Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*11 allele family.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (1/16637)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (2/16637)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. (3/16637)

Trophinin, tastin, and bystin comprise a complex mediating a unique homophilic cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell surfaces. In this study, we prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to each of these molecules. The expression of these molecules in the human placenta was examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies. In placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, trophinin and bystin were found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface. Tastin was exclusively present on the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast. Tissue sections were also examined by in situ hybridization using RNA probes specific to each of these molecules. This analysis showed that trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at the utero placental interface express trophinin, tastin, and bystin. In wk 10 placenta, trophinin and bystin were found in the intravillous cytotrophoblast, while tastin was not found in the villi. After wk 10, levels of all three proteins decreased and then disappeared from placental villi.  (+info)

Protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection induced by a reduced peptide bond analogue of the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope GP33. (4/16637)

Recent investigations have suggested that pseudopeptides containing modified peptide bonds might advantageously replace natural peptides in therapeutic strategies. We have generated eight reduced peptide bond Psi(CH2-NH) analogues corresponding to the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope (called GP33) of the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. One of these pseudopeptides, containing a reduced peptide bond between residues 6 and 7 (Psi(6-7)), displayed very similar properties of binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and recognition by T cell receptor transgenic T cells specific for GP33 when compared with the parent peptide. We assessed in vitro and in vivo the proteolytic resistance of GP33 and Psi(6-7) and analyzed its contribution to the priming properties of these peptides. The Psi(6-7) analogue exhibited a dramatically increased proteolytic resistance when compared with GP33, and we show for the first time that MHC-peptide complexes formed in vivo with a pseudopeptide display a sustained half-life compared with the complexes formed with the natural peptide. Furthermore, in contrast to immunizations with GP33, three injections of Psi(6-7) in saline induced significant antiviral protection in mice. The enhanced ability of Psi(6-7) to induce antiviral protection may result from the higher stability of the analogue and/or of the MHC-analogue complexes.  (+info)

Use of RhD fusion protein expressed on K562 cell surface in the study of molecular basis for D antigenic epitopes. (5/16637)

The human D antigens, one of the most clinically important blood groups, are presented by RhD protein with a putative 12 transmembrane topology. To understand the molecular basis for the complex antigenic profile of RhD protein, we expressed a series of RhD fusion proteins using different portions of Duffy protein as a tag in erythroleukemic K562 cells. Because the reactivity of monoclonal anti-RhD antibody, LOR15C9, depends mainly on the sequence coded by exon 7 of RhD, we altered DNA sequence corresponding to the amino acid residues 323-331(A) and 350-354(B) in the exon 7. The mutation in region B resulted in a severe reduction in LOR15C9 binding by flow cytometry analysis, suggesting that region B may play an important role in constituting antigen epitopes recognized by LOR15C9. On the other hand, a slight decrease in the antibody binding was observed for the region A mutant, suggesting that the intracellularly located region A may elicit a long distance effect on the formation of exofacial antigen epitopes. In addition, using various monoclonal antibodies against RhD, we compared the antigenic profile of expressed RhD fusion protein with that of endogenous RhD in K562 cells as well as in erythrocytes.  (+info)

Goodpasture antigen: expression of the full-length alpha3(IV) chain of collagen IV and localization of epitopes exclusively to the noncollagenous domain. (6/16637)

BACKGROUND: Tissue injury in Goodpasture (GP) syndrome (rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage) is mediated by antibasement membrane antibodies that are targeted to the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen, one of five alpha(IV) chains that occur in the glomerular basement membrane. GP antibodies are known to bind epitopes within the carboxyl terminal noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha3(IV) chain, termed the GP autoantigen. Whether epitopes also exist in the 1400-residue collagenous domain is unknown because studies to date have focused solely on the NC1 domain. A knowledge of GP epitopes is important for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease and for the development of therapeutic strategies. METHODS: A cDNA construct was prepared for the full-length human alpha3(IV) chain. The construct was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The purified full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain was characterized by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The capacity of this chain for binding of GP antibodies from five patients was compared with that of the human r-alpha3(IV)NC1 domain by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The r-alpha3(IV) chain was secreted from 293 cells as a single polypeptide chain that did not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical molecule. An analysis of GP-antibody binding to the full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain showed binding exclusively to the globular NC1 domain. CONCLUSION: The full-length human alpha3(IV) chain possesses the capacity to bind GP autoantibodies. The epitope(s) is found exclusively on the nontriple-helical NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, indicating the presence of specific immunogenic properties. The alpha3(IV) chain alone does not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical homotrimeric molecule, suggesting that coassembly with either the alpha4(IV) and/or the alpha5(IV) chain may be required for triple-helix formation.  (+info)

Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (7/16637)

To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified.  (+info)

Induction of lasting complete regression of preformed distinct solid tumors by targeting the tumor vasculature using two new anti-endoglin monoclonal antibodies. (8/16637)

Endoglin (EDG, CD105) is a proliferation-associated antigen on endothelial cells. In this study, two new anti-EDG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Y4-2F1 (or termed SN6j) and P3-2G8 (SN6k) were generated and used for treating distinct preformed tumors. These mAbs, both IgG1-kappa antibodies, cross-reacted weakly with mouse endothelial cells but defined epitopes different from the epitope defined by a previously reported anti-EDG mAb K4-2C10 (B. K. Seon et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 3: 1031-1044, 1997). SN6j and SN6k reacted strongly with human endothelial cells and vascular endothelium of malignant human tissues but showed no significant reactivity with tumor cells per se. The deglycosylated ricin A chain (dgRA) conjugates of the two mAbs showed a weak but specific cytotoxic activity against murine endothelial cells in vitro. In the therapeutic studies, severe combined immunodeficient mice were inoculated s.c. with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and left untreated until palpable tumors of distinct size (4-6 mm in diameter) appeared. Mice with the distinct tumors were treated by i.v. administration of individual anti-EDG conjugates, unconjugated mAbs, or a control conjugate. Long-lasting complete regression of the tumors was induced in the majority of tumor-bearing mice (n = 8 for each conjugate) when 40 microg of the individual conjugates were administered three times via the tail vein. It is remarkable that the tumors remained regressed without further therapy for as long as the mice were followed (i.e., 100 days). Control conjugate did not induce regression of the tumors in any of the treated mice, although weak nonspecific effects were observed in some of the mice (n = 8). The effects of unconjugated mAbs were small with the dose used, i.e., 34 microg three times. The anti-EDG conjugates showed antiangiogenic activity in the dorsal air sac assay in mice. The results suggest good potential of these conjugates for the clinical application.  (+info)

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity. Self epitopes, which are found in high concentration on the ... However, self epitopes which appear in very low concentration on APC are termed cryptic in the sense that they do not delete ... Lanzavecchia, A (1995). "How can cryptic epitopes trigger autoimmunity?". J. Exp. Med. 181 (6): 1945-8. doi:10.1084/jem.181.6. ... are known as dominant epitopes. These are stimulants of negative selection mechanisms to remove potentially self destructing ...
The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories, conformational epitopes and linear epitopes, based on their ... A database of B-cell epitopes SYFPEITHI - First online database of T cell epitopes IEDB - Database of T and B cell epitopes ... The epitope is the specific piece of the antigen to which an antibody binds. The part of an antibody that binds to the epitope ... To find epitopes to use for the vaccine, in silico mapping is often used. Once candidate epitopes are found, the constructs are ...
In immunology, a linear epitope (also sequential epitope) is an epitope-a binding site on an antigen-that is recognized by ... Such segments are called epitopes. Likewise, it is only the paratope of the antibody that comes in contact with the epitope. ... Therefore, antibodies that recognize linear epitopes instead of conformational epitopes are chosen for immunodetection. In ... Conformational epitope Polyclonal B cell response Goldsby, Richard; Kindt, TJ; Osborne, BA; Janis Kuby (2003). "Antigens ( ...
These are known as linear epitopes. Antigen Linear epitope Epitope mapping, finding (on an antigen protein) the epitope(s) for ... Such segments are called epitopes. Likewise, it is only the paratope of the receptor that comes in contact with the epitope. ... In immunology, a conformational epitope is a sequence of sub-units (usually amino acids) composing an antigen that come in ... a new method to predict conformational epitopes using phage display peptide sequences (Articles with short description, Short ...
... especially for conformational epitopes. Biology portal Epitope binning DeLisser, HM (1999). "Epitope mapping". Adhesion Protein ... In immunology, epitope mapping is the process of experimentally identifying the binding site, or epitope, of an antibody on its ... Linear epitopes are formed by a continuous sequence of amino acids in a protein. In conformational epitopes the binding ... HDX epitope mapping has also been demonstrated to be the effective method to rapidly supply complete information for epitope ...
... is referenced in the literature under different names such as epitope mapping and epitope characterization. ... Epitope Binning is used in the discovery and development of new therapeutics, vaccines, and diagnostics. Autoimmunity Epitope ... Epitope binning is a competitive immunoassay used to characterize and then sort a library of monoclonal antibodies against a ... Closely related binning profiles indicate that the antibodies have the same or a closely related epitope and are "binned" ...
... which contains a collection of tools to predict and analyze epitopes. Immune Epitope Database IEDB Analysis Resource La Jolla ... The Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) is a project hosted by scientists at the La Jolla Institute for ... In addition, epitopes from other infectious agents, allergens and autoantigens are being curated. The database also contains ... The IEDB contains data related to antibody and T cell epitopes for humans, non-human primates, rodents, and other animal ...
"Galactosylated Fucose Epitopes in Nematodes". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (34): 28276-28290. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... polygyrus Elicits a Dominant Nonprotective Antibody Response Directed against Restricted Glycan and Peptide Epitopes". The ...
In MHC class I and class II molecules, only certain epitopes of an internalized peptide can be presented. These epitopes are ... The internalized antigen is digested into smaller peptides containing epitopes, which are then presented to T cells by the MHC ...
