Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans and new world primates. The type species human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) is better known as the Epstein-Barr virus.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A DNA-binding protein that consists of 5 polypeptides and plays an essential role in DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes. It binds DNA PRIMER-template junctions and recruits PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and DNA POLYMERASES to the site of DNA synthesis.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).

Epstein-barr virus regulates c-MYC, apoptosis, and tumorigenicity in Burkitt lymphoma. (1/1037)

Loss of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome from Akata Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells is coincident with a loss of malignant phenotype, despite the fact that Akata and other EBV-positive BL cells express a restricted set of EBV gene products (type I latency) that are not known to overtly affect cell growth. Here we demonstrate that reestablishment of type I latency in EBV-negative Akata cells restores tumorigenicity and that tumorigenic potential correlates with an increased resistance to apoptosis under growth-limiting conditions. The antiapoptotic effect of EBV was associated with a higher level of Bcl-2 expression and an EBV-dependent decrease in steady-state levels of c-MYC protein. Although the EBV EBNA-1 protein is expressed in all EBV-associated tumors and is reported to have oncogenic potential, enforced expression of EBNA-1 alone in EBV-negative Akata cells failed to restore tumorigenicity or EBV-dependent down-regulation of c-MYC. These data provide direct evidence that EBV contributes to the tumorigenic potential of Burkitt lymphoma and suggest a novel model whereby a restricted latency program of EBV promotes B-cell survival, and thus virus persistence within an immune host, by selectively targeting the expression of c-MYC.  (+info)

Human herpesviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome. (2/1037)

We have conducted a double-blind study to assess the possible involvement of the human herpesviruses (HHVs) HHV6, HHV7, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients compared to age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. The CFS patient population was composed of rigorously screened civilian and Persian Gulf War veterans meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's CFS case definition criteria. Healthy control civilian and veteran populations had no evidence of CFS or any other exclusionary medical or psychiatric condition. Patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by PCR for the presence of these HHVs. Using two-tailed Fisher's exact test analyses, we were unable to ascertain any statistically significant differences between the CFS patient and control populations in terms of the detection of one or more of these viruses. This observation was upheld when the CFS populations were further stratified with regard to the presence or absence of major axis I psychopathology and patient self-reported gradual versus acute onset of disease. In tandem, we performed serological analyses of serum anti-EBV and anti-HHV6 antibody titers and found no significant differences between the CFS and control patients.  (+info)

The major immunogenic epitopes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 are encoded by sequence domains which vary among nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies and EBV-associated cell lines. (3/1037)

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) is a protein expressed consistently in EBV-infected cells and EBV-associated malignant tissues. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against the C terminus of EBNA-1 and evaluated for the detection of EBNA-1 in different cell lines. The epitopes recognized were mapped. Since sequence variations of EBNA-1 have been reported in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues and in infected healthy individuals, the ability of these MAbs to recognize a recombinant protein derived from an NPC biopsy was also analysed. MAb 4H11 appeared to react with EBNA-1 sequences from different sources, whereas MAbs 5C11, 5F12 and 8F6 failed to recognize a recombinant EBNA-1 protein cloned from an NPC patient. Using different recombinant EBNA-1 fragments in an immunoblot format, this study demonstrates that the domain bounded by amino acids 408 and 498 is very immunogenic in mice in that epitopes in this region are recognized by various MAbs. Amino acid sequences of EBNA-1 were also deduced from nucleotide sequences amplified from three Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, two spontaneous lymphoblastoid cell lines, two NPC biopsies and one NPC hybrid cell line, NPC-KT, and compared to the sequence from B95-8. The amino acid sequence of EBNA-1 in Akata is almost identical to that in an NPC biopsy, except for amino acid 585. The results of this study indicate that the immunogenic epitopes of EBNA-1 are highly variable.  (+info)

Relative levels of EBNA1 gene transcripts from the C/W, F and Q promoters in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoid cells in latent and lytic stages of infection. (4/1037)

Four promoters, Cp, Wp, Fp and Qp, are known to participate in transcription of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene in EBV-infected cell lines. The promoters are used differentially during the different phases of infection and establishment of the stages of latency. This has raised questions about the regulation of the promoters and the molecular mechanisms underlying the switches between them. To obtain a measure of the activity of the different EBNA1 transcription units in EBV-transformed cell lines of different phenotypes, RNA probes were constructed that allowed the detection and relative quantification, by RNase protection analysis, of EBNA1 transcripts initiated at Fp and Qp and, in an indirect manner, Cp/Wp. RNase protection and PCR assays were performed with cytoplasmic RNA from B-lymphoid cell lines in latency stages I, II-III and III and after induction of the virus lytic cycle. The experiments demonstrated that, in addition to previously identified EBNA1 transcripts, cell lines of all latency types also contained different mRNAs that carried sequences from the EBNA1-encoding K exon. Induction of the virus lytic cycle resulted in low levels of an FpQ/U/K-spliced transcript. However, there was a large increase of FpQ- and FpQ/U-spliced transcripts with unknown 3' sequences. Furthermore, a new transcript, initiated at an unidentified site 5' of the BamHI f/K cleavage site and continuing through BamHI K into the EBNA1-encoding K exon without interruption, was produced in substantial amounts in the lytic cycle.  (+info)

EBP2, a human protein that interacts with sequences of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 important for plasmid maintenance. (5/1037)

The replication and stable maintenance of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA episomes in human cells requires only one viral protein, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1). To gain insight into the mechanisms by which EBNA1 functions, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to detect human proteins that interact with EBNA1. We describe here the isolation of a protein, EBP2 (EBNA1 binding protein 2), that specifically interacts with EBNA1. EBP2 was also shown to bind to DNA-bound EBNA1 in a one-hybrid system, and the EBP2-EBNA1 interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation from insect cells expressing these two proteins. EBP2 is a 35-kDa protein that is conserved in a variety of organisms and is predicted to form coiled-coil interactions. We have mapped the region of EBNA1 that binds EBP2 and generated internal deletion mutants of EBNA1 that are deficient in EBP2 interactions. Functional analyses of these EBNA1 mutants show that the ability to bind EBP2 correlates with the ability of EBNA1 to support the long-term maintenance in human cells of a plasmid containing the EBV origin, oriP. An EBNA1 mutant lacking amino acids 325 to 376 was defective for EBP2 binding and long-term oriP plasmid maintenance but supported the transient replication of oriP plasmids at wild-type levels. Thus, our results suggest that the EBNA1-EBP2 interaction is important for the stable segregation of EBV episomes during cell division but not for the replication of the episomes.  (+info)

Activated mouse Notch1 transactivates Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2-regulated viral promoters. (6/1037)

Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is essential for B-cell immortalization by EBV, most probably by its ability to transactivate a number of cellular and viral genes. EBNA2-responsive elements (EBNA2REs) have been identified in several EBNA2-regulated viral promoters, each of them carrying at least one RBP-Jkappa recognition site. RBP-Jkappa recruits EBNA2 to the EBNA2RE and, once complexed to EBNA2, is converted from a repressor into an activator. An activated form of the cellular receptor Notch also interacts with RBP-Jkappa, providing a link between EBNA2 and Notch signalling. To determine whether activated Notch is able to transactivate EBNA2-responsive viral promoters, we performed cotransfection experiments with activated mouse Notch1 (mNotch1-IC) and luciferase constructs of the BamHI C, LMP1, and LMP2A promoters. We present here evidence that mNotch1-IC transactivates viral promoters known to be regulated by EBNA2. As shown for EBNA2, mutations or deletions of the RBP-Jkappa sites diminish or eliminate mNotch1-IC-mediated transactivation of the promoters, pointing to an essential role for Notch-RBP-Jkappa interaction. In addition to RBP-Jkappa, other cellular factors may bind within the EBNA2REs of viral promoters. While some factors appear to play an important role in both EBNA2- and mNotch1-IC-mediated transactivation, others are only important for the activity of either EBNA2 or mNotch1-IC. We could observe specific mNotch1-IC-responsive regions, thereby throwing more light upon which cofactors interact with EBNA2 and mNotch1-IC, thus enabling them to become functionally transactivators in vivo.  (+info)

Genetic evidence that EBNA-1 is needed for efficient, stable latent infection by Epstein-Barr virus. (7/1037)

Replication and maintenance of the 170-kb circular chromosome of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) during latent infection are generally believed to depend upon a single viral gene product, the nuclear protein EBNA-1. EBNA-1 binds to two clusters of sites at oriP, an 1, 800-bp sequence on the EBV genome which can support replication and maintenance of artificial plasmids introduced into cell lines that contain EBNA-1. To investigate the importance of EBNA-1 to latent infection by EBV, we introduced a frameshift mutation into the EBNA-1 gene of EBV by recombination along with a flanking selectable marker. EBV genomes carrying the frameshift mutation could be isolated readily after superinfecting EBV-positive cell lines, but not if recombinant virus was used to infect EBV-negative B-cell lines or to immortalize peripheral blood B cells. EBV mutants lacking almost all of internal repeat 3, which encode a repetitive glycine and alanine domain of EBNA-1, were generated in the same way and found to immortalize B cells normally. An EBNA-1-deficient mutant of EBV was isolated and found to be incapable of establishing a latent infection of the cell line BL30 at a detectable frequency, indicating that the mutant was less than 1% as efficient as an isogenic, EBNA-1-positive strain in this assay. The data indicate that EBNA-1 is required for efficient and stable latent infection by EBV under the conditions tested. Evidence from other studies now indicates that autonomous maintenance of the EBV chromosome during latent infection does not depend on the replication initiation function of oriP. It is therefore likely that the viral chromosome maintenance (segregation) function of oriP and EBNA-1 is what is required.  (+info)

Expression of EBNA-1 mRNA is regulated by cell cycle during Epstein-Barr virus type I latency. (8/1037)

Expression of EBNA-1 protein is required for the establishment and maintenance of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome during latent infection. During type I latency, the BamHI Q promoter (Qp) gives rise to EBNA-1 expression. The dominant regulatory mechanism for Qp appears to be mediated through the Q locus, located immediately downstream of the transcription start site. Binding of EBNA-1 to the Q locus represses Qp constitutive activity, and repression has been reported to be overcome by an E2F family member that binds to the Q locus and displaces EBNA-1 (N. S. Sung, J. Wilson, M. Davenport, N. D. Sista, and J. S. Pagano, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:7144-7152, 1994). These data suggest that the final outcome of Qp activity is reciprocally controlled by EBNA-1 and E2F. Since E2F activity is cell cycle regulated, Qp activity and EBNA-1 expression are predicted to be regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Proliferation of the type I latently infected cell line, Akata, was synchronized with the use of the G2/M blocking agent nocodazole. From 65 to 75% of cells could be made to peak in S phase without evidence of viral reactivation. Following release from G2/M block, EBNA-1 mRNA levels declined as the synchronized cells entered the G1 phase of the cell cycle. As cells proceeded into S phase, EBNA-1 mRNA levels increased parallel to the peak in cell numbers in S phase. However, EBNA-1 protein levels showed no detectable change during the cell cycle, most likely due to the protein's long half-life as estimated by inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide. Finally, in Qp luciferase reporter assays, the activity of Qp was shown to be regulated by cell cycle and to be dependent on the E2F sites within the Q locus. These findings demonstrate that transcriptional activity of Qp is cell cycle regulated and indicated that E2F serves as the stimulus for this regulation.  (+info)

