciplinary process involves architects, interior designers, engineers, construction professionals, infection control specialists, facility managers, and healthcare administrators working together to create safe, functional, efficient, and healing environments for patients, staff, and visitors.

The design and construction of hospitals and other healthcare facilities require adherence to specific guidelines, regulations, and standards to ensure the safety, accessibility, and well-being of all users. These guidelines may include infection control measures, building codes, life safety requirements, patient privacy regulations (such as HIPAA), and evidence-based design principles that promote healing and reduce stress for patients and their families.

Some key aspects of hospital design and construction include:

1. Functional layout: Designing spaces to optimize workflow, patient care, and operational efficiency.
2. Infection control: Implementing measures to prevent and control the spread of infections within the facility.
3. Safety: Ensuring that the building is designed and constructed to minimize risks and hazards for patients, staff, and visitors.
4. Accessibility: Complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and other accessibility standards to accommodate patients and staff with disabilities.
5. Sustainability: Incorporating environmentally friendly design and construction practices to reduce the facility's environmental impact and promote well-being.
6. Technology integration: Designing spaces that can accommodate current and future technological advancements in healthcare.
7. Evidence-based design: Utilizing research findings on the impact of the physical environment on patient outcomes, staff satisfaction, and overall healthcare quality to inform design decisions.

Radioactive soil pollutants refer to radioactive substances that contaminate and negatively impact the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil. These pollutants can arise from various sources such as nuclear accidents, industrial activities, agricultural practices, and military testing. They include radionuclides such as uranium, plutonium, cesium-137, and strontium-90, among others.

Exposure to radioactive soil pollutants can have serious health consequences for humans and other living organisms. Direct contact with contaminated soil can result in radiation exposure, while ingestion or inhalation of contaminated soil particles can lead to internal radiation exposure. This can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems.

Radioactive soil pollutants can also have negative impacts on the environment, such as reducing soil fertility, disrupting ecosystems, and contaminating water sources. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and regulate radioactive soil pollution to protect human health and the environment.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Radiation monitoring is the systematic and continuous measurement, assessment, and tracking of ionizing radiation levels in the environment or within the body to ensure safety and to take appropriate actions when limits are exceeded. It involves the use of specialized instruments and techniques to detect and quantify different types of radiation, such as alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, and x-rays. The data collected from radiation monitoring is used to evaluate radiation exposure, contamination levels, and potential health risks for individuals or communities. This process is crucial in various fields, including nuclear energy production, medical imaging and treatment, radiation therapy, and environmental protection.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

Dental high-speed equipment typically refers to the handpiece used in dental procedures that operates at high rotational speeds, often exceeding 100,000 revolutions per minute (RPM). These handpieces are used for cutting and removing tooth structure, such as during cavity preparation or tooth reduction for restorations. They are called "high-speed" to distinguish them from slow-speed handpieces that operate at lower RPMs, typically under 10,000, and are used for procedures like polishing or cutting softer materials. High-speed handpieces are an essential part of modern dental practice, enabling precise and efficient removal of tooth structure while minimizing patient discomfort and procedure time.

Respiratory Protective Devices (RPDs) are personal protective equipment items designed to protect the user from inhalation of hazardous substances or harmful levels of airborne contaminants in the environment. These devices create a physical barrier between the user's respiratory system and the surrounding air, filtering out or purifying the air before it is breathed in.

RPDs can be categorized into two main types:

1. **Air-purifying Respirators (APRs):** These devices use filters, cartridges, or canisters to remove contaminants from the surrounding air. They are further divided into several subcategories, including filtering facepiece respirators, half-mask elastomeric respirators, full-facepiece elastomeric respirators, and powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs).
2. **Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs):** These devices deliver clean breathing air from an external source, either through a compressor or compressed air cylinder. They are further divided into two subcategories: self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) and supplied-air respirators with escape provisions.

The choice of RPD depends on the nature and concentration of the airborne contaminants, the user's physiological and psychological capabilities, and the work environment. Proper selection, fitting, use, maintenance, and training are crucial to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Respiratory Protective Devices.

Eye protective devices are specialized equipment designed to protect the eyes from various hazards and injuries. They include items such as safety glasses, goggles, face shields, welding helmets, and full-face respirators. These devices are engineered to provide a barrier between the eyes and potential dangers like chemical splashes, impact particles, radiation, and other environmental hazards.

Safety glasses are designed to protect against flying debris, dust, and other airborne particles. They typically have side shields to prevent objects from entering the eye from the sides. Goggles offer a higher level of protection than safety glasses as they form a protective seal around the eyes, preventing liquids and fine particles from reaching the eyes.

Face shields and welding helmets are used in industrial settings to protect against radiation, sparks, and molten metal during welding or cutting operations. Full-face respirators are used in environments with harmful airborne particles or gases, providing protection for both the eyes and the respiratory system.

It is essential to choose the appropriate eye protective device based on the specific hazard present to ensure adequate protection.

2-Propanol is a type of alcohol, also known as isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol. It is a colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor. 2-Propanol is miscible with water and most organic solvents.

It is commonly used as a solvent and as an antiseptic or disinfectant, due to its ability to denature proteins and disrupt microbial cell membranes. In medical settings, 2-Propanol is often used as a skin sanitizer or hand rub to reduce the number of microorganisms on the skin.

Ingestion or prolonged exposure to 2-Propanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and may lead to central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. It is important to handle 2-Propanol with care and follow appropriate safety precautions when using it.

