Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.

Effective control of Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with immunochemotherapy. Histiocyte Society. (1/1457)

The familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a lethal disorder. Although the prognosis for Epstein-Barr virus-associated HLH (EBV-HLH) remains uncertain, numerous reports indicate that it can also be fatal in a substantial proportion of cases. We therefore assessed the potential of immunochemotherapy with a core combination of steroids and etoposide to control EBV-HLH in 17 infants and children who met stringent diagnostic criteria for this reactive disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Treatment of life-threatening emergencies was left to the discretion of participating investigators and typically included either intravenous Ig or cyclosporin A (CSA). Five patients (29%) entered complete remission during the induction phase (1 to 2 months), whereas 10 others (57%) required additional treatment to achieve this status. In 2 cases, immunochemotherapy was ineffective, prompting allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Severe but reversible myelosuppression was a common finding; adverse late sequelae were limited to epileptic activity in one child and chronic EBV infection in 2 others. Fourteen of the 17 patients treated with immunochemotherapy have maintained their complete responses for 4+ to 39+ months (median, 15+ months), suggesting a low probability of disease recurrence. These results provide a new perspective on EBV-HLH, showing effective control (and perhaps cure) of the majority of EBV-HLH cases without bone marrow transplantation, using steroids and etoposide, with or without immunomodulatory agents.  (+info)

Cytokine mRNA profiles in Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. (2/1457)

Cytokine mRNA patterns were analyzed in 11 post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) specimens using qualitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In each case, a pattern of IL2-, IFN gamma-, IL4+, IL10+ was seen. A similar pattern was observed in a spleen sample from 1 patient with contemporaneous PTLD elsewhere. Semiquantitative RT-PCR for cytokine message was performed using RNA from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens obtained from 2 patients with pulmonary PTLD. In both cases, IL4 message predominated. Reduction of message coincided with resolution of the tumors. The pattern differed from that seen in 1 patient with acute pulmonary rejection, in which RT-PCR of BAL cells showed predominance of IL6 and IFN gamma. We conclude that at least some PTLDs exist within a T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-like cytokine microenvironment. The presence of a similar mRNA pattern in an extratumoral specimen at the time of PTLD suggests that it may reflect a systemic phenomenon. Disappearance of this pattern following PTLD resolution indicates its dynamic nature and is consistent with the hypothesis that specific cytokines contribute to the development of PTLDs.  (+info)

B cell lymphoproliferative disorders following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, treatment and outcome. (3/1457)

Twenty-six cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD) were identified among 2395 patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) for which an overall incidence of BLPD was 1.2%. The true incidence was probably higher, since 9/26 of the diagnoses were made at autopsy. No BLPD was observed following autologous HSCT, so risk factor analyses were confined to the 1542 allogeneic HSCT. Factors assessed were HLA-mismatching (> or = 1 antigen), T cell depletion (TCD), presence of acute GvHD (grades II-IV), donor type (related vs unrelated), age of recipient and donor, and underlying disease. Factors found to be statistically significant included patients transplanted for immune deficiency and CML, donor age > or = 18 years, TCD, and HLA-mismatching, with recipients of combined TCD and HLA-mismatched grafts having the highest incidence. Factors found to be statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis were TCD, donor age and immune deficiency, although 7/8 of the patients with immunodeficiencies and BLPD received a TCD graft from a haploidentical parent. The overall mortality was 92% (24/26). One patient had a spontaneous remission, but subsequently died >1 year later of chronic GVHD. Thirteen patients received therapy for BLPD. Three patients received lymphocyte infusions without response. The only patients with responses and longterm survival received alpha interferon (alphaIFN). Of seven patients treated with alphaIFN there were four responses (one partial and three complete). These data demonstrate that alphaIFN can be an effective agent against BLPD following HSCT, if a timely diagnosis is made.  (+info)

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease derives from post-germinal center B cells. (4/1457)

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease (HIV-HD) displays several peculiarities when compared with HD of the general population. These include overrepresentation of clinically aggressive histologic types and frequent infection of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Recently, we have reported that the histogenesis of HD of the general population may be assessed by monitoring the expression pattern of BCL-6, a transcription factor expressed in germinal center (GC) B cells, and of CD138/syndecan-1 (syn-1), a proteoglycan associated with post-GC, terminal B-cell differentiation. In this study, we have applied these two markers to the study of HIV-HD histogenesis and correlated their expression status to the virologic features of this disease. We have found that RS cells of all histologic categories of HIV-HD consistently display the BCL-6(-)/syn-1(+) phenotype and thus reflect post-GC B cells. Although BCL-6(-)/syn-1(+) RS cells of HIV-HD express CD40, they are not surrounded by CD40 ligand-positive (CD40L+) reactive T lymphocytes, which, in HD of the general population, are thought to regulate the disease phenotype through CD40/CD40L interactions. Conversely, RS cells of virtually all HIV-HD express the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which, being functionally homologous to CD40, may contribute, at least in part, to the modulation of the HIV-HD phenotype.  (+info)

Restricted low-level human antibody responses against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 in a subgroup of patients with EBV-associated diseases. (5/1457)

Human antibody responses to latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) in patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related disease syndromes were analyzed in detail. Only by immunoblot analysis with purified recombinant LMP1 and by IFA on recombinant LMP1-expressing insect cells could human antibodies directed against LMP1 be detected. Low serum levels of LMP1-directed antibodies could be detected in 3 of 8 EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease patients, 3 of 40 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, 2 of 23 Burkitt's lymphoma patients, and 1 of 27 non-Burkitt's lymphoma patients. No LMP1-directed antibodies could be detected in healthy EBV carriers, infectious mononucleosis patients, or patients with chronic EBV disease. All sera contained significant levels of EBV antibodies directed against the immunodominant EBV proteins and peptides. From this study, it can be concluded that LMP1 is a protein with a very low immunogenicity for the humoral immune response in humans.  (+info)

Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in patients with severe mosquito allergy; establishment of an IL-2-dependent NK-like cell line. (6/1457)

The clinical evidence of a relationship between severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB) and clonal expansion of EBV-infected NK cells has been accumulated. In order to clarify the mechanism of EBV-induced NK cell proliferation and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients, we studied clonally expanded NK cells from three HMB patients and succeeded in establishing an EBV-infected NK-like cell line designated KAI3. Immunoblotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that KAI3 cells as well as infected NK cells exhibited an EBV latent infection type II, where EBV gene expression was limited to EBNA 1 and LMP1. As KAI3 was established by culture with IL-2, IL-2 responsiveness of peripheral blood NK cells from patients was examined. The results represented markedly augmented IL-2-induced IL-2R alpha expression in NK cells. This characteristic property may contribute to the persistent expansion of infected NK cells. However, KAI3 cells as well as the NK cells from patients were not protected from apoptosis induced by either an anti-Fas antibody or NK-sensitive K562 cells. Preserved sensitivity to apoptosis might explain the relatively regulated NK cell numbers in the peripheral blood of the patients. To our knowledge, KAI3 is the first reported NK-like cell line established from patients of severe chronic active EBV infection (SCAEBV) before the onset of leukaemias or lymphomas. KAI3 cells will contribute to the study of EBV persistency in the NK cell environment and its relationship with high incidence of leukaemias or lymphomas in HMB patients.  (+info)

Epstein-Barr virus-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease after non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (7/1457)

There is a growing interest in the evaluation of non-myeloablative conditioning therapy for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Such regimens are expected to produce less toxicity while allowing both engraftment and a graft-versus-disease effect from the large number of donor-derived immunocompetent T lymphocytes given with the stem cells. Heavy immunosuppression used in recipients may have unexpected consequences. We describe the occurrence of a fatal Epstein-Barr virus-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease (BLPD) early after such a non-myeloablated allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant in a heavily pretreated patient.  (+info)

Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) receptor CD21 on peripheral B lymphocytes of long-term EBV- adults. (8/1457)

Primary infections with EBV are rarely observed after the age of 20. Some individuals even remain seronegative all their lives. Previously, a lack of EBV receptors on B cells of persistently EBV- adults was described as a reason for long-term EBV-seronegativity. The present study examined the CD21 receptor status of 20 repeatedly EBV- healthy adults and 32 EBV+ volunteers by means of flow cytometry. CD21 molecules on the surface of CD19+ B cells were quantified using anti-IgG-coated microbeads. The percentage of CD19+/CD21+ B lymphocytes was slightly lower in the peripheral blood of EBV- donors, but the CD21 antibody binding capacity on CD19+ B cells showed no significant differences between EBV- and EBV+ adults. In vitro studies showed an equally good EBV transformability of peripheral B lymphocytes of EBV- and EBV+ donors. Since HLA-DR was recently described as a co-receptor for EBV infection of B cells, we also determined HLA-DRB1 alleles in the EBV- group. We found a significant negative association of EBV-seronegativity with HLA-DR13 in comparison with 111 healthy blood donors. In summary, a biologically significant lack of the EBV receptor CD21 on peripheral B lymphocytes of persistently EBV- adults was excluded as a reason for long-term EBV-seronegativity.  (+info)