Summary The mol. wt. of the polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) molecule (EBNA 1) encoded by the BamHI K fragment of the EBV DNA has been determined in 14 EBV-carrying lymphoblastoid and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. There is no obvious correlation between the size of this polypeptide and any properties of the cells from which it is derived, other than those related to the strain of transforming virus. We confirm that the polymorphic region of this molecule is the glycine-alanine copolymer encoded by the third internal repeat of the EBV genome (IR3) and we consider the significance of this domain.
The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) is one of the six EBV viral nuclear proteins expressed in latently infected B lymphocytes is a transactivator protein. EBNA2 is involved in the regulation of latent viral transcription and contributes to the immortalization of EBV infected cells. EBNA2 acts as an adapter molecule that binds to cellular sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, JK recombination signal-binding protein (RBP-JK), and PU.1 as well as working with multiple members of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex. EBNA2 requires C-promoter binding factor 1 (CBF1) to aid in binding to its cis-responsive DNA element, the C promoter (Cp). Binding occurs during infection, to generate a 120kb transcript that encodes all nuclear antigens required for immortalization by EBV.2 Mutation of EBNA2 amino acid 323 and 324, which are located within a highly conserved amino acid motif, abolished the interaction with CBF1.3 This same mutation also abolished the ability of EBNA-2 to ...
Epstein-Barr virus EBNA1 protein regulates viral latency through effects on let-7 microRNA and dicer.: The EBNA1 protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Host cell-dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes. T2 - Regulation by DNA methylation. AU - Li, Hui. AU - Mináróvits, J.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human gammaherpesvirus associated with a wide spectrum of malignant neoplasms. Expression of latent (growth transformation-associated) EBV genes is host cell specific. Transcripts for EBV-encoded nuclear antigens (EBNAs) are initiated at one of the alternative promoters: Wp, Cp (for EBNA1-6), or Qp (for EBNA1 only). Wp is active shortly after EBV infection of human B cells in vitro but is progressively methylated and silenced in established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In parallel Cp, an unmethylated, lymphoid-specific promoter is switched on. In contrast, Cp is methylated and silent in Burkitts lymphoma (BL) cell lines, which keep the phenotype of BL biopsy cells (group I BL lines). These cells use Qp for the initiation of EBNA1 messages. Qp is unmethylated both in ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpes virus with oncogenic potential, persists in B lymphoid tissues and is controlled by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) surveillance. On reactivation in vitro, these CTLs recognize EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) in an HLA class I antigen-restricted fashion, but the viral antigens providing target epitopes for such recognition remain largely undefined. Here we have tested EBV-induced polyclonal CTL preparations from 16 virus-immune donors on appropriate fibroblast targets in which the eight EBV latent proteins normally found in LCLs (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen [EBNA] 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, leader protein [LP], and latent membrane protein [LMP] 1 and 2) have been expressed individually from recombinant vaccinia virus vectors. Most donors gave multicomponent responses with two or more separate reactivities against different viral antigens. Although precise target antigen choice was clearly influenced by the donors HLA class I type, a ...
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Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 (EBNA-2) increases mRNA levels of specific viral and cellular genes through direct or indirect effects on upstream regulatory elements. The EBNA-2 domains essential for these effects have been partially defined and correlate with domains important for B-cell growth transformation. To determine whether EBNA-2 has a direct transcriptional activating domain, gene fusions between the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 and EBNA-2 were tested in CHO and B-lymphoma cells for the ability to activate transcription from target plasmids containing GAL4 recognition sites upstream of an adenovirus or murine mammary tumor virus promoter. In B-lymphoma cells, a 37-amino-acid EBNA-2 domain previously identified to be essential for transformation was nearly as strong a transcriptional activator as the activating domain of herpes simplex virus trans-inducing factor VP16. A quadradecapeptide had about 25% of the activating activity of the longer peptide. This first evidence that EBNA-2 ...
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism in cancer invasiveness and metastasis. We had previously reported that cancer cells expressing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent viral antigens EBV nuclear antigen EBNA3C and/ or EBNA1 showed higher motility and migration potential and had a propensity for increased metastases when tested in nude mice model. We now show that both EBNA3C and EBNA1 can modulate cellular pathways critical for epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. Our data confirms that presence of EBNA3C or EBNA1 result in upregulation of transcriptional repressor Slug and Snail, upregulation of intermediate filament of mesenchymal origin vimentin, upregulation of transcription factor TCF8/ZEB1, downregulation as well as disruption of tight junction zona occludens protein ZO-1, downregulation of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. We further show that the primary tumors as well as metastasized lesions derived from EBV ...
EBNA3C can specifically repress the expression of reporter plasmids containing EBV Cp latency-associated promoter elements. Cp is normally the main promoter for EBNA mRNA initiation, so it appears that EBNA3C contributes to a negative autoregulatory control loop. By mutational analysis it was previously established that this repression is consistent with EBNA3C being targeted to Cp by binding the cellular sequence-specific DNA-binding protein CBF1 (also known as recombination signal-binding protein [RBP]-Jkappa. Further analysis suggested that in vivo a corepressor interacts with EBNA3C in this DNA binding complex. Results presented here are all consistent with a component of such a corepressor exhibiting histone deacetylase activity. The drug trichostatin A, which specifically inhibits histone deacetylases, relieved two- to threefold the repression of Cp induced by EBNA3C in two different cell types. Moreover, repression of pTK-CAT-Cp4x by EBNA3C was specifically enhanced by cotransfection of ...
Plays an essential role in replication and partitioning of viral genomic DNA during latent viral infection. During this phase, the circular double-stranded viral DNA undergoes replication once per cell cycle and is efficiently partitioned to the daughter cells. EBNA1 activates the initiation of viral DNA replication through binding to specific sites in the viral latent origin of replication, oriP. Additionally, it governs the segregation of viral episomes by mediating their attachment to host cell metaphase chromosomes. Also activates the transcription of several viral latency genes. Finally, it can counteract the stabilization of host p53/TP53 by host USP7, thereby decreasing apoptosis and increasing host cell survival.
Pleiotrophic Functions of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and oriP Differentially Contribute to the Efficacy of Transfection/expression of Exogenous Gene in Mammalian Cells ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) strains from the highly HLA-A11-positive Chinese population are predominantly type 1 and show a variety of sequence changes (relative to the contemporary Caucasian prototype strain B95.8) in the nuclear antigen EBNA3B sequences encoding two immunodominant HLA-A11 epitopes, here called IVT and AVF. This has been interpreted by some as evidence of immune selection and by others as random genetic drift. To study epitope variation in a broader genomic context, we sequenced the whole of EBNA3B and parts of the EBNA2, 3A, and 3C genes from each of 31 Chinese EBV isolates. At each locus, type 1 viruses showed |2% nucleotide divergence from the B95.8 prototype while type 2 sequences remained even closer to the contemporary African prototype Ag876. However, type 1 isolates could clearly be divided into families based on linked patterns of sequence divergence from B95.8 across all four EBNA loci. Different patterns of IVT and AVF variation were associated with the different type 1
Epstein-Barr trojan (EBV) nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is one of the essential latent antigens for main B-cell transformation. efficiently deubiquitinates Mdm2 an Muscimol hydrobromide important cellular proto-oncogene which is known to be overexpressed in several human being Rabbit Polyclonal to ADRB2. cancers. The data offered here further demonstrate the N-terminal domain of EBNA3C can bind to the acidic domain of Mdm2. Additionally the N-terminal website of EBNA3C strongly stabilizes Muscimol hydrobromide Mdm2. Importantly EBNA3C simultaneously binds to both Mdm2 and p53 and may form a stable ternary complex; however in the presence of p53 the binding affinity of Mdm2 toward EBNA3C was significantly reduced suggesting that p53 and Mdm2 might share a common overlapping website of EBNA3C. We also showed that EBNA3C enhances the intrinsic ubiquitin ligase Muscimol Muscimol hydrobromide hydrobromide activity of Mdm2 toward p53 which in turn facilitated p53 ubiquitination and degradation. ...
Latent infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human cancers, including nasopharyngeal cancer. During latent EBV infections, the glycine-alanine repeat (GAr) domain of the EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) inhibits translation of EBNA1 mRNA, thereby suppressing the production of antigenic peptides that the human immune system recognises as foreign. Here, Blondel et al. establish a yeast-based assay that recapitulates GAr-mediated suppression of EBNA1 mRNA translation and use it to identify doxorubicin and its active analogues as compounds that specifically interfere with GAr-mediated suppression of translation. Importantly, in mammalian cells, doxorubicin and its analogues stimulate EBNA1 expression in a GAr-dependent manner and overcome the GAr-dependent restriction of antigen presentation. Together, these results validate the yeast-based assay as an effective cell-based screening approach for compounds that interfere with EBV immune evasion and that might, therefore, ...
Antigens; CD/analysis, Antigens; Viral/analysis, Biological Markers/analysis, Cell Division/drug effects, Cell Line; Transformed, Cell Survival, Cell Transformation; Viral/drug effects/genetics, DNA/biosynthesis, DNA-Binding Proteins/analysis, Diploidy, Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens, Herpesvirus 4; Human, Humans, Karyotyping, Leukemia; B-Cell; Chronic/genetics/microbiology/*pathology, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a persistent latent infection in B lymphocytes and is associated with the development of numerous human tumors. (EBV) is a potent transforming agent of resting B lymphocytes, promoting cell cycle entry and subsequent continuous proliferation. EBV is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous lymphoid tumors, including Burkitts lymphoma (BL), Hodgkins disease, posttransplant lymphomas, and certain T-cell and natural killer cell lymphomas, in addition to the epithelial cell tumor nasopharyngeal carcinoma (reviewed in reference 54). Like other members of the herpesvirus family, EBV has a biphasic life cycle involving a latent and a lytic phase. In infected B cells, EBV establishes a latent infection where the Ntrk3 172-kb double-stranded DNA viral genome is maintained as a closed circular episome and expresses a limited set of latent genes. These include the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs) 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, and -LP and latent membrane proteins (LMPs) ...
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Cullinan Oncology, LLC and The Wistar Institute today announced an agreement to accelerate the development of VK-2019, a novel EBNA1 (Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1) inhibitor discovered by The Wistar Institute. VK-2019 will be developed by Cullinan Apollo, a company formed and...
Silencing Mediator of Retinoic Acid and Thyroid Hormone Receptor Regulates Enhanced Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 by Epstein-Barr Virus-Derived Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 2 (2009 ...
My thesis project is about the roles of viral TF in human diseases, mainly focusing on the roles of EBNA2 TF from Epstein-Barr virus in autoimmune-associated gene regulation, since EBNA2 was known to regulate human gene expression in B cells. To test the hypothesis that EBNA2 alters host gene expression levels by rearranging the chromatin landscape, we first infected human B cells with the EBNA2+ EBV strain and also the EBNA2- EBV strain. We then identified EBNA2-dependent differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing EBNA2+, EBNA2- infected and also uninfected RNA-Seq data, which resulted in 421 EBNA2 dependent DEGs. Using the RELI algorithm (Regulatory Element Locus Intersection) that we published previously, we found significant intersection between EBNA2-dependent DEGs and autoimmune-associated SNPs. We also performed EBNA2 ChIP-seq, which was also significantly intersected with EBNA2-dependant DEGs and autoimmune-SNPs. We also found allele-dependent binding of eight transcription ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated cancers have traditionally been thought to harbor the viral genomes as nuclear plasmids in all or nearly all of a patients tumor cells as determined by in situ hybridization (ISH). We discovered EBV in 4 out of 7 standard multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines. In these positive cell lines, EBV was found in only a subpopulation of cells. For example, in MM.1S (a MM cell line) less than 1% of the cells harbored viral DNA as determined by limiting dilution PCR. These rare infected cells carried approximately 20 EBV copies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the presence of multiple copies of the EBV genome in rare cells. Immunofluorescence similarly detected the presence of viral genomes expressing EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) - 1 and 2 in rare cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR confirmed EBNA1 and EBNA2 viral RNA expression. The cells that harbor virus are phenotypically distinct CD19+CD138− B cells. The phenotype overlaps with that identified as a MM ...
Five peptides corresponding to amino acid sequences predicted from the BamHI K fragment of the EBV genome have been synthesized (Table 1). The antisera raised against peptide no. 107, a copolymer of...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthetic peptides deduced from the amino acid sequence of Epstein‐Barr virus nuclear antigen 6 (EBNA 6). T2 - Antigenic properties, production of monoreactive reagents, and analysis of antibody responses in man. AU - Falk, K.. AU - Linde, A.. AU - Johnson, D.. AU - Lennette, E.. AU - Ernberg, I.. AU - Lundkvist, A.. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - Studies on the antibody responses to various Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV) antigens have been instrumental in the understanding of the seroepidemiology and diagnosis of this viral infection and the subsequent carrier state. While antibodies to the viral capsid antigen (VCA), early antigen (EA), and nuclear antigens 1 and 2 (EBNA 1 and 2) have been well characterized, the antibody response to the other nuclear antigens is not well understood. EBNA 6 is expressed by lymphoblasts during acute EBV infection and may be an important antigen for diagnosis and evaluation of the immune response. In order to analyze the antibody response to EBNA ...
pathogen (EBV) latent membrane proteins 2A (LMP2A) is certainly widely portrayed in EBV-infected cells inside the contaminated individual host and EBV-associated malignancies suggesting that LMP2A is essential for EBV latency persistence and EBV-associated tumorigenesis. B lymphocytes contaminated in vitro with EBV become immortalized building lymphoblastoid cell lines DMH-1 (LCLs). This technique constitutes an in vitro model for the contribution of EBV to B lymphoid disease. EBV gene appearance in LCLs is fixed to six nuclear antigens (EBNA1 -2 -3 -3 -3 and -LP) three essential membrane protein (latent membrane proteins 1 DMH-1 [LMP-1] -2 and -2B) two nonpolyadenylated RNAs. ...