Apart from people, another common way for contamination to enter is on the wheels of trolleys used to transport equipment. To ... growth and proliferation of contamination in certain areas. Contamination control may refer to the atmosphere as well as to ... "Cleanroom and contamination control forum". "Ecolab - Contamination Control". "Cleanroom Technology - Current industry news and ... As long as the tack level of the mat is greater than the donor's (such as a foot or a wheel), the contamination touching the ...
The technology is designed primarily for government use, specifically on equipment such as tactical vehicles, ship surfaces, ... The Contamination Indicator Decontamination Assurance System (CIDAS) is a technology used to identify chemical contamination. ... "Contamination Indicator Decontamination Assurance System" Fact Sheet Archived 2014-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. Chemical, ... "99--Contamination Indicator / Decontamination Assurance Systems" (Solicitation Number: W911QY-11-R-CIDAS) Archived 2014-03-04 ...
... commercial nuclear industry for decades to minimize contamination on radioactive equipment and surfaces and fix contamination ... the level of contamination, and the extent of the spread of contamination. Low levels of radioactive contamination pose little ... Radioactive contamination can be ingested into the human body if it is airborne or is taken in as contamination of food or ... Surface contamination may either be fixed or "free". In the case of fixed contamination, the radioactive material cannot by ...
A contaminated vehicle or item of equipment returned to Earth could also be a source of contamination." Mars and the Moon (C. A ... Interplanetary contamination refers to biological contamination of a planetary body by a space probe or spacecraft, either ... Back contamination is the introduction of extraterrestrial organisms and other forms of contamination into Earth's biosphere. ... In the case of forward contamination, contamination by multicellular life (e.g. lichens) is unlikely to occur for robotic ...
Contamination of plant personnel occurred. 13 October 1955 - Rupture of process equipment and the destruction of a process ... resulting in the contamination of equipment and pipelines of the first circuit. All of the above list transferred directly from ... Radioactive Contamination of the Techa River and its Effects Clay, Rebecca (April 2001). "Cold War, Hot Nukes: Legacy of an Era ... This incident caused widespread contamination of the entire Mayak area (as well as a large swath of territory to the northeast ...
The equipment was kept in storage for almost six years because the hospital lacked qualified personnel to operate it. Vicente ... A radioactive contamination incident occurred in 1984 in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, originating from a radiation therapy unit ...
The black powder contamination trapped on the magnetic separators is easily removed and stored in mineral bags. When the ... product entering these facilities will improve production and lower operational costs by reducing premature process equipment ... "Black Powder Contamination". Black Powder Solutions. Retrieved 2017-05-25. "Black Powder Solutions keeps oil and gas lines ... The main factors that increase erosion are the flow rate and the contamination levels present in the gas or hydrocarbon fluid. ...
... redesigned workouts to minimize equipment cross-contamination; class scheduling modifications to allow for thorough sanitation ... and required use personal protective equipment by all staff." Despite reopening their studios, however, the decision was made ...
Machines should be cleaned between cases as they are at considerable risk of contamination with pathogens. Ether Dome History ... "International Anesthesia Equipment Checkout Recommendations - Virtual Anesthesia Machine". Baillie, JK; P. Sultan; E. Graveling ... Prior to this time, anaesthesiologists often carried all their equipment with them, but the development of heavy, bulky ... Many of the early innovations in anaesthetic equipment in the United States, including the closed circuit carbon-dioxide ...
As drops leak out, they can contaminate the bench, ultimately causing cross-contamination from sample to sample. These drops ... Laboratory equipment, Volumetric instruments). ... there is little risk of contamination. Positive displacement ... "Preventing Contamination in Pipetting". Retrieved 19 December 2017. "Extreme Pipetting II: Thermal Exploration". Retrieved 19 ...
Testing equipment placed underground near Crestwood's former community well, which was dismantled earlier this year, will help ... was premature as the scope of the contamination and the contamination itself were at that point unknown to the officials and ... Water contamination in Crestwood, Illinois, a village in Cook County, was discovered in April 2009, Tricia Krause and she ... "The most likely source of the contamination is a dry cleaners in a strip mall less than 300 feet from Crestwood's well, just ...
2005). "Inhibition of 137Cs contamination in cesium iodide". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: ... Detectors and Associated Equipment. Elsevier BV. 571 (3): 644-650. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.325. ISSN 0168-9002. Hwang, M.J ... Detectors and Associated Equipment. Elsevier BV. 570 (3): 454-458. Bibcode:2007NIMPA.570..454H. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2006.10.100 ... Detectors and Associated Equipment. Elsevier BV. 552 (3): 409-419. Bibcode:2005NIMPA.552..409G. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2005.06.081 ...
Causes are likely to have been fuel contamination. 12 April 1960: a Varig Douglas C-53 registration PP-CDS operating a flight ... Note: a: Flight operated with Voepass equipment on behalf of LATAM Brasil. 11 January 1949: a SAVAG Lockheed Model 18-10-01 ...
Facilities and equipment for isotopes program. Health Physics Insurance Seminar. Cloutier, Roger. (January 1990).G. William ... Air contamination and respiratory protection in radioisotope work. Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography with ... MORGAN, G.W. (1955). Facilities and equipment for isotopes program. Hospitals, 29(3), 103. Morgan, K. Z., POLLARD, E., COWAN, F ... Morgan, George William and Buchanan, C.R. (19 January 1953). Air contamination and respiratory protection in radioisotope work ...
"PCB contamination found on Upstate waste company's equipment". thestate. "POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE" (PDF). Retrieved 2018- ... Therefore, ground water contamination has not been a problem, even in cases of severe contamination due to the main chemicals ... Incidents of contamination with PCBs are often reported as dioxin contamination incidents since these are of most public and ... Two serious food contamination accidents were caused by PCB oils used in heat exchangers. The PCB oil leaked to rice bran oil ...
... using radio-controlled equipment to clean up the site; and (6) using silt fences to limit ocean contamination. Previously, ... The Unit 4 spent fuel pool was the first to have the equipment installed, the spent fuel pools of reactor 2 and 3 came next. ... It seems that the contamination was less than feared. No strontium is detectable in the soil, and though the crops of the year ... Due to the risk of soil or ocean contamination from these trenches, TEPCO has been trying to remove the accumulated water in ...
Reddy K, Salleh B, Saad B, Abbas H, Abel C, Shier W (2010). "An overview of mycotoxin contamination in foods and its ... the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), including skin and eye protection and respiratory protection; and environmental ... Guccione J (May 9, 2003). "Ed McMahon Settles Suit Over Mold for $7.2 Million; TV celebrity and his wife said contamination of ... Woodcock AA, Steel N, Moore CB, Howard SJ, Custovic A, Denning DW (January 2006). "Fungal contamination of bedding". Allergy. ...
Even the possession or manufacturing of moonshine equipment is a criminal act. Importing any equipment that can be used for ... Methanol contamination is a serious problem in some regions. In the faraway rural areas of Panama, the illegal beverage is ... Possession of equipment capable of distilling is also illegal. Despite alcohol being strictly licensed or otherwise illegal in ... Community distilleries also exist, operated by one or more villages, to make maintaining the equipment profitable (in case of ...