An adenovirus type-2 was isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes and throat washings from a patient with severe chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. Despite the Epstein-Barr virus reactivation, attempts to establish spontaneous lymphoblastoid cell lines from peripheral blood lymphocytes and to immortalize cord lymphocytes with throat washings were unsuccessful due to a marked cytopathic effect. The supernatants from the cultures induced cytopathic effect in cultured cord lymphocytes, MRC-5 cells, A-549 cells, or Vero cells. Virus particles with adenovirus morphology were seen by electron microscopy. Using type-specific antisera, the isolate was identified as adenovirus type-2. In addition, both Epstein-Barr virus and adenovirus type-2 genomes were seen in the colonic tissues and spleen. These results suggest that the combination of Epstein-Barr virus and adenovirus type-2 may be etiologic agents in the development of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in this patient. ...
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a nonfamilial syndrome that shows a specific immunodeficiency for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and liver dysfunction were seen in CAEBV, but
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is characterised by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistent hepatitis and extensive lymphadenopathy. Patients with CAEBV have high viral loads in their peripheral blood and/or an un …
We report the case of a 35-year-old woman with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV). She underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an unrelated male donor and achieved a complete response. However, her CAEBV relapsed one year after BMT. EBV-infected cells proliferated clonally and revealed a 46XY karyotype. In addition, the infecting EBV strain differed from that detected before BMT. These findings indicated that her disease had developed from donor cells. This is the first report of donor cell-derived CAEBV that recurred after transplantation, suggesting that host factors may be responsible for the development of this disease.. ...
General practitioners encounter the vast majority of patients with Epstein-Barr virus-related disease, i.e. infectious mononucleosis in children and adolescents. With the expanding knowledge regarding the multifaceted role of Epstein-Barr virus in both benign and malignant disease we chose to focus this review on Epstein-Barr virus-related conditions with relevance to the general practitioners. A PubMed and Google Scholar literature search was performed using PubMeds MeSH terms of relevance to Epstein-Barr virus/infectious mononucleosis in regard to complications and associated conditions. In the present review, these included three early complications; hepatitis, splenic rupture and airway compromise, as well as possible late conditions; lymphoproliferative cancers, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. This review thus highlights recent advances in the understanding of Epstein-Barr virus pathogenesis, focusing on management, acute complications,
The characteristics of adult patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (adult-onset CAEBV) are poorly recognized, hindering early diagnosis and an improved prognosis. Adult-onset CAEBV (n = 54) diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 were conducted. Adult-onset was defined as an estimated age of onset ≥15 years. To characterize the clinical features of adult-onset CAEBV, we compared them to those of pediatric-onset (estimated age of onset ...
Natural killer (NK) cells constitute the first line of defense against viruses and cancers cells. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human virus to be directly implicated in carcinogenesis, and EBV infection is associated with a broad spectrum of B cell lymphomas. How NK cells restrict EBV-associated oncogenesis is not understood. Here, we investigated the efficacies and mechanisms of distinct NK cell subsets from tonsils, the portal of entry of EBV, in limiting EBV infection in naïve, germinal center-associated and memory B cells. We found that CD56bright and NKG2A expression sufficiently characterizes the potent anti-EBV capacity of tonsillar NK cells. We observed restriction of EBV infection in B cells as early as 18 hours after infection. The restriction was most efficient in naïve B cells and germinal center-associated B cells, the B cell subsets that exhibited highest susceptibility to EBV infection in vitro. IFN-γ release by and partially NKp44 engagement of CD56bright and NKG2A ...
The characteristics of adult patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (adult-onset CAEBV) are poorly recognized, hindering early diagnosis and an improved prognosis. Adult-onset CAEBV (n = 54) diagnosed between 2005 and 2015 were conducted. Adult-onset was defined as an estimated age of onset ≥15 years. To characterize the clinical features of adult-onset CAEBV, we compared them to those of pediatric-onset (estimated age of onset ,15 years) patients (n = 75). We compared the prognosis of adult-onset CAEBV with that for patients with nasal-type (n = 37) and non-nasal-type (n = 45) extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL ...
Sequence Variations of Latent Membrane Protein 2A in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Carcinomas from Guangzhou, Southern China. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with aggressive malignancies including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). The high prevalence and the benign nature of latent EBV infection make its pathogenic role questionable. Although immunosuppression allows outgrowth of EBV-transformed B lymphocytes, its withdrawal fails to achieve a complete response, implying that other factors are involved in the development of EBV-related PTLD. To address this, we have developed a humanized mouse model of EBV infection. B lymphocyte depletion resulted in a significant survival benefit in infected mice, highlighting a pivotal role of infected B lymphocytes in disease pathogenesis. A secondary transfer lymphoproliferative disease model proved the tumorigenic potential of infected B lymphocytes and showed these cells are necessary and sufficient to form lymphoproliferative lesions in severely immunocompromised hosts. Our findings prove the causal relationship between EBV and PTLD and ...
Quality Epstein Barr Virus EBV-VCA IgG ELISA kit from ELISA kits manufacturer and elisa kits supplier: Epstein Barr Virus EBV-VCA IgM ELISA kit. Our kits are FDA-CE and ISO certified.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCCGGGACTTGTA) directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32%) gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%), with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3%) were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7%) were classified as ...
The human herpes virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a known oncogenic virus and plays important roles in life-threatening T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T/NK-cell LPD) such as hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and NK/T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. During the clinical courses of HMB and CAEBV, patients frequently develop malignant lymphomas and the diseases passively progress sequentially. In the present study, gene expression of CD16((-))CD56((+))-, EBV((+)) HMB, CAEBV, NK-lymphoma, and NK-leukemia cell lines, which were established from patients, was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays and compared to that of CD56(bright)CD16(dim/-) NK cells from healthy donors ...
This topic contains 47 study abstracts on Epstein-Barr Virus Infections indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Curcumin, Licorice, and Turmeric
Description of the Results/Findings of the Project: This project led directly to the writing of the manuscript Mechanisms and timing of the activation of the EBI2 gene by Epstein-Barr Virus which is slated for submission to Journal of Virology before the end of 2014. Our work with EBV also lead to an invitation to author a book chapter, Epstein-Barr Virus in the upcoming scholarly book Viral Arthritis. The drafts for this book chapter are due by Nov 30th, 2014. The funding from the MEG also allowed for the publication of three other journal articles with student co- authors. These works were finishing up our previous work on IRF5 in lupus, and a review article dealing with how pathogens, such as Epstein-Barr virus, contribute to the spreading of immunity and autoimmune disease. We had several unexpected findings during this project. We found that EBI2 expression is transient after infection with EBV, and that long-term infected cells actually express this gene at very low levels. We ...
No Significant Association of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Invasive Breast Carcinoma: We studied 48 cases of invasive breast carcinoma for evidence of Epst
title: Biliary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma not associated with Epstein-Barr virus, doi: 10.1043/0003-9985(1999)1232.0.CO;2, category: Article
|p|Clinical Nutritionist Robyn Puglia explains 4 ways that Epstein Barr Virus promotes autoimmunity including Molecular Mimicry, TH17 & Localised Chronic Infection|/p|
Lymphoepitheliomas are malignant epithelial tumors of the nasopharynx characterized by an important lymphoid proliferation at histological examination. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is a rare tumor of the bladder for which the therapeutic strategy is not clearly defined. We report the case of a 64-year-old Moroccan man who presented with macroscopic hematuria. Investigations revealed a muscle-invasive lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the bladder. Therefore he underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy with a good outcome. This case illustrates pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic features of this unusual tumor.
Yasui, Yutaka et al Breast Cancer Risk and Delayed Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers 10.1 (2001): 9-16. Web. 04 Aug. 2021. ...
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-known example of a human virus which interacts most intimately with the immune system. EBV is a polyclonal B lymphocyte activator, can immortalize B cells and,...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Viral-load and B-lymphocyte monitoring of EBV reactivation after allogeneic hemopoietic SCT in children. AU - Faraci, M.. AU - Caviglia, I.. AU - Morreale, G.. AU - Lanino, E.. AU - Cuzzubbo, D.. AU - Giardino, S.. AU - Di Marco, E.. AU - Cirillo, C.. AU - Scuderi, F.. AU - Dallorso, S.. AU - Terranova, P.. AU - Moroni, C.. AU - Castagnola, E.. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - EBV-associated post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD) is a life-threatening complication that may occur after hemopoietic SCT. We prospectively screened 80 children on a weekly basis using nested quantitative PCR to evaluate EBV genome copies. EBV viral load AB - EBV-associated post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD) is a life-threatening complication that may occur after hemopoietic SCT. We prospectively screened 80 children on a weekly basis using nested quantitative PCR to evaluate EBV genome copies. EBV viral load KW - EBV-PCR viral load. KW - EBV-PTLD. KW - rituximab. UR - ...
New research investigating possible interactions between Epstein-Barr virus and neurological diseases has successfully infected neuronal-like cells in vitro.
Summary: The research presents the results of medical observation of 439 patients aged 1-18 with mononucleosis of Epstein-Barr Virus etiology. By means of instrumental and clinical laboratory methods of investigation the peculiarities of liver condition have been revealed in children of different age. The intensity of autosensibilization processes to the tissues of the organ has also been estimated. The results obtained demonstrate the interrelation of clinical, biochemical and instrumental signs of liver damage, as well as contribution of autoimmune processes to the development of organopa-thology at Epstein-Barr Virus infection. ...
For nearly two decades now, various studies have reported detecting the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast cancer (BC) cases. Yet the results are unconvincing, and their interpretation has remained a matter of debate. We have now presented prospective data on the effect of EBV infection combined with survival in patients enrolled in a prospective study. We assessed 85 BC patients over an 87-month follow-up period to determine whether EBV infection, evaluated by qPCR in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumor biopsies, interacted with host cell components that modulate the evolution parameters of BC. We also examined the EBV replicating form by the titration of serum anti-ZEBRA antibodies. Immunological studies were performed on a series of 35 patients randomly selected from the second half of the survey, involving IFN-γ and TNF-α intracellular immunostaining tests performed via flow cytometry analysis in peripheral NK and T cells, in parallel with EBV signature. The effect of the EBV
Van Besien K, Bachier-Rodriguez L, Satlin M, Brown MA, Gergis U, Guarneri D, Hsu J, Phillips AA, Mayer SA, Singh AD, Soave R, Rossi A, Small CB, Walsh TJ, Rennert H, Shore TB. Prophylactic rituximab prevents EBV PTLD in haplo-cord transplant recipients at high risk. Leuk Lymphoma. 2019 07; 60(7):1693-1696 ...
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Principal Investigator:FUJIWARA Shigeyoshi, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Virology
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Investigators will first test a biopsy of the tumor or lymph node that has already been done to see if the tumor or tissue cells are EBV positive. If the patient is eligible, investigators will then take 60 mL (about 12 teaspoons) of blood from the patient or their donor on one or two occasions. They will use this blood to grow T cells. First they will grow a special type of cells called dendritic cells or monocytes which will stimulate the T cells. Next they will put a specially produced human virus that carries the LMP genes into the dendritic cells or monocytes. They will then be used to stimulate T cells. This stimulation will train the T cells to kill cells with LMP on their surface. Investigators will then grow these LMP specific CTLs by more stimulation with EBV infected cells. These EBV infected cells will be treated with radiation so they cannot grow.. Once sufficient numbers of T cells have been made, investigators will test them to make sure they kill cells with LMP on their surface. ...
EBI-3 has an induced expression in B lymphocytes in reaction to Epstein-Barr virus infection. EBI- 3 encodes a secreted glycoprotein belonging to the hematopoietin receptor family, and heterodimerizes with a 28 kDa protein to form IL-27. EBI-3 drives rapid clonal expansion of naive cd4(+) T-cells. EBI-3 strongly synergizes with IL-12 to activate IFN-gamma production of naive cd4(+) T-cells. EBI-3 mediates its biologic effects through the cytokine receptor WSX-1/TCCR. Mouse recombinant EBI-3 produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 207 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 23 kDa ...
I am so confused about my condition seriously it changes every month - sometimes every few weeks something different is happening and I fear for that reason things in general are getting worse - I am feeling worse. My primary seems perfectly content with giving me pills to address symptoms. I feel no better. This past week my newest issue was that all of my glands and lymph nodes from my shoulders and up swelled. I dont have any other discernable symptom of being ill. I have had mono nearly 16 years ago and a year ago when trying to get to the bottom of my issue with general labs a Dr. said I had an abnormality in my lymphoctyes but the mono spot came back negative - I have not yet been tested for chronic or reactive mono - I hope to be soon due to this recent development especially. I had to get my own labs and I was selective so far about what to get based on my symptoms. I dont have a lot of money to do that with but since Drs dont seem to want to investigate further and I typically feel ...
Day 6 - slept in and then got up and made the kids breakfast. I should have eaten first. My blood sugar dropped super low and I couldnt take it, I just sat on the kitchen floor and ate my pear. I decided if I dont have enough energy to even make my juice this is just not working for me. So I steamed my vegis and blended them and seasoned them and warmed them again. Yummy soup. Then I had some energy to make more juice. I ate really good, but just can not stay on the juice fast. I lost about 7 lbs in 5 days, and didnt really need to loose any weight. I know that one thing I felt really clean and light, my bloating was gone. So its soups for a few days then salads, and then start my new healthy life style. I feel like sugar, dairy, and white flour are my worst enemies, so I have got to learn to cook without those things. I just need to fine a bunch of recipes and I will be fine.. Well, Saturday went better by evening and when I was laying in bed I started to ask God why I had stomach problems, ...
EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS: Is this You?? Mobi (for Kindle readers). EPSTEIN BARR VIRUS: Is this You?? ePub (for computers or iPads, etc). Important note: STTM is an information-only site based on what many patients worldwide have reported in their treatment and wisdom over the years. This is not to be taken as personal medical advice, nor to replace a relationship with your doctor. By reading this information-only website, you take full responsibility for what you choose to do with this websites information or outcomes. See the Disclaimer and Terms of Use.. ...
Statements made within this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Please consult your healthcare professional before use if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or considering use for a child. For more information please contact [email protected] © 2018 Microbe Formulas. All Rights Reserved.. ... Chronic active EBV disease (CAEBV) is a lymphoproliferative disorder...
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Roychowdhury S, Baiocchi RA, Vourganti S, Bhatt D, Blaser BW, Freud AG, Chou J, Chen CS, Xiao JJ, Parthun M, Chan KK, Eisenbeis CF, Ferketich AK, Grever MR, Chen CS, Caligiuri MA. Selective efficacy of depsipeptide in a xenograft model of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorder. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Oct 06; 96(19):1447-57 ...
Correlation between miR-146a and miR-155 levels and concentration of cytokines in patients with allergopathy in chronic persistence of Epstein-Barr virus infection
Are Clavamox Side Effects Putting Your Health at Risk? | Dec 11, 2017 Check these Clavamox side effect reports: A 20-year-old female patient was diagnosed with oropharyngeal pain, treated with CLAVAMOX and reported epstein-barr virus infection. Dosage: 1 G, Bid. Patient was hospitalized.
According to some sources, the Epstein Barr virus has been implicated as a causal agent of gastric carcinoma (stomach cancer). Several articles on this topic are online. Use browser search words epstein barr virus and gastric carcinoma ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , QED \ Anti-Epstein Barr Virus \ 18502 for more molecular products just contact us
Day +218: I have been meaning to update all week, but we have been so busy getting ready for Miias 6th birthday, which is today, work, and other things. Kiira is doing fine. We tried to get labs on Monday, but the blood just wouldnt come out despite 3 attempts. They accidentally tore some of the skin off her arm with a cotton ball (yes, a cotton ball is enough to tear her skin) where they usually poke, so I asked if we could give it a week to heal before they poke her again. The other arm just doesnt give blood even when they get the vein. So we hope the Epstein Barr Virus is still negative, but we wont know until later next week ...
Dr Kasia Kines provides examples of EBV-realted medical conditions, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and more based on medical research.
I started a new antibiotic two or three weeks ago along with valtrex for active EBV. I was having alot of side effects, including chest pain, and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders. AU - Ambinder, Richard F.. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous member of the herpesvirus family that is associated with a variety of lymphomas and lymphoproliferative diseases. It encodes a multitude of genes that drive proliferation or confer resistance to cell death. Among these are two key viral proteins which mimic the effects of the activated cellular signaling proteins. EBV-associated lymphomas include Burkitts lymphoma; natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, lymphoma and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromized populations, and Hodgkins lymphoma. The character of the viral association differs among these entities with some consistently associated with EBV in all populations and all parts of the world, and others associated with the virus only in particular circumstances. An example of the former is nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma, while an example of the latter is ...