An eight year old English boy presented with an abdominal undifferentiated Burkitt-like lymphoma. Lymphoma cells from ascitic fluid were cultured on a human embryo fibroblast feeder layer and, after a short lag period, a cell line (DH-BL) was established which, like the original tumour, was both negative for the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and expressed a monoclonal pattern of surface immunoglobulin (alpha lambda). DH-BL also possessed the Burkitt-related 8:14 chromosome translocation in all metaphases analysed; no other chromosomal abnormalities were present. The cell surface phenotype of the original biopsy cells and the cultured tumour cells in early passage were investigated using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to B lineage-associated antigens. These antibodies had recently been used to characterise African endemic Burkitts lymphoma (BL) biopsy cells and their derived cell lines. The cell surface phenotype of this English EBNA negative Burkitt-like lymphoma biopsy was ...
We have previously proposed (Zhang and Coffino, 2004), and here test, the following simple model: Two elements of the 19S regulatory particle are postulated to function coordinately. The first is a site impelling translocation, the ATPase ring, which binds the substrate and advances it stepwise toward the 20S core particle. The second is a site of constriction within the regulatory particle, possibly the entrance to a translocation channel through the ATPase ring. This postulated constriction impairs transit of a folded domain. The ATPase ring produces energy that performs work on the substrate, some of which is used to unravel the folded domain. The mode of energy transmission may be as simple as a lever arm motion that applies a friction drive to the polypeptide chain (Hinnerwisch et al, 2005). In the normal case, energy supply continuously exceeds need, and the substrate polypeptide continuously advances. If this balance transiently swings in the other direction, with energy need exceeding ...
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome is known to interact with the three-dimensional structure of the human genome in infected cells. However, the exact locations of these interactions and their potential functional consequences remain unclear. Recently, high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) assays in lymphoblastoid cells have become available, enabling us to precisely map the contacts between the EBV episome(s) and the human host genome. Using available Hi-C data at a 10-kb resolution, we have identified 15,000 reproducible contacts between EBV episome(s) and the human genome. These contacts are highly enriched in chromatin regions denoted by typical or super enhancers and active markers, including histone H3K27ac and H3K4me1. Additionally, these contacts are highly enriched at loci bound by host transcription factors that regulate B cell growth (e.g., IKZF1 and RUNX3), factors that enhance cell proliferation (e.g., HDGF), or factors that promote viral replication (e.g., NBS1 ...
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1. GalluzziL. BrennerC. MorselliE. TouatZ. KroemerG. 2008 Viral control of mitochondrial apoptosis. PLoS Pathog 4 e1000018. 2. CuconatiA. WhiteE. 2002 Viral homologs of BCL-2: role of apoptosis in the regulation of virus infection. Genes and Development 16 2465 2478. 3. CuconatiA. DegenhardtK. SundararajanR. AnschelA. WhiteE. 2002 Bak and Bax function to limit adenovirus replication through apoptosis induction. J Virol 76 4547 4558. 4. MarchiniA. TomkinsonB. CohenJI. KieffE. 1991 BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus gene with homology to Bc12, is dispensable for B-lymphocyte transformation and virus replication. J Virol 65 5991 6000. 5. HendersonS. HuenD. RoweM. DawsonC. JohnsonG. 1993 Epstein-Barr virus-coded BHRF1 protein, a viral homologue of Bcl-2, protects human B cells from programmed cell death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90 8479 8483. 6. Thorley-LawsonDA. GrossA. 2004 Persistence of the Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med 350 1328 1337. 7. ...
We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that can...
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The protein encoded by this gene is a uridine kinase. Uridine kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of uridine to uridine monophosphate. This protein has been shown to bind to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3 as well as natural killer lytic-associated molecule. Ubiquitination of this protein is enhanced by the presence of natural killer lytic-associated molecule. In addition, protein levels decrease in the presence of natural killer lytic-associated molecule, suggesting that association with natural killer lytic-associated molecule results in ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of this protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014] ...
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COMMENT To use a sports analogy its now 3:3-the glycine-alanine camp (May et al., 2014; Zhang YJ et al., 2014; Yamakawa M et al., 2014) and the arginine-rich camp (Kwon I et al., 2014; Mizielinska S et al., 2014; Wen X et al., 2014) are tied. I find the .... ...
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the etiological agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with various diseases such as Burkitts lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). In all of these diseases, the expression of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) is common and therefore this viral protein represents a possible therapeutic target. Previous studies have intimated that EBNA-1 auto-inhibits its presentation to the immune system via the expression of a glycine-alanine rich domain that blocks proteasomal degradation. Thus to understand the expression of EBNA-1 and to evaluate the potential of targeting this viral antigen in the context of PTLD, we examined the role of glycine-alanine repeats (GAr) in EBNA-1 protein expression and further investigated the in vivo efficacy of an in-house produced α-EBNA-1 T cell receptor-like monoclonal antibody (α-EBNA-1 TCR-like mAb) using a mouse xenograft model of PTLD. With the aim of ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been causally associated with at least five human malignancies. The exact contributions made by EBV to these cancers remain unknown. We demonstrate that one viral protein found in all EBV-associated malignancies, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), is required for survival of one of these cancers, EBV-positive Burkitts lymphoma. Inhibition of EBNA-1 decreases survival of these tumor cells by inducing apoptosis. Expression of EBNA-1 in uninfected cells also can inhibit apoptosis induced by expression of p53 in the absence of the EBV genome. Our findings demonstrate that EBNA-1 is critical for the continued survival of EBV-associated Burkitts lymphoma, and, by extension, for the other B cell tumors with which EBV is associated. Efficient inhibitors of EBNA-1s functions would likely prove useful in the therapy of EBV-associated malignancies.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy, which commonly occurs in Southern China, Taiwan, North Africa and Southeast Asia. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. The p53 tumour suppressor protein is rarely mutated in NPC suggesting that the inactivation of p53 pathway in NPC could be due to the presence of EBV proteins. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of EBV proteins namely LMP1 and LMP2A on the expression levels of p53 protein. In this work we found that LMP1, but not LMP2A, decreased p53 protein levels. Overexpression of LMP1 resulted in increased ubiquitination of p53 suggesting that the decreased p53 protein levels by LMP1 was due to increased degradation of the protein. The reduction of p53 protein levels was independent of the PI3K-Akt pathway. LMP1, but not LMP2A, reduced p53 protein levels through the increase in the polyubiquitination of p53 protein and was independent of the PI3K-Akt pathway.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpes virus that widely infects human populations predominantly at an early age but remains mostly asymptomatic. EBV has been linked to a wide spectrum of human malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other hematologic cancers, like Hodgkins lymphoma, Burkitts lymphoma (BL), B-cell immunoblastic lymphoma in HIV patients, and posttransplant-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. EBV has the unique ability to establish life-long latent infection in primary human B lymphocytes. During latent infection, EBV expresses a small subset of genes, including 6 nuclear antigens (EBNA-1, -2, -3A, -3B, -3C, and -LP), 3 latent membrane proteins (LMP-1, -2A, and -2B), 2 small noncoding RNAs (EBER-1 and 2). On the basis of these latent gene expression, three different latency patterns associated with the types of cancers are recognized ...
Description of the Results/Findings of the Project: This project led directly to the writing of the manuscript Mechanisms and timing of the activation of the EBI2 gene by Epstein-Barr Virus which is slated for submission to Journal of Virology before the end of 2014. Our work with EBV also lead to an invitation to author a book chapter, Epstein-Barr Virus in the upcoming scholarly book Viral Arthritis. The drafts for this book chapter are due by Nov 30th, 2014. The funding from the MEG also allowed for the publication of three other journal articles with student co- authors. These works were finishing up our previous work on IRF5 in lupus, and a review article dealing with how pathogens, such as Epstein-Barr virus, contribute to the spreading of immunity and autoimmune disease. We had several unexpected findings during this project. We found that EBI2 expression is transient after infection with EBV, and that long-term infected cells actually express this gene at very low levels. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus EBER1 in EBV-infected cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. AU - Stowe, Raymond P.. AU - Cubbage, Michael L.. AU - Sams, Clarence F.. AU - Pierson, Duane L.. AU - Barrett, Alan D.T.. PY - 1998/11/1. Y1 - 1998/11/1. N2 - A rapid and highly sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay was developed to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in peripheral blood. Multiple fluorescein-labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes were designed to hybridize to the EBER1 transcript, which is highly expressed in latently infected cells. After a rapid (30 min) hybridization, the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. EBER1 was detected in several positive control cell lines that have variable numbers of EBV genome copies. No EBER1 was detected in two known EBV-negative cell lines. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence and quantity of EBER1 transcripts in each cell line. This method was used ...
Epstein-Barr virus protein and DNA. Molecular model of the DNA-binding domain of a viral protein (pink-blue) bound to a lytic gene promoter element (viral strand of DNA, left). The viral protein is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transcription factor ZEBRA (Zta, Z, EB1), also known as BZLF1 trans-activator protein. EBV is a herpesvirus (it is also called human herpesvirus 4 or HHV-4). It is the cause of glandular fever (also called infectious mononucleosis). The DNA strand is viral DNA that forms during the lytic phase of the virus life cycle, where the viral DNA exists within the host cell separately from the host cells DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). - Stock Image C015/4303
How is Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1 abbreviated? EBVS1 stands for Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1. EBVS1 is defined as Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1 rarely.
In raising murine hybridoma antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced membrane antigens (MA), we found one antibody that blocked the release of infectious EBV from cultured P3HR-1 cells. This monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognized a 200 kD, phosphonoacetic acid-sensitive (late) MA, and did not directly neutralize virus without complement. When this mAb was added to 33 degrees C-cultured, spontaneously EBV-producing P3HR-1 cells, the intracellular expression of viral capsid antigen and infectious virus was not inhibited, but the appearance of infectious virus in the culture medium was significantly reduced. The duration of this suppression was dependent upon the concentration of the mAb, an effect being observed to a 1:4 X 10(5) titer of the ascites mAb preparation. A more acute effect of suppression of EBV release was observed in a second model of 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate and n-butyrate induction of EBV in 37 degrees C-cultured P3HR-1 cells. Again, intracellular infectious ...
The various antigen complexes of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are broadly classified as the viral capsid antigen (VCA), diffuse early antigen (EA-D), restricted early antigen (EA-R), membrane antigen (MA) and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA). The different EBV-related diseases may be differentiated according to the reactivity of these different classes of antibodies towards the various classes of antigen complexes. However, with the recent development of molecular biology, it is now known that the individual polypeptides of the different EBV antigen complexes can be used as serological markers for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Among the useful serological markers which have been used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of NPC are the gp125 from the VCA complex (IgA), pp58 from the EA-D complex (IgG), ribonucleotide reductase (IgG and IgA), DNase (IgA) and thymidine kinase (IgA) from the EA-R complex, gp 250/200 from the MA complex (IgA) and ...
The demand of monospecific high affinity binding reagents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, has been steadily increasing over the last years. Enhanced throughput of antibody generation has been addressed by optimizing in vitro selection using phage display which moved the major bottleneck to the production and purification of recombinant antibodies in an end-user friendly format. Single chain (sc)Fv antibody fragments require additional tags for detection and are not as suitable as immunoglobulins (Ig)G in many immunoassays. In contrast, the bivalent scFv-Fc antibody format shares many properties with IgG and has a very high application compatibility. In this study transient expression of scFv-Fc antibodies in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells was optimized. Production levels of 10-20 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody were achieved in adherent HEK293T cells. Employment of HEK293-6E suspension cells expressing a truncated variant of the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 in combination with
The family of repeats (FR) is a major upstream enhancer of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent C promoter (Cp) that controls transcription of six different latent nuclear proteins following interaction with the EBV nuclear protein EBNA1. Here, it was shown that Cp could also be activated by octamer-binding factor (Oct) proteins. Physical binding to the FR by the cellular transcription factors Oct-1 and Oct-2 was demonstrated by using an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. Furthermore, Oct-1 in combination with co-regulator Bob.1, or Oct-2 alone, could drive transcription of a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter linked to the FR in both B cells and epithelial cells. Cp controlled by the FR was also activated by binding of Oct-2 to the FR. This may have direct implications for B cell-specific regulation of Cp.
Mouse anti Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antibody, clone 0231 recognizes the viral capsid antigen of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), also know
Definition of Epstein-Barr virus - a herpesvirus causing glandular fever and associated with certain cancers, for example Burkitts lymphoma.
The virus is spread by intimate oral contact among adolescents, but how preadolescents acquire the virus is not known. During the incubation period of approximately 6 weeks, viral replication first occurs in the oropharynx followed by viremia as early as 2 weeks before onset of illness. The acute illness is marked by high viral loads in both the oral cavity and blood accompanied by the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies against EBV viral capsid antigen and an extraordinary expansion of CD8+ T lymphocytes directed against EBV-infected B cells. ,diet plan,healthy eating,healthy food,pregnancy tips,glucose tolerance test,diabetes test. During convalescence, CD8+ T cells return to normal levels and antibodies develop against EBV nuclear antigen-1. A typical clinical picture in an adolescent or young adult with a positive heterophile test is usually sufficient to make the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis, but heterophile antibodies are not specific and do not develop in some patients ...
Epstein Barr - MedHelps Epstein Barr Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Epstein Barr. Find Epstein Barr information, treatments for Epstein Barr and Epstein Barr symptoms.