Casing that is cemented in place aids the drilling process in several ways: Prevents contamination of fresh water well zones. ... Provides a smooth internal bore for installing production equipment. Optimum design of the casing program decreases the well ... Prevents fluid loss into or contamination of production zones. ...
... chemical and biological contamination, as well as at enhancing their survivability and protection against high-precision and ... military and special equipment, buildings and other objects, as well as sanitisation of personnel; aerosol counteraction ... chemical and biological contamination; reducing the visibility of troops and facilities; disaster (damage) recovery in objects ... designed to clean other equipment after exposure to NCB threats 1st Mobile NBC Protection Brigade (Shikhany-2, Oblast of ...
Another way of contamination is from infected equipment or wind. Historically fungi that were pathogenic on different plants ... Proper sanitation of equipment could reduce exposure of contracting the pathogen. This would be equipment used in ...
The state was monitoring water contamination levels at this site; the testing became within normal levels "so the state ordered ... the removal of the tanks, testing equipment, and demolition of the shed." The song "Mr. John Carlos" by the Swedish group ...
Since laboratory equipment, electronic measuring instruments and many hi-tech manufactured goods can often be damaged by ... Air showers used at NASA Cosgrove, Chris K. (2003-01-01). "How Do Air Showers Fit Into A Contamination Reduction Plan?". ... Air handling equipment creates an isolated atmosphere using pressure differentials to create fluid boundaries between the inner ... This process ensures that only decontaminated air is used to remove particulates from personnel and other equipment, such as ...
Due to malfunctioning equipment, both tests failed, with Progress M-33 narrowly missing the station and Progress M-34 striking ... As space stations get older, the problems with contamination get worse.[citation needed] Molds that develop aboard space ... The molds in Mir were found growing behind panels and inside air-conditioning equipment. The molds also caused a foul smell, ... As a result, when its cargo had been unloaded, each Progress was refilled with rubbish, spent equipment and other waste which ...
It is important to reduce cross contamination from equipment and tools. Removing dead and diseased tissue as well as clearing ...
"Equipment guide." Military.com. 25 Mar 2007 Vipers in the Storm, "Weapons Bunker." 25 Mar 2007 CBU-87/B Combined Effects ... Cluster munitions in Kosovo: Analysis of use, contamination and casualties (Report). Landmine Action. February 2007. Archived ...
Catastrophic injuries in fishing may be related to equipment, fish, alcohol, or the environment. Equipment issues generally ... Fish-related injuries result from mishandling, poisoning, and contamination from consumption. Environmental causes may include ... Other causes include inadequate supervision, poorly trained coaches, and the equipment used. In the Ontario study, fishing ... It is an individualized document describing the services, support, equipment, and ancillary requirements for the patient that ...
Equipment inside any cleanroom is designed to generate minimal air contamination. The selection of material for the ... In cleanrooms in which the standards of air contamination are less rigorous, the entrance to the cleanroom may not have an air ... US FDA and EU have laid down guidelines and limit for microbial contamination which is very stringent to ensure freedom from ... Some cleanroom HVAC systems control the humidity to such low levels that extra equipment like air ionizers are required to ...
However, contamination of the sample reduces the accuracy of the measure. Other techniques are used to measure the oil ... Other test equipment is used to determine such properties as acidity and conductivity. Others include: Kerosene and rubbing ... This technique is accurate and not affected by fluid contamination, but needs to be performed by trained personnel in a ... Room ventilation, splash guards on machines, and personal protective equipment (PPE) (such as safety glasses, respirator masks ...
"Cross-contamination between processing equipment and deli meats by Listeria monocytogenes". Journal of Food Protection. 69 (1 ... Pasteurization and sufficient cooking kill Listeria; however, contamination may occur after cooking and before packaging. For ... which can lead to vegetable contamination. Animals can be carriers. Listeria has been found in uncooked meats, uncooked ... "Development of a model for evaluation of microbial cross-contamination in the kitchen". Journal of Food Protection. 61 (8): 960 ...
Find Microbiology Contamination - Health and Safety information on the worlds largest Environmental portal. ... Equipment & Solutions. * Showcase. Amino Acid Dissolved Fluorescence Sensor. Tryptophan is an amino acid dissolved in water ... Microbiology Contamination. Articles & Whitepapers. * Understanding Turbidity of Wastewater What is Turbidity? Turbidity, in ...
Video: Screening People for External Contamination: How to Use Hand-held Radiation Survey Equipment. ... Screening People for External Contamination: How to Use Hand-held Radiation Survey Equipment ... An 18 minute skills training video that demonstrates how to screen people for external contamination using a hand held Geiger ... The program is designed for individuals assigned to conduct mass screening for contamination from radioactive materials ...
For example, if the contamination source is a leaking gasoline underground storage tank, reviewing levels of contamination in ... To identify possible contamination sources, health assessors can review site descriptions and data (see Data Needs for the PHA ... Knowing the sites contamination sources is critical for determining whether all environmental media (e.g., soil, surface water ... In such cases, you might conclude that a contamination source existed at some point in the sites history, though the original ...
Apart from people, another common way for contamination to enter is on the wheels of trolleys used to transport equipment. To ... growth and proliferation of contamination in certain areas. Contamination control may refer to the atmosphere as well as to ... "Cleanroom and contamination control forum". "Ecolab - Contamination Control". "Cleanroom Technology - Current industry news and ... As long as the tack level of the mat is greater than the donors (such as a foot or a wheel), the contamination touching the ...
Learn about contamination prevention in the lab, what can cause the contamination, and post contaminant procedures. ... What are best practices for 3D cell contamination prevention? ... residue from disinfectants or chemicals used to clean equipment ... Chemical Contamination. Chemical contamination is the presence of a nonliving substance that may cause unwanted effects on the ... What Are the Causes of Cell Contamination?. The major causes of contamination in the cell culture system are typically either ...
Malfunction of equipment. *Non-sterile plastic ware, media and supplements. In addition to these factors, the incubator plays ... When fungal contamination occurs check the incubator thoroughly *If possible, regularly decontaminate/sterilize using the ... Even though incubators do not provide a "sterile" environment, one can reduce the risk of contamination when following the ... Impact of the CO2 incubator on contamination. Lab Academy 20. August 2019. ...
For Pseudomonas, the contamination levels detected on fruits packaged in plastic were significantly higher compared to those ... The data showed a higher contamination frequency of the fruits packed in plastic than in cardboard. Increasing the storage ... Significance and Impact: cardboard reduces fruit contamination and increases their shelf-life with positive fallouts on fruit ... For Pseudomonas, the contamination levels detected on fruits pack... ...