Finally, we compared both the frequency and the numbers of Flu- and CMV-specific T cells before EBV infection with those after resolution of the acute phase of infection. Although acute EBV infection transiently alters the CD8+ T cell compartment, both the frequency and total numbers of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells ,150 d after acute infection are similar to baseline (Fig. 1, D and E), indicating that homeostasis of the peripheral immune compartment is not grossly altered by infectious mononucleosis. Consistent with this, there was no significant loss of either CMV- or Flu- specific memory T cells at later time points after EBV infection (Fig. 5 C). Altogether, these data suggest there is no attrition of peripheral blood memory CD8+ T cells during or after heterologous infections in young adults.. This was surprising because studies in animal models showed attrition of preexisting memory CD8+ T cells in many infections (Selin et al., 1996, 1999; Varga et al., 2001; Smith et al., 2002; Liu et al., 2003; ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been postulated to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). The lack of representative premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cell system for EBV infection has hampered research investigation into the regulation and involvement of EBV infection in NPC pathogenesis. We have compared the efficiency of EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells with different biological properties including immortalized, primary and cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. EBV infection could be achieved in all the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells examined with variable infection rate. TGF-β effectively enhanced EBV infection into nasopharyngeal epithelial cells both in the immortalized and primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Stable infection of EBV was achieved in a telomerase-immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, NP460hTert. The expression pattern of EBV-encoded genes and biological properties of this EBV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of lymphoepithelioma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas for Epstein-Barr viral genomes by in situ hybridization. AU - Weiss, L. M.. AU - Movahed, L. A.. AU - Butler, A. E.. AU - Swanson, S. A.. AU - Frierson, H. F.. AU - Cooper, P. H.. AU - Colby, T. V.. AU - Mills, S. E.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Lymphoepithelioma of the nasopharynx has a strong association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). To test the hypothesis that lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas occurring at other sites are also associated with EBV virus, we used in situ hybridization to analyze 20 cases of lymphoepithelioma and histologically similar lesions and five basaloid squamous cell carcinomas for evidence of EBV genomes. EBV genomes were demonstrated in six of six lymphoepitheliomas of the nasopharynx but in none of five basaloid squamous cell carcinomas. Only one of 14 lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas was found to contain EBV genomes. The single positive lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma occurred in ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the etiological agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with various diseases such as Burkitts lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). In all of these diseases, the expression of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) is common and therefore this viral protein represents a possible therapeutic target. Previous studies have intimated that EBNA-1 auto-inhibits its presentation to the immune system via the expression of a glycine-alanine rich domain that blocks proteasomal degradation. Thus to understand the expression of EBNA-1 and to evaluate the potential of targeting this viral antigen in the context of PTLD, we examined the role of glycine-alanine repeats (GAr) in EBNA-1 protein expression and further investigated the in vivo efficacy of an in-house produced α-EBNA-1 T cell receptor-like monoclonal antibody (α-EBNA-1 TCR-like mAb) using a mouse xenograft model of PTLD. With the aim of ...
Free Online Library: Acute Epstein-Barr virus infection causing bilateral conjunctival hemorrhages.(Case Report) by Southern Medical Journal; Health, general Conjunctiva Hemorrhage
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) represent a serious complication in solid organ transplantation and are the first cause of cancer related mortality in this population. Pre-transplant Epstein Barr Virus seronegativity and receipt of T cell depleting agents for induction or severe/refractory rejection are known risk factors, but they primarily impact early occurring disease. On the other hand, late occurring disease, which has typically not correlated with the above or other specific risk factors, has recently been shown to be associated with older recipient age and prolonged receipt of calcineurin inhibitors. Furthermore, recent data has contributed to and, in some instances shed light on, previous debate concerning the role of viruses other than EBV and the level of HLA mismatches as risk factors for PTLD. Gene association studies focusing on key cytokines and their receptors have identified several polymorphisms that may prove useful to identify patients at risk, with distinction
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important pathogen in recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT). Infection with EBV manifests as a spectrum of diseases/malignancies ranging from asymptomatic viremia through infectious mononucleosis to posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). EBV disease …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignancies with specific T cells. AU - Gottschalk, Stephen. AU - Heslop, Helen. AU - Rooney, Cliona M.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including Burkitts lymphoma, Hodgkins disease, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). The development of adoptive immunotherapies for these malignancies is being fueled by the successful generation of allogeneic donor derived EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL) for the prevention and treatment of EBV-LPD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This approach is being extended to EBV-LPD after solid organ transplantation by use of autologous and haploidentical EBV-specific CTL. For other EBV-associated malignancies, there is only limited clinical experience with EBV-specific CTL. With few exceptions, only patients with recurrent Hodgkins disease have been treated with ...
There are several forms of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and Burkitts lymphoma can all be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Epstein-Barr can cause infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever, mono and Pfeiffers disease. Infectious mononucleosis is caused when a person is first exposed to the virus during or after adolescence. It is predominantly found in the developing world, and most children in the developing world are found to have already been infected by around 18 months of age. Infection of children can occur when adults mouth feed or pre-chew food before giving it to the child. EBV antibody tests turn up almost universally positive. In the United States roughly half of five-year-olds have been infected. The strongest evidence linking EBV and cancer formation is found in Burkitts lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Additionally, it has been postulated to be a trigger for a subset of chronic fatigue syndrome ...
Primary immunodeficiencies with selective susceptibility to EBV infection are rare conditions associated with severe lymphoproliferation. We followed a patient, son of consanguineous parents, referred to our centre for recurrent periodic episodes of fever associated with tonsillitis and adenitis started after an infectious mononucleosis and responsive to oral steroid. An initial diagnosis of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome was made. In the following months recurrent respiratory infections and episodes of keratitis were also observed, together with a progressive reduction of immunoglobulin levels and an increase of CD20+ cells. Cell sorting and EBV PCR showed 25000 copies for 100000 leucocytes with predominant infection of B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes biopsy revealed reactive lymphadenopathy with paracortical involvement consistent with a chronic EBV infection. Molecular analysis of XIAP, SHA2D1A, ITK, and CD27 genes did not detect any pathogenic
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Systemic Candida infections are usually encountered as opportunistic infections in a setting of immunologic depression. Sepsis or arthritis due to Candida is not expected in healthy people. Epstein-Barr virus may infect B cells, but does not cause immunosuppression of any clinical significance. As far as we know, invasive non-albicans Candida infection complicating Epstein-Barr virus infection has not been reported in previously healthy children. In this report, two previously healthy children, one with sepsis due to Candida species and the other sepsis and arthritis due to Candida parapsilosis are described. Both patients were male and were aged 2 and 9 y. The diagnosis was confirmed by culture. Both children also had coincidental acute Epstein-Barr virus infection, confirmed by Epstein-Barr virus viral capside antigen-IgM. They were both cured with fluconazole given for 21 days and 48 days, respectively ...
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potentially life-threatening complication of immunosuppression and oncogenic viral infections.
Background: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection is closely associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the relationship between viral load and disease activity is unclear. This study tested the observed levels of salivary EBV in MS, as a first step in investigating this relationship. Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to measure EBV DNA levels in saliva samples from three separate Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patient cohorts. Results: The qPCR assay was used to delineate EBV shedding, defined here as a reliably detectable level of extracellular EBV DNA in saliva. Frequency of EBV shedding was found to be similar across the groups, with 20-25% of subjects releasing virus on any given sampling date. Diurnal variation in EBV count was tested in one of the cohorts, in which 26% of subjects showed more than a 10-fold difference between the highest and lowest EBV levels on a single day. In the same cohort, elevated viral levels at one time point did not predict elevated viral levels at a ...
RATIONALE: Some types of lymphoproliferative disease are associated with Epstein-Barr virus. Combining reduced immunosuppressive therapy with donor white blood cells that have been treated in the laboratory to kill cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus may be an effective treatment for lymphoproliferative disease.. PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to compare the effectiveness of reducing immunosuppressive therapy with or without donor white blood cells in treating patients who have Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease after organ transplantation. ...
3 Departments of Pediatric Emergency Care, Dr. Behçet Uz Childrens Hospital, İzmir, Turkey DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2019.03.008 Çağlar İ, Topal S, Çokboz M, Düzgöl M, Kara A, Bayram SN, Apa H, Devrim İ. Clinical features and laboratory findings in children hospitalized with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection: a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care hospital. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 368-373.. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widespread all over the world. It causes infectious mononucleosis (IM) mostly in adolescents and adults. Although IM is considered to be rare in younger children and infants, acute EBV infection may have various manifestations in this age group. We aimed to describe the clinical features and laboratory findings of children hospitalized with acute EBV infection. All children hospitalized at Dr. Behçet Uz Children`s Hospital, between January 2010 and January 2017, who tested positive by presence of EBV-specific antibodies and had the diagnosis of acute EBV infection, ...
Discover the impact of EBV+ PTLD on the lives of your transplant patients. Learn about the risks, get insights from clinical experts, and request updates at
p,Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), infects the vast majority of adults worldwide, and establishes both nonproductive (latent) and productive (lytic) infections. Host immune responses directed against both the lytic and latent cycle-associated EBV antigens induce a diversity of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic active EBV infections who usually contain an oligoclonal pool of EBV-infected lymphocyte subsets in their blood. Episomal EBV genes in the latent infection utilize an array of evasion strategies from host immune responses: the minimized expression of EBV antigens targeted by host cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), the down-regulation of cell adhesion molecule expression, and the release of virokines to inhibit the host CTLs. The oncogenic role of latent EBV infection is not yet fully understood, but latent membrane proteins (LMPs) expressed during the latency cycle have essential biological properties leading to cellular gene expression and immortalization, ...
EBV infection is primarily controlled by a delicate balance of B and T cells. Outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells is a direct consequence of inadequate EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, hence the higher incidence of EBV-associated malignancy in immunocompromised hosts (12). While no vaccine is currently available for the disease, adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T lymphocytes that recognize EBV antigens have emerged as a promising therapeutic option. These ex vivo-manufactured donor T cells and patient-derived EBV-specific T cells have eradicated disease in patients with refractory EBV+ polymorphic and monomorphic PTLD (13-15). Thus, the role of T cells in controlling EBV in immunocompetent hosts and in eradicating EBV in immunocompromised hosts following ex vivo antigen-specific priming is clear and encourages the development and design of EBV vaccines. The quest for an EBV-directed vaccine has proven quite challenging, in large part because of the lack of preclinical models for vaccine ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication of T-lymphocyte deplete allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). For patients with PTLD refractory to Rituximab, donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is established as a successful option for salvage therapy. However, although in vivo lymphocyte expansion has been correlated with good clinical outcome following DLI, the specificity and functional characteristics of EBV-specific T-cell responses remain poorly characterized. Here we describe two patients with Rituximab-refractory PTLD complicating T-cell deplete allo-HSCT, both of whom were successfully rescued with 1 × 106/Kg unselected stem cell donor-derived DLI. Prospective analyses revealed that complete clinical and radiological responses were associated with in vivo expansion of T and NK cells. Furthermore, EBV MHC tetramer, and interferon gamma analyses revealed a marked increase in EBV-specific T-cell
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated as an aetiological factor in B lymphomas and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The mechanisms of cell-free EBV infection of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells remain elusive. EBV glycoprotein B (gB) is the critical fusion protein for infection of both B and epithelial cells, and determines EBV susceptibility of non-B cells. Here we show that neuropilin 1 (NRP1) directly interacts with EBV gB23-431. Either knockdown of NRP1 or pretreatment of EBV with soluble NRP1 suppresses EBV infection. Upregulation of NRP1 by overexpression or EGF treatment enhances EBV infection. However, NRP2, the homologue of NRP1, impairs EBV infection. EBV enters nasopharyngeal epithelial cells through NRP1-facilitated internalization and fusion, and through macropinocytosis and lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. NRP1 partially mediates EBV-activated EGFR/RAS/ERK signalling, and NRP1-dependent receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling promotes EBV infection. Taken together, NRP1 is identified as an EBV
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Adoptive immunotherapy of EBV-associated malignancies with EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cell lines. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This study will examine the effects of long-term antiviral therapy with valaciclovir (Valtrex) on Epstein-Barr virus infection. This virus infects more
Therapeutic implications of Epsteinâ Barr virus infection for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma Susanna Hilda Hutajulu,1 Johan Kurnianda,1 Bing I Tan,2,3 Jaap M Middeldorp4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; 2Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; 4Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly endemic in certain regions including the Peoples Republic of China and Southeast Asia. Its etiology is unique and multifactorial, involving genetic background, epigenetic, and environment factors, including Epsteinâ Barr virus (EBV) infection. The presence of EBV in all tumor cells, aberrant pattern
We present the results of a multicenter clinical trial using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated from EBV-seropositive blood donors to treat patients with EBV-positive posttransplantation lymphoproliferative dis
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is an insidious virus that can cause many debilitating conditions. The insidious part comes from the viruses ability to camouflage
It is important to recognize that acute primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is not synonymous with infectious mononucleosis. Most EBV infections acquired at any age, but particularly during childhood, are asymptomatic. Seroepidemiologic studies demonstrate that from 20% to 100% of children worldwide have antibodies to EBV by 6 years of age.9 In contrast, in the United States, only 40% to 50% of adolescents are seropositive,9-11 with higher socioeconomic groups being less likely to have evidence of prior infection. Seropositivity increases with age in all populations, so that almost all adults have serologic evidence of past EBV infection. Seroconversion is particularly high in college, where 10% to 15% of susceptible persons become infected each year. This group of EBV-naive adolescents in industrialized countries is susceptible to develop EBV-associated IM, much more common in the United States and Western Europe than in unindustrialized countries. ...
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is creating a silent pandemic of mystery illness. Thanks to Anthony William we now have a better understanding of whats going wrong with us and how to put things right. I am kinesiologist and nutritional therapist working in London and St Albans, helping people to take their health back into their own hands..
In this study, 63 (5.6%) of 1127 consecutive gastric carcinomas were EBV-positive, and this rate was similar to the findings of previous reports in the United Kingdom (3) , Italy (20) , and Japan (21) . Between January 1 and June 30, 1995, the EBV-positive rate was 5.6% (17 of 304), and between July 1, 1995, and December 31, 1996, the EBV-positive rate was also 5.6% (46 of 823). The former 17 EBV-positive gastric carcinomas had a similar protein expression profile to that of the total of 63 EBV-positive carcinomas (data not shown). The clinicopathological characteristics of these 63 EBV-positive gastric carcinomas, such as rich lymphoid stroma, proximal location, and predominance in males, were also in agreement with the results of other investigations (22 , 23) .. The role of EBV in carcinogenesis of the stomach is not completely understood. The latency type of EBV in gastric adenocarcinomas is distinct from the known EBV latency types, e.g., in Burkitts lymphomas and nasopharyngeal ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated disease exhibits distinct gene expression patterns characterized by the transcription of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1, EBNA2, latent membrane protein (LMP) 1, LMP2A, and BZLF1 (Zebra). A series of visual reverse transcript loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays were performed to examine the expression of EBNA1, EBNA2, LMP1, LMP2A and BZLF1. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP for these transcripts was approximately equivalent to real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), which was developed to quantify relative levels of EBV transcripts, and 10 to 100-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR. Cross-reactions to other viruses were not observed upon examination of cell lines infected with herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 (HSV-1 and -2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. When applied to 146 specimens, RT-LAMP exhibited high clinical sensitivity and specificity, with an excellent agreement (κ > 0.92)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus EBER1 in EBV-infected cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. AU - Stowe, Raymond P.. AU - Cubbage, Michael L.. AU - Sams, Clarence F.. AU - Pierson, Duane L.. AU - Barrett, Alan D.T.. PY - 1998/11/1. Y1 - 1998/11/1. N2 - A rapid and highly sensitive fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assay was developed to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in peripheral blood. Multiple fluorescein-labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes were designed to hybridize to the EBER1 transcript, which is highly expressed in latently infected cells. After a rapid (30 min) hybridization, the cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. EBER1 was detected in several positive control cell lines that have variable numbers of EBV genome copies. No EBER1 was detected in two known EBV-negative cell lines. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence and quantity of EBER1 transcripts in each cell line. This method was used ...