The initiation of cell-mediated immunity to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been analyzed with cells from EBV-seronegative blood donors in culture. The addition of dendritic cells (DCs) is essential to prime naive T cells that recognize EBV-latent antigens in enzyme-linked immunospot assays for interferon γ secretion and eradicate transformed B cells in regression assays. In contrast, DCs are not required to control the outgrowth of EBV-transformed B lymphocytes from seropositive donors. Enriched CD4+ and CD8 + T cells mediate regression of EBV-transformed cells in seronegative and seropositive donors, but the kinetics of T-dependent regression occurs with much greater speed with seropositives. EBV infection of DCs cannot be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for mRNA for the EBNA1 U and K exons. Instead, DCs capture B cell debris and generate T cells specific for EBV latency antigens. We suggest that the cross-presentation of EBV-latent antigens from
The CD8+ T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is well characterized. Much less is known about the evolution of the CD4+ T cell response. Here we show that EBV stimulates a primary burst of effector CD4+ T cells and this is followed by a period of down-regulation. A small population of EBV-specific effector CD4+ T cells survives during the lifelong persistent phase of infection. The EBV-specific effector CD4+ T cells accumulate within a CD27+ CD28+ differentiation compartment during primary infection and remain enriched within this compartment throughout the persistent phase of infection. Analysis of CD4+ T cell responses to individual epitopes from EBV latent and lytic cycle proteins confirms the observation that the majority of the effector cells express both CD27 and CD28, although CD4+ T cells specific for lytic cycle antigens have a greater tendency to express CD45RA than those specific for the latent antigens. In clear contrast, effector CD4+ T cells specific for cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Introns from the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BART RNAs produce up to 20 micro RNAs (miRNAs) but the spliced exons of the BART RNAs have also been investigated as possible mRNAs, with the potential to express the RPMS1 and A73 proteins. Recombinant RPMS1 and A73 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to make new monoclonal antibodies that reacted specifically with artificially expressed RPMS1 and A73. These antibodies did not detect endogenous expression of A73 and RPMS1 proteins in a panel of EBV-infected cell lines representing the different known types of EBV infection. BART RNA could not be detected on Northern blots of cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNA from the C666.1 NPC cell line and BART RNA was found to be mainly in the nucleus of C666.1 cells, arguing against an mRNA role for BART RNAs. In contrast, some early lytic cycle EBV mRNAs were found to be expressed in C666.1 cells. Artificially expressed A73 protein was known to be able to bind to the cellular RACK1 protein and has now also been
No Significant Association of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Invasive Breast Carcinoma: We studied 48 cases of invasive breast carcinoma for evidence of Epst
This topic contains 47 study abstracts on Epstein-Barr Virus Infections indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Curcumin, Licorice, and Turmeric
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In this study we analyzed the effect of CD40 stimulation on the activity and nuclear appearance of Rel/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) factors in primary murine B lymphocytes. We show that triggering of CD40 signaling pathway(s) by CD40 ligands expressed on L cells led to strong activation of an NF-kappaB-controlled beta-globin reporter gene in primary B lymphocytes from transgenic mice. Analyses of nuclear translocation of individual members of Rel proteins after CD40 induction of primary B cells showed a strong and long-lasting accumulation of RelB and, less pronounced, of c-Rel. LPS stimulation did not give rise to a persistent nuclear accumulation of RelB and c-Rel, whereas nuclear c-Rel, but not RelB, accumulated after B cell receptor stimulation. CD40 induced not only nuclear translocation but also de novo synthesis of RelB RNA and protein. S107 plasmacytoma cells, which express CD40 but are defective for the nuclear appearance of p50/p65-NF-kappaB, do not express RelB after CD40 stimulation. In
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The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-known example of a human virus which interacts most intimately with the immune system. EBV is a polyclonal B lymphocyte activator, can immortalize B cells and,...
People react differently when they are diagnosed with a disease of chronic Epstein-Barr virus. Some depressed people, while others remain positive and hopeful. In fact, some people find that EBV disease using grow emotionally, making them stronger and more tolerant, more understanding.. Here are some methods that can help you better cope with the disease of chronic Epstein-Barr virus.. First, it is important that the expression of emotions. Be honest and admit your health, instead of pretending not to exist. People who communicate their feelings tend to need less treatment, and offers fewer symptoms and keep more independence and physical performance.. The next thing to do is to control. And more people to actively manage chronic Epstein-Barr virus themselves, the better they do. Set goals, such as what you eat, and how they stay fit, and how it will be easier to manage your stress, what supplements to take and what is much better than the passive acceptance of what the treatment is given for ...
EBV infection is primarily controlled by a delicate balance of B and T cells. Outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells is a direct consequence of inadequate EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, hence the higher incidence of EBV-associated malignancy in immunocompromised hosts (12). While no vaccine is currently available for the disease, adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T lymphocytes that recognize EBV antigens have emerged as a promising therapeutic option. These ex vivo-manufactured donor T cells and patient-derived EBV-specific T cells have eradicated disease in patients with refractory EBV+ polymorphic and monomorphic PTLD (13-15). Thus, the role of T cells in controlling EBV in immunocompetent hosts and in eradicating EBV in immunocompromised hosts following ex vivo antigen-specific priming is clear and encourages the development and design of EBV vaccines. The quest for an EBV-directed vaccine has proven quite challenging, in large part because of the lack of preclinical models for vaccine ...
New research investigating possible interactions between Epstein-Barr virus and neurological diseases has successfully infected neuronal-like cells in vitro.
BioAssay record AID 288762 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of TPA-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assessed as EBV-EA induction in Raji cells at 3.2 nM after 48 hrs relative to TPA.
BURKITT-LYMPHOM (PATHOLOGIE); ZELLLINIEN + ZELLLINIENISOLIERUNG (CYTOLOGISCHE METHODEN); EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS (VIROLOGIE); TRANSKRIPTION (MOLEKULARE GENETIK); DNA-MIKROARRAY TECHNOLOGIE; BURKITT LYMPHOMA (PATHOLOGY); CELL LINES + CELL LINE ISOLATION (CYTOLOGICAL METHODS); EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS (VIROLOGY); TRANSCRIPTION (MOLECULAR GENETICS); DNA ...
Which method should be used?Some investigators found EIA to be more sensitive than IFA, particularly the anticomplement immunofluorescence technique (22); others found the EIA technology to be as sensitive as IFA or even more sensitive than EIA (23, 27). Already in the mid-1980s the results of assays performed with the first generations of EIAs correlated nicely with those of IFA with purified VCA and EBNA proteins as antigens (9). EIA performance characteristics strongly depend on the nature of the antigens and the preparation and the selection of antigens used (14). As a consequence, the differences in performance characteristics observed between IFA and EIA (i.e., relative sensitivity, relative specificity, and predictive values) are due to the use of various different forms and different selections of antigens with the EIA and to the different IFA substrates used (i.e., different prototype-derived EBV-transformed cell lines [e.g., Raji cells instead of P3HR-1 cells] for detection of ...
The Epstein-Barr Virus (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1979) / Editor: M.A. Epstein / Editor: B. G. Achong ; 9783642672385 ; General issues, Medicine, Books
Epstein-Barr virus early antigen: synthesized before or in the absence of viral-progeny DNA replication & present only in infected cells
The ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human tumors, which include lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. It is known that EBV persistently infects the memory B cell pool of healthy individuals by activating growth and surv
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Did you know, you probably have virus lurking in the shadows? Its called the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and an estimated 90 percent of us have it. Fortunately, for most of us it lies dormant, like a sleeping giant. Only when something triggers a reactivation of EBV does this virus rear its ugly head.
EBV or Epstein-Barr virus is an extremely common virus that 95% of adults have without knowing it. Once you have EBV, it results in a lifelong infection that has little to no symptoms.
Studies involving miRNAs have opened discussions about their broad participation in viral infections. Regarding the Human gammaherpesvirus 4or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), miRNAs are important...
Initial results from clinical trials show new drug therapies are effective against lymphomas and other cancers connected to the Epstein-Barr virus.
Creative Peptides offers CEF17, Epstein-Barr Virus latent NA-3A (158-166) for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
For nearly two decades now, various studies have reported detecting the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast cancer (BC) cases. Yet the results are unconvincing, and their interpretation has remained a matter of debate. We have now presented prospective data on the effect of EBV infection combined with survival in patients enrolled in a prospective study. We assessed 85 BC patients over an 87-month follow-up period to determine whether EBV infection, evaluated by qPCR in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumor biopsies, interacted with host cell components that modulate the evolution parameters of BC. We also examined the EBV replicating form by the titration of serum anti-ZEBRA antibodies. Immunological studies were performed on a series of 35 patients randomly selected from the second half of the survey, involving IFN-γ and TNF-α intracellular immunostaining tests performed via flow cytometry analysis in peripheral NK and T cells, in parallel with EBV signature. The effect of the EBV
Accessory files for RNA-seq based EBV transcriptome analysis:. OGrady, T, Wang, X, Honer Zu Bentrup, K, Baddoo, M, Concha, M, Flemington, EK. Global transcript structure resolution of high gene density genomes through multi-platform data integration. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Jul 12. Pii:gkw629. PMCID:. OGrady, T, Cao, S, Strong, MJ, Concha, M, Wang, X, Splinter BonDurant, S, Adams, M, Baddoo, M, Srivastav, SK, Lin, Z, Fewell, C, Yin, Q, and Flemington, EK. Global bidirectional transcription of the Epstein-Barr virus genome during reactivation. J Virol. 2014 88: 1604-1616. PMCID: PMC3911580. Lin, Z, Wang, X, Strong, MJ, Concha, M, Baddoo, M, Xu, G, Baribault, C, Fewell, C, Hulme, W, Hedges, D, Taylor, CM, Flemington, EK. Whole genome sequencing of the Akata and Mutu Epstein-Barr virus strains. J Virol. 2012: 87:1172-82. (PMID: 23152513).. Concha, M, Wang, X, Cao, S, Baddoo, M, Fewell, C, Lin, Z, Hulme, W, Hedges, D, McBride, J, Flemington, EK. Identification of new viral genes and transcript ...
Van Besien K, Bachier-Rodriguez L, Satlin M, Brown MA, Gergis U, Guarneri D, Hsu J, Phillips AA, Mayer SA, Singh AD, Soave R, Rossi A, Small CB, Walsh TJ, Rennert H, Shore TB. Prophylactic rituximab prevents EBV PTLD in haplo-cord transplant recipients at high risk. Leuk Lymphoma. 2019 07; 60(7):1693-1696 ...
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Principal Investigator:FUJIWARA Shigeyoshi, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Virology
Hello I repost my question because my previous one was trucated. My blood lab tests results were: EBM - IGM : positive, EBV EBNA (IGG) 98.20 U/ML : Positive. CMV were both negative. What looks stara...
Henning D, Valdez BC (2001). "Expression of p40/Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 binding protein 2". Biochem. Biophys. Res ... a human protein that interacts with sequences of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 important for plasmid maintenance". J ... Kapoor P, Lavoie BD, Frappier L (2005). "EBP2 plays a key role in Epstein-Barr virus mitotic segregation and is regulated by ... Kapoor P, Frappier L (2003). "EBNA1 partitions Epstein-Barr virus plasmids in yeast cells by attaching to human EBNA1-binding ...
2006). "Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 induces FcRH5 expression through CBF1". Blood. 107 (11): 4433-9. doi:10.1182/blood ...
"Expression of the chemokine receptor BLR2/EBI1 is specifically transactivated by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2". ... This receptor was identified as a gene induced by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and is thought to be a mediator of EBV effects ... Nakayama T, Fujisawa R, Izawa D, Hieshima K, Takada K, Yoshie O (Mar 2002). "Human B cells immortalized with Epstein-Barr virus ... Birkenbach M, Josefsen K, Yalamanchili R, Lenoir G, Kieff E (Apr 1993). "Epstein-Barr virus-induced genes: first lymphocyte- ...
Lin J, Johannsen E, Robertson E, Kieff E (January 2002). "Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C putative repression domain ... such as nuclear transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, and protein stability (Su and Li, 2002).[supplied by OMIM] ...
Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... Cvek B, Dvorak Z (2007). "Targeting of nuclear factor-kappaB and proteasome by dithiocarbamate complexes with metals". Current ...
... and crystallization of the DNA binding and dimerization domains of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1". The Journal of ... "Crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of the Epstein-Barr virus origin-binding protein EBNA 1". Cell. 83 (1): 39-46. doi: ... "Crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of the Epstein-Barr virus origin-binding protein, EBNA1, bound to DNA". Cell. 84 (5 ... "The Drosophila nuclear receptor e75 contains heme and is gas responsive". Cell. 122 (2): 195-207. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.07. ...
I. Immunoglobulin M autoantibodies to proteins mimicking and not mimicking Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1". J. Clin. ... gene encodes an autoantigen that cross-reacts with EBNA-1 of the Epstein Barr virus and which may be a heterogeneous nuclear ... One such antigen is RALY which is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene family. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... 1995). "Epstein-Barr virus-induced autoimmune responses. ...
Zhao B, Marshall DR, Sample CE (Jul 1996). "A conserved domain of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens 3A and 3C binds to a ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Yalamanchili R, Mosialos G, Kieff E (Sep 1995). "The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 acidic domain ... Hsieh JJ, Nofziger DE, Weinmaster G, Hayward SD (Mar 1997). "Epstein-Barr virus immortalization: Notch2 interacts with CBF1 and ... family RNAs of Epstein-Barr virus". Journal of Virology. 74 (7): 3082-92. doi:10.1128/JVI.74.7.3082-3092.2000. PMC 111807. PMID ...
Pratesi F, Tommasi C, Anzilotti C, Chimenti D, Migliorini P (March 2006). "Deiminated Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 is a ... deiminated Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 and vimentin, which is a member of the intermediate filament family of proteins ... Unfortunately, these artificial antigens are not expressed in the affected tissue, and therefore are probably not directly ... If their shapes are significantly altered, the proteins may be seen as antigens by the immune system, thereby generating an ...
September 1999). "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA)-4 mutation in EBV-associated malignancies in three different ... "Recognition of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigens EBNA-4 and EBNA-6 by HLA-A11-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes ... April 1994). "T cell responses and virus evolution: loss of HLA A11-restricted CTL epitopes in Epstein-Barr virus isolates from ... "Down-regulation of class I HLA antigens and of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein in Burkitt lymphoma lines ...