The specific region an antibody recognizes on an antigen is called an epitope. There have been efforts in epitope mapping since ... If the topology of a cell membrane has yet to be determined, epitope insertion into proteins can be used in conjunction with ... The primary antibody recognizes the target molecule (antigen) and binds to a specific region called the epitope. This is ... Ladner RC (2007-01-01). "Mapping the epitopes of antibodies". Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews. 24 (1): 1-30. ...
Fussell H, Thomas M, Street J, Darke C (1996). "HLA-A9 antibodies and epitopes". Tissue Antigens. 47 (4): 307-12. doi:10.1111/j ...
However, IgE antibodies against the α-Gal epitope should be taken into account in the diagnosis of milk and meat allergy. It is ... Much later, both xylose and core α1,3-fucose were revealed as heart pieces of two independent glycan epitopes for rabbit IgG. ... Still, because of the two possible epitopes and the different carrier structures, the plural CCDs is in frequent use even ... 1993). "Fucose alpha 1,3-linked to the core region of glycoprotein N-glycans creates an important epitope for IgE from honeybee ...
Dominant epitopes of the alpha 2 helix". J. Immunol. 149 (11): 3563-8. PMID 1385528. Marsh, S. G.; Albert, E. D.; Bodmer, W. F ...
Dominant epitopes of the alpha 2 helix". J. Immunol. 149 (11): 3563-8. PMID 1385528. Marsh, S. G.; Albert, E. D.; Bodmer, W. F ...
Antibody binding subsequently spread to other epitopes. The similarity and cross-reactivity between the initial targets of nRNP ... and Sm autoantibodies identifies a likely commonality in cause and a focal point for intermolecular epitope spreading. Elevated ...
Epitopes that are not targeted or targeted to a lower degree during an immune response are known as subdominant epitopes. The ... The immunodominant epitope will be a BCR that has a particular 'goldilocks' amount of affinity for its epitope determined by ... If subdominant epitopes are introduced without the dominant epitope, the immune response will be focused to that subdominant ... Meanwhile, if the dominant epitope is introduced with the subdominant epitope, the immune response will be directed against the ...
Lindskog M, Rockberg J, Uhlén M, Sterky F (May 2005). "Selection of protein epitopes for antibody production". BioTechniques. ...
Sun J, Kudahl UJ, Simon C, Cao Z, Reinherz EL, Brusic V (2014). "Large-Scale Analysis of B-Cell Epitopes on Influenza Virus ... There are also tools which are used for T and B cell epitope mapping, proteasomal cleavage site prediction, and TAP- peptide ... Saha S, Bhasin M, Raghava GP (2005). "Bcipep: a database of B-cell epitopes". BMC Genomics. 6 (1): 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6- ... Ali M, Pandey RK, Khatoon N, Narula A, Mishra A, Prajapati VK (2017). "Exploring dengue genome to construct a multi-epitope ...
The simplest approach is to rapidly change non-essential epitopes (amino acids and/or sugars) on the surface of the pathogen, ... Saha S, Bhasin M, Raghava GP (2005). "Bcipep: a database of B-cell epitopes". BMC Genomics. 6: 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6-79. ... A publicly accessible database has been established for the cataloguing of epitopes from pathogens known to be recognizable by ... Söllner J, Mayer B (2006). "Machine learning approaches for prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins". Journal of ...
DRB1*0101 and most DR4 have in common a 'shared epitope'. In this hypothesis a common region of the beta chain, positions 67 to ... Morel PA, Erlich HA, Fathman CG (1988). "A new look at the shared epitope hypothesis". Am. J. Med. 85 (6A): 20-22. doi:10.1016/ ... Gorman JD, David-Vaudey E, Pai M, Lum RF, Criswell LA (2004). "Particular HLA-DRB1 shared epitope genotypes are strongly ... 2007). "Association of DRB1 shared epitope genotypes with early mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: results of eighteen years of ...
Sette co-leads the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), an NIAID-funded online database that catalogues epitopes involved in immune ... greatly facilitating epitope classification, characterization and understanding the basic rules of epitope-MHC interactions. ... Sette is using epitopes as specific probes to define the understanding of immune responses to many different targets, from ... In 2020, Sette published the first study of SARS-CoV-2 epitopes targeted by the human immune system. He has co-led research ...
"The shared epitope hypothesis. An approach to understanding the molecular genetics of susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis". ...
Gregersen PK, Silver J, Winchester RJ (November 1987). "The shared epitope hypothesis. An approach to understanding the ... "Shared Epitope" alleles Family history of RA Poor functional status Socioeconomic factors Elevated acute phase response ( ... "A gene-environment interaction between smoking and shared epitope genes in HLA-DR provides a high risk of seropositive ...
July 2000). "Crystal structure of the allergen Equ c 1. A dimeric lipocalin with restricted IgE-reactive epitopes". The Journal ...
Certain LPS epitopes have been examined to determine their function in antigenic specificity. The particular groups on the ... Determination of some LPS epitopes responsible for specificity. Adv Exp Med Biol. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ... Palusiak A, Sidorczyk Z (2010). "Characterization of epitope specificity of Proteus penneri 7 lipopolysaccharide core region". ... Progress in serological classification of further strains from genus Proteus and determination of epitopes and new serogroups. ...