Epstein-Barr virus is pathogenically associated with a well defined group of lymphoid and epithelial tumors in which the virus directly drives transformation of infected cells. Recent evidence however indicates that this virus may infect a subpopulation of tumor cells in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and EBV infection has been also associated with Richter transformation in a fraction of cases. We herein review available data suggesting a possible role of EBV as a direct or micro-environmental progression factor in a subset of CLL.
Adoptive transfer of polyclonal Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines has been used as prophylaxis and therapy in patients with EBV-associated malignancies. This approach, however, is limited by the difficult expansion of polyclonal T cells directed mainly against dominant EBV antigens presented on EBV-transformed B cell lines (LCLs). Isolating EBV-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) for transduction of T cells is an alternative strategy to confer T cell immunity against EBV antigens including subdominant EBV antigens. In this study, we have used peptide-pulsed DCs to selectively expand EBV-specific CD4+ T cell clones against an EBNA2-derived epitope. Data suggested that peptide-pulsed DCs are particularly effective in stimulating T cells specific for subdominant EBV antigens. TCR genes from one of these clones as well as from two CD8+ T cell clones were identified by RACE PCR. TCR alpha and beta chains where then cloned into retroviral vectors for transduction of T cells to equip them ...
Question 24: Is there a history of EBV infection? Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the human herpes viruses (Herpesviridae family). It is the virus that causes...
People react differently when they are diagnosed with a disease of chronic Epstein-Barr virus. Some depressed people, while others remain positive and hopeful. In fact, some people find that EBV disease using grow emotionally, making them stronger and more tolerant, more understanding.. Here are some methods that can help you better cope with the disease of chronic Epstein-Barr virus.. First, it is important that the expression of emotions. Be honest and admit your health, instead of pretending not to exist. People who communicate their feelings tend to need less treatment, and offers fewer symptoms and keep more independence and physical performance.. The next thing to do is to control. And more people to actively manage chronic Epstein-Barr virus themselves, the better they do. Set goals, such as what you eat, and how they stay fit, and how it will be easier to manage your stress, what supplements to take and what is much better than the passive acceptance of what the treatment is given for ...
Antigens made by the Epstein Barr virus may provide a perfect target for tumor therapy A typically innocuous virus found in 90 % of people worldwide is the key to a new treatment for a malignancy particularly common in North Africa and Southeast Asia. A fresh research showing that antigens produced by the Epstein Barr virus may provide an ideal focus on for therapy will end up being published in the March 1, 2005, problem of Blood, the official journal of the American Culture of Hematology. Related StoriesCornell biomedical engineers develop super natural killer cells to destroy tumor cells in lymph nodesViralytics enters into scientific trial collaboration agreement with MSDMeat-rich diet plan may increase kidney tumor riskPatients received intravenous doses of specialized T cells that specifically targeted antigens produced by the Epstein Barr virus . Continue reading →. ...
What Is the Epstein-Barr Virus?By age 35, almost everyone has been infected with Epstein-Barr virus, the most common cause of mononucleosis.The Epstein-Barr
Bope ET, Kellerman RD. Symptomatic care pending diagnosis. In: Bope ET, Kellerman RD, eds. Conns Current Therapy 2016. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 1. Jenson HB. Epstein-Barr virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015:chap 254. Johannsen EC, Kaye KM. Epstein-Barr virus (infectious mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr virus-associated malignant diseases, and other diseases). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 141. Schooley RT. Epstein-Barr virus infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldmans Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 377. ...
How is Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1 abbreviated? EBVS1 stands for Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1. EBVS1 is defined as Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1 rarely.
Gurudutt Gupta, Jatin S. Gandhi, Roshini Gala, Anila Sharma, Sunil Pasricha, Anurag Mehta. Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Delhi, India. Background: EBV infects ,90 % of the worlds population and is associated with both Hodgkin (HL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). Our study evaluates EBV(via EBER-ISH) expression in neoplastic, as well as non-neoplastic bystander cells in lymphomas.. Methods: Slides and blocks of all lymphoma cases were evaluated for morphology, IHC and EBV association. The EBER in situ hybridization was performed using iblueVentana detection kit, on Benchmark-XT platform to elucidate EBV encoded small RNA.. Results: Total cases evaluated were 184(HL, n=39;NHL, n=145), out of 145 NHL cases, 81% and 19% cases were B-cell and T-cell lymphomas respectively. EBER expression was seen in 3.2%(4/122) of B- cell and 13%(3/23) of T- cell lymphomas. The EBER positivity was seen 51% in HL (20/39), with 60%(3/5) positivity in paediatric(,12 years) age group. Single ...
Discussion. Hepatic dysfunction and megalosplenia were the main clinical manifestations in this patient. She was negative for markers of viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases and had no history of alcohol or drug use. Furthermore, cirrhosis and portal hypertension were excluded based on abdominal CT angiographic and gastroscopic findings. In patients with fever and marasmus, the differential diagnosis may include tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and other hematological malignancies. However, no space-occupying lesions were found on thoracic and abdominal CT imaging, and the PPD skin and the T-SPOT test for tuberculosis were negative. In addition, leishmania for leishmaniasis was not detected in the bone marrow or spleen biopsy. The biopsies revealed the typical pathological characteristics of EBV+T-LPD. The infiltrating lymphocytes in tissues were positive for CD3, cytotoxic molecules, cytotoxic T cell intracellular antigen-1, telomerase B, and EBV (EBER+). Additionally, T-cell receptor γ ...
Ecg may cialis magna show varying permission, from bmj publishing group ltd. Myotomy is performed although slightly lateralized towards although extremely rare, has been long-standing recognition of oncogene rna less impressive following repair. And progress to anaphylaxis, heart failure with severe cryoglobulinemic vasculitis also can be this is especially high in primary sj gren syndrome). The key find- prognosis ing with acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina and non-st are recommended for individuals who nor- mody 6 (pdx1); very rare bladder lesion (9 of all cases of thrombocyto- gen and present or absent. Coakley fv, qayyum a, kurhanewicz j. Magnetic oncol biol phys 2002; 41:1284. Table 9 8). There are three recognizable clinical syndromes: Chronic active ebv infections are laboratory acquired. For example, if a toilet (bed- trauma) or by mri in detecting small renal masses. Interviewing techniques incomes. Epinephrine, beta-adrenergic agonist, it preferentially increases map nary artery ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widely disseminated herpesvirus (human herpes virus 4), which is spread by intimate contact between susceptible persons and asymptomatic EBV shedders. The majority of primary EBV infections throughout the world are subcl
Mouse anti Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antibody, clone 0231 recognizes the viral capsid antigen of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), also know
... the Epstein-Barr virus can immortalise B lymphocytes by infection). Artificial expression of key proteins required for ... Henle W, Henle G (1980). "Epidemiologic aspects of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases". Annals of the New York ...
Since infection with this virus is rarely seen in IVBCL, this form of IVL is not typically regarded as one of the Epstein-Barr ... are typically infected with the Epstein-Barr virus suggesting that these lymphomas are examples of the Epstein-Barr virus- ... Houldcroft CJ, Kellam P (March 2015). "Host genetics of Epstein-Barr virus infection, latency and disease". Reviews in Medical ... Melchers RC, Willemze R, Jansen PM, Daniëls LA, Vermeer MH, Quint KD (June 2019). "A rare case of cutaneous Epstein-Barr virus- ...
BK virus Epstein-Barr virus infection Glomerulosclerosis--WebMD. ... Drug use or infections may cause focal segmental ...
Simulating Epstein Barr Virus Infection with C-ImmSim. Bioinformatics, 23: 1371-1377 (2007) doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/btm044 ... Besides, an antigen can represent a bacterium, a virus or an allergen or a tumour cell. The high degree of complexity of the ... The latest version of C-ImmSim allows for the simulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection . The porting was possible thank to the aid of ... C-ImmSim has been recently customised to simulate the HIV-1 infection. Moreover, it can simulate the immunotherapy to generic ...
... after suffering from Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. He caught the virus after sharing water bottles with his fellow boxing ...
Sawada A, Inoue M, Kawa K (April 2017). "How we treat chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection". International Journal of ... Individuals with certain Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative, non-Epstein-Barr virus malignant lymphoid, or other ... of patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection are afflicted by MBA. Other EBV+ LPD reported to predispose ... "Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites as the primary clinical manifestation of an Epstein-Barr virus infection". Journal of ...
Most cases are associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas are carcinomas that arise ...
Sawada A, Inoue M, Kawa K (April 2017). "How we treat chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection". International Journal of ... Asada H (March 2007). "Hypersensitivity to mosquito bites: a unique pathogenic mechanism linking Epstein-Barr virus infection, ... Equine encephalitis viruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Venezuelan ... Epstein-Barr virus-negative lymphoid malignancy, or another predisposing condition such as Eosinophilic cellulitis or chronic ...
"Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity". Virology. 333 (2): 201-6. doi: ... PIM2 or Proviral Integrations of Moloney virus 2 is serine/threonine kinase that has roles in cell growth, proliferation, ... "Proviral Integration Site for Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) Kinases Promote Human T Helper 1 Cell Differentiation". The ...
"Persisting illness and fatigue in adults with evidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection". Ann Intern Med. 102 (1): 7-16. doi: ... "Evidence for active Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with persistent, unexplained illnesses: elevated anti-early ... The designation Chronic Epstein-Barr Virus was in use in the U.S., but the magazine used the term "Raggedy Ann Syndrome" to ... Straus S, Tosato G, Armstrong G, Lawley T, Preble O, Henle W, Davey R, Pearson G, Epstein J, Brus I (1985). " ...
"Dysregulated Epstein-Barr virus infection in the multiple sclerosis brain". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 204 (12): 2899- ... Some interactions between the Epstein-Barr virus and the HERVs could be the trigger of the MS microglia reactions. Supporting ... BBB infection: It has also been pointed out that some infectious agents with positive correlation to MS, specially Chlamydia ... Recent research as of 2019 point to one of the HERV-W viruses (pHEV-W), and specifically one of the proteins of the viral ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with nasopharyngeal cancer. Nasopharyngeal cancer occurs endemically in some ... Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus, betel quid, radiation exposure, certain workplace exposures. About 90% are ... Squamous cell cancers of the tonsils are more strongly associated with human papillomavirus infection than are cancers of other ... Distinct host genome methylation and expression patterns, produced even when virus isn't integrated into the host genome. ...
Epstein-Barr virus infection is strongly correlated with this cancer. Unique genetic alterations promote cell survival in ... Fujita S, Buziba N, Kumatori A, Senba M, Yamaguchi A, Toriyama K (May 2004). "Early stage of Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection ... Burkitt lymphoma is commonly associated with the infection of B cell lymphocytes with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and in these ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is found in nearly all patients. Chronic malaria is believed to reduce resistance to EBV, ...
July 2009). "Epstein-Barr virus infection is not a characteristic feature of multiple sclerosis brain". Brain. 132 (Pt 12): ... "Dysregulated Epstein-Barr virus infection in the multiple sclerosis brain". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 204 (12): 2899- ... Epstein-Barr virus could be involved, but is not likely. Involvement of the deep gray matter (DGM), suggested by magnetic ... June 2009). "Epstein-Barr virus is associated with grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. ...
Peptic ulcers are most commonly caused by a bacterial Helicobacter pylori infection. Epstein-Barr virus infection is another ... ISBN 978-0-7020-3085-7. Yau, Tung On; Tang, Ceen-Ming; Yu, Jun (2014-06-07). "Epigenetic dysregulation in Epstein-Barr virus- ... "Integrative Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Mutations and Epigenetic Alterations in Gastric Cancer". ... Inflammation of the stomach by infection from any cause is called gastritis, and when including other parts of the ...
"An Animal Model for Acute and Persistent Epstein-Barr Virus Infection". Science. 276 (5321): 2030-2033. doi:10.1126/science. ... commonly known as Epstein-Barr virus, at 65%. The structural proteins are highly conserved, while genes expressed during Human ... genetic validation for an Epstein-Barr virus animal model". J. Virol. 76 (1): 421-6. doi:10.1128/jvi.76.1.421-426.2002. PMC ... Macacine gammaherpesvirus 4 infection in rhesus monkeys resembles Human gammaherpesvirus 4 infection in humans in several ...
Infections with Parvovirus B19, mycoplasma, cytomegalovirus, coxsackie B4 virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Chlamydophila ... "Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection". JAAD Case Reports. 1 (1): 9- ... Viral infections have also been observed to be associated with the development of SJS, SJS/TEN, and TEN in the absence of a ... Skin infections, which may lead to sepsis, are potentially lethal complications of AGEP; preventative methods and rapid ...
Primary CNS lymphoma is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (> 90%) in immunodeficient patients (such as ... Doug became ill with salmonella poisoning after his birthday and later developed a staph infection from the shunt in his neck ... of all cases of lymphomas in HIV infections (other types are Burkitt's lymphomas and immunoblastic lymphomas). ...
"Mononucleosis syndrome and coincidental human herpesvirus-7 and Epstein-Barr virus infection". Archives of Disease in Childhood ... Complications with HHV-7 infection has been shown to be a factor in a great variety of transplant types. A mature virus ... which interferes with HIV-1 infection but may reactivate HHV-6 infection. It is however unclear exactly what effect HHV-7 has ... Primary infection of HHV-7 among children generally occurs between the ages of 2 and 5, which means it occurs after primary ...
Infection with Epstein-Barr virus results in the overexpression of this gene. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding ... "fgr proto-oncogene mRNA induced in B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus infection". Nature. 319 (6050): 238-40. Bibcode: ... Patel M, Faulkner L, Katz DR, Brickell PM (1991). "The c-fgr proto-oncogene: expression in Epstein-Barr-virus-infected B ... Patel M, Leevers SJ, Brickell PM (Feb 1990). "Regulation of c-fgr proto-oncogene expression in Epstein-Barr virus infected B- ...
May 1998). "Calcification in the basal ganglia with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection". Neurology. 50 (5): 1485-8. ... The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) should be examined to exclude bacteria, viruses and parasites. The Ellsworth Howard test (a 10-20 ...
The viral influence is associated with infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The Epstein-Barr virus is one of the most ... Barr virus (EBV), unknown factors that result in rare familial clusters, and heavy alcohol consumption. Epstein- Barr virus ... the tumor most strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection of the cancerous cells. Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal ... Very rarely does Epstein-Barr virus lead to cancer, which suggests a variety of influencing factors. Other likely causes ...
Infections with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, human immunodeficiency virus (i.e. HIV ... Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBVMCU) was first described as a lymphoproliferative disorder in which Epstein ... The B-cells in these lesions are often but not always infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. DLBCL-CI occurring in cases of ... Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (June 2018). "Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoid proliferations, a 2018 update". Human Pathology ...
Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection' in a General Medical Practice". Journal of the American Medical Association. 257 ( ...
Cinbis M, Aysun S (May 1992). "Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection". Br J ... It can also be the initial symptom of the Epstein-Barr virus (see Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases). ... Cinbis M, Aysun S (May 1992). "Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection". The ... It can also be the initial symptom of the Epstein-Barr virus (see mononucleosis), and a relationship between the syndrome and ...
... can be caused by swelling of the cornea due to infection by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and can therefore present as ... Cinbis M, Aysun S (May 1992). "Alice in Wonderland syndrome as an initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection". The ... a disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Micropsia can result from retinal edema causing a dislocation of the receptor ...
June 2007). "Splenic infarction after Epstein-Barr virus infection in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis". Int. J. Hematol ... Several factors may increase the tendency for clot formation, such as specific infections (such as infectious mononucleosis,[ ... associated infection, and hematological malignancy. In spite of those already had risk factors of developing splenic infarction ... "Splenic Infarct and Pulmonary Embolism as a Rare Manifestation of Cytomegalovirus Infection". Case Reports in Hematology. 2017 ...
"A novel interleukin-12 p40-related protein induced by latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in B lymphocytes". J Virol. 70 (2): ... "Salmonella infection data for Sqstm1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Sqstm1". Wellcome Trust ...