Zhang M, Coffino P (March 2004). "Repeat sequence of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 protein interrupts proteasome ... certain Epstein-Barr virus gene products bearing this sequence can stall the proteasome, helping the virus propagate by ... Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... the 11S may play a role in degradation of foreign peptides such as those produced after infection by a virus.[16] ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) (a protein which stimulates infected cells to make >300 gene products some of ... Farrell PJ (2019). "Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer". Annual Review of Pathology. 14: 29-53. doi:10.1146/annurev-pathmechdis- ... Draborg A, Izarzugaza JM, Houen G (July 2016). "How compelling are the data for Epstein-Barr virus being a trigger for systemic ... Li ZX, Zeng S, Wu HX, Zhou Y (February 2019). "The risk of systemic lupus erythematosus associated with Epstein-Barr virus ...
Subramanian C, Hasan S, Rowe M, Hottiger M, Orre R, Robertson ES (May 2002). "Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and ... Ban N, Yamada Y, Someya Y, Miyawaki K, Ihara Y, Hosokawa M, Toyokuni S, Tsuda K, Seino Y (May 2002). "Hepatocyte nuclear factor ... Dowell P, Ishmael JE, Avram D, Peterson VJ, Nevrivy DJ, Leid M (May 1999). "Identification of nuclear receptor corepressor as a ... The p300 interaction with transcription factors is managed by one or more of p300 domains: the nuclear receptor interaction ...
Genome-wide analysis of host-chromosome binding sites for Epstein-Barr virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)., Virology J. 2010 Oct 7 ... Editing of Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded BART6 microRNAs controls their dicer targeting and consequently affects viral latency., ...
... a nuclear antigen of the virus). This Epstein-Barr virus antigen is associated with autoimmune systemic connective tissue ... "Elevated immunoglobulin G antibodies to the proline-rich amino-terminal region of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-2 in sera ... QSER1 does not contain the AT binding regions or Epstein-Barr virus antigen that is found in PRR12. The most distant relative ... One study on the Epstein-Barr virus found close homology between a proline rich region in PRR12 and a 65 amino acid long region ...
Cell lines expressing the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) or the SV40 large-T antigen, allow episomal ... Viruses used to date include retrovirus, lentivirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, and herpes simplex virus. However, ... Virus mediated gene delivery utilizes the ability of a virus to inject its DNA inside a host cell. A gene that is intended for ... there are drawbacks to using viruses to deliver genes into cells. Viruses can only deliver very small pieces of DNA into the ...
... htlv-i antigens MeSH D23.050.327.150.510 - htlv-ii antigens MeSH D23.050.327.300 - epstein-barr virus nuclear antigens MeSH ... tissue polypeptide antigen MeSH D23.050.290.249 - epstein-barr virus nuclear antigens MeSH D23.050.290.500 - ki-67 antigen MeSH ... antigens, cd15 MeSH D23.101.100.900.131 - antigens, cd31 MeSH D23.101.100.920 - antigens, ly MeSH D23.101.100.930 - antigens, ... forssman antigen MeSH D23.050.285.018 - antigens, cd24 MeSH D23.050.285.025 - antigens, cd30 MeSH D23.050.285.040 - antigens, ...
The detection of nuclear antigen associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBNA) and viral DNA in NPC type 2 and 3, has revealed that ... The viral influence is associated with infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The Epstein-Barr virus is one of the most ... Barr virus (EBV), unknown factors that result in rare familial clusters, and heavy alcohol consumption. Epstein- Barr virus ... Very rarely does Epstein-Barr virus lead to cancer, which suggests a variety of influencing factors. Other likely causes ...
The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA-3) is a family of viral proteins associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. A ... Knight JS, Sharma N, Robertson ES (2005). "SCFSkp2 complex targeted by Epstein-Barr virus essential nuclear antigen". Mol. Cell ... and genetic comparisons of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A, 3B, and 3C homologues encoded by the rhesus lymphocryptovirus ... Knight JS, Sharma N, Robertson ES (2005). "Epstein-Barr virus latent antigen 3C can mediate the degradation of the ...
The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) is one of the six EBV viral nuclear proteins expressed in latently infected B ... Zimber-Strobl U, Kremmer E, Grässer F, Marschall G, Laux G, Bornkamm GW (January 1993). "The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen ... Palermo RD, Webb HM, Gunnell A, West MJ (August 2008). "Regulation of transcription by the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen ... December 1997). "Both Epstein-Barr viral nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) and activated Notch1 transactivate genes by interacting with ...
Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a multifunctional, dimeric viral protein associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It ... 1995). "Inhibition of antigen processing by the internal repeat region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1". Nature. ... Wilson, J.B.; J.L. Bell; A.J. Levine (1996). "Expression of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 induces B cell neoplasia in ... "Adoptive transfer of epstein-barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1-specific t cells as treatment for EBV reactivation and ...
Epstein-Barr virus stable intronic-sequence RNAs Isaksson A, Berggren M, Ricksten A (January 2003). "Epstein-Barr virus U ... The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear-antigen internal ribosome entry site (EBNA IRES) is an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that ... untranslated region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene. The EBNA IRES allows EBNA1 translation to occur ... The EBNA IRES is located in the U leader exon, which is a portion of the mRNA of the Epstein-Barr virus common to all four ...
Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-2 responsiveness, and the ability to make LMP2B transcripts are conserved. This implies that an ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) are two viral proteins of the Epstein-Barr virus. LMP2A/LMP2B are ... Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) establishes a lifelong latent infection in B lymphocytes. Viral LMP2A mRNA is frequently detected in ... Lynch, D.T.; Zimmerman, J.S.; Rowe, D.T. (2002). "Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2B (LMP2B) co-localizes with LMP2A ...
Latent antigens[edit]. All EBV nuclear proteins are produced by alternative splicing of a transcript starting at either the Cp ... The Epstein-Barr virus was named after Michael Anthony Epstein and Yvonne Barr, who discovered the virus together with Bert ... Epstein-Barr virus snoRNA1 is a box CD-snoRNA generated by the virus during latency. V-snoRNA1 may act as a miRNA-like ... Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. *James Corson Niederman, the physician who proved how the Epstein- ...
Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis Autoimmune diseases: Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid ... Staining with latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1), a marker for HHV-8 infection, is positive only in HHV-8-associated ... common than unicentric Castleman disease and diagnosed most frequently in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus ( ...
DNA replication origin which in combination with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA-1 protein binding site as nuclear retention ... QMCF cell lines express Large-T antigen and EBNA-1 proteins which bind the viral sequences on the QMCF plasmid and hence ... QMCF Technology can be used for: production of proteins, antibodies and virus-like particles for basic research and ...
June 1998). "Restricted expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded, growth transformation-associated antigens in an EBV- ... The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) or latent nuclear antigen (LNA, LNA-1), is a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated ... "Human herpesvirus 8 LANA interacts with proteins of the mSin3 corepressor complex and negatively regulates Epstein-Barr virus ... Kellam P, Boshoff C, Whitby D, Matthews S, Weiss RA, Talbot SJ (1997). "Identification of a major latent nuclear antigen, LNA-1 ...
... or by viruses (such as hepatitis A, Epstein-Barr virus, or measles). Autoimmune hepatitis can present anywhere within the ... In the case of hepatitis B, blood tests exist for multiple virus antigens (which are different components of the virion ... Auto-antibodies found in patients with autoimmune hepatitis include the sensitive but less specific anti-nuclear antibody (ANA ... The hepatitis D virus causes chronic and fulminant hepatitis in the context of co-infection with the hepatitis B virus. It is ...
... that anti-Sm antibodies may be induced by molecular mimicry because the protein shows some similarity to Epstein-Barr virus ... gp210 is a 200kDa protein involved in anchoring components of the nuclear pore to the nuclear membrane. The p62 antigen is a ... known as extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs). This led to the characterisation of ENA antigens and their respective antibodies ... The antigens of the anti-Sm antibodies are the core units of the small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), termed A to G, and ...
Epstein-Barr virusEdit. In humans with history of acute infectious mononucleosis (the syndrome associated with primary Epstein- ... nuclear speck. Biological process. • negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation. • cell maturation. • extrathymic ... Survival signals that maintain memory T cells in the absence of antigen are provided by IL-15. This cytokine is also implicated ... Barr virus infection), IL-15R expressing lymphocytes are not detected even 14 years after infection.[23] ...
... a titer of antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus or Lyme disease is estimated from the blood. If those antibodies are ... Antibody-antigen interactions[edit]. The antibody's paratope interacts with the antigen's epitope. An antigen usually contains ... Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen (an example is a virus ... Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells that have not been exposed to antigens.[16] It has been shown to activate ...
Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links. *Pages containing links to ... Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) form the mainstay of serologic testing for ... Necrotic cells release nuclear fragments as potential autoantigens, as well as internal danger signals, inducing maturation of ... In the case of clearance deficiency, apoptotic nuclear debris accumulates in the light zone of GC and gets attached to FDC. ...
The virus-positive cases are classified as a form of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases.[10] ... each with an eosinophilic nucleolus and a thick nuclear membrane (chromatin is distributed close to the nuclear membrane). ... is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab in ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018). "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human ...
This is often the case with herpes viruses.[125][126] Some viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, can cause cells to proliferate ... These persistent viruses evade immune control by sequestration, blockade of antigen presentation, cytokine resistance, evasion ... In eukaryotes the viral genome must cross the cell's nuclear membrane to access this machinery, while in bacteria it need only ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ...
Hal ini karena infeksi oleh virus DNA penyebab mutasi genetik; yaitu terutama virus Epstein-Barr (EBV), virus herpes Sarkoma ... Terdapat pula tes-tes komersial untuk mendeteksi antigen HIV lainnya, HIV-RNA, dan HIV-DNA, yang dapat digunakan untuk ... evidence of macaque nuclear sequences confirms substrate identity". Vaccine. 23: 1639-1648. PubMed.. Pemeliharaan CS1: Banyak ... Limfoma ini sebagian besar disebabkan oleh virus Epstein-Barr atau virus herpes Sarkoma Kaposi. ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is another potential trigger.[16] Mechanism[edit]. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins recognize and ... Human leukocyte antigen DR (especially DR3) appears to play a role.[10] To date, no clear genetic defect has been found to ... Saha GB (2009). Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy (5 ed.). Springer-Verlag New York, LLC. p. 342. ISBN 978-0387403601. .. ... and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, among others.[11] ...
... and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) from Epstein-Barr virus, the large T antigen of Polyomavirus, the E7 protein of Human ... Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2) and viruses of the ... Virus resistance to interferonsEdit. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to resist interferon activity.[21] They circumvent ... such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release ...
... hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic ... These persistent viruses evade immune control by sequestration, blockade of antigen presentation, cytokine resistance, evasion ... In eukaryotes the viral genome must cross the cell's nuclear membrane to access this machinery, while in bacteria it need only ... Some viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus, can cause cells to proliferate without causing malignancy,[124] while others, such as ...
Epstein-Barr virus[edit]. Rarely, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple myeloma, particularly in individuals who ... However, this antigen disappears rapidly ex vivo. Recently, however, the surface antigen CD319 (SLAMF7) was discovered to be ... Myeloma bone disease is due to the overexpression of receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B ligand (RANKL) by bone marrow ... as one form of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases and termed Epstein-Barr virus-associated plasma ...
Sawada A, Inoue M, Kawa K (April 2017). "How we treat chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection". International Journal of ... Visible, irritating bites are due to an immune response from the binding of IgG and IgE antibodies to antigens in the ... "Phylogenetic analysis and temporal diversification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on nuclear genes and morphology" ... Asada H (March 2007). "Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites: a unique pathogenic mechanism linking Epstein-Barr virus infection, ...
Voekerodt, M. (2014 Dec). "Epstein-Barr virus and the origin of Hodgkin lymphoma". Chin J Ca. 33 (12): 591-7. doi:10.5732/cjc. ... each with an eosinophilic nucleolus and a thick nuclear membrane (chromatin is distributed close to the nuclear membrane). ... is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab ... About half of cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma are due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).[3] Other risk factors include a family history ...
"Evidence of human papilloma virus infection but lack of Epstein-Barr virus in lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of uterine ... Overall, these DNA-based studies, combined with measurements of type-specific antibodies against HPV capsid antigens, have ... A 2010 study has found that E6 and E7 are involved in beta-catenin nuclear accumulation and activation of Wnt signaling in HPV- ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been heavily affected by the virus. The spread of the virus has raised ... Epstein, Reid J. (7 April 2020). "Why Wisconsin Republicans Insisted on an Election in a Pandemic". The New York Times. ... The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's general secretary Kate Hudson criticised the exercise, saying "it jeopardises the lives ... "Australian politician who met Ivanka Trump, Attorney General William Barr infected with coronavirus". USA Today. 13 March 2020 ...
The plasmacytoid cells in PEL are also commonly infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (i.e. EBV). EBV is a known cause of ... are also infected with EBV and therefore evidence malignant cells that express products of this virus such as EBER1/2 nuclear ... with PEL that is associated with cirrosis due to hepatitis evidence positive serum tests for the hepatitis virus B antigen ( ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018). "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human ...
Aviel S, Winberg G, Massucci M, Ciechanover A (August 2000). "Degradation of the epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1 ( ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a protein involved in DNA synthesis. Under normal physiological conditions PCNA is ... Ikeda M, Ikeda A, Longnecker R (August 2002). "Lysine-independent ubiquitylation of Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A". Virology. 300 (1 ... Ishikura S, Weissman AM, Bonifacino JS (July 2010). "Serine residues in the cytosolic tail of the T-cell antigen receptor alpha ...
Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis, and reactive lymphadenopathy; autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and ... Staining with latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1), a marker of HHV-8 infection, must be negative to diagnose iMCD. ... While iMCD by definition is not caused by HHV-8, an unknown virus may cause the disease. There have been no reported cases of ... The immune system may produce antibodies that target healthy cells in the body instead of bacteria and viruses. Self-directed ...