85-98 El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2017). In silico prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins. In: Y. ... Y. and Honavar, V. (2014). Building Classifier Ensembles for B-Cell Epitope Prediction. In: De, R.K. and Tomar, N. (Ed). ... El-Manzalawy, Y. and Honavar, V. (2010). Recent Advances in B-Cell Epitope Prediction Methods. Immunome Research Suppl. 2:S2. ... El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2008). Predicting linear B-cell epitopes using string kernels. Journal of ...
The word itself is an analogy to epitopes. Docking theory of olfaction Vibration theory of olfaction "The scent of life. The ...
At least four IgE epitopes have been identified. Three other egg white proteins are also identified as allergenic: ovalbumin ( ... "Specificity of IgE antibodies to sequential epitopes of hen's egg ovomucoid as a marker for persistence of egg allergy". ...
Neutralizing antibodies target epitopes on the receptor-binding domain. Most COVID-19 vaccine development efforts in response ... Its extensive glycosylation can serve as a glycan shield that hides epitopes from the immune system. Due to the outbreak of ... Antibodies to the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins have been identified that target epitopes on the receptor-binding ... facilitating development of antibodies against epitopes exposed in this conformation. Monoclonal antibodies that target the ...
Some IgE-inducing epitopes cause hypersensitivity reactions after vaccination in humans due to the overlap with IgG epitopes in ... The whole peptide vaccine is to mimic the epitope of an antigen, so epitope design is the most important stage of vaccine ... The followings are the points to consider when designing the epitope: The non-dominant epitope could generate a stronger immune ... B-cell epitopes could only have 5 amino acids. To induce an immune response, a sequence from yeast GCN4 protein is used to ...
Transposon-gene chimeras move up as cancer epitopes. *Jared B. Fudge. 1 ... Fudge, J.B. Transposon-gene chimeras move up as cancer epitopes. Nat Biotechnol 41, 616 (2023). ...
... shares her work focusing on the generation of multi-epitope specific T cells for cancer therapy. This work is related to the ... Generation of Multi-Epitope Specific T Cells for Cancer Therapy Generation of Multi-Epitope Specific T Cells for Cancer Therapy ...
Two epitopes of DEN-2 and one of DEN-1 locate on the domain Ш and domainⅡ of the protein E, respectively. Sub-sequently, ... in) to predict and analyze the well defined B-cell and T-cell epitopes of the glycoprotein of the DEN-1 HAWAII strain. Then ... However, it is still un-clear where the well-defined B-cell epitopes for glycoprotein E which induce the neutralizing an- ... Two epitopes of DEN-2 and one of DEN-1 locate on the domain Ш and domainⅡ of the protein E, respectively. Sub-sequently, ...
Galactosylated Fucose Epitopes in Nematodes. Increased expression in a caenorhabditis mutant associated with altered lectin ...
Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data. ... Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. ...
Identifying epitopes that T cells respond to is critical for understanding T cell-mediated immunity. Traditional multimer and ... Rapid TCR:Epitope Ranker (RAPTER): a primary human T cell reactivity screening assay pairing epitope and TCR at single cell ... Identifying epitopes that T cells respond to is critical for understanding T cell-mediated immunity. Traditional multimer and ... Here, we present the Rapid TCR:Epitope Ranker (RAPTER) assay, a single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-SEQ) method that uses primary ...
Cancer vaccines and carbohydrate epitopes Jamie Heimburg-Molinaro 1 , Michelle Lum, Geraldine Vijay, Miten Jain, Adel Almogren ... Cancer vaccines and carbohydrate epitopes Jamie Heimburg-Molinaro et al. Vaccine. 2011. . ...
Allergen Epitope Research and Validation Cnters (U19) RFA-AI-11-013. NIAID ... For the purpose of this FOA, epitope validation is defined as the ability of epitope-based reagents (e.g. epitope-MHC tetramers ... Detailed information about these recent allergen epitopes, and the assays used to initially validate the epitopes using blood ... epitopes. These mechanistic studies include, but are not limited to: * A comparison of epitope-specific immune responses (e.g ...
For the development of the final MEV, epitopes of LBL5, CTL17, and HTL13 were linked to GPGPG, AAY, and KK linkers. The vaccine ... Therefore, a multiple-epitope vaccine (MEV) should be designed to battle against C. perfringens infection. Furthermore, the ... B-cells, IFN-gamma, and T cells for target proteins were predicted and the most conserved epitopes were selected for further ... B-cell and IFN-gamma epitopes demonstrate that the model structure is enhanced for humoral and cellular immune responses. To ...
English synonyms, antonyms, sound-alike, and rhyming words for epitope
... to vaccination against antigenically variable viruses is skewing of antibody responses to variable immunodominant epitopes. For ... Outflanking immunodominance to target subdominant broadly neutralizing epitopes Davide Angeletti 1 2 , Ivan Kosik 3 , Jefferson ... Outflanking immunodominance to target subdominant broadly neutralizing epitopes Davide Angeletti et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... to vaccination against antigenically variable viruses is skewing of antibody responses to variable immunodominant epitopes. For ...
SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors. View ORCID ProfileAlina S. ... SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ... SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are recognized by a public and diverse repertoire of human T-cell receptors ...
HA epitope tag, HA1, HA2, hemagglutinin, Hemagglutinin HA1 chain, Hemagglutinin HA2 chain, YPYDVPDYA, Hemagglutinin tag Isotype ... The HA.11 antibody recognizes HA epitopes located in the middle of protein sequences as well as at the N- or C-terminus. ... Transfected RBL1 cells expressing the HA tag on the cell surface were stained with purified anti-HA.11 epitope Tag (clone 16B12 ... The HA.11 antibody recognizes the influenza hemagglutinin epitope (YPYDVPDYA) which has been used extensively as a general ...
Epitope derived from minor capsid protein L2 was expressed as an N-terminal fusion with ACP while an epitope derived from E7 ... Transient expression of fusion gene coding for the HPV-16 epitopes fused to the sequence of potyvirus coat protein using ... Transient expression of fusion gene coding for the HPV-16 epitopes fused to the sequence of potyvirus coat protein using ... Transient expression of fusion gene coding for the HPV-16 epitopes fused to the sequence of potyvirus coat protein using ...
Prediction of immunogenic epitopes--is it feasible?. Anat Roitberg-Tambur*, Patrick Ching, Daniel Ramon. *Corresponding author ... Dive into the research topics of Prediction of immunogenic epitopes--is it feasible?. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
The aim of the present study was to define MAP Hsp70 specific T cell epitopes in cows immunized with MAP Hsp70 ... read more ... Epitopes of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis 70 kDa heat-shock protein activate bovine helper T cells in outbred ... Epitopes of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis 70 kDa heat-shock protein activate bovine helper T cells in outbred ... indicating relevance of the epitopes during infection. In these 28 animals 15 different BoLA class II haplotypes were present ...
... is a Collaboration of the Early Detection Research ... Antibodies Against Tumor Antigens or Mucin Epitopes in Ovarian Cancer. Lead Investigator. Cramer, Daniel - Brigham and Womens ...
These studies support the concept of vaccination approaches that preserve conformational epitopes. ... by naturally acquired cutaneous anthrax are elevated following severe disease and appear to target conformational epitopes ... antibody responses elicited following natural cutaneous anthrax infection are directed to conformational epitopes. ...
JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it ...
Epitope focusing in the primary cytotoxic T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus and its relationship to T cell memory. N M ... N M Steven, A M Leese, N E Annels, S P Lee, A B Rickinson; Epitope focusing in the primary cytotoxic T cell response to Epstein ... In particular (a) differences in the relative frequencies of CTL to immunodominant versus subdominant epitopes appeared to be ... with CTL to the immunodominant epitope accounting for at least 1% of the circulating CD8+ IM T cell pool. This is the first ...
New High Affinity Monoclonal Antibodies Recognize Non-Overlapping Epitopes On Mesothelin For Monitoring And Treating ...
Immunodominant protein epitopes. I. Induction of suppression to hen egg white lysozyme is obliterated by removal of the first ... Immunodominant protein epitopes. I. Induction of suppression to hen egg white lysozyme is obliterated by removal of the first ...
Lam MTY, Duttke SH, Odish MF, Le HD, Hansen EA, Nguyen CT, Trescott S, Kim R, Deota S, Chang MW, Patel A, Hepokoski M, Alotaibi M, Rolfsen M, Perofsky K, Warden AS, Foley J, Ramirez SI, Dan JM, Abbott RK, Crotty S, Crotty Alexander LE, Malhotra A, Panda S, Benner CW, Coufal NG ...
LT adjuvant modulates epitope specificity and improves the efficacy of murine antibodies elicited by sublingual vaccination ... LT adjuvant modulates epitope specificity and improves the efficacy of murine antibodies elicited by sublingual vaccination ... LT adjuvant modulates epitope specificity and improves the efficacy of murine antibodies elicited by sublingual vaccination ... LT adjuvant modulates epitope specificity and improves the efficacy of murine antibodies elicited by sublingual vaccination ...
To better define the potential for TCR cross-reactivity between epitopes derived from the human genome, the human microbiome, ... In addition to exploring the T cell epitope relationships between human self, commensal and pathogen, JanusMatrix may also be ... to be important differences in the TCR cross-reactivity of selected regulatory and effector T cell epitopes with other epitopes ... and an array of human pathogens and vaccines has made computationally-driven exploration of the effects of T cell epitope cross ...
"Epitopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Epitopes" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Epitopes" by people in Profiles. ... Cross-reactive antibodies elicited to conserved epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein after infection and vaccination. Sci Rep. ...
keywords = "ANCA, Chimeric molecules, Conformational epitopes, Epitope specificity, Monoclonal antibodies",. author = "Ulrich ... Epitope-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies: Do they matter? Can they be detected? / Specks, Ulrich. In: APMIS, Vol ... Epitope-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies: Do they matter? Can they be detected? APMIS. 2009 Jun;117(SUPPL. 127): ... Epitope-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies : Do they matter? Can they be detected?. In: APMIS. 2009 ; Vol. 117, No ...