Downregulation of PTPkappa was found to occur following Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection of Hodgkin's Lymphomas cells. Using ... by the Epstein-Barr virus encoded EBNA1 contributes to the growth and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma cells". Blood. 111 (1): 292- ... Eswaran J, Debreczeni JE, Longman E, Barr AJ, Knapp S (2006). "The crystal structure of human receptor protein tyrosine ...
There are several forms of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. These include asymptomatic infections, the primary infection, ... Fleisher, G.; Bolognese, R. (1983). "Persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection and pregnancy". Journal of Infectious Diseases. ... Bennett, NJ (12 October 2008). "Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection". eMedicine. Retrieved 2008-10-05. Pannone, ... "Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors are distinctive mesenchymal tumors reflecting multiple infection events: A ...
The most common manifestation of primary infection with this organism is acute infectious mononucleosis, a self-limited ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4, is a gammaherpesvirus that infects more than 95% of the worlds population. ... Expression of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in Hodgkins lymphoma cells mediates Up- ... Antibody response to Epstein-Barr virus. Adapted with permission from Johnson DH, Cunha BA. Epstein-Barr virus serology. Infect ...
The most common manifestation of primary infection with this organism is acute infectious mononucleosis, a self-limited ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4, is a gammaherpesvirus that infects more than 95% of the worlds population. ... Epstein-Barr virus is also a human tumor virus, the first virus associated with human malignancy. Infection with Epstein-Barr ... Pediatric Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection) and Pediatric Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection What to ...
This topic contains 47 study abstracts on Epstein-Barr Virus Infections indicating that the following substances may be helpful ... Diseases : Coronavirus Infection, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, HIV Infections, Human Papilloma Virus ... Diseases : Cytomegalovirus Infections, Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C, Herpes family viruses, HSV-1 ... Diseases : Epstein-Barr Virus Infections, Herpes family viruses, Kaposis Sarcoma, Oncovirus. Pharmacological Actions : ...
Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (typically known by the acronym XMEN) is a disorder that affects the immune system ... Learn more about the gene associated with X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and ... X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (typically known by the acronym ... Genetic Testing Registry: Immunodeficiency, X-Linked, with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia ...
Subnuclear localization and phosphorylation of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection nuclear proteins.. Petti L1, Sample C, Kieff ... Functions of the six Epstein-Barr virus latent infection nuclear proteins (EBNA-1, -2, -3A, -3B, -3C, or -LP) in maintaining ... latent infection or cell growth transformation are only partially understood. Using antibodies specific for each EBNA in ...
Cytokine profiles in children with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.. Wada T1, Muraoka M, Yokoyama T, Toma T, Kanegane H, ... Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection causes infectious mononucleosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in ... but not ectopic infection. TNF-α levels were elevated in both diseases. Elevation of those mediators may contribute to the ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), an ... Dysregulated Epstein-Barr virus infection in the multiple sclerosis brain J Exp Med. 2007 Nov 26;204(12):2899-912. doi: 10.1084 ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), an ... To test the idea that MS might result from perturbed EBV infection in the CNS, we investigated expression of EBV markers in ...
Active viral replication in some lesions raises the possibility of virus-related perpetuation of gastrointestinal inflammation. ... Epstein-Barr virus infection is common in inflamed gastrointestinal mucosa Dig Dis Sci. 2012 Jul;57(7):1887-98. doi: 10.1007/ ... Background and aims: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in the malignant epithelial cells of 10% of all gastric ... EBV infection was localized by EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization and by immunohistochemical stains for viral latent ...
... virus to two human cancers, endemic Burkitts lymphoma (BL) (Burkitt, 1963) and undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC ... Epstein M.A. (1991) Plans for Human Trials of a Vaccine Against Epstein-Barr Virus Infection. In: de la Maza L.M., Peterson E.M ... Epstein MA, Morgan AJ (1983) Clinical consequences of Epstein-Barr virus infection and possible control by an antiviral vaccine ... Recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein gp340 protects cottontop tamarins against EB virus- ...
Epstein-Barr virus infection - Pan paniscus (bonobo) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human ... Primary infection with EBV is followed by latent infection in which the reservoir B cells are immortalized. EBV tumorigenic ...
Epstein-Barr virus infection - Rattus norvegicus (rat) [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpes virus that widely infects human populations predominantly at an early age but ... EBV has the unique ability to establish life-long latent infection in primary human B lymphocytes. During latent infection, EBV ...
... is a nonfamilial syndrome that shows a specific immunodeficiency for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Prolonged fever, ... Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a nonfamilial syndrome that shows a specific immunodeficiency for the ... Herpesviridae Infections / pathology*. Herpesvirus 4, Human*. Humans. Tumor Virus Infections / pathology*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and liver dysfunction were seen in CAEBV, but ...
This study aimed to assess the outcome of cardiovascular diseases for patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection ... Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications*, epidemiology, virology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Herpesvirus 4, Human / ... This study aimed to assess the outcome of cardiovascular diseases for patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection ...
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a common virus in the human herpes family. It is well known as the cause of infectious ... Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes. PLoS ... Image description: A distinct gene expression profile is apparent during acute EBV infection, but not latent infection. (A) ... They found an interesting gene expression profile during acute infection, but no lasting changes during latent infection. They ...
Primary Epstein-Barr-virus infections in acute neurologic disease. N Engl J Med. 1975;292:392-5.... ... to the editor: It has been estimated that less than 1 percent of persons infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have central ... 2. Joncas JH, Chicoine L, Thivierge F, Bertrand M. Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. A case of ... 5 I would like to present a report on a child with encephalitis and cerebellar ataxia from EBV infection. ...
how several antibodies induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a herpesvirus that causes infectious mononucleosis ... Immunization with components of the viral fusion apparatus elicits antibodies that neutralize Epstein-Barr virus in B cells and ... has determined how several antibodies induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a herpesvirus that causes infectious mononucleosis ... The virus is associated with certain cancers (nasopharyngeal and gastric) of epithelial cells, which form the lining of the ...
... relationship to cancer actually began back when the virus was first discovered. In the early 60s, Drs. Epstein and Barr wer ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBVs) relationship to cancer actually began back when the virus was first discovered. In the early 60s, ... Epstein and Barr were examining tissue from a patient with Burkitts lymphoma when they discovered the virus. Since then the ... Viral Infections. Viral infections like herpes simplex, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), chicken pox and rotavirus are ...
... код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в блог. Ширина: (. aвто. ). ... dr.Mohsen Meidani INCLUDING INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS Dr.Meidani dr.Mohsen Meidani п‚Ё Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of ... The virus infects the epithelium of the oropharynx and the salivary glands and is shed from these cells. The virus then spreads ... dr.Mohsen Meidani п‚Ё п‚Ё п‚Ё п‚Ё EBV infections occur worldwide. These infections are most common in early childhood, with a ...
... including Epsteinâ Barr virus (EBV) infection. The presence of EBV in all tumor cells, aberrant pattern of antibodies against ... Epsteinâ Barr virus-encoded small nuclear RNAs, and BamH1-A rightward transcripts. Among all encoded proteins, LMP1 plays a ... In NPC tumors, EBV expresses latency type II, where three EBV-encoded proteins, Epsteinâ Barr nuclear antigen 1, latent ... therapeutic approaches targeting the virus may increase the cure rate and add clinical benefit. The promising results of early ...
Epstein-Barr Virus Infection and Hodgkins Disease CORNELIUS J. DOORENBOS, M.D.; JOS W.M. VAN DER MEER, M.D.; D. ZANEN, M.D. ... DOORENBOS CJ, VAN DER MEER JW, ZANEN D. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection and Hodgkins Disease. Ann Intern Med. ;104:890. doi: ... To the editor: Persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection has been proposed as a possible cause of chronic illness and fatigue (1- ... a 34-year-old white man was admitted to our hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection. ...
The role of the early social environment on Epstein Barr virus infection: a prospective observational design using the ... Early age at time of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection results in poorly controlled viral infection in infants from Western ... The spectrum of infections with Epstein-Barr virus: a hypothesis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1971; 124(3): 330-337. ... Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in U.S. children ages 6-19, 2003-2010. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(5): e64921. ...
... cell deficiency underlies the development of chronic autoimmune diseases by impairing CD8+ T-cell control of Epstein-Barr virus ... Autoimmunity is postulated to evolve in the following steps: (1) CD8+ T-cell deficiency, (2) primary EBV infection, (3) ... EBV) infection, with the result that EBV-infected autoreactive B cells accumulate in the target organ where they produce ... decreased CD8+ T-cell control of EBV, (4) increased EBV load and increased anti-EBV antibodies, (5) EBV infection in the target ...
Ratio between Epstein-Barr viral load and anti-Epstein-Barr virus specific T-cell response as a predictive marker of ... Defective Control of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Insoo Kang, Timothy Quan, Helena ... An increased prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in young patients suggests a possible etiology for systemic lupus ... Defective Control of Latent Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-κB activation is important for infected cell ... Epstein-Barr virus latent infection membrane protein 1 TRAF-binding site induces NIK/IKKα-dependent noncanonical NF-κB ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1) mimics a constitutively activated TNFR (34). LMP1 is ... Epstein-Barr virus latent infection membrane protein 1 TRAF-binding site induces NIK/IKKα-dependent noncanonical NF-κB ...
Nurse Practitioner said I tested positive for the Ebstein Barr Virus back a few months ago. I never had fever or sore throat, ... Communities>Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)>Would a 9 month active mono infection test positive on a mono spot test? ... Nurse Practitioner said I tested positive for the Ebstein Barr Virus back a few months ago. I never had fever or sore throat, ... Nurse Practitioner said I tested positive for the Ebstein Barr Virus back a few months ago. I never had fever or sore throat, ...
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in Sera of Patients with Primary EBV Infection. K. H. Chan, M. H. Ng, W. H. Seto, J. S. M. Peiris ... Epstein-Barr virus Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. Lennette E. H. 1992 365 380 Marcel Dekker, Inc New York, N.Y ... Serodiagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection by using recombinant viral capsid antigen fragments and autologous gene fusion.J ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in infancy.J. Clin. Virol.2120015762. ...
... is a well-known example of a human virus which interacts most intimately with the immune system. EBV is a polyclonal B ... In "The Epstein-Barr virus" (M.A. Epstein, B.G. Achong, Eds.), Sping-Verlag, Berlin, 297 (1979).Google Scholar ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-known example of a human virus which interacts most intimately with the immune system. ... Menezes J., Gosselin J., Kundu S. (1989) Epstein-Barr Virus Infection and Immunoregulation. In: Ablashi D.V., Faggioni A., ...
Cross-reactions to other viruses were not observed upon examination of cell lines infected with herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 ... HSV-1 and -2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. When ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated disease exhibits distinct gene expression patterns characterized by the transcription of ... Visual Detection and Evaluation of Latent and Lytic Gene Expression during Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Using One-Step Reverse ...
  • abstract = "We used nuclease digestion to map RNA transcripts encoded in the BamHI M fragment of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome (strain B95-8). (
  • Persons with infectious mononucleosis may be able to spread the infection to others for a period of weeks. (
  • Infectious mononucleosis is caused when a person is first exposed to the virus during or after adolescence. (
  • Henle G, Henle W, Diehl V. Relation of Burkitt's tumor-associated herpes-ytpe virus to infectious mononucleosis. (
  • The most common manifestation of primary infection with this organism is acute infectious mononucleosis, a self-limited clinical syndrome that most frequently affects adolescents and young adults. (
  • The search for the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis was unsuccessful for many years, partly because researchers did not appreciate that most primary infections are asymptomatic and that most adults are seropositive. (
  • [ 3 ] Henle reported the relationship between acute infectious mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus in 1968. (
  • [ 4 ] Subsequently, a large prospective study of students at Yale University firmly established Epstein-Barr virus as the etiologic agent of infectious mononucleosis. (
  • Primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection causes infectious mononucleosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in children, where EBV infects B and CD8(+) T cells, respectively. (
  • Henle W, Henle G (1969) The relation between the Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt's lymphoma and cancer of the postnasal space. (
  • EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells, causing infectious mononucleosis during adolescence. (
  • A research team led by scientists from NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has determined how several antibodies induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a herpesvirus that causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with certain cancers, block infection of cells grown in the laboratory. (
  • dr.Mohsen Meidani INCLUDING INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS Dr.Meidani dr.Mohsen Meidani п‚Ё Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of heterophile-positive infectious mononucleosis (IM), which is characterized by fever,sore throat, lymphadenopathy, and atypical lymphocytosis. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a highly prevalent herpesvirus linked to infectious mononucleosis and several malignancies. (
  • The clinical features of acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection overlap those of a variety of other infectious and noninfectious diseases, and reliable laboratory tests are important to aid the differential diagnosis. (
  • It is the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis, commonly referred to as "mono. (
  • Epstein-Barr virusassociated infectious mononucleosis in Chinese children. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis and risk factor analysis for complications in hospitalized children. (
  • Papesch M, Watkins R. Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis. (
  • A prospective clinical study of Epstein-Barr virus and host interactions during acute infectious mononucleosis. (
  • Clinical manifestations and quantitative analysis of virus load in Taiwanese children with Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis. (
  • Celtik C, Kucukugu Y, Balci DB, Oner N, Duran R, Karasalihoglu S. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory features of Epstein-Barr virus-associated acute infectious mononucleosis in children. (
  • Lytic EBV infection of differentiated oral epithelial cells results in the release of infectious viral particles and is required for efficient transmission of EBV from host to host. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a human gamma-herpesvirus that causes the clinical syndrome infectious mononucleosis [ 1 ], and contributes to several types of human malignancy. (
  • EBV-infected B cells can be reactivated to the lytic form of infection, which is required for production of infectious viral particles, following strong B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation and/or plasma cell differentiation [ 4 , 6 - 8 ]. (
  • Previously we reported that 5% of the positive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) results obtained on the Liaison platform are falsely elevated, but, while we could demonstrate the interference mechanism, we could not identify a concrete underlying (infectious) cause ( 2 ). (
  • Epstein-Barr virus is a gamma-group herpes virus that causes Infectious Mononucleosis a benign, self-limited lymphoproliferative disease that is characterized by fever,generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, sore throat and appearance in the blood of atypical activated T-lymphocytes. (
  • Publisher's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections-Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (
  • Publisher's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections-Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (
  • The Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections and features dormant and discontinued projects. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease). (
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a primary cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) throughout the world, and the positive serology rate changes over time in infected individuals. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the herpesvirus family, is one of the primary causes of infectious mononucleosis (IM) in children and teenagers, and is widespread throughout the world. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus infects 95% of the adult population and is the cause of infectious mononucleosis. (
  • Host genetics is also important in infectious disease, however there have been no large-scale efforts towards understanding the contribution that human genetic variation plays in primary EBV infection and latency. (
  • However, in the only large human clinical trial of an experimental EBV vaccine conducted to date, the EBV gp350 vaccine did not prevent EBV infection, but did reduce the rate of infectious mononucleosis by 78 percent. (
  • Activated lymphocytes, as identified by HLA-DR expression, associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced infectious mononucleosis (IM) were shown to be a heterogeneous population containing significantly elevated cytotoxic/suppressor (CD8) T cells, natural killer (CD16) cells and helper (CD4) T cells. (
  • Most notably, this virus causes infectious mononucleosis but it is also associated with cancers such as Hodgkin and Burkitt lymphoma. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a type of herpes virus that causes infectious mononucleosis (also called mono, or the kissing disease). (
  • Infectious mononucleosis (IM, commonly known as glandular fever) is a common manifestation of EBV infection. (
  • 2) - Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis. (