CONTAMINATION CLASSIFICATION FOR HYDRAULIC FLUIDS from SAI Global ... SUBSURFACE BARRIER VALVES AND RELATED EQUIPMENT. API 17G : 2006 ... CONTAMINATION CLASSIFICATION FOR HYDRAULIC FLUIDS from SAI Global ... Subsurface barrier valves and related equipment. SAE ARP 4386 ... Drilling and production equipment. Subsurface barrier valves and related equipment. SAE ARP 4386 : 2017 TERMINOLOGY AND ... Specifies contamination classes and levels for particulate contamination of hydraulic fluids and includes methods of reporting ...
We detected viral contamination among all samples, supporting the use of airborne isolation precautions when caring for COVID- ... Ong, S. W. X. et al. Air, surface environmental, and personal protective equipment contamination by severe acute respiratory ... Despite wide-spread environmental contamination and limited SARS-CoV-2 aerosol contamination associated with hospitalized and ... High-touch personal items sampled included cellular phones, exercise equipment, television remotes, and medical equipment. Room ...
However, this equipment cannot remove the tritium of which there is several million becquerels per liter. The water that has ... Help us stop radioactive contamination of the Pacific Ocean!. It has now been more than four years since the start of the ... Contaminated water from Unit 2s large object carry-in facility roof-top is suspected as the source of the contamination. ... Stop Radioactive Contamination of the Pacific Ocean from the Fukushima nuclear power plant site!. ...
... transport and cleaning to identify potential areas for exposure in the gear contamination cycle ... The transportation of contaminated equipment back to the station presents another secondary contamination challenge that must ... The firefighter gear contamination cycle. Follow firefighter gear from contamination, through doffing, transport and cleaning ... All personnel handling bagged equipment back at the station should wear equipment to protect them from liquid splashes (e.g., ...
... treated Stuart lab equipment were reduced by over 96% compared to untreated instruments used in the same environment. Read ... Study demonstrated microbial contamination levels found on BioCote® ... Learn more about how BioCote Reduces Lab Equipment Contamination. References. *Good Laboratory Practice, Organization for ... Technologies such as BioCote that contribute to reducing the level of microbial contamination of surfaces and equipment in the ...
Other factors such as equipment and additives may also play a role in contamination. Fortunately, this type of food is usually ... contamination of food samples was comparatively low in Kermanshah. Meat products showed the highest and contamination rate and ... contamination rate with Listeria spp., which is lower than our result (12.5%). However, contamination with L. monocytogenes was ... All equipment was sterile. The mixture (culture) was incubated at 30 °C for 24 hours. From the mixture, 0.1 mL was added to 9.9 ...
While most items of equipment tested behaved in a similar manner to this, one item, a box from a urological collection and ... The results of the study demonstrated that common items of equipment such as ventilator tubes rapidly developed a large ... By negatively charging both particles in the air and items of plastic equipment, the ionizers minimize electrostatic deposition ... In so doing, this may prevent critical items of equipment from becoming contaminated with the bacterium. ...
Liberty Industries - The Contamination Control Experts. CONTACT US. US: 1.800.828.5656. Worldwide: 1.860.828.6361. Email: ... is a manufacturer and distributor of Top quality cleanroom and contamination control supplies and accessories.. Cleanroom lab ... The Contamination. Control Experts Since 1953. View our online catalog » Contact Us » ...
Processing Equipment. The kinds of equipment used to aid in the processing of cleanroom products can contribute to the amount ... Some generate gasses or expel other types of particles that can cause contamination. Furthermore, equipment that vibrates ... PPE - Personal Protective EquipmentPPE Solutions for Every Need Prudential Overall Supplys offering for PPE *Disinfectant ... New equipment that is to be installed in the cleanroom should be carefully unwrapped, inspected, and cleaned before it is put ...
Yes, dirty diapers, which can tangle in equipment.. Midwest Fiber takes recyclables from about 1 million commercial and ... Bennett said that leads to more contamination if no one catches it, and the only way to catch it is to have personnel go ... China stopped taking U.S. materials a few years ago because of contamination problems. He said that has turned the recycling ... "We really do have to train the consumer, When in doubt, throw it out. Contamination is the biggest thing," Bennett said. ...
The prevention of cross-contamination events should be assured by the use of robust engineering controls for filling equipment ... On this page: Environmental controls for filling operations , Pest control , Precautions against cross-contamination , Design ... Closed pressurised systems and equipment used for medicinal gas manufacture, only needs cleaning between batches if exposed to ... Manufacturers should retain appropriate records when cleaning pressurised systems and equipment prior to use in commercial ...
And yes: "M & J Land and Equipment Leasing Company" is Jemmison. So.. he is raising his own rent and using that as an excuse to ... Owner did find contamination in the sewer of the TCE and PCE chemicals, and the sewer line is broken and leaking into the soil ... The Sec of State of CA website lists this info about Jemison and his company, J & M Land and Equipment Leasing Co:. ... I believe they moved some of his old equipment into the TH building.. For beer aficionados, Petes Wicked Ale was conceived and ...
Contamination-free microplate sealing for ADME screening. Contamination-free microplate sealing for ADME screening. January 29 ... As a result, sample contamination issues can arise as common HPLC solvents such as acetonitrile, water, and DMSO can extract ... This property further safeguards samples from contamination and eliminates damage to, or clogging of, an HPLC autosampler. ... air-tight seal with microplates introduce no contamination into ADME samples to be analyzed by HPLC. ...
Low Contamination Risk. Using PFA at the sample connection point, contamination risk is reduced. ... Reduction in Equipment Downtime. The adoption of a semi-annual background adjustment cycle has contributed to the reduction of ...
Avoid cross-contamination. Cross-contamination is most likely to happen when raw food touches or drips onto ready-to-eat food, ... Effective cleaning gets rid of bacteria on hands, equipment, and surfaces. This helps to stop harmful bacteria from spreading ... Cooking and avoiding cross-contamination during a BBQ. The risk of undercooking meat and of cross-contamination can increase ... We have more information on preparing an allergy-safe meal and avoiding cross-contamination of allergens in our food allergy ...
Anyone operating hydraulic equipment on a regular basis must make controlling system contamination a priority. Heres tips for ... Liquid contamination is the second most common form of contamination. It can occur due to a heat exchanger leak, contamination ... Solid contamination can come in a variety of forms, and may even be the fault of the manufacturer of the equipment. For example ... Tips for Controlling Contaminations in Hydraulic Equipment. September 11, 2018 11:08 am. , Leave a Comment ...
If you have seasonal swings in relative humidity, size your equipment to handle peak demands. For example, summer temperatures ... Prevent Moist Air Contamination. Its critical to keep process air clean and sterile. If not removed, organisms within air can ... As important as it is to capture contamination, its just as important to dry the air so bacteria cannot thrive in it. ... Compressed air is used to texturize food, dry sterilized equipment, form bottles, move ingredients through lines and protect ...