Dive into the research topics of Gain of structure and IgE epitopes by eukaryotic expression of the major Timothy grass pollen ... Gain of structure and IgE epitopes by eukaryotic expression of the major Timothy grass pollen allergen, Phl p 1. ...
By using 16 Pfg27-specific CD4+-T-cell clones derived from three donors, seven different T-cell epitopes were identified. Among ... Identification of a promiscuous epitope in Pfg27 could play a significant role in the design of a subunit vaccine for ... We have characterized HLA-DR-restricted T-cell epitopes on the 27-kDa protein (Pfg27), a sexual stage-specific antigen, of the ... We have characterized HLA-DR-restricted T-cell epitopes on the 27-kDa protein (Pfg27), a sexual stage-specific antigen, of the ...
  • Identification of the peptide epitope recognized by VHH05 places it outside the E2 catalytic core, close to the position of activation-induced phosphorylation on Ser184. (
  • A single 9-amino acid peptide of the defined murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope (named peptide-1), which corresponds to the amino acid residues 298-306 (GYISTRVEM) of NS3 of dengue virus serotypes DEN-2 and 4, was examined for induction of specific CTLs. (
  • These results indicate that immunization with dengue virus-derived CTL epitope peptide induces specific CTLs, and that DC can be used as a vehicle for the modified epitope peptide. (
  • It is important to analyse peptide-1 and 96.2% for the peptide-2 by CTL responses elicited by a single epitope in reverse phase HPLC. (
  • The immunogenic peptide, which binds to the HLA-A11 epitope, was identified in a patient with metastatic RCC that under went an investigational allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (
  • To study the effect of vaccination against generic oligomer epitopes, Aβ oligomers, islet amyloid polypeptide oligomers, random peptide oligomer (3A), and Aβ fibrils were used to vaccinate 3xTg-AD, which develop a progressive accumulation of plaques and cognitive impairment. (
  • In summary, RAPTER identifies low-frequency T cell reactivities using primary cells from low blood volumes, and the resulting paired TCR:ligand information can directly enable immunogenic antigen selection from limited patient samples for vaccine epitope inclusion, antigen-specific TCR tracking, and TCR cloning for further therapeutic development. (
  • DNA vaccine) in which the lymphocytes (CTLs) are known to play an epitope gene is incorporated. (
  • Using the interactive vaccine design computational platform iVAX, we discovered a highly conserved, human-like T cell epitope in non-structural protein 7 (NSP7) of SARS-COV-2, which is a critical part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase hetero-tetramer complex, which is comprised by NSP7, two NSP8 molecules and the catalytic NSP12 required for coronavirus RNA synthesis. (
  • We aimed to report a multi-epitope candidate vaccine chimera from Aedes aegyptii mosquito salivary proteins OBP 22 and OBP 10 that could confer protection against all pathogens transmitted by the vector. (
  • Selected B- and T-cell epitopes were chosen for designing a multiepitope vaccine construct. (
  • Results: A chimeric multiepitope vaccine was designed with the best-selected combination of immunogenic B-cell epitope, cytotoxic and helper T-cell and gamma interferon inducing epitopes with suitable adjuvant and linkers. (
  • Prediction of immunogenic epitopes--is it feasible? (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Prediction of immunogenic epitopes--is it feasible? (
  • As I understand, a deimmunization alogrithm can first predict all epitopes restricted by various MHC alleles in a protein and give the predicted IC50 of these epitopes, and then introduce mutaions in these epitopes so as to reduce the IC50 of the native epitopes. (
  • The presence of the RAA sequence at positions 72-74 of the HLA-DR β-chain molecule for all HLA-DRB1 alleles known to be associated with RA led to the shared epitope (SE) hypothesis [ 1 ]. (
  • We tested both in vitro and found that Tregitope 289, the NSP7 epitope binds across multiple HLA-DRB1 supertype alleles in in vitro HLA class II binding assay. (
  • have CTL epitope expressed in host cells by infection with live viruses, or by Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) administration of an expression plasmid class I - restricted, CD8+ cytotoxic T vector (i.e. (
  • In previous studies we developed a competition ELISA that assessed the ability of patient plasma to compete with biotinylated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with known epitopes for binding to fVIII. (
  • The specificities of TCRs identified by RAPTER for MART1, EBV, and influenza epitopes were functionally confirmed in vitro. (
  • The HA.11 antibody recognizes the influenza hemagglutinin epitope (YPYDVPDYA) which has been used extensively as a general epitope tag in expression vectors. (
  • Influenza Antigen Engineering Focuses Immune Responses to a Subdominant but Broadly Protective Viral Epitope. (
  • Why Are CD8 T Cell Epitopes of Human Influenza A Virus Conserved? (
  • The high degree of conservation of CD8 T cell epitopes of influenza A virus (IAV) may allow for the development of T cell-inducing vaccines that provide protection across different strains and subtypes. (
  • IMPORTANCE Universal influenza vaccines against the conserved epitopes of influenza A virus have been proposed to minimize the burden of seasonal outbreaks and prepare for the pandemics. (
  • Here, we present the Rapid TCR:Epitope Ranker (RAPTER) assay, a single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-SEQ) method that uses primary human T cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) to assess functional T cell reactivity. (