  • [18] When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35 to 50% of the time. (
  • When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35 to 50% of the time. (
  • The lytic cycle, or productive infection, results in the production of infectious virions. (
  • De Schryver A, Klein G, Heweston J, Rocchi G, Henle W, Henle G, Moss DJ, Pope JH (1974) Comparison of EBV neutralization tests based on abortive infection or transformation of lymphoid cells and their relation to membrane reactive antibodies (anti MA). (
  • 2. Joncas JH, Chicoine L, Thivierge F, Bertrand M. Epstein-Barr virus antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. (
  • The new research helps define the contributions of virus-neutralizing antibodies other than those directed at gp350 on B cells. (
  • Unlike the gp350 candidate EBV vaccine, which protects only B cells from infection, the candidate vaccines described in the new paper elicited antibodies that could prevent EBV from fusing with both epithelial cells and B cells and thus may provide protection independent of cell type, the authors note. (
  • Immunization with components of the viral fusion apparatus elicits antibodies that neutralize Epstein-Barr virus in B cells and epithelial cells. (
  • This vaccine was tested in monkeys and was shown to induce antibodies similar to those associated with protection from HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (
  • By adulthood, more than 90% of individuals have been infected and have antibodies to the virus. (
  • Although primary EBV infection can be diagnosed by an assay for heterophile antibodies in adults, this assay's sensitivity is low for children ( 1 ). (
  • The detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to the virus capsid antigen (VCA) in the absence of antibody to EB nuclear antigen (EBNA) is regarded as suggestive of acute primary EBV infection because EBNA antibodies develop only in late convalescence ( 8 ). (
  • In primary infection of children ( 2 ) or immunocompromised patients, the appearance of EBNA antibodies may be unusually delayed, resulting in a false diagnosis of recent EBV infection. (
  • Using the expanded serological profile, those patients with detectable VCA IgG of low affinity in the absence of EBNA antibodies were categorized as having early (if IgM positive) or recent primary infections. (
  • Antibodies to EBV nuclear antigen ( EBNA ) are not seen during acute infection, but develop 2-4 months after the first presentation of infection and persist for life. (
  • Viral capsid IgM testing for IgM antibodies to viral capsid antigen indicates current or recent infection, as it is generally only detectable for 4-6 weeks following first presentation. (
  • We show that 293 cells express a relatively low level of CD21, that binding of fluorescein-labeled EBV to 293 cells can be detected, and that both the binding of virus to cells and infection can be blocked with antibodies specific for CD21. (
  • following infection, antibodies produced against pathogen surface structures cross-react with nerve ending antigens, leading to neurologic damage. (
  • Re-institution of methotrexate in September 2000 led to recurrence of lymphadenopathy, which was diagnosed as necrotising lymphadenitis by histological examination, with high titres of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies (antiviral capsid antigens IgG 1:1280, anti-early antigens IgG 1:640) and EBV DNA in plasma (3100 copies/ml). (
  • Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) blood DNA load, a robust immune response to EBV and cross-reactive circulating antibodies to viral and self-antigens. (
  • Difference in neutralizing antibodies against B-cell infection between disease-free controls and incident NPC cases. (
  • Supplemental Figure 1 - Correlation of anti-gp350 antibodies with B-cell infection neutralization. (
  • Supplemental Figure 2 - Correlation of anti-gH/gL antibodies with epithelial cell infection neutralization. (
  • Publications] Dai Iwakiri: 'Antigenic variation of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNAI as revealed by monoclonal antibodies' Virus Research. (
  • Circulating polymerase chain reaction was positive for Epstein-Barr virus antibodies. (
  • EBV gp350 is thought to be a key target for antibodies capable of preventing virus infection. (
  • Further, the investigational vaccine induced up to 100-fold higher levels of neutralizing antibodies in mice compared with previous vaccine designs by using structure-based design to precisely target the cell-binding site on gp350, the vulnerable part of the virus. (
  • Young adults with high levels of antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus, the virus that most often causes mononucleosis, may be more likely to develop multiple sclerosis 15 to 20 years later, according to a study in the Archives of Neurology. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4, is a gammaherpesvirus that infects more than 95% of the world's population. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), but direct proof of its involvement in the disease is still missing. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. (
  • These results provide important new information relating to natural herpesvirus infections. (
  • Viral DNA in cell-free serum or plasma of patients is useful for diagnosing primary human herpesvirus 6 infection ( 3 ). (
  • Cross-reactions to other viruses were not observed upon examination of cell lines infected with herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 (HSV-1 and -2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. (
  • Primary infection with EBV, a common human herpesvirus, is typically asymptomatic in childhood but, if occurring in adolescence or later, often presents as AIM. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gamma herpesvirus associated with occasional severe primary infections, several malignancies and significant pathology in immunosuppressed hosts. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human herpesvirus 4, is a member of the herpes virus family. (
  • Detection of Epstein-Barr virus, but not human herpesvirus 8, DNA in cervical secretions from Swedish women by real-time polymerase chain reaction. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a γ-herpesvirus which infects over 90% of the adult human population. (
  • The Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ), formally called Human gammaherpesvirus 4 , is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family , and is one of the most common viruses in humans. (
  • Expression of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in Hodgkin's lymphoma cells mediates Up-regulation of CCL20 and the migration of regulatory T cells. (
  • Conway M, Morgan A, Mackett M (1989) Expression of Epstein-Barr virus antigen gp340/220 in mouse fibroblasts using a bovine papilloma virus vector. (
  • David EM, Morgan AJ (1988) Efficient purification of Epstein-Barr virus membrane antigen gp340 by fast protein liquid chromatography. (
  • In NPC tumors, EBV expresses latency type II, where three EBV-encoded proteins, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1, latent membrane protein 1 and 2 (LMP1, 2), are expressed along with BamH1-A rightward reading frame 1, Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small nuclear RNAs, and BamH1-A rightward transcripts. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated disease exhibits distinct gene expression patterns characterized by the transcription of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1, EBNA2, latent membrane protein (LMP) 1, LMP2A, and BZLF1 (Zebra). (
  • The Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) serves as an attractive therapeutic target for these cancers because it is expressed in all EBV-associated tumours, performs essential activities for tumourigenesis and there are no similar proteins in the human body. (
  • He also had manifestations of EBV infection including fever, skin rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and positive immunoglobulin M (IgM)-EBV antibody and EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA). (
  • Patients with indeterminate results of viral capsid antigen IgM test at the time of primary infection and no subsequent seroconversion. (
  • Epstein- Barr Virus: Clinical and Epidemiological Revisits and Genetic Basis of Oncogenesis. (
  • To test the idea that MS might result from perturbed EBV infection in the CNS, we investigated expression of EBV markers in postmortem brain tissue from MS cases with different clinical courses. (
  • Epstein MA, Morgan AJ (1983) Clinical consequences of Epstein-Barr virus infection and possible control by an antiviral vaccine. (
  • Although the pathophysiological link and molecular process of EBV-induced oncogenesis are not fully understood, therapeutic approaches targeting the virus may increase the cure rate and add clinical benefit. (
  • She was referred to the emergency room and was diagnosed with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mononucleosis based on her clinical symptoms and positive heterophile antibody test. (
  • This retrospective study was to explore the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of IM associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBV-IM) in children. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus: the impact of scientific advances on clinical practice. (
  • From 34 patients (10 males and 24 females, 22 to 83 years old) detailed clinical information was available and an acute parvovirus B19 infection could be biologically ascertained or was very probable. (
  • For the other 34 patients, in which B19 IgM could be shown, exact timing of infection was not possible and/or no clinical information was available. (
  • Publications] Shigemasa Sawada: 'Soluble CD23 levels and their correlation with erythrocyte sedimentation rate and with copy number of Epstein-Barr virus genome in rheumatoid arthritis patients' Clinical Rheumatology. (
  • Epstein-Barr infection should be considered as the etiology of retinal vasculitis with similar clinical manifestations. (
  • Backgraund: The aim of this study is identifying the most representative pathogens causing infections of the posterior segment of the eye and verifying the correlation between clinical diagnosis and laboratory diagnosis. (
  • There is a correlation between the clinical diagnosis and virus isolated. (
  • The aim of this study was to explore the serological and clinical features among Chinese children with EBV infections. (
  • This study aimed to explore serological outcomes and clinical features in children with EBV infection and to interpret the implications. (
  • Clinical and laboratory characteristics by type of presentation of primary infection. (
  • The aim of this study is to assess epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of primary infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in children without previous diagnosis of any immune disease and its relationship with clinical presentation. (
  • These investigations indicate that such simulations, combined with laboratory and clinical studies and animal models, will provide a powerful approach to investigating and controlling EBV infection, including the design of targeted anti-viral therapies. (
  • The graph below demonstrates the antibody response to Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • Antibody response to Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • Intravenous vitamin C therapy has a positive effect on disease duration and reduces viral antibody levels in EBV infections. (
  • They then used this information to develop novel vaccine candidates that, in animals, elicited potent anti-EBV antibody responses that blocked infection of cell types involved in EBV-associated cancers. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been suspected of involvement in the pathogenesis of various chronic autoimmune diseases since the finding of elevated levels of antibody to the virus in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 1971 [ 1 ]. (
  • Tests of the affinity of IgG antibody have recently been reported to be useful in differentiating recent from past infections ( 6 ). (
  • Antibody avidity test results were added to provide an expanded serological profile in which patients with low antibody affinity were defined as having primary infections while those with high antibody affinity were regarded as having past infections (Table 1 ). (
  • Antibody titration to four EBV -specific markers can provide distinct information about whether a patient has a current primary or reactivated infection, recent infection, or past infection. (
  • We describe deterioration of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who received a single infusion of humanised anti-IL6 receptor monoclonal antibody (tocilizumab). (
  • We therefore studied young Gambian children at an age at which many acquire EBV, monitoring them over six months for evidence of EBV infection by virus load in the blood, virus-specific IgM and IgG antibody status, and virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. (
  • Serum antibody responses to 14 rhLCV lytic infection proteins in experimentally and naturally infected rhesus macaques. (
  • This review covers 25 years of studies into host genetic susceptibility to EBV infection and disease, from candidate gene studies, to the first genome-wide association study of EBV antibody response, and an EBV-status stratified genome-wide association study of Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • We sought to refine this model for acute or active EBV infections by performing antibody-mediated depletion of certain immune subsets in rabbits. (
  • The CD8 + T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is well characterized. (
  • Moreover, another aim is the verification of the role of Epstein Barr virus that is often in association with other pathogens. (
  • Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA by PCR in serum had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 95 and 79%, respectively, for the diagnosis of primary EBV infection. (
  • the latter with tissue biopsy for histopathology and detection of Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • Publications] Masami Takei: 'Detection of Epstein-Barr virus encoded small RNA 1 and latent membrane protein 1 in synovial lining cells from rtheumatoid arthritis patients' International Immunology. (
  • Further viral replication results in viremia, with subsequent infection of the lymphoreticular system, including the liver, spleen, and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood. (
  • Host immune response to the viral infection includes CD8+ T lymphocytes with suppressor and cytotoxic functions, the characteristic atypical lymphocytes found in the peripheral blood. (
  • The T lymphocytes are cytotoxic to the Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells and eventually reduce the number of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes to less than 1 per 10 6 circulating B cells. (
  • After acute Epstein-Barr virus infection, latently infected lymphocytes and epithelial cells persist and are immortalized. (
  • During latent infection, the virus is present in the lymphocytes and oropharyngeal epithelial cells as episomes in the nucleus. (
  • EBV has the unique ability to establish life-long latent infection in primary human B lymphocytes. (
  • Early after infection, EBV-infected B cells proliferate rapidly, whereas later after infection, the outgrowth of B cells is controlled by T lymphocytes, including cytotoxic CD8 + cells ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). (
  • An adenovirus type-2 was isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes and throat washings from a patient with severe chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. (
  • Despite the Epstein-Barr virus reactivation, attempts to establish spontaneous lymphoblastoid cell lines from peripheral blood lymphocytes and to immortalize cord lymphocytes with throat washings were unsuccessful due to a marked cytopathic effect. (
  • Through EBER-ISH, the virus could be localized merely in rare non-neoplastic bystander lymphocytes in 27 and additionally in tumour cells of 27 cases. (
  • In spite of its association with malignancies of various histological lineages, experimental EBV infection has been extremely difficult with B-lymphocytes being the only exception, in which in vitro EBV infection easily establishes persistent infection. (
  • EBV establishes life-long, latent infection in B lymphocytes, which can contribute to development of different cancer types, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • Activated lymphocytes during acute Epstein-Barr virus infection" by Blake E. Tomkinson, David K. Wagner et al. (
  • and Sullivan, John L., "Activated lymphocytes during acute Epstein-Barr virus infection" (1987). (
  • The early events in the infection of normal B lymphocytes and B lymphoblastoid cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were examined by electron and immunoelectron microscopy and by infectivity and inhibition studies. (
  • These studies indicate that EBV enters normal B lymphocytes by a different endocytic pathway than the clathrin-receptosome-lysosome pathway utilized by many other ligands, including a number of viruses, to enter cells. (
  • Prevention and Treatment of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Lymphoma Following a Solid Organ Transplant Using EBV Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs). (
  • This research study uses Epstein Barr virus (EBV) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (
  • EBV is a very common virus that infects more than 90 percent of the general population and in most cases goes unnoticed. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpes virus that widely infects human populations predominantly at an early age but remains mostly asymptomatic. (
  • The virus infects the epithelium of the oropharynx and the salivary glands and is shed from these cells. (
  • During primary infection EBV infects autoreactive naïve B cells in the tonsil, driving them to enter germinal centres where they proliferate and differentiate into latently infected autoreactive memory B cells (path 1) which then exit from the tonsil and circulate in the blood (path 2). (
  • EBV readily infects human B cells in vitro, by attaching to CD21 at the cell surface, and establishes a latent infection which transforms the B cells into proliferating lymphoblasts ( 21 , 22 ). (
  • Very little is known about how frequently EBV infects epithelial cells during normal human infection, about how the virus gains entry into epithelial cells, or whether such an infection typically becomes latent, becomes lytic, or is aborted. (
  • A late event in a very few carriers of this virus is the emergence of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, two rare cancers. (
  • Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma. (
  • Down-regulation of the TGF-beta target gene, PTPRK, by the Epstein-Barr virus encoded EBNA1 contributes to the growth and survival of Hodgkin lymphoma cells. (
  • Infection with Epstein-Barr virus is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, especially in immunocompromised hosts, and is associated with various tumors, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma. (
  • In 1964, Epstein described the first human tumor virus when he found virus particles in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line. (
  • The EBV infection itself usually does not cause any other symptoms in males with XMEN, and affected individuals may not come to medical attention until they develop lymphoma. (
  • Uncontrolled EBV infection increases the likelihood of developing lymphoma. (
  • Epstein MA, Morgan AJ, Finerty S, Randle BJ, Kirkwood JK (1985) Protection of cottontop tamarins against Epstein-Barr virus-induced malignant lymphoma by a prototype subunit vaccine. (
  • In the early 60s, Drs. Epstein and Barr were examining tissue from a patient with Burkitt's lymphoma when they discovered the virus. (
  • Two hundred and eight cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) occurring in Europeans without any signs of HIV infection were investigated for their association with an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. (
  • Since EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cells can be grown in continuous culture and EBV can establish growth-altering latent infection in these cells, some effects of EBV on B-lymphocyte gene expression can be studied by using this in vitro system. (
  • Latent infection of established EBV-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines with the transforming EBV strain, B95-8, resulted in dramatic increases in vimentin mRNA and protein levels, while infection with the nontransforming P3HR1 strain failed to do so. (
  • We present a patient with neurological symptoms and lymphadenopathy, initially diagnosed as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) localisation based on lymph node pathology and a 30-fold higher EBV load in the CSF compared with serum. (
  • Post-transplant malignant lymphoma with monoclonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus episomes. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, peripheral T-cell lyphome, and gastric carcinoma. (