IPAF promotes the safe and effective use of powered access equipment worldwide. Providing technical advice,... ... Asbestos Contamination in Powered Access Equipment This Toolbox Talk provides guidance for powered access rental companies on ... how to deal with suspected asbestos contaminated equipment when it is off-hired. ...
Germs from a person may be found on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during the persons care. Some ... Spills or contamination. *Supplies and equipment that are reusable Cleaning a Patients Room. ... Germs from a person may be found on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during the persons care. Some ... Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment (PPE). Your workplace has a policy or guidelines on what to wear. ...
The protocols should focus on the sequence of cleaning as well as the type of equipment and supplies that are used. Standard " ... Causes of Janitor-Induced Cross Contamination There are many ways that cross contamination can occur while performing ... 2. A separate pair of gloves must be used for each patient to avoid cross- contamination. 3. Hands should be washed after ... While most research on cross contamination has been hospital based, the same principles can be applied to the cleaning of day ...
Cross contamination of food from preperation surfaces, hands, equipment or other foodstuffs by harmful bacteria, viruses or ... Storage, prepararion, processing and delivery must protect food from contamination and cross contamination that makes it ... Washing facilities for equipment and food: these must be adequate for washing food and utensils and have hot and cold water ... including protection from contamination during food preparation and prevention of cross contamination. Food safety legislation ...
Effectively Eliminating Water Contamination from Hydraulic and Lubricating Fluids. Water is the most common and damaging ... All mechanical systems have a certain tolerance for contamination, but in many cases these tolerances are lost due to ...
Laboratory analysis of drinking water requires controlled conditions, expensive technical equipment and highly trained ... Previous testing found contamination and the level of contamination was near maximum recommended MCLs or above the MCLs. ... Contamination in Karst Environmental Protection. > Water Quality. > Private Well Program. > Private Well Testing. > ... Karst bedrock aquifers are some of the most susceptible to contamination. Although Karst features can be found in a number of ...
  • Methods of reducing the number of microorganisms in the laboratory environment are important to limit the spread and reduce the risk of microbial contamination. (coleparmer.de)
  • It is important to understand how sources of contamination could have changed over the years. (cdc.gov)
  • With that in mind, let's have a look at the most common sources of contamination in the cleanroom. (prudentialuniforms.com)
  • Some of the water that originates at the surface - possibly near sources of contamination - flows undetected into the ground. (iowadnr.gov)
  • We describe here an investigation carried out in an active university research laboratory demonstrating the ability of silver ion BioCote treatment to reduce levels of bacterial contamination found on the surfaces of treated Cole-Parmer ® Stuart ™ equipment. (coleparmer.de)
  • Dentsply® (G6) non-sterile paper points also showed bacterial contamination. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prevention of cross-contamination events should be assured by the use of robust engineering controls for filling equipment. (tga.gov.au)
  • Sections on the prevention of bacterial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated and/or critically ill patients, care of respiratory-therapy devices, prevention of cross-contamination, and prevention of viral lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., respiratory syncytial virus {RSV} and influenza infections) have been expanded and updated. (cdc.gov)
  • Specifies contamination classes and levels for particulate contamination of hydraulic fluids and includes methods of reporting related data (Appendix A). (saiglobal.com)
  • However, with greater usage of hydraulic systems and extended replacement intervals comes a greater risk of system contamination. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • This means anyone operating hydraulic equipment on a regular basis must make controlling system contamination a priority. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • Here is some information from a hydraulic service in Minnesota to help you control these contaminations. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • There are also external solid contaminations that are common in hydraulic systems, including dust and dirt from the environment in which the equipment is used. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • Contamination in the form of air and gases can also be problematic for hydraulic systems. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • The best way to prevent gas contamination from becoming an issue with your hydraulic equipment is to keep your pump seals in good condition. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • Interested in learning more about how you can prevent contaminations from occurring in your hydraulic equipment? (mmhydraulic.com)
  • To prevent airborne contamination, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, airlocks and cleanroom suits are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • How do you devise cell culture protocols that prevent contamination ? (corning.com)
  • When you've discovered contamination, autoclaving is recommended to cure the contaminated culture and prevent it from spreading to other cultures. (corning.com)
  • The first action to prevent that secondary contamination is for the firefighter to undergo a gross decontamination to remove as much of the external contaminants as possible from the outer surface is of their PPE. (firerescue1.com)
  • GMP is also required to prevent cross-contamination of different micro-organisms. (coleparmer.de)
  • The principle of clause 3.6 applies to the manufacture of medicinal gases in that adequate precautions should be taken to prevent cross-contamination. (tga.gov.au)
  • This raises the following questions: Do we have protocols for the use of gloves when performing janitorial tasks to prevent cross contamination? (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • While standard precautions for the use of gloves makes sense for patient care, how can these principles be applied to prevent janitor-induced cross contamination? (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The total removal of germs from surfaces beyond disinfection, i.e., sterilization, is not practical or necessary to prevent janitor-induced cross contamination. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Every day our indoor environmental and mold removal technicians implement many proactive tactics to prevent cross contamination. (scoopcloud.com)
  • With many laboratories using toxic, corrosive and carcinogenic chemicals, maintenance employees need to do all they can to prevent contamination. (tpctraining.com)
  • TPC Training's online and safety video training products on Preventing Contamination in the Laboratory emphasize the need to recognize situations that could lead to contamination, and discuss what can be done to prevent contamination from occurring. (tpctraining.com)
  • This study aimed to compare the efficacy of three PPE ensembles, namely, Hospital Authority (HA) Standard Ebola PPE set (PPE1), Dupont Tyvek Model, style 1422A (PPE2), and HA isolation gown for routine patient care and performing aerosol-generating procedures (PPE3) to prevent EVD transmission by measuring the degree of contamination of HCWs and the environment. (edu.hk)
  • You failed to take adequate precautions to prevent the risk of contamination while producing drugs using open equipment. (fda.gov)
  • You lack justification that you can prevent contamination from foreign matter and other impurities that may seep from the (b)(4) . (fda.gov)
  • Available in 1 L unit, Nalgene-® 0.1 micron PES filter is intended for micron vacuum filtration of cell culture media to prevent mycoplasma contamination. (thomasnet.com)