  • Regions on the antigen which are recognized by the antibodies are called epitopes , and the respective molecular counterpart of the epitope on the mAbs is called paratope . (
  • The present invention discloses peptides and antigen epitopes specific for RCC for use in the diagnosis, vaccination, or adoptive infusion of antigen specific T cells to treat patients with metastatic RCC. (
  • Expression and sequencing studies revealed that the patient's T-cells recognize an antigen epitope derived from a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV). (
  • Total cell lysate (15 µg protein) from CHO (lane 1) and CHO stably transfected with HA tag fused protein (lane 2) were resolved by electrophoresis (4-12% Bis-Tris gel), transferred to nitrocellulose, and probed with 1:1000 diluted (1 µg/mL), 1:4000 diluted (0.25 µg/mL) and 1:10000 diluted (0.1 µg/mL) purified anti-HA.11 Epitope Tag antibody (clone 16B12) (upper). (
  • The HA.11 antibody recognizes HA epitopes located in the middle of protein sequences as well as at the N- or C-terminus. (
  • We found that glycan addition changed the initially diverse antibody repertoire into an epitope-focused, genetically restricted response. (
  • Structural analyses showed that one antibody gene family targeted a previously subdominant, occluded epitope at the head interface. (
  • Comparison of serum binding to overlapping decapeptides covering the entire length of PA, LF and EF proteins in 26 cases compared to 8 regional controls revealed that anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibody responses elicited following natural cutaneous anthrax infection are directed to conformational epitopes. (
  • Within the C2 domain, antibody epitope was more important than inhibitory titer in predicting response to fVIII treatment in a murine in vivo bleeding model. (
  • The high volume of plasma needed for each monoclonal antibody assessed restricts the use of this assay to map a limited number of epitopes from a single plasma sample. (
  • The anti-fVIII MAbs in this study were 4 anti-A2 antibodies with non-overlapping epitopes (A2-A, A2-B, A2-D, A2-E) and 3 anti-C2 antibodies with non-overlapping epitopes(C2-A, C2-B, C2-C) as well as one inhibitory antibody from both the A3 and C1 domains. (
  • Knowing the epitope is a valuable information for the development or improvement of biological products , e.g., diagnostic assays, therapeutic mAbs, and vaccines , as well as for the elucidation of immune responses . (
  • Two epitopes of DEN-2 and one of DEN-1 locate on the domain Ш and domainⅡ of the protein E, respectively. (
  • Using hash-tag oligonucleotide (HTO) coding and T cell activation-induced markers (AIM), RAPTER defines paired epitope specificity and TCR sequence and can include RNA- and protein-level T cell phenotype information. (
  • How to use MHC Epitope energy (mhc_epitope) to deimmunize a protein structure? (
  • Transient expression of fusion gene coding for the HPV-16 epitopes fused to the sequence of potyvirus coat protein using different means of inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana and Brassica rapa, cv. (
  • We describe the effect of different means of inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana plants on the amount of transiently expressed fusion gene coding for the Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) epitopes fused to the sequence of recombinant Potato virus A coat protein (ACP). (
  • Epitope derived from minor capsid protein L2 was expressed as an N-terminal fusion with ACP while an epitope derived from E7 oncoprotein was fused to its C-terminus. (
  • Given the number of non-overlapping epitopes identified on the fVIII protein, the goal of this study was to modify the previous competition ELISA to better define the diversity of the immune response to fVIII using a clinically feasible volume of plasma. (
  • The purpose of this FOA is to capitalize on the availability of well characterized T cell allergen epitopes to study allergen-specific immune responses. (
  • Limited novel T cell allergen epitope identification will also be supported under this FOA, but only as a companion to, and extension of, mechanistic studies of T cell responses to existing allergen epitopes. (
  • The National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) invites new applications from single institutions, or consortia of institutions, to participate in research using T cell allergen epitopes to examine human T cell immune responses during the progression of, and/or changes in the severity of, allergic diseases that have high public health impact (e.g., allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy). (
  • Applicants are encouraged to submit research programs that propose to validate and study immune responses to allergens at the level of epitope-specific T cell subsets. (
  • These results have potential implications for next-generation viral vaccines aimed at directing B cell responses to preferred epitope(s). (
  • We also validated the suppressive capacity of the NSP7 epitope in our bystander suppression assays for CD4 T and CD8 T memory responses using PBMCs from an HLA-DRB1-diverse cohort. (
  • Finally, infection with CD8 T cell escape variants may result in a compensatory increase in the responses to other epitopes of IAV. (
  • Identification and in vitro validation of the immunosuppressive NSP7 epitope of SARS-COV-2 may provide insight into the mechanisms by which pathogens can evade immune response and provide insight into the role of Tregs in COVID-19, which remains to be determined. (
  • From 28 calves experimentally infected with MAP 82% responded to at least one of the 5 most immunodominant peptides, indicating relevance of the epitopes during infection. (
  • The other is essential role in the recovery from viral immunization with a defined CTL epitope infection by lysing virus-infected cells [1] . (