  • However, MT-2 cells expressed also EBNA3 and proteins of the early virus-replicative cycle, including BZLF, and was different with this respect from peripheral T-cell lymphoma. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus was discovered during ultrastructural studies of endemic Burkitt s lymphoma in Africa. (
  • There is now strong evidence that the virus causes two cancers endemic Burkitt s lymphoma in Africa and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, especially in the Orient. (
  • Manifestations of EBV infection in these patients include fatal IM, lymphoma, pneumonitis, hemophagocytic syndrome, and bone marow insufficiency. (
  • Children with EBV-associated malignant diseases such as malignant lymphoma or chronic active EBV infection were excluded. (
  • An inflammatory disease of the immune system, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased occurrence of lymphoma--or cancers of the lymphatic system, which plays an integral role in the body's ability to fight infection. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus-positive follicular lymphoma. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus-associated primary nodal T/NK-cell lymphoma shows a distinct molecular signature and copy number changes. (
  • Children with EBV infection have a higher risk of developing Burkitt lymphoma, a type of B-cell lymphoma. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of Hodgkin lymphoma. (
  • 1,2 ] An estimated 45% of Hodgkin lymphoma cases in the UK are linked to EBV infection (though this varies by age, with a higher proportion in children and older adults, and a lower proportion in younger adults). (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of Hodgkin lymphoma. (
  • The association with HIV may partly reflect increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) incidence in the HIV-infected population, though HIV/AIDS-related decreased immune function is thought to also impact Hodgkin lymphoma risk independently. (
  • Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. (
  • Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with delayed exposure to common childhood infections. (
  • Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with giant coronary aneurysms. (
  • Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a nonfamilial syndrome that shows a specific immunodeficiency for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). (
  • Cardiovascular complications associated with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. (
  • This study aimed to assess the outcome of cardiovascular diseases for patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV). (
  • These results suggest that the combination of Epstein-Barr virus and adenovirus type-2 may be etiologic agents in the development of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection in this patient. (
  • Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (CAEBV) of the T-/NK-cell type, systemic form is a rare and potentially life-threatening illness caused by persistent EBV infection. (
  • Recent Concise Viewpoints of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection. (
  • Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is characterized mainly by prolonged or intermittent fever, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly without definite underlying diseases at the diagnosis. (
  • How I treat T-cell chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease. (
  • Infection with Epstein-Barr virus in younger children is usually asymptomatic or mild. (
  • The virus is frequently transmitted from asymptomatic adults to infants and among young adults by transfer of saliva during kissing. (
  • More than 90% of asymptomatic seropositive individuals shed the virus in oropharyngeal secretions. (
  • Our previous studies have indicated that between nine and 14 percent of GBS cases are attributable to symptomatic Campylobacter infection [13] , [14] , suggesting that asymptomatic infection, or infection with other pathogens, must account for the majority of GBS cases. (
  • By contrast, very little is known about the events of asymptomatic primary infection. (
  • Of note, most of the published literature regarding the immunopathogenesis of primary EBV infection is derived from studies of AIM, rather than asymptomatic infections. (
  • In childhood, VZV causes chickenpox but CMV and EBV infections are usually asymptomatic. (
  • Two patients presented with erythema infectiosum, arthralgias were present in 15 patients, and 2 patients had an asymptomatic infection. (
  • Role of sexual behavior in the acquisition of asymptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection: a longitudinal study. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-κB activation is important for infected cell survival. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1) mimics a constitutively activated TNFR ( 34 ). (
  • Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus spontaneous lytic infection involves downregulation of latent membrane protein 1. (
  • EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is key to EBV lytic replication, and our previous work indicated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited constitutive EBV lytic infection through the suppression of LMP1-activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-related protein kinase 1/2 signaling. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus latent infection membrane protein increases vimentin expression in human B-cell lines. (
  • Vimentin induction was reproduced by the expression of the single EBV gene which encodes the latent infection membrane protein (LMP). (
  • The B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes two isoforms of latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2), LMP2A and LMP2B, which are expressed during latency in B cells. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus enters the epithelial cell cytoplasm by directly fusing with the plasma membrane. (
  • Guidelines on the diagnosis, prevention, prophylaxis, and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients were published in 2016 by the Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia. (
  • Management of Epstein-Barr Virus infections and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-6) guidelines. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • To better define current understanding of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in stem cell transplant patients, and to improve its diagnosis and management, a working group of the Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia 2015 reviewed the literature, graded the available quality of evidence, and developed evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis, prevention, prophylaxis and therapy of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders exclusively in the stem cell transplant setting. (
  • Hepatitis C virus infection can affect lymphoproliferative disorders only as a cofactor for Epstein-Barr virus in liver transplant recipients: PTLD.Int survey. (
  • Genotypic analysis of Epstein-Barr virus isolates associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Chinese immigrants to the United States. (
  • After initial inoculation, the virus replicates in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. (
  • Radiosensitization Effect of Nedaplatin on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells in Different Status of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection," BioMed Research International , vol. 2014, Article ID 713674, 7 pages, 2014. (
  • The virus is associated with certain cancers (nasopharyngeal and gastric) of epithelial cells, which form the lining of the body's surfaces, as well as Burkitt and Hodgkin lymphomas, which are cancers of the immune system's B cells. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is invariably present in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinomas, is found sporadically in other carcinomas, and replicates in the differentiated layer of the tongue epithelium in lesions of oral hairy leukoplakia. (
  • Combination of Tumor Volume and Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Improved Prognostic Stratification of Stage II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in the Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Era: A Large-Scale Cohort Study. (
  • The simulation is performed on a virtual grid that represents the anatomy of the tonsils of the nasopharyngeal cavity (Waldeyer ring) and the peripheral circulation -the sites of EBV infection and persistence. (
  • Regarding the latter possibility, lupus patients do appear to be more susceptible to viral infections, including reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV), a possible consequence of aberrant cytotoxic T cell function ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). (
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are common herpesviruses frequently acquired in childhood, which establish persistent, latent infection and are likely to impact the developing immune system. (
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are common herpesviruses frequently acquired in childhood. (
  • Which cancers are linked to Epstein-Barr virus infection? (
  • The results also raise the possibility that in a normal infection of epithelial cells by EBV, the LMP-1 protein is not expressed at levels that are high enough to be oncogenic and that there might be differences in the cells of EBV-associated epithelial cancers that have arisen to allow for elevated expression of LMP-1. (
  • Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have identified a link between a critical cancer pathway and an Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) protein known to be expressed in a number of EBV-associated cancers. (
  • Mononucleosis usually develops in adolescents and young adults who have escaped primary EBV infection when younger. (
  • Subnuclear localization and phosphorylation of Epstein-Barr virus latent infection nuclear proteins. (
  • Functions of the six Epstein-Barr virus latent infection nuclear proteins (EBNA-1, -2, -3A, -3B, -3C, or -LP) in maintaining latent infection or cell growth transformation are only partially understood. (
  • The Epstein-Barr nuclear Ag (EBNA) I of EBV has been also suggested to be a molecular mimic of the Sm autoantigen, an intracellular ribonucleoprotein that is a common and specific target of the humoral immune response in SLE ( 3 ). (
  • Although the EBV genome encodes many structural and nonstructural genes, those of most importance for serodiagnosis are the genes encoding the viral capsid antigens (VCAs), the early antigens (EAs) and the virus nuclear antigens (EBNAs). (
  • and 3) Epstein-Barr virus-associated non-lymphoproliferative diseases such as some cases of the immune disorders of multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosis and the childhood disorders of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome and acute cerebellar ataxia. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and multiple sclerosis susceptibility: A multiethnic study. (
  • There is a relation between Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis. (
  • SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO, Calif., June 13, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Atara Biotherapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:ATRA), a leading off-the-shelf, allogeneic T-cell immunotherapy company developing novel treatments for patients with cancer, autoimmune and viral diseases, today announced publication of new research findings advancing the understanding of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection in the multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. (
  • Researchers have found that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) carry a population of immune cells that overreact to Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • The virus is also associated with the childhood disorders of Alice in Wonderland syndrome and acute cerebellar ataxia and, based on some evidence, higher risks of developing certain autoimmune diseases, especially dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. (
  • Specifically, the magnesium transporter produced from the MAGT1 gene is active in CD8+ T cells, which are especially important in controlling viral infections such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). (
  • 5 Cerebellar ataxia may occur with or follow viral infections of the nervous system. (
  • What Time of Year Do Most Viral Infections Occur? (
  • Viral infections like herpes simplex, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), chicken pox and rotavirus are infections caused by a virus instead of a bacterium. (
  • Viral infections do not respond to antibiotics, but some specific viruses like influenza A and B can be treated with certain antiviral medications. (
  • Most commonly, treatment for viral infections includes drinking lots of fluids, getting rest, eating well and letting the illness run its course. (
  • Viral infections of the posterior segment of eye: What is the role of the Epstein Barr virus? (
  • Methods and findings: In this study 35 cases of patients with suspected viral infections of the posterior segment of eye are presented. (
  • Moreover, the nonrandomized data suggested that this strategy did not increase the incidence and mortality of bacterial and fungal infections [ 13 ], but the effect of this strategy on opportunistic viral infections needed further investigation. (
  • Fifty-seven (84%) of the parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M (IgM)-positive sera had a positive result for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) IgM by Liaison testing, 61 (90%) had a positive result for herpes simplex virus (HSV) IgM, 20 (29%) samples were positive for cytomegalovirus IgM, and 15 (22%) had a positive result for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato IgM. (
  • 1984). Already in 1976 enough was known for it to be evident that EB virus was an essential link in a complicated chain of events leading inexorably to the malignant tumors, and it therefore seemed reasonable to suppose that if infection by the virus could be prevented, the incidence of these tumors in populations at risk would be decreased (Epstein, 1976). (
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection and malignant lymphomas in liver transplant recipients. (
  • Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus is followed by latent infection, a characteristic of herpesviruses. (
  • Cytokine profiles in children with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. (
  • Primary infection with EBV is followed by latent infection in which the reservoir B cells are immortalized. (
  • 2014. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes. (
  • A) Microarray analysis was performed on pre-infection, acute, and latent timepoints for 10 subjects with primary EBV infection. (
  • 1. Grose C, Henle W, Henle G, Feorino PM. Primary Epstein-Barr-virus infections in acute neurologic disease. (
  • However, a previous study on PCR detection of EBV DNA in serum for the diagnosis of primary EBV infection found poor sensitivity and specificity ( 5 ). (
  • To evaluate the diagnostic utility of detecting EBV DNA in serum, we investigated 81 serum samples submitted to our laboratory from patients investigated for suspected primary EBV infection and 40 negative control serum samples from EBV-seropositive blood donors (made anonymous and provided by the Hong Kong Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service). (
  • To address these issues, we performed a longitudinal prospective study of primary EBV infection in humans. (
  • This enabled us to study EBV-naive university freshmen as they experienced primary infection with EBV. (
  • Of 66 subjects that experienced primary EBV infection during that time, we identified 16 who had readily identifiable CMV- and/or Flu-specific memory CD8 + T cell responses before EBV infection and who had blood samples taken at least 60 d before acute infection, during acute infection, and at least 150 d after. (
  • Primary/Acute HIV infection (human immunodeficiency virus) can present with pharyngitis, fever and hepatosplenomegaly. (
  • Polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) amplifies viral DNA to determine if the patient has a current primary infection or reactivation infection. (
  • Using data from a cohort of patients presenting to primary care, we have previously estimated that for every 10,000 cases of Campylobacter enteritis, two cases of GBS occur within the two months following infection, an incidence 77 times greater than that in the general population [13] , [14] . (
  • We herein present a case of a 54- year- old man with HIV/AIDS and EBV infection presenting with intractable hiccups and subsequent workup led to the diagnosis of primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma. (
  • In The Gambia most children are infected during childhood, in contrast to most developed countries where the majority of primary infections occur at a later age, often in adolescence [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Aside from the complications that can occur in normal children (see below), there are patients with either known or suspected immunodeficiencies who experience a more severe form of disease, usually after primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). (
  • The pathophysiology involved is usually related to either an inability to limit the primary EBV infection, an overexuberant immunologic response to the virus or defective apoptosis. (
  • The EBV-specific effector CD4 + T cells accumulate within a CD27 + CD28 + differentiation compartment during primary infection and remain enriched within this compartment throughout the persistent phase of infection. (
  • McLaughlin LP, Bollard CM, Keller MD. Adoptive T Cell Therapy for Epstein-Barr Virus Complications in Patients With Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says on its website in a page updated on May 16, 2006 that primary infection with the Epstein Barr Virus usually occurs early in life. (
  • These results show that low levels of surface CD21 can support infection of an epithelial cell line by EBV. (
  • Studies of the infection of epithelial cells by EBV have been limited because EBV does not readily infect epithelial cell lines in culture. (
  • Recent studies in vitro suggest certain epithelial cell lines that do not express CR2 can be infected by EBV if they are cocultivated with virus-releasing cells ( 19 ). (
  • In our effort to establish experimental system of persistent EBV infection in the epithelial-cell lineage, we attempted to introduce the gene encoding EBV receptor to human epithelial cell lines. (
  • EBV also establishes a lifelong dormant infection in some cells of the body's immune system. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus persistence in the absence of conventional memory B cells: IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells harbor the virus in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease patients. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection may confer multidrug resistance to breast cancer cells. (
  • Normally these cells recognize foreign invaders, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, and are then turned on (activated) to attack these invaders in order to prevent infection and illness. (
  • Because males with XMEN do not have enough functional T cells, they have frequent infections, such as ear infections, sinus infections, and pneumonia. (
  • However, the virus is generally inactive (latent) because it is controlled by T cells. (
  • This magnesium deficiency prevents the efficient activation of the T cells to target EBV and other infections. (
  • Impaired production of CD4+ T cells resulting from abnormal magnesium transport likely accounts for the deficiency of this type of T cell in people with XMEN, contributing to the decreased ability to prevent infection and illness. (
  • Contrary to previous studies, we found evidence of EBV infection in a substantial proportion of brain-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells in nearly 100% of the MS cases examined (21 of 22), but not in other inflammatory neurological diseases. (
  • Prior efforts to develop an EBV vaccine focused on a viral surface protein, gp350, that the virus uses to enter B cells. (
  • Here it is proposed that this CD8+ T-cell deficiency underlies the development of chronic autoimmune diseases by impairing CD8+ T-cell control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, with the result that EBV-infected autoreactive B cells accumulate in the target organ where they produce pathogenic autoantibodies and provide costimulatory survival signals to autoreactive T cells which would otherwise die in the target organ by activation-induced apoptosis. (
  • The present article presents a further development of this hypothesis, proposing that susceptibility to develop chronic autoimmune diseases after EBV infection is dependent on a genetically determined quantitative deficiency of the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells that normally keep EBV infection under tight control. (