  • While nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is reported, the role of aerosol transmission and environmental contamination remains unclear, and infection preventionists require further data to inform appropriate practices 8 . (nature.com)
  • This means that protection against instrument contamination, cross-contamination of laboratory work and infection of workers is continuous. (coleparmer.de)
  • Chemical contamination is the presence of a nonliving substance that may cause unwanted effects on the cell culture. (corning.com)
  • Be sure to use a long enough sterilization cycle for the materials and liquids you are sterilizing - often, a viscous liquid or large volume of liquid is understerilized, which can lead to contamination. (corning.com)
  • The data showed a higher contamination frequency of the fruits packed in plastic than in cardboard. (frontiersin.org)
  • Results: PPE2 and PPE3 presented higher contamination risks than PPE1. (edu.hk)
  • Some generate gasses or expel other types of particles that can cause contamination. (prudentialuniforms.com)
  • That's why companies that take recyclables are investing millions of dollars to better weed out the materials that may cause contamination. (wglt.org)
  • citation needed] One of the most common environments that incorporates contamination control into its standards protocol is the cleanroom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain areas in the cleanroom have more stringent measures than others: packaging areas, corridors, gowning rooms and transfer hatches incorporate strict contamination control measures in order to maintain cleanroom standards. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Body movement causes contamination, and protective clothing such as hats, cleanroom suits and face masks are accordingly basic items of contamination control. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Studies by 3M show that over 80% of contamination enters the cleanroom through entrances and exits, mostly at or near floor level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liberty Industries, Inc. is a manufacturer and distributor of Top quality cleanroom and contamination control supplies and accessories. (liberty-ind.com)
  • By far the most common source of contamination in a cleanroom is the human personnel inside it. (prudentialuniforms.com)
  • Another big cause of cleanroom contamination is the clothing worn by personnel. (prudentialuniforms.com)
  • The kinds of equipment used to aid in the processing of cleanroom products can contribute to the amount of contaminants in the air. (prudentialuniforms.com)
  • Mycoplasma contamination is most often treated with antibiotics, but no approach is totally successful at eradication. (corning.com)
  • Over time, the remaining mycoplasma that survive can recover and develop into a more serious contamination problem. (corning.com)
  • PES Filter protects against mycoplasma contamination. (thomasnet.com)
  • To identify possible contamination sources, health assessors can review site descriptions and data (see Data Needs for the PHA process ) from site investigation and environmental reports. (cdc.gov)
  • Ltd. after an inspection found possible contamination problems. (pharmtech.com)
  • Contamination control may refer to the atmosphere as well as to surfaces, to particulate matter as well as to microbes and to contamination prevention as well as to decontamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • We detected viral contamination among all samples, supporting the use of airborne isolation precautions when caring for COVID-19 patients. (nature.com)
  • Some banks and insurance companies use contamination control products as part of their disaster management protocols. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effective cleaning and disinfection protocols can reduce the prevalence of cross contamination in the facilities we clean. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Our latest state of the art addition to our PPE equipment line up takes our anti-cross contamination protocols a step further. (scoopcloud.com)
  • This is usually carried out by disinfection of laboratory equipment and surfaces. (coleparmer.de)
  • An additional option is to use permanent antimicrobial surfaces in the laboratory, particularly the surfaces and controls of instruments at risk of contamination. (coleparmer.de)
  • Effective cleaning gets rid of bacteria on hands, equipment, and surfaces. (food.gov.uk)
  • Cross-contamination is most likely to happen when raw food touches or drips onto ready-to-eat food, utensils, or surfaces. (food.gov.uk)
  • Determine whether any of your equipment surfaces are reactive, absorptive, or additive so that drug quality, purity, or safety may be affected. (fda.gov)
  • Contamination poses a significant risk to technical processes, experiments or production activities, as well as to the individuals involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • In food, cross contamination of foodborne pathogens is a major concern since it increases the health risk for humans due to the intake of contaminated food. (frontiersin.org)
  • If an employee is ill, their contamination risk skyrockets. (prudentialuniforms.com)
  • Using PFA at the sample connection point, contamination risk is reduced. (horiba.com)
  • Of course, you must continue to monitor the cleanliness of the system and address contaminations or contamination risk as you go. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • The risk of undercooking meat and of cross-contamination can increase during a BBQ. (food.gov.uk)
  • Although PPE1 presented a lower contamination risk than PPE2 and PPE3 during doffing and protocol deviations, the design of PPE1 can still be further improved. (edu.hk)
  • Their presence puts your drugs at risk of contamination. (fda.gov)
  • Using vessels made of (b)(4) and partially filled with standing water may increase the risk of drug contamination. (fda.gov)
  • Provide a risk assessment for any drugs within their re-test date manufactured using inappropriate equipment and distributed within the United States. (fda.gov)
  • Standard precautions are recommended in the care of patients with rabies in healthcare settings, including use of personal protective equipment during activities that may pose a risk for salivary contamination of mucosa or break in the skin. (medscape.com)
  • The program is designed for individuals assigned to conduct mass screening for contamination from radioactive materials following a large scale incident. (cdc.gov)
  • オンライン署名 · Stop Radioactive Contamination of the Pacific Ocean from the Fukushima nuclear power plant site! (change.org)
  • Help us stop radioactive contamination of the Pacific Ocean! (change.org)
  • From March 11, 2011, there has been a continuous release of massive quantities of radioactive contamination not only into the air but also into the ocean. (change.org)
  • It is unacceptable to the people of Japan that radioactive contamination is continuing in our oceans. (change.org)
  • We petition Tepco and the Japanese government to go back to the drawing boards and undertake a fundamental reassessment of measures to address the radioactive water contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi site including the issues of the "ice wall" and water containing tritium. (change.org)
  • We petition the Japanese government to promptly disclose all information not just in Japanese but in multiple languages related to radioactive water contamination due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. (change.org)
  • Prevalence of food contamination with Listeria spp. (who.int)