... by the Epstein-Barr virus encoded EBNA1 contributes to the growth and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma cells". Blood. 111 (1): 292- ... β-gal activity was also observed in the neural retina, in the inner nuclear layer and in small ganglion cells of the ganglion ... A form of PTPkappa with a point mutation in the fourth fibronectin III repeat was identified to be a melanoma specific antigen ... Downregulation of PTPkappa was found to occur following Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection of Hodgkin's Lymphomas cells. Using ...
A virus that can cause cancer is called an oncovirus. These include human papillomavirus (cervical carcinoma), Epstein-Barr ... cells because these antigens are different from person to person. When non-self antigens are encountered, the immune system ... Low-dose exposures, such as living near a nuclear power plant, are generally believed to have no or very little effect on ... hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most common oncoviruses. In the United States, HPV causes most ...
... by Mycoplasma fermentans induces interaction of its elongation factor with the intracytoplasmic domain of Epstein-Barr virus ... Okano HJ, Park WY, Corradi JP, Darnell RB (1999). "The cytoplasmic Purkinje onconeural antigen cdr2 down-regulates c-Myc ... 2002). "Interaction of a paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration-associated neuronal protein with the nuclear helix-loop-helix ... 1998). "Mouse chromosomal locations of nine genes encoding homologs of human paraneoplastic neurologic disorder antigens". ...
The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA-3) is a family of viral proteins associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. A ... Knight JS, Sharma N, Robertson ES (2005). "SCFSkp2 complex targeted by Epstein-Barr virus essential nuclear antigen". Mol. Cell ... and genetic comparisons of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A, 3B, and 3C homologues encoded by the rhesus lymphocryptovirus ... Knight JS, Sharma N, Robertson ES (2005). "Epstein-Barr virus latent antigen 3C can mediate the degradation of the ...
Epstein-Barr virus stable intronic-sequence RNAs Isaksson A, Berggren M, Ricksten A (January 2003). "Epstein-Barr virus U ... The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear-antigen internal ribosome entry site (EBNA IRES) is an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that ... untranslated region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene. The EBNA IRES allows EBNA1 translation to occur ... The EBNA IRES is located in the U leader exon, which is a portion of the mRNA of the Epstein-Barr virus common to all four ...
Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen. J Dillner, L Sternås, B ... Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen ... Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen ... Antibodies against a synthetic peptide identify the Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen ...
Expression of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 induces B cell neoplasia in transgenic mice.. Wilson JB1, Bell JL, Levine AJ ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) is a pleiotropic protein which has been characterized extensively both ... Antigens, Viral/genetics*. *Burkitt Lymphoma/immunology*. *DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics*. *Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens ...
Browse our Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A products available through Novus Biologicals. ... Home » Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Products. Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Products. ... Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A Antibody (1). Antibodies. Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear An ... Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear ...
Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens*Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens. *Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens ... "Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens [D23.050.290.249]. *Antigens, Viral [D23.050.327]. *Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens [ ... "Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C activates the latent membrane protein 1 promoter in the presence of Epstein-Barr virus ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) repression of CDKN2A p14ARF and p16INK4A is essential for immortal human B- ... 2011) Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C regulated genes in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(1):337-342 ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C binds to BATF/IRF4 or SPI1/IRF4 composite sites and recruits Sin3A to repress CDKN2A. ...
... and apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV-) positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. EBV,sup,+,/sup, NPC cells were ... S. AlQarni, Y. Al-Sheikh, D. Campbell et al., "Lymphomas driven by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) are dependant ... L. Frappier, "Contributions of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to cell immortalization and survival," Viruses, vol. 4, ... and IL6R as direct gene targets of epstein-barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 critical for EBV-infected B-lymphocyte survival ...
sp,P03211,EBNA1_EBVB9 Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 OS=Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) OX=10377 GN=EBNA1 PE=1 SV=1 ... "EBP2, a human protein that interacts with sequences of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 important for plasmid ... "Subnuclear localization and phosphorylation of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection nuclear proteins.". Petti L., Sample C., ... "Structure of the p53 binding domain of HAUSP/USP7 bound to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 implications for EBV-mediated ...
PubMed journal article Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 inhibits AID expression during EBV-driven B-cell growt were found ... ViralCytidine DeaminaseEpstein-Barr Virus InfectionsEpstein-Barr Virus Nuclear AntigensGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ... Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 signaling differentially affects proliferation and survival of Epstein-Barr virus- ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2 Inhibits AID Expression During EBV-driven B-cell Growth. Blood. 2006 Dec 1;108(12):3859-64 ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) plays a crucial role in B cell immortalization by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), most ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 exerts its transactivating function through interaction with recombination signal binding ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens. *Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology*. *Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens. *Immunoglobulin J Recombination Signal Sequence-Binding Protein ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1.. F Wang, S F Tsang, M G Kurilla, J I Cohen, E ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1.. F Wang, S F Tsang, M G Kurilla, J I Cohen, E ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1.. F Wang, S F Tsang, M G Kurilla, J I Cohen, E ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Virus-Cell Interactions. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Interacts with Histone Deacetylase To Repress Transcription. ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Interacts with Histone Deacetylase To Repress Transcription ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Interacts with Histone Deacetylase To Repress Transcription ... Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C Interacts with Histone Deacetylase To Repress Transcription ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1. J Virol. 1990 Jul; 64(7):3407-16. ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1.. *See All Pages ...
Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; HAT, histone acetyltransferase; LCL, lymphoblastoid cell line; LMP, ... Regulation of transcription by the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA 2. Richard D. Palermo, Helen M. Webb, Andrea Gunnell ... Regulation of transcription by the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA 2 ... Regulation of transcription by the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA 2 ...
8564: Epstein-barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (ebna) Antibody (igg) Print View. EBV EBNA Ab (IgG). IA < 18.00 U/mL ...
Fluorescence polarization-based biochemical high throughput confirmation assay to identify inhibitors of the Epstein-Barr virus ... nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1).. ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA 1) plays a key role in the life cycle of the virus and is consistently expressed in ... Tsimbouri, Penelope (2000) Mechanisms of Action of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 as an Oncogene. PhD thesis, University ... Mechanisms of Action of Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 as an Oncogene ... Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus associated with several malignancies including endemic Burkitts lymphoma (eBL ...
Evaluation of the Architect Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM, and EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 IgG ... Evaluation of the Architect Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM, and EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 IgG ... Evaluation of the Architect Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM, and EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 IgG ... Evaluation of the Architect Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM, and EBV Nuclear Antigen 1 IgG ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article STUDY OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS NUCLEAR ANTIGEN (EBNA-1) VARIATIONS: VVAL TYPE PREFERENTIALLY ... STUDY OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS NUCLEAR ANTIGEN (EBNA-1) VARIATIONS: VVAL TYPE PREFERENTIALLY EXISTS IN BIOPSIES OF NASOPHARYNGEAL ... Background: Epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) plays a crucial role in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the most ...
Expression of the anti-apoptotic bfl-1/A1 gene is regulated by the Epstein Barr virus nuclear antigen 2(EBNA2) ... Expression of the anti-apoptotic bfl-1/A1 gene is regulated by the Epstein Barr virus nuclear antigen 2(EBNA2). PhD thesis, ... Epstein-Barr virus; Apoptosis; Oncological virusues. Subjects:. Biological Sciences , Biotechnology. Medical Sciences , Cancer ... The ubiquitous and oncogenic human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a latent infection and promotes the long- ...
Here we have quantified antibody titer to the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (anti-EBNA-1), which reflects history of ... 2005) Association with HLA class I in Epstein-Barr-virus-positive and with HLA class III in Epstein-Barr-virus-negative ... Epstein-Barr virus infection. N Engl J Med 7: 481-492.. 2. BornkammGW (2009) Epstein-Barr virus and its role in the ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belongs to the herpes virus family, which consists of double-stranded DNA viruses, composed of a DNA ...
mRNA translation regulation by the Gly-Ala repeat of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1. ... The glycine-alanine repeat (GAr) sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA-1 prevents presentation of antigenic peptides ...
Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. ... The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in ... Sears J, Ujihara M, Wong S, Ott C, Middeldorp J, Aiyar A: The amino terminus of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 ... Rawlins DR, Milman G, Hayward SD, Hayward GS: Sequence-specific DNA binding of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) ...
Lymphocytes transformed by Epstein-Barr virus. Induction of nuclear antigen reactive with antibody in rheumatoid arthritis. M A ... M A Alspaugh, F C Jensen, H Rabin, E M Tan; Lymphocytes transformed by Epstein-Barr virus. Induction of nuclear antigen ... Evidence is present that the reactive nuclear antigen is associated with Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-transformed lymphocytes. ... T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus transactivators in chronic rheumatoid arthritis. ...
... ... Here we describe a novel property of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) that may underlie the capacity of ... the virus to promote a global remodeling of chromatin architecture and cellular transcription. We found that the expression of ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigens EBNALP (LP) and EBNA2 (E2) are coexpressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes and are ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen leader protein localizes to promoters and enhancers with cell transcription factors and ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen leader protein localizes to promoters and enhancers with cell transcription factors and ...
... sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA-1 prevents presentation of antigenic peptides to major histocompatibility ... mRNA translation regulation by the Gly-Ala repeat of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1. ... The glycine-alanine repeat (GAr) sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA-1 prevents presentation of antigenic peptides ...
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen EBNA-1 is essential for viral genome maintenance in vitro and may be the only EBV ... N2 - The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen EBNA-1 is essential for viral genome maintenance in vitro and may be the only ... AB - The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen EBNA-1 is essential for viral genome maintenance in vitro and may be the only ... abstract = "The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen EBNA-1 is essential for viral genome maintenance in vitro and may be ...
  • The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear-antigen internal ribosome entry site (EBNA IRES) is an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is found in an exon in the 5' untranslated region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EBNA IRES is located in the U leader exon, which is a portion of the mRNA of the Epstein-Barr virus common to all four EBNA1 transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In NPC, EBV infection has type II latency mechanism [ 6 ], which is featured by several noncoding RNAs, latent membrane proteins (LMP1, LMP2A, and LMP2B), and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Background: Epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) plays a crucial role in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), the most common cancer of head and neck cancer in Asian countries with high incidents. (sid.ir)
  • The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we describe a novel property of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) that may underlie the capacity of the virus to promote a global remodeling of chromatin architecture and cellular transcription. (ovid.com)
  • Crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of the Epstein-Barr virus origin binding protein, EBNA1, bound to DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumor cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EBV nuclear antigen 1(EBNA1), a latent viral protein consistently expressed in all infected proliferating cells, is essentially required in trans to maintain EBV episomes in cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) against Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) were assessed using commercially available ELISA. (bmj.com)
  • They gave an EBV-specific, brilliant punctate nuclear ACIF staining similar to that of the rabbit antipeptide antibodies. (pnas.org)
  • Here we use an integrative genomics approach in order to localize genetic factors influencing levels of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG antibodies, as a measure of history of infection with this pathogen, in large Mexican American families. (prolekare.cz)
  • While antibodies to the viral capsid antigen (VCA), early antigen (EA), and nuclear antigens 1 and 2 (EBNA 1 and 2) have been well characterized, the antibody response to the other nuclear antigens is not well understood. (nebraska.edu)
  • In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, IgG- and IgM-antibodies to viral capsid antigen (VCA) and IgG-antibodies to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) can occur simultaneously both in late primary infection and during subclinical viral reactivation in immunocompetent persons, and the differential diagnosis is of importance. (nih.gov)
  • Both IgM and IgG antibodies to the viral capsid antigen (VCA) peak 3 to 4 weeks after primary EBV infection. (rapidtest.com)
  • Objective To determine the prevalence of antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in a large cohort of patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS). (bmj.com)
  • Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 and viral capsid antigen (VCA) antibodies were measured in diluted sera by chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIAs). (bmj.com)
  • Humoral immunity involves antibodies that directly bind to antigens. (google.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus ensures B cell survival by uniquely modulating apoptosis at early and late times after infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Kayamba V, Monze M, Asombang AW, Zyambo K, Kelly P. Serological response to Epstein-Barr virus early antigen is associated with gastric cancer and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Zambian adults: a case-control study. (harvard.edu)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a well-known common γ -herpes virus, induces asymptomatic infection in approximately 95% adults throughout the world [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes an asymptomatic latent infection in more than 90% of the human population, but it has also been linked to lymphomagenesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Several lines of evidence are compatible with the hypothesis that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) or leader protein (EBNA-LP) affects expression of the EBV latent infection membrane protein LMP1. (asm.org)
  • EBNA 2 activates transcription from the viral Cp (C promoter) during infection to generate the 120 kb transcript that encodes all nuclear antigens required for immortalization by EBV. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The ubiquitous and oncogenic human herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a latent infection and promotes the long-term survival of the infected host cell by targeting the molecular machinery that controls cell fate decisions (apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation). (dcu.ie)
  • Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly prevalent worldwide, and it has been associated with infectious mononucleosis and severe diseases including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, nasopharyngeal lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. (prolekare.cz)
  • EBV establishes a long-term latent infection in human B-lymphocytes where it persists as a multicopy episome that periodically may reactivate and produce progeny virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes did not contain the nuclear antigen reactive with rheumatoid arthritis sera, but after infection with EB virus, they showed increasing amounts of reactive nuclear antigen as the cells were transformed into continuous lines. (rupress.org)
  • Latent infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is highly associated with the endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), which typically limits expression of EBV proteins to EBNA-1 (Latency I). Interestingly, a subset of eBLs maintain a variant program of EBV latency - Wp-restricted latency (Wp-R) - that includes expression of the EBNA-3 proteins (3A, 3B and 3C), in addition to EBNA-1. (elsevier.com)
  • The potentially pathogenic effects of infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a B-lymphotropic agent with cell growth-transforming potential, are contained in healthy virus carriers by virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) surveillance. (openrepository.com)
  • Requirement for cell-to-cell contact in Epstein-Barr virus infection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and keratinocytes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • abstract = "Studies on the antibody responses to various Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV) antigens have been instrumental in the understanding of the seroepidemiology and diagnosis of this viral infection and the subsequent carrier state. (nebraska.edu)
  • EBNA 6 is expressed by lymphoblasts during acute EBV infection and may be an important antigen for diagnosis and evaluation of the immune response. (nebraska.edu)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Chinese children: a retrospective study of age-specific prevalence. (harvard.edu)
  • Several discoveries have been made on the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by viruses of several families to complete their infection cycle. (mdpi.com)
  • This virus is transmitted by human contact and cause primary infection and may exist even for years in a latent state in healthy individuals. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Clarification of molecular mechanisims of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by hepatitis virus infection. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Primary infection with a virus often leads to an acute T cell-mediated response characterized by the expansion of an effector population of virus-specific CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • For nonpersistent viruses, this rechallenge will come from a second exogenously acquired strain and for persistent viruses from a recrudescence of the initial infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, in young adults and in older adolescents, nearly half of the cases of primary infection with the virus result in infectious mononucleosis (IM). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Primary infection is serologically characterized by the appearence of anti-virus capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and anti-early antigen (EA) IgM and transient development of anti-EA IgG in approximately 80% of infected individuals. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Anti-EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG is absent during acute infection. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Paradoxically and despite these huge efforts, the puzzling problem of non-brain targets directed against a virus in the absence of brain infection seems irreconcilably contradictory with an intrathecal antigen-antibody selection. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is postulated that following natural infection with EBV, the virus executes some or all of its repertoire of gene expression programs to establish a persistent infection. (wikidoc.org)
  • Journal Article] Proposed guidelines for diagnosing chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Induction of lytic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection by synergistic action of rituximab and dexamethasone renders EBV-positive lymphoma cells more susceptible to ganciclovir cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Gamble, D.R. (1980) The epidemiology of insulin dependent diabetes, with particular reference to the relationship of virus infection to its aetiology. (springer.com)
  • 1987) Selective lack of antibody to a component of EB nuclear antigen in patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. (springer.com)
  • 1970) Atheroarterio-sclerosis induced by infection with a herpes virus. (springer.com)
  • Oldstone, M.B.A. (1988) Prevention of type 1 diabetes in non obese mice by virus infection. (springer.com)
  • Objective Vitamin D deficiency and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may be associated with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) levels and anti-EBV immunoreactivity in 25 individuals before the first clinical manifestation of MS. (bmj.com)
  • Eight EBNA and EBV DNA-carrying lines showed nuclear staining with the antipeptide antibody, whereas five EBV DNA negative lines failed to stain. (pnas.org)
  • Induction of nuclear antigen reactive with antibody in rheumatoid arthritis. (rupress.org)
  • Sera from approximately two-thirds of patients with rheumatoid arthritis contain an antibody which is reactive with a nuclear antigen present in human B-lymphocyte tissue culture cells. (rupress.org)
  • Diagnostic Automation Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) IgG Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), is intended for the qualitative and semi-quantitative determination of IgG antibody in human serum to EBNA-1 recombinant antigen. (rapidtest.com)
  • Antibody titers to specific EBV antigens correlate with different stages of IM. (rapidtest.com)
  • When antigens bound to the solid phase are brought into contact with a patient's serum, antigen specific antibody, if present, will bind to the antigen on the solid phase forming antigen-antibody complexes. (rapidtest.com)
  • This is followed by the addition of goat antihuman IgG conjugated with horseradish peroxidase which then binds to the antibody-antigen complexes. (rapidtest.com)
  • Indeed, the failure to find a major antigen for an intrathecally synthesized Ig may not relate to a nonsense antibody production but instead may reflect the molecular complexity of the CNS and the presumed antigenic target. (frontiersin.org)
  • Krueger, G.R.F., Koch, B. and Ablashi, D.V. (1987) Persistent fatigue and depression in patients with antibody to human B lymphotropic virus. (springer.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) is a pleiotropic protein which has been characterized extensively both biochemically and functionally. (nih.gov)
  • The experiments described here were undertaken to determine the mechanisms through which the EBV-encoded nuclear protein EBNA3C blocks the cell p14 ARF and p16 INK4A tumor suppressor-mediated inhibition of EBV-infected B-cell growth, thereby unfettering EBV-driven B-cell proliferation. (pnas.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 transactivates latent membrane protein LMP1. (asm.org)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen EBNA-1 is essential for viral genome maintenance in vitro and may be the only EBV protein expressed by the majority of latently infected cells in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • It is hoped to determine whether this antigen(s) is histone(s), whether it is modified by phosphorylation, acetylation, etc., or whether it is a histone-like protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Coding sequences for four EBV latent proteins with allelic polymorphism between A and B virus types--namely, the EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) EBNA 2, EBNA 3a, EBNA 3c, and EBNA leader protein--have been introduced into vaccinia virus vectors under control of vaccinia promoter P7.5 and used to express relevant EBNA proteins in appropriate target cells. (openrepository.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 is perhaps the most widely studied EBV protein, because of its critical role in maintaining the EBV episome and its expression in all EBV-associated malignancies. (edu.au)
  • Definition of the sequence requirements for binding of the EBNA-1 protein to its palindromic target sites in Epstein-Barr virus DNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 US11 protein binds the coterminal UL12, UL13, and UL14 RNAs and regulates UL13 expression in vivo. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Among the EBV transactivators, the ZEBRA protein plays a crucial role in switching the virus from a latent to a productive mode. (nih.gov)
  • ZEBRA protein was produced using a eukaryotic expression vector: the open reading frame containing the BZFLI cDNA has previously been inserted down-stream from the adenovirus major late promoter leading to expression of a 38-kDa nuclear protein. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, this up-regulation could be mediated by the EBV nuclear antigen 1 protein. (northampton.ac.uk)
  • Paraffin wax embedded tissue available from preoperative gastric biopsies and tumour adjacent tissue from the resection specimens containing normal gastric mucosa, inflamed gastric mucosa, and preneoplastic lesions (intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) was investigated by EBER1/2 RISH, in addition to EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) immunohistochemistry (IHC). (bmj.com)
  • Hetatitis C virus core protein regulateds cell growth and signal transduction pathway transmitting growth stimuli. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits Fas- and tumor nedrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis via NF-kB activation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Association of hepatitis B virus X protein with mitochondria causes mitochondrial aggregation at the nuclear periphery, leading to cell death. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hepatitis B Virus X protein augments the DNA binding of nuclear factor for IL& through its basic-leucine zipper domain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It has been shown previously (by immunohistochemistry) that gastric adenocarcinomas harbouring Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) frequently lose p16 protein. (bmj.com)
  • These include Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1, EBNA-2, EBNA-3A, EBNA-3B, EBNA-3C, EBNA-leader protein (EBNA-LP) and latent membrane proteins (LMP)-1, LMP-2A and LMP-2B and the Epstein-Barr encoded RNAs (EBERs). (wikidoc.org)
  • The EBNA-1 protein is essential for maintenance of the virus genome . (wikidoc.org)
  • The initiation codon of the EBNA-LP coding region is created by an alternate splice of the nuclear protein transcript. (wikidoc.org)
  • and, wherein said protein comprises an antigen or immunogenic fragment thereof. (google.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA2 alters immune checkpoint PD-L1 expression by downregulating miR-34a in B-cell lymphomas. (harvard.edu)
  • This study reports the novel finding that the EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), a second major effector of phenotypic change m EBV-infected cells, can independently upregulate bfl-1 mRNA levels m BL cell lines. (dcu.ie)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigens EBNALP (LP) and EBNA2 (E2) are coexpressed in EBV-infected B lymphocytes and are critical for lymphoblastoid cell line outgrowth. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The long-standing suspicion that Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 5 (EBNA5) is involved in transcription regulation was recently confirmed by the observation by several groups that EBNA5 cooperates with EBNA2 in activation of the LMP1 promoter. (gu.se)
  • Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. (harvard.edu)
  • There are currently eight known human herpesviruses, which include herpes simplex virus type I, herpes simplex virus type II, varicella-zoster virus, EBV, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6, human herpesvirus 7, and Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus. (prolekare.cz)
  • In approximately 50% of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus, is present in tumor cells. (northampton.ac.uk)
  • EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV) is a ubiquitous lymphotrophic γ-herpesvirus that persists lifelong in the human body. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human B-lymphotrobic herpesvirus that latently infects over 90 percent of the world´s population. (dissertations.se)
  • Falk Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center (MTC) Karolinska Institute, Box 280, S- 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden Epstein-Barr virus is a human herpesvirus and approximately 95 % of the adults carry the virus in a latent form. (dissertations.se)
  • The Epstein-Barr Virus ( EBV ), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus ), and is one of the most common viruses in humans . (wikidoc.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus(EBV) is associated with a variety of human malignant disorders, which are clinically aggressive and often less responsive to the conventional cancer therapy, and currently available anti-herpesvirus drugs are ineffective treatments. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic human herpesvirus, binds to and infects normal human B lymphocytes via CD21, the CR2 complement receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) repression of CDKN2A p14 ARF and p16 INK4A is essential for immortal human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) growth. (pnas.org)
  • Coimmunoprecipitations also revealed an EBNA3C-HDAC1 interaction in vivo, and GST-EBNA3C bound functional histone deacetylase enzyme activity from HeLa cell nuclear extracts. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A partially coincides with EBNA3C genome-wide and is tethered to DNA through BATF complexes. (harvard.edu)
  • The target antigens against which such CTL responses are directed are yet undefined, but the antigens probably derived from one or more of the EBV "latent" proteins constitutively expressed in virus-transformed B cells. (openrepository.com)
  • Lymphocytes transformed by Epstein-Barr virus. (rupress.org)
  • Evidence is present that the reactive nuclear antigen is associated with Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-transformed lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been shown to establish latency in resting B lymphocytes of the peripheral blood. (bloodjournal.org)
  • However, it is highly problematic since brain TLO should not be able to drive the clonal expansion of lymphocytes against alien antigens that are thought to be absent in MS brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the initial absence of host immunity , the lytic cycle produces large amounts of virus to infect other (presumably) B-lymphocytes within the host. (wikidoc.org)