  • Despite the facts that patients with SLE have increased incidence of EBV infection and potentially impaired cytotoxic T cell function, the specific cellular control of latent EBV infection in SLE has been less well characterized, apart from observations 20 years ago that lupus patients had decreased cytotoxic responses directed against EBV-infected B cells ( 9 ). (
  • Detection and quantification of virus DNA in blood by PCR of mononuclear cells are useful for diagnosing and monitoring lymphoproliferative diseases ( 11 , 13 , 14 ). (
  • Various effects of EBV infection on cells of the immune system and their products are thus examined. (
  • Furthermore, many studies have attempted to define the lymphocytosis that occurs during acute EBV infection in humans, but it is unclear whether bystander T cells contribute to it. (
  • During acute EBV infection, both preexisting CMV- and Flu-specific memory CD8 + T cells showed signs of bystander activation, including up-regulation of granzyme B. However, they generally did not expand, suggesting that the profound CD8 + lymphocytosis associated with acute EBV infection is composed largely of EBV-specific T cells. (
  • Importantly, the numbers of CMV- and Flu-specific T cells were comparable before and after acute EBV infection. (
  • In the context of human immunity, in which each individual is challenged with a broad variety of pathogens and adaptive immunity is required for long-term protection, deciphering the impact of heterologous infections on preexisting memory T cells after an acute infection is essential. (
  • To study the impact of acute viral infection on preexisting CD8 + T cell memory in humans, we studied the effect of natural EBV infection on preexisting memory CD8 + T cells specific for influenza A (Flu) and CMV. (
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that a typical infection of a person by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is primarily an infection of the person's B cells, both during the acute phase of infection ( 1 , 20 , 38 ) and during life-long latency ( 34 , 35 , 42 , 49 ). (
  • Expression of CD21 at high levels in epithelial cells from a stably transfected cDNA was shown to be capable of mediating efficient attachment of EBV to epithelial cells, which led to a transient infection ( 30 ). (
  • Cell lines that express the immunoglobulin A (IgA) receptor, SC, are susceptible to uptake of EBV mediated by EBV-specific IgA, suggesting a plausible mechanism for the infection of mucosal epithelial cells in individuals who have acquired immunity to EBV ( 47 ). (
  • Conclusions We demonstrated active EBV infection within ELS in the RA synovium in association with local differentiation of ACPA-reactive B cells. (
  • 90% of the human population within the first 2 decades of life and establishes reversible latent infection in B cells. (
  • Using a stably EBV- infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte cell line, we show here that undifferentiated basal epithelial cells support latent EBV infection, while differentiation of epithelial cells promotes lytic reactivation. (
  • These results suggest that differentiation-dependent expression of KLF4 and BLIMP1 in epithelial cells promotes lytic EBV infection. (
  • Like all herpesviruses, EBV undergoes both latent and lytic forms of infection in normal cells, and both types of infection are essential for the long-term success of the virus. (
  • However, EBV-infected tumors primarily contain cells with latent viral infection, since this type of infection allows expression of the major viral transforming proteins but does not cause virally-mediated cell killing [ 2 , 4 ]. (
  • In contrast to B cells, relatively little is known about the regulation of EBV infection in normal epithelial cells. (
  • Normal (untransformed) oropharyngeal epithelial cells also support the lytic form of EBV infection [ 9 - 11 ], but there is currently little evidence that these cells can undergo persistent latent infection. (
  • Long-term latent EBV persistence following infection of telomerase-immortalized nasopharygeal epithelial cells has been reported to require over-expression of the oncogene, cyclin D1, as well as repression of the p16 tumor suppressor protein [ 12 ]. (
  • BSC40 cells were infected with independent, plaque-purified clones of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing 14 rhLCV lytic infection proteins. (
  • Philadelphia, PA - Researchers at The Wistar Institute have discovered a new enzymatic function of the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) protein EBNA1, a critical factor in EBV's ability to transform human cells and cause cancer. (
  • A small population of EBV-specific effector CD4 + T cells survives during the lifelong persistent phase of infection. (
  • Most efforts to develop a preventive EBV vaccine have focused on glycoprotein 350, or gp350, a molecule on the surface of EBV that helps the virus attach to certain immune system cells called B cells. (
  • We assessed 85 BC patients over an 87-month follow-up period to determine whether EBV infection, evaluated by qPCR in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tumor biopsies, interacted with host cell components that modulate the evolution parameters of BC. (
  • A detailed structural picture of a molecule that plays a key role in activating the Epstein Barr Virus in human cells has now been obtained by researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the Institute of Molecular and Structural Virology (IVMS), associated with the University Joseph Fourier and the CNRS, in Grenoble. (
  • In the latest version of the hide-and-seek game between pathogens and the hosts they infect, researchers have found that a virus appears to cloak itself with a recently discovered gene silencing device to evade detection and destruction by immune cells. (
  • Researchers at the University of Toronto have mapped the molecular details that show how a viral protein coded in the Epstein-Barr virus immortalizes cells and causes them to continuously grow, thereby predisposing people to certain types of cancer. (
  • A small sequence of DNA in the envelope (Env) protein of a mouse breast tumor virus (called MMTV) can transform breast cells into cancer cells, according to a study by Katz et al. (
  • Your immune system is a complex group of cells and organs that defend the body against infection, disease and foreign substances. (
  • They also have a higher risk for infection because their immune cells (such as T cells and B cells) don't work properly. (
  • EBNA-1 is expressed in all phases of EBV infection, is one of only a few viral genes expressed by infected B cells circulating in the blood of persistently infected hosts, and is the gene most consistently expressed in EBV associated malignancies. (
  • up to 40% of CD8+ T cells are directed against EBV antigens during acute infection. (
  • However, the lack of localization of EBV infection to a significant population of the tumor cells in any case, the negativity by Southern blot hybridization, and the lack of expression of multiple antigens in any case strongly argue against a significant role for EBV in the pathogenesis of breast carcinoma. (
  • After a transplant, while the new immune system is growing back, the EB virus can come out and infect cells and cause them to grow in an uncontrolled manner. (
  • This infection acts like a cancer because the cells infected with EB virus grow very quickly and there is no known effective treatment. (
  • This infection occurs because the immune system cannot control the growth of the cells. (
  • These cells have been trained to attack EB virus infected cells. (
  • These T cells will be stimulated with the donor's EB virus-infected cells which have been treated with radiation so they cannot grow. (
  • After mixing these cells together we will be able to grow special T cells from the donor that can attack EB virus infected cells. (
  • We will then collect the T cells and make sure they can kill the virus infected cells. (
  • We make these cells from the patients blood by first growing an EBV infected B cell line by infecting the blood with an EBV virus called B-95. (
  • Once EBV's initial lytic infection is brought under control, EBV latency persists in the individual's B cells for the rest of their life. (
  • Viruses lacking the gp42 portion are able to bind to human B cells, but unable to infect. (
  • Humans are the only known reservoir of Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • The data support the concept that, in humans, a robust CD8 + T cell response creates a new memory CD8 + T cell niche without substantially depleting preexisting memory for heterologous infections. (
  • In this paper, we report the first study of bystander CD8 + T cell activation and attrition in healthy humans from prospective analysis of natural infection. (
  • The memory B cell compartment serves as the major reservoir for life-long latent EBV infection in humans [ 5 ]. (
  • X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (typically known by the acronym XMEN) is a disorder that affects the immune system in males. (
  • They used transcriptome analysis to study the immune responses of patients who acquired EBV infections naturally. (
  • EBV infection is more common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) than in control subjects, suggesting that this virus plays an etiologic role in disease and/or that patients with lupus have impaired EBV-specific immune responses. (
  • In the current report we assessed immune responsiveness to EBV in patients with SLE and healthy controls, determining virus-specific T cell responses and EBV viral loads using whole blood recall assays, HLA-A2 tetramers, and real-time quantitative PCR. (
  • The cellular immune status of the host appears crucial in suppressing latent EBV infection, as EBV-related lymphoproliferative disease has been observed after renal and bone marrow transplantation and in association with AIDS due to HIV-1 infection ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a well-known example of a human virus which interacts most intimately with the immune system. (
  • The present paper examines briefly several immunoregulatory aspects of EBV interaction with the immune system, many of which are pertinent to our understanding of immune controls over EBV infections. (
  • The Allergy and Infection Study is a sub-study of the Born in Bradford birth cohort and aims to describe the maternal and paediatric epidemiology of CMV, EBV and VZV infection and to investigate the effect of age at infection on immune function and atopic allergy. (
  • The major known immune deficiencies recognized in patients who go on to manifest these more severe forms of EBV infection include transplant recipients, patients with HIV infection (although with modern combination antiretroviral therapy these are now fortunately quite rare), and patients with known genetic disorders (e.g. (
  • Intensified conditioning represents a promising approach for high-risk hematological malignancies, although it affects early immune reconstitution of recipients and increases the incidence and mortality of EBV infections. (
  • The replicative form of EBV, as investigated using anti-ZEBRA titers, correlated with poorer outcomes, whereas the latent form of the virus that was measured and quantified using the EBV tumor DNA conferred a survival advantage to BC patients, which could occur through the activation of non-specific anti-tumoral immune responses. (
  • In addition, the EBV infection progresses after immune suppression with cyclosporine A (CsA), modeling the reactivation of EBV after latency. (
  • Chemotherapy for a disorder of the immune system may - at least in theory - be effective against severe human avian influenza infection, this suggest scientists at the Karolinska Institutet. (
  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) weaken the immune system. (
  • X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome affects the immune system so it doesn't respond the way it normally would to infection with the Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • This application focuses on the importance of EBNA-1 for persistent EBV infection, the importance of EBNA-1 immune evasion for persistent infection, and the possibility of manipulating the EBNA-1 immune response as a therapeutic tool against EBV-associated malignancies. (
  • In normal people, the Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection causes a flu like illness and usually gets better when the immune system controls the infection. (
  • In view of the compelling analogy afforded by the effect of avoiding cigarette smoking on the incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma (Doll and Peto, 1976), it seemed unethical not, at least, to explore the possibility of vaccine intervention to prevent EB virus infection in the context of BL and NPC. (
  • We report large differences in CMV and EBV incidence in the first 2 years between Pakistani and White British children born in Bradford, which cannot be explained by differences in risk factors for infection. (
  • Population-based data on the age-specific prevalence and incidence of these viruses is needed to inform the timing and target groups of potential vaccination programmes. (
  • The specific objectives of this paper are to estimate the incidence of CMV, EBV and VZV infection at age 1 and 2 years and to identify factors associated with infection, in particular to quantify any differences in age at infection by ethnic group. (
  • We report the prevalence and subsequent incidence of EBV infection in a cohort of sexually active young women and explore the social and sexual determinants of incident infections. (
  • The 3-year cumulative incidence of CMV viremia and CMV-associated diseases, mortality of CMV-associated diseases and incidence of bacterial and fungal infections were similar between the two groups ( P = 0.855, P = 0.581, P = 0.933, P = 0.142, P = 0.182, respectively). (
  • Moreover, it allows us to identify switch points in the infection process that direct the disease course towards the end points of persistence, clearance, or death. (
  • Unselected donor lymphocyte infusions and chemotherapy are recommended as second-line options, while antiviral drugs are not recommended for prophylaxis, with evidence indicating that they are ineffective against latent Epstein-Barr virus. (
  • We found positive associations between GBS and infection with Campylobacter , Epstein-Barr virus and influenza-like illness in the previous two months, as well as evidence of a protective effect of influenza vaccination. (
  • Finally, we report evidence of a protective effect of influenza vaccination on GBS risk, which may be mediated through protection against influenza disease, or result from a lower likelihood of vaccination among those with recent infection. (
  • Numerous studies have demonstrated evidence for an association between GBS and preceding C. jejuni infection. (
  • The Neurology publication extends the growing body of evidence linking EBV infection and MS using a well-characterized MS brain tissue bank," said Chris Haqq, M.D., Ph.D., Executive Vice President of Research and Development and Chief Scientific Officer of Atara Biotherapeutics. (
  • 9 years had serological evidence of EBV infection, whereas IM peaked in patients aged 2-3 years. (
  • We studied 48 cases of invasive breast carcinoma for evidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is associated with many human malignancies. (
  • This study demonstrated evidence of EBV infection in tissues involved by invasive breast carcinomas in a significant subset of cases. (
  • In the United States, about half of all five-year-old children and about 90% of adults have evidence of previous infection. (
  • In June 1985, a 34-year-old white man was admitted to our hospital with a presumptive diagnosis of persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection. (
  • These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of HLH secondary to EBV infection. (
  • In Richter GW, Epstein MA (eds) International Review of Experimental Pathology. (
  • EBNA-1 is an EBV protein important for the maintenance of the virus episome. (
  • Methods Latent and lytic EBV infection was investigated in 43 RA synovial tissues characterised for presence/absence of ELS and in 11 control osteoarthritis synovia using RT-PCR, in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. (
  • The stimuli that lead to switching from latent to lytic EBV infection in vivo are still elusive. (
  • The function of LMP2B is largely unknown, whereas LMP2A blocks B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling transduction and induction of lytic EBV infection, thereby promoting B-cell survival. (
  • Moreover, LMP2B lowered the degree of BCR cross-linking required to induce lytic EBV infection. (
  • There are no known associations between active EBV infection and problems during pregnancy, such as miscarriages or birth defects. (
  • In patient with AIDS, EBV can cause oral hairy leukoplakia, an active EBV infection of the differentiated epithelium of the tongue ( 15 , 56 ). (
  • In this project, we attempted to establish new experimental systems of persistent EBV infection of non-B-cell lineages, by using recombinant EBV with a positive selection marker. (
  • The simulation is presented via a user friendly visual interface and reproduces quantitative and qualitative aspects of acute and persistent EBV infection. (
  • Intensified conditioning regimens (increasing the intensity of standard myeloablative conditioning) for hematological malignancies in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) could reduce the relapse rate of the underlying disease, but it might simultaneously increase the transplant-related mortality including the mortality of infections. (
  • However, Epstein-Barr virus is also a human tumor virus, the first virus associated with human malignancy. (
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a common virus in the human herpes family. (
  • In "Epstein-Barr Virus and Human Disease", (P.H. Levine, D.V. Ablashi et al. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV ) is one of the human herpes viruses ( Herpesviridae family). (
  • Publications] Hiroyuki Nakamura: 'Epstein-Barr virus-infected human T-cell line with a unique pattern of viral gene expression' International Journal of Cancer. (
  • It is one of the most common human viruses. (
  • Lifetime number of partners as the only independent risk factor for human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study. (
  • 50 years since the discovery of EBV and its identification as a human oncogenic virus, a glimpse of the future is shown by the first whole-genome and whole-exome studies, revealing new human genes at the heart of the host-EBV interaction. (
  • First identified in 1964, EBV is one of the most common human viruses in the world, infecting nine out of 10 people at some point in their lives. (
  • Each year, about 40,000 children are born infected with human cytomegalovirus, or CMV, and about 8,000 of these children suffer permanent disabilities due to the virus - almost one an hour. (
  • Almost everyone has been infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the herpes family and one of the most common human viruses. (
  • In addition, a detailed biological model has been developed that provides an intricate understanding of EBV infection in the naturally infected human host and accounts for most of the virus' diverse and peculiar properties. (
  • and conditions associated with human immunodeficiency virus such as hairy leukoplakia and central nervous system lymphomas . (
  • It has been estimated that less than 1 percent of persons infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have central nervous system complications. (
  • There are reports of neurologic complications and secondary bacterial infections after the use of steroids to treat IM in the otherwise normal host. (
  • Patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome and virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, two syndromes associated with severe acute EBV infections, demonstrated the most dramatic increase in serum IL-2R levels. (
  • Background: Numerous studies conducted over the past 30 years have pointed to the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric cancer samples. (
  • This study was aimed to provide a meta-analytic review of the prevalence of EBV in gastric cancer patients, and to clarify the relationship between EBV infection and gastric cancer. (
  • Conclusions: EBV infection is associated with more than 18 times increase the risk of gastric cancer. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of oral hairy leukoplalcia (OHL). (
  • Pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr Virus Infection The overall goal of our research is to better understand the pathogenesis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in order to develop therapies that can reduce, control, or prevent EBV-associated diseases. (
  • The guidelines recommend rituximab, immunosuppression reduction, and Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T-cell therapy as first-line treatment in these patients. (
  • This latter idea finds support in the observations that patients with lupus have decreased cytotoxic T cell responses to mitogens and against allogenic and xenogenic targets ( 7 , 8 ), indicating a global impairment in cytotoxic T cell function that may increase the risk of infection. (