  • Traditional preventive measures for nosocomial pneumonia include decreasing aspiration by the patient, preventing cross-contamination or colonization via hands of personnel, appropriate disinfection or sterilization of respiratory-therapy devices, use of available vaccines to protect against particular infections, and education of hospital staff and patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Contamination control is the generic term for all activities aiming to control the existence, growth and proliferation of contamination in certain areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of all contamination control activities is to permanently ensure a sufficient level of cleanliness in controlled environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Contamination control is also an important asset for industrial laboratories in the pharmaceutical and life science sectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] More recently, effective contamination control has been a concern for laboratories and other sensitive environments as a bio-security crisis management measure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Products in a range of industries are recalled due to ineffective contamination control systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also the USA Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clearly showed the fresh produce as a source of contamination leading to food borne illnesses. (frontiersin.org)
  • in particular strains of L. innocua, the rate of contamination was higher, suggesting that more control on food sanitation is required. (who.int)
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is the least effective control measure as it does nothing to minimise the underlying hazard. (edu.au)
  • Knowing the site's contamination sources is critical for determining whether all environmental media (e.g., soil, surface water) that could possibly receive releases of contaminants from these sources have been adequately investigated. (cdc.gov)
  • The type and extent of source contamination and to what environmental media contaminants were released. (cdc.gov)
  • This paper describes how contaminants get into your oil and machines as well as how you can protect your equipment by cleaning oil to the desired level before putting it into your machinery. (machinerylubrication.com)
  • These work practices are recommended along with decontamination procedures and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) noted below. (cdc.gov)
  • Information including details related to potential contamination of the victims and providers can help the healthcare facility better assess whether decontamination is necessary and coordinate medical evaluation and treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • equipment not cleaned correctly left in a damp condition, spills not mopped up properly etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 3D cell culture, contamination can occur in various components, such as the bio-ink or the extracellular matrix . (corning.com)
  • It can occur due to a heat exchanger leak, contamination from water-containing fluids (such as metal removal fluids) or could simply be a result of overly humid air creating condensation inside the system. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • There are many ways that cross contamination can occur while performing janitorial tasks. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Microbial cross-contamination refers to the transfer, direct or indirect, of microorganisms (bacteria, virus, parasites, or fungi) from a contaminated item to a non-contaminated one ( Minnesota Department of Health, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Another consequence of microorganisms present in the laboratory environment is contamination of experiments and tests. (coleparmer.de)
  • It prevents harmful microorganisms that can cause serious illness from contaminating food, prevents cross contamination, enables businesses to comply with the law, and helps protect your business reputation. (rentokil.co.uk)
  • Compressed air is used to texturize food, dry sterilized equipment, form bottles, move ingredients through lines and protect liquids in storage tanks. (manufacturing.net)
  • In most cases, information on contamination sources is well-documented, largely because environmental investigations often are designed to conduct sampling at known or suspected source areas and in potentially affected media. (cdc.gov)
  • We initiated an ongoing study of environmental contamination obtaining surface and air samples in 2 NBU hospital and 9 NQU residential isolation rooms housing individuals testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. (nature.com)
  • Cross contamination is one of the biggest unspoken concerns among indoor environmental and mold remediation companies. (scoopcloud.com)
  • Environmental contaminations such as those originating from rubbish bin covers, chairs, faucets, and sinks were detected. (edu.hk)
  • This property further safeguards samples from contamination and eliminates damage to, or clogging of, an HPLC autosampler. (biochromato.com)
  • We aimed to determine food contamination with Listeria spp. (who.int)
  • The results indicate that the rate of contamination with L. monocytogenes, even for ready-to-eat foods, was low but for other Listeria spp. (who.int)
  • Prévalence de la contamination alimentaire par Listeria spp. (who.int)
  • Nous avons cherché à établir la prévalence de la contamination alimentaire par Listeria spp. (who.int)
  • Ces résultats indiquent que le taux de contamination par L. monocytogenes, même dans les plats prêts à consommer, était faible, mais que pour les autres Listeria spp. (who.int)
  • While most research on cross contamination has been hospital based, the same principles can be applied to the cleaning of day care centers, schools, restaurants and most types of businesses. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • However, sterilization principles can be applied on a relative basis to the performance of janitorial tasks to reduce the likelihood of cross-contamination. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The objective of this report is to consider the principles involved and to survey existing systems and equipment for the mitigation of the consequences of abnormal plant operations, including severe accidents beyond the design basis. (iaea.org)
  • Based on this evidence it could be argued that many businesses are not adequately protecting themselves from the harmful effects of contamination, and many products in many industries are being recalled due to unsafe manufacturing processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • All personnel handling bagged equipment back at the station should wear equipment to protect them from liquid splashes (e.g., eye protection, gloves, and a rubber apron or Tyvek coveralls. (firerescue1.com)
  • Liquid contamination is the second most common form of contamination. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • This is accomplished by maintaining, reducing, or eradicating viable and non-viable contamination for either sanitary purposes or in order to maintain an efficient rate of production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion: Contamination of the subjects' working clothes and surrounding environment occurred frequently during PPE doffing. (edu.hk)
  • Cell contamination is a major concern in 3D cell culture labs as well as with more traditional 2D monolayer cultures. (corning.com)
  • Contaminated water from Unit 2's large object carry-in facility roof-top is suspected as the source of the contamination. (change.org)
  • As a result, sample contamination issues can arise as common HPLC solvents such as acetonitrile, water, and DMSO can extract siloxane out of the silicon based adhesive. (biochromato.com)
  • Work with a reputable fluid supplier to get an analysis of your system performed and determine if you've experienced water contamination or any other type of fluid-related issue. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • Distilled water used to clean equipment in cleanrooms had an unacceptable level of bioburden. (pharmtech.com)
  • Jessica participated in CDC's emergency response efforts for the Flint Michigan water contamination the zika virus outbreak, and hurricanes Matthew, Harvey, Irma, and Maria. (cdc.gov)
  • Most examination results reported by laboratories are generated by methods that use common general laboratory equipment. (mlo-online.com)
  • Multimedia Construction Equipment and Methods Course (Text & Images). (martindalecenter.com)