  • This VHH should be useful not only to dissect the participation of UBC6e in ERAD and in response to cell stress, but also as a high affinity epitope tag-specific reagent of more general utility. (
  • These studies support the concept of vaccination approaches that preserve conformational epitopes. (
  • according to this model, RA is associated with the RAA shared epitope sequence (72-74 positions) and the association is modulated by the amino acids at positions 70 and 71, resulting in six genotypes with different RA risks. (
  • Analytical approaches confirm that the LM26 epitope is linked to sets of rhamnogalacturonan‐I and homogalacturonan molecules. (
  • Despite the lower overall detection rate compared to the previous assay, our results highlight the diversity of epitope spectra present in patient plasmas with high inhibitory titers. (
  • Given the success of detecting each of the 9 MAb epitopes in at least one patient plasma, work is ongoing to improve the sensitivity of this assay to further define differences in response between patients. (
  • Our mathematical models explore the factors that contribute to the conservation of CD8 T cell epitopes and how rapidly the virus will evolve in response to T cell-inducing vaccines. (
  • Abstract: Pathogens can escape host defenses by interference with innate immune mechanisms, B-cell and T-cell epitope deletion and taking on human appearances, also known as immune camouflage. (
  • For the published broad agency announcement, check the March 21, 2023 solicitation, Large-Scale T Cell Immune Epitope Discovery and Mechanisms of T Cell Protection . (
  • Here, we propose three additional mechanisms that contribute to the conservation of CD8 T cell epitopes of IAV. (
  • This first report on T-cell antigens and epitopes of M. immunogenum is significant as it is expected to open up avenues for understanding pathogenesis mechanisms and developing T-cell-based immunodiagnostic tools for this poorly investigated occupational lung disease. (
  • Epitope validation is defined as the ability of these reagents to successfully track the numbers and functions of allergen-specific T cells in allergic humans during changes in their clinical conditions. (
  • Identifying epitopes that T cells respond to is critical for understanding T cell-mediated immunity. (
  • Transfected RBL1 cells expressing the HA tag on the cell surface were stained with purified anti-HA.11 epitope Tag (clone 16B12) (filled histogram) or purified mouse IgG1, κ isotype control (open histogram), followed by APC conjugated goat-anti-mouse IgG. (
  • Within the A2 and C2 domains, we have identified non-overlapping epitopes with unique characteristics. (
  • Among the techniques used for epitope mapping , phage display is a versatile technology that allows the display of a library of oligopeptides or fragments from a single gene product on the phage surface, which then can interact with several antibodies to define epitopes . (
  • We demonstrate the specific detection of the LM26 branched galactan epitope, associated with rhamnogalacturonan‐I, in cell walls of ripe strawberry fruit. (
  • This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Posé, S. , Marcus, S. E. and Paul Knox, J. (2018), Differential metabolism of pectic galactan in tomato and strawberry fruit: detection of the LM26 branched galactan epitope in ripe strawberry fruit. (
  • As part of the characterization and validation of these allergen T cell epitopes, there is a need to conduct mechanistic studies that focus on the progression and/or changes in the severity of seasonal or perennial allergic diseases (e.g. seasonal allergic rhinitis, asthma exacerbations triggered by pet dander), as well as the changes resulting from therapeutic intervention in allergic disease, such as immunotherapy for seasonal, perennial, or food allergies. (
  • This initiative also seeks T cell epitope validation programs that include comparative or interventional studies in humans. (
  • The Immunohistochemistry staff furnishes the protocols for heat-induced epitope retrieval and enzymatic epitope retrieval. (
  • In situ analyses of ripe strawberry fruits indicate that the LM26 epitope is present in all primary cell walls and also particularly abundant in vascular tissues. (
  • Programs should focus on mechanistic assessment of T cell allergen epitopes to illuminate the T cell phenotypes, their function and contribution to allergen-specific T-cell memory. (
  • This diversity underscores the need to better understand the makeup of the immune response to fVIII in patients with hemophilia A at the individual epitope level. (
  • In this chapter, a protocol for the construction of a single-target oligopeptide phage library , as well as for the panning procedure for epitope mapping using phage display is given. (
  • Epitope mapping was performed using a modified competition ELISA utilizing a single biotinylated MAb concentration with patient plasma (~50 µl total for all experiments) diluted 1:40. (
  • Most of the techniques for epitope mapping rely on the presentation of the target, or parts of it, in a way that it can interact with a certain mAb. (
  • by adding the score function in the OUTPUT tag results in the "mhc_epitope" appearing in the, which is equal to 72. (
  • Methods: Linear and conformation B-cell epitopes and MHC class-I and class-II binding T- cell epitopes were predicted using bioinformatic tools. (
  • Remarkably, the epitope bears homology to a highly conserved regulatory T cell epitope (Tregitope) found in immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc region (Tregitope 289). (
  • Looking at the docs, if you have only a few epitopes that you want to remove then the AddMHCEpitopeConstraintMover would be useful. (