  • The latent programs reprogram and subvert infected B-lymphocytes to proliferate and bring infected cells to the sites at which the virus presumably persists. (wikidoc.org)
  • Cellular immunity involves specialized cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) which recognize and kill other cells which produce non-self antigens. (google.com)
  • Recombinant Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen is a purified recombinant Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris . (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Human cytotoxic T-cell responses against Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens demonstrated by using recombinant vaccinia viruses. (openrepository.com)
  • Recombinant EBNA-1 antigen is coated on the surface of microwells. (rapidtest.com)
  • A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumor antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recombinant rice TFIIB (OsTFIIB) stimulated the DNA binding and bending activities of OsTBP2 and synergistically enhanced OsTBP2-mediated transcription from the pal promoter and the promoter of Rice tungro bacilliform virus but not from the barley pr1 promoter. (plantcell.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that ubiquitously establishes life-long persistence in humans. (springer.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a complex oncogenic symbiont. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This investigation aims to study the effect of curcumin on the proliferation, cycle arrest, and apoptosis of Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV-) positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The La antigen binds 5′ noncoding region of the hepatitis C virus RNA in the context of the initiator AUG codon and stimulates internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 5 inhibits pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation. (gu.se)
  • EBNA-1 possesses a glycine - alanine repeat that impairs antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation thereby inhibiting the CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-cell response against virus infected cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus associated with several malignancies including endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and polyclonal B-cell lympho-proliferations in immunosuppressed individuals. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous Herpes virus which causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with such different neoplasms as Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (nih.gov)
  • This virus was initially recognised for its association with Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA-3) is a family of viral proteins associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • moreover, it establishes an experimental approach that can be extended to all EBV latent proteins and to the more common CTL responses that cross-react against type A and type B virus isolates. (openrepository.com)
  • This review describes the role of F-box proteins and the use of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in virus-host interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • The lack of specificity against the three major myelin proteins does not preclude any other specificity ( 3 ), either against other minor myelin proteins or brain antigens, or against foreign antigens (viral antigens for example). (frontiersin.org)
  • All EBV nuclear proteins are produced by alternative splicing of a transcript starting at either the Cp or Wp promoters at the left end of the genome (in the conventional nomenclature). (wikidoc.org)
  • Thus the cellular immune system is constantly monitoring the spectra of proteins produced in all cells in the body and is poised to eliminate any cells producing non-self antigens. (google.com)
  • i) Acute transfection and expression of EBNA-2 under control of simian virus 40 or Moloney murine leukemia virus promoters resulted in increased LMP1 expression in P3HR-1-infected Burkitt's lymphoma cells and the P3HR-1 or Daudi cell line. (asm.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus encoded LMP1 downregulates TCL1 oncogene through miR-29b. (springer.com)
  • TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation. (harvard.edu)
  • The antiserum raised against a 14-residue copolymer of glycine and alanine gave brilliant EBV-specific nuclear staining in the anticomplement immunofluorescence (ACIF) assay, in line with the original definition of the EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) [Reedman, B. M. & Klein, G. (1973) Int. J. Cancer 11, 499-520]. (pnas.org)
  • Kalra M, Gerdemann U, Luu JD, Ngo MC, Leen AM, Louis CU, Rooney CM, Gottschalk S. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-derived BARF1 encodes CD4- and CD8-restricted epitopes as targets for T-cell immunotherapy. (harvard.edu)
  • Indeed, we have recently reported that RK-BARF0 encodes the HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitope LLWAARPRL, which stimulates CTLs from healthy virus carriers, albeit at a low CTL precursor frequency ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Also provided is a method of inducing an anti-tumor immune response in an animal in need of such treatment, comprising the step of: contacting skin of said animal topically by applying to said skin an immunologically effective concentration of a vector encoding a gene which encodes an antigen which induces an anti-tumor effect in said animal following administration. (google.com)
  • OVERVIEW Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most common human viruses and also is associated with some rare cancers. (warf.org)
  • 1- 3 The second infectious agent found to be associated with a subset of gastric cancers is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). (bmj.com)
  • It is now estimated that about 20% of human cancers are caused by infectious agents, among them at least 7 viruses. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Several established human and simian lymphocyte cell lines known to carry EB viral genomes were shown to contain rheumatoid arthritis-associated nuclear antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Evidence is presented which suggests that the rheumatoid arthritis-associated nuclear antigen is different from the previously described EB nuclear antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Epidemiological data suggest that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. (mdpi.com)
  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 may invalidate T-SPOT.TB assay results in rheumatoid arthritis patients: A retrospective case-control observational study. (amedeo.com)
  • The EBNA 2 (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 2) transcription factor is essential for B-cell transformation by the cancer-associated EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) and for the continuous proliferation of infected cells. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • There is no obvious correlation between the size of this polypeptide and any properties of the cells from which it is derived, other than those related to the strain of transforming virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We have analyzed target specificity of CTL responses from two EBV-immune donors that are preferentially reactive against autologous cells transformed with type A but not with type B virus isolates. (openrepository.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) plays key roles in both the regulation of gene expression and the replication of the EBV genome in latently infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs reduce immune surveillance by virus-specific CD8+T cells. (springer.com)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) is required for the maintenance of the viral chromosome in latently infected, proliferating cells and plays a role in latent cycle DNA replication. (cshl.edu)
  • SK-MM-2 cells do not express the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen. (mskcc.org)
  • To determine at what stage during gastric carcinogenesis Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) enters the gastric epithelial cells, the presence of EBV was investigated in two pathogenetically related but distinct forms of adenocarcinoma of the stomach-gastric carcinoma of the intact stomach (GCIS) and gastric stump carcinoma (GSC)-and their presumed precursor lesions. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, it is suggested that activation of CTL by the antigen presenting cells is down regulated in this mouse and this may be one mechanism that the CTL activity in patients with chronic hepatitis is low. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The molecular mechanisms governing EBV carcinogenesis remain elusive and the functional interactions between virus and host cells are incompletely defined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These memory cells then are capable of mounting an enhanced response to any subsequent rechallenge by the virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • Consequently, virus-infected cells expressing these isoforms were poorly recognized by CTLs. (jimmunol.org)
  • This creates a virus reservoir in contrast to lytic virus replication, which is thought to be restricted to differentiated epithelial cells in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • So far, the route of transmission between B cells and the production of progeny virus in the epithelial tissue has remained unclear. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpes virus, which infects B-cells. (dissertations.se)
  • In fact, besides local antigen-driven clonal expansion, circulating plasmablasts and plasma cells (PC) are non-specifically recruited from blood and gain access to survival niches in the inflammatory CNS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Munger KL, Hongell K, Cortese M, Åivo J, Soilu-Hänninen M, Surcel HM, Ascherio A. Epstein-barr virus and multiple sclerosis risk in the finnish maternity cohort. (harvard.edu)
  • Epstein-Barr virus binding to CD21 activates the initial viral promoter via NF-kappaB induction. (nih.gov)
  • 1981) Immunohistological demonstration of respiratory syncytial virus antigens in Paget's disease of bone. (springer.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belongs to the herpes virus family, which consists of double-stranded DNA viruses, composed of a DNA core surrounded by a nucleocapsid and a tegument, with relatively large genomes (100-200 genes). (prolekare.cz)
  • EBV is classified as a member of the herpes-virus family based upon its characteristic morphology. (rapidtest.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) belong to herpes virus group. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the case of persistent herpes virus infections, such as EBV, many of the target epitopes for CTLs are included within some of the latent viral Ags ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Five peptides corresponding to amino acid sequences predicted from all three reading frames of the nucleotide sequence of the third internal repeat array (IR3) of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome were synthesized chemically. (pnas.org)
  • Genome-wide evidence of both significant linkage and association was obtained on chromosome 6 in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and replicated in an independent Mexican American sample of large families (minimum p -value in combined analysis of both datasets is 1.4×10 −15 for SNPs rs477515 and rs2516049). (prolekare.cz)
  • Monoclonality in the size of the fused termini of the viral genome indicates that the virus was present in the original cell from which the tumour arose, and identification of EBV in premalignant lesions further implicates the virus as an early acting contributor to the process of carcinogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • On infecting the B-lymphocyte, the linear virus genome circularizes and the virus subsequently persists within the cell as an episome. (wikidoc.org)
  • In these individuals, lytic replication of EBV is probably restricted by immunologic and gene regulatory mechanisms, whereas in the absence of immunologic control, reflected here by IM patients, the production of infectious virus becomes visible in PBLs. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The virus can execute many distinct programs of gene expression which can be broadly categorized as being lytic cycle or latent cycle. (wikidoc.org)
  • Evasion of affinity-based selection in germinal centers by Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A. (harvard.edu)
  • Further investigation of how EBV recruits and modifies Tregs will contribute not only to our understanding of the pathogenesis of virus-associated tumors but also to the development of therapeutic strategies designed to manipulate Treg activity. (northampton.ac.uk)
  • However, it is not clear whether EBV plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, and if so, by which mechanisms the virus may contribute. (mdpi.com)
  • The increasing appreciation of the role of viruses in cancer pathogenesis has not only already led to the development of two successful vaccines (against HBV and HPV) that prevent cancer, it has also directly contributed to many fundamental discoveries in cancer biology. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • We predict in this paper B-cell epitopes of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen -1 (EBNA-1) and analyze the results matched with the related autoantigens sequence of human . (bvsalud.org)
  • During the past decade, accumulating evidence has indicated a role for the human pathogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Here we describe recent research on the human herpesviruses that has contributed to our understanding of, and interactions between, viruses, autophagy, and the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Becton Dickinson uses anti human CD antigens, CD4, CD8 monoclonals. (gentaur.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) plays a crucial role in B cell immortalization by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), most probably by its ability to transactivate several cellular and viral genes. (nih.gov)
  • Epstein-Barr virus stable intronic-sequence RNAs Isaksson A, Berggren M, Ricksten A (January 2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycine-alanine repeat (GAr) sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded EBNA-1 prevents presentation of antigenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. (pasteur.fr)
  • 1984) Characterisation of IM virus which is frequently isolated from cerebro-spinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • 4- 10 The virus is present in 3-16% of gastric adenocarcinomas, in 67-100% of LEL carcinomas, and in 29-35% of gastric remnant adenocarcinomas 7, 11- 17 (for a review, see Takada 18 ). (bmj.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus subverts mevalonate and fatty acid pathways to promote infected B-cell proliferation and survival. (harvard.edu)
  • EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) is involved in replication and transcriptional regulation of EBV. (warf.org)
  • Enhancement of hepatitis C virus replication by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites and therefore totally dependent upon a host cell for replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some viruses stimulate autophagy to aid their replication. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also demonstrate a physical interaction between OsTBP2 and RF2a, a rice bZIP transcription factor that bound to the box II cis element of the promoter of Rice tungro bacilliform virus , resulting in enhanced transcription from the viral promoter. (plantcell.org)
  • Fluorescence polarization-based biochemical high throughput confirmation assay to identify inhibitors of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1). (nih.gov)
  • EBNA-1 IgG assay may be used in conjunction with other Epstein-Barr tests. (rapidtest.com)
  • Among these probes, the 5′ non-coding region (NCR) (nt 131-278) of hepatitis C virus RNA appeared to be the strongest competitor for EBNA-1 binding to the EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA 1 (EBER1) probe, whereas a mutant 5′ NCR RNA with partially disrupted secondary structure was a weak competitor. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important causative agent of B-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin disease in immune-deficient people, including HIV-infected people. (pnas.org)
  • Our results identify a mechanism by which EBV can recruit Tregs to the microenvironment of HL by inducing the expression of CCL20 and, by doing so, prevent immune responses against the virus-infected tumor population. (northampton.ac.uk)
  • This virus may be reactivated by the dysregulation of the host immune system or possibly by virus mutation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Persistent viruses have developed potent strategies to overcome host immune defenses. (jimmunol.org)
  • The success of persistent viruses lies in their capacity for evading the host defense mechanisms by either mutating target Ags or interfering with components of the host immune response. (jimmunol.org)