  • Germs from a person may be found on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during the person's care. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1 Cross-contamination is defined as the spread of germs from one surface or object to another and frequently occurs when performing janitorial tasks. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Food poisoning can be avoided by following good food hygiene practices, such as washing your hands, cooking meat properly, and avoiding cross-contamination. (food.gov.uk)
  • However, a recent study 2 has identified a less recognized cause of cross contamination: janitorial worker's gloves. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • 2. A separate pair of gloves must be used for each patient to avoid cross- contamination. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • MIAMI, Fla. /ScoopCloud/ -- High tech South Florida based mold removal company, Miami Mold Specialists, invests into advanced anti-cross contamination and personal protection systems. (scoopcloud.com)
  • Miami Mold Specialists' latest state of the art personal protection and anti-cross-contamination equipment include specialized work shoes, UV footwear sterilizing systems, new types of clean suits and protective footwear covers, and high tech respirators. (scoopcloud.com)
  • Some of these tactics include clean suits, respirators, shoe coverings, cleaning equipment after every job, daily cleaning of vehicles are all part of our routines as to inhibit cross contamination. (scoopcloud.com)
  • This can have serious consequences in diagnostic laboratories where contamination has led to false positive results 11-13 . (coleparmer.de)
  • Whether contamination sources have been adequately characterized. (cdc.gov)
  • Commit to replacing your unacceptable (b)(4) equipment with equipment composed of materials that are suitable for their intended use. (fda.gov)
  • Actually, this is a major source of contamination in a clean room. (prudentialuniforms.com)
  • Even if you've recently used your equipment it's good practice to clean and dry the grill beforehand. (food.gov.uk)
  • Further, your equipment is difficult to reproducibly clean. (fda.gov)
  • In some cases, air contamination can result in fluid foaming and damage to the pumps, due to aeration and/or cavitation. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • Understanding cell culture contamination best practices ensures that your research quality does not have to suffer due to an unexpected occurrence, whether big or small. (corning.com)
  • Transmission was demonstrated by similarity of HCV dures carried out with contaminated equipment ( 10,11 ) or sequences isolated from acute hepatitis cases with those inappropriate practices of health personnel ( 12 ) have been sequences isolated from carriers with chronic hepatitis C proposed as mechanisms of nosocomial transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Closed pressurised systems and equipment used for medicinal gas manufacture, only needs cleaning between batches if exposed to a contaminant. (tga.gov.au)
  • FDA stated that the company used shared equipment to manufacture API, and data from cleaning verification and validation studies showed ineffective cleaning procedures. (pharmtech.com)
  • How contamination occurs. (tpctraining.com)
  • identifying a fault before it occurs is the best way to keep industrial equipment up and running. (articlecube.com)
  • Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) use personal protective equipment (PPE) in Ebola virus disease (EVD) situations. (edu.hk)
  • Exposure pathways start with a contamination source. (cdc.gov)
  • and (5) personal protective equipment (PPE) for staff that included contact and aerosol protection 9 . (nature.com)
  • Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment (PPE) . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Personal protective equipment. (tpctraining.com)
  • Below is a list of frequently asked questions relating to personal protective equipment (PPE). (edu.au)
  • Personal protective equipment included safety helmets, protective footgear and hearing devices, face shields, and respirators. (cdc.gov)
  • 60 Co (read as cobalt sixty) is used for sterilizing medical equipment and consumer products, radiation therapy for treating cancer patients, manufacturing plastics, and irradiating food to increase shelf life. (cdc.gov)
  • cardboard reduces fruit contamination and increases their shelf-life with positive fallouts on fruit shelf-life and all the logistic and distribution chain. (frontiersin.org)
  • It increases equipment uptime and helps boost operational accuracy, productivity, and profitability. (articlecube.com)
  • Ultimately, you will use information on contamination sources for perspective on the types and durations of possible exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • This guideline specifies recommendations for conducting performance qualification (PQ), routine function checks, calibration verification, and preventive maintenance of 20 types of general laboratory equipment. (mlo-online.com)
  • You can reduce solid contamination through the use of filters. (mmhydraulic.com)
  • For Pseudomonas , the contamination levels detected on fruits packaged in plastic were significantly higher compared to those found on fruits packed in cardboard, independently on the considered variables. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apart from people, another common way for contamination to enter is on the wheels of trolleys used to transport equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • BP/EP/USP monographs), should be performed using equipment that is appropriately calibrated, maintained and where applicable utilise validated systems. (tga.gov.au)
  • Perform batch specific testing against the product specification using equipment that is appropriately calibrated, maintained, and where applicable, utilise validated systems. (tga.gov.au)
  • All mechanical systems have a certain tolerance for contamination, but in many cases these tolerances are lost due to ineffective maintenance. (hydrocarbons-technology.com)
  • For example, if the contamination source is a leaking gasoline underground storage tank, reviewing levels of contamination in soil, soil gas, and groundwater, at a minimum, will be necessary to accurately determine potential population exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Once a firefighter leaves the hazard area, the potential for secondary contamination begins. (firerescue1.com)
  • Some sites have just one contamination source, but many sites have numerous sources. (cdc.gov)
  • Sometimes, however, you may identify contamination, but not be able to identify its original source. (cdc.gov)
  • In such cases, you might conclude that a contamination source existed at some point in the site's history, though the original release details might not be known. (cdc.gov)
  • Investigating the problem, however, is made difficult due to the very high levels of radiation around the reactor buildings, and thus the source of the contamination has not been identified. (change.org)
  • Bennett said that leads to more contamination if no one catches it, and the only way to catch it is to have personnel go through the materials bit by bit, which drives up cost. (wglt.org)
  • Choosing an accredited provider of materials handling equipment operator training can reap benefits in terms of safer drivers and workplaces. (britsafe.org)
  • Accredited training of those who operate materials handling equipment (MHE) - like forklifts, sideloader machines and vertical stock pickers - is an unparalleled success story. (britsafe.org)
  • Corrosion resistant materials that extend system and equipment lifecycle and efficiency. (johnguest.com)
  • BioCote-treated instruments from the Stuart laboratory equipment range (see Table 1) and untreated equipment were included in the study. (coleparmer.de)
  • Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has released a new guideline QMS23-General Laboratory Equipment Performance Qualification, Use, and Maintenance. (mlo-online.com)
  • It provides recommendations for conducting the initial performance qualification as well as the ongoing verification and preventive maintenance of general laboratory equipment. (mlo-online.com)
  • In addition, Appendix A2 provides a laboratory equipment PQ checklist, and Appendix A3 includes a sample equipment PQ form. (mlo-online.com)