Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*11 allele family.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (1/16637)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (2/16637)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. (3/16637)

Trophinin, tastin, and bystin comprise a complex mediating a unique homophilic cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell surfaces. In this study, we prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to each of these molecules. The expression of these molecules in the human placenta was examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies. In placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, trophinin and bystin were found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface. Tastin was exclusively present on the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast. Tissue sections were also examined by in situ hybridization using RNA probes specific to each of these molecules. This analysis showed that trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at the utero placental interface express trophinin, tastin, and bystin. In wk 10 placenta, trophinin and bystin were found in the intravillous cytotrophoblast, while tastin was not found in the villi. After wk 10, levels of all three proteins decreased and then disappeared from placental villi.  (+info)

Protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection induced by a reduced peptide bond analogue of the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope GP33. (4/16637)

Recent investigations have suggested that pseudopeptides containing modified peptide bonds might advantageously replace natural peptides in therapeutic strategies. We have generated eight reduced peptide bond Psi(CH2-NH) analogues corresponding to the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope (called GP33) of the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. One of these pseudopeptides, containing a reduced peptide bond between residues 6 and 7 (Psi(6-7)), displayed very similar properties of binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and recognition by T cell receptor transgenic T cells specific for GP33 when compared with the parent peptide. We assessed in vitro and in vivo the proteolytic resistance of GP33 and Psi(6-7) and analyzed its contribution to the priming properties of these peptides. The Psi(6-7) analogue exhibited a dramatically increased proteolytic resistance when compared with GP33, and we show for the first time that MHC-peptide complexes formed in vivo with a pseudopeptide display a sustained half-life compared with the complexes formed with the natural peptide. Furthermore, in contrast to immunizations with GP33, three injections of Psi(6-7) in saline induced significant antiviral protection in mice. The enhanced ability of Psi(6-7) to induce antiviral protection may result from the higher stability of the analogue and/or of the MHC-analogue complexes.  (+info)

Use of RhD fusion protein expressed on K562 cell surface in the study of molecular basis for D antigenic epitopes. (5/16637)

The human D antigens, one of the most clinically important blood groups, are presented by RhD protein with a putative 12 transmembrane topology. To understand the molecular basis for the complex antigenic profile of RhD protein, we expressed a series of RhD fusion proteins using different portions of Duffy protein as a tag in erythroleukemic K562 cells. Because the reactivity of monoclonal anti-RhD antibody, LOR15C9, depends mainly on the sequence coded by exon 7 of RhD, we altered DNA sequence corresponding to the amino acid residues 323-331(A) and 350-354(B) in the exon 7. The mutation in region B resulted in a severe reduction in LOR15C9 binding by flow cytometry analysis, suggesting that region B may play an important role in constituting antigen epitopes recognized by LOR15C9. On the other hand, a slight decrease in the antibody binding was observed for the region A mutant, suggesting that the intracellularly located region A may elicit a long distance effect on the formation of exofacial antigen epitopes. In addition, using various monoclonal antibodies against RhD, we compared the antigenic profile of expressed RhD fusion protein with that of endogenous RhD in K562 cells as well as in erythrocytes.  (+info)

Goodpasture antigen: expression of the full-length alpha3(IV) chain of collagen IV and localization of epitopes exclusively to the noncollagenous domain. (6/16637)

BACKGROUND: Tissue injury in Goodpasture (GP) syndrome (rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage) is mediated by antibasement membrane antibodies that are targeted to the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen, one of five alpha(IV) chains that occur in the glomerular basement membrane. GP antibodies are known to bind epitopes within the carboxyl terminal noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha3(IV) chain, termed the GP autoantigen. Whether epitopes also exist in the 1400-residue collagenous domain is unknown because studies to date have focused solely on the NC1 domain. A knowledge of GP epitopes is important for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease and for the development of therapeutic strategies. METHODS: A cDNA construct was prepared for the full-length human alpha3(IV) chain. The construct was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The purified full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain was characterized by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The capacity of this chain for binding of GP antibodies from five patients was compared with that of the human r-alpha3(IV)NC1 domain by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The r-alpha3(IV) chain was secreted from 293 cells as a single polypeptide chain that did not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical molecule. An analysis of GP-antibody binding to the full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain showed binding exclusively to the globular NC1 domain. CONCLUSION: The full-length human alpha3(IV) chain possesses the capacity to bind GP autoantibodies. The epitope(s) is found exclusively on the nontriple-helical NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, indicating the presence of specific immunogenic properties. The alpha3(IV) chain alone does not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical homotrimeric molecule, suggesting that coassembly with either the alpha4(IV) and/or the alpha5(IV) chain may be required for triple-helix formation.  (+info)

Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (7/16637)

To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified.  (+info)

Induction of lasting complete regression of preformed distinct solid tumors by targeting the tumor vasculature using two new anti-endoglin monoclonal antibodies. (8/16637)

Endoglin (EDG, CD105) is a proliferation-associated antigen on endothelial cells. In this study, two new anti-EDG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Y4-2F1 (or termed SN6j) and P3-2G8 (SN6k) were generated and used for treating distinct preformed tumors. These mAbs, both IgG1-kappa antibodies, cross-reacted weakly with mouse endothelial cells but defined epitopes different from the epitope defined by a previously reported anti-EDG mAb K4-2C10 (B. K. Seon et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 3: 1031-1044, 1997). SN6j and SN6k reacted strongly with human endothelial cells and vascular endothelium of malignant human tissues but showed no significant reactivity with tumor cells per se. The deglycosylated ricin A chain (dgRA) conjugates of the two mAbs showed a weak but specific cytotoxic activity against murine endothelial cells in vitro. In the therapeutic studies, severe combined immunodeficient mice were inoculated s.c. with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and left untreated until palpable tumors of distinct size (4-6 mm in diameter) appeared. Mice with the distinct tumors were treated by i.v. administration of individual anti-EDG conjugates, unconjugated mAbs, or a control conjugate. Long-lasting complete regression of the tumors was induced in the majority of tumor-bearing mice (n = 8 for each conjugate) when 40 microg of the individual conjugates were administered three times via the tail vein. It is remarkable that the tumors remained regressed without further therapy for as long as the mice were followed (i.e., 100 days). Control conjugate did not induce regression of the tumors in any of the treated mice, although weak nonspecific effects were observed in some of the mice (n = 8). The effects of unconjugated mAbs were small with the dose used, i.e., 34 microg three times. The anti-EDG conjugates showed antiangiogenic activity in the dorsal air sac assay in mice. The results suggest good potential of these conjugates for the clinical application.  (+info)

The major findings of this study are that oxidation-specific epitopes are detected in cells in the majority of atherosclerotic plaques but not in control coronary segments, and in general, cell-associated Ox5 epitopes do not appear to be present on apo B, which suggests that these oxidation-specific epitopes have formed on other proteins. Several lines of evidence suggest that the cell-associated, oxidation-specific epitopes recognized by antibody Ox5 are not on apo B of OxLDL. First, there is a lack of colocalized cell-associated staining for apo B. Previous studies33 37 showed that OxLDL retains immunoreactivity for apo B antibodies on Western blot and in ELISA. The present study demonstrates that internalized OxLDL retains immunoreactivity for the apo B antibody 9A in cultured macrophages. Thus, the observation that cells in human coronary arteries with positive Ox5 staining do not stain for 9A strongly suggests that these cell-associated Ox5 epitopes are not on apo B of OxLDL. Second, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody‐induced growth inhibition is mediated through immunochemically and functionally distinct epitopes on the extracellular domain of the c‐erbb‐2 (her‐2/neu) gene product p185. AU - Xu, Fengji. AU - Lupu, Ruth. AU - Rodriguez, Gustavo C.. AU - Whitaker, Regina S.. AU - Boente, Matthew P.. AU - Berchuck, Andrew. AU - Yu, Yinhua. AU - Desombre, Karen A.. AU - Boyer, Cinda M.. AU - Bast, Robert C.. PY - 1993/2/1. Y1 - 1993/2/1. N2 - Over‐expression of the c‐erbB‐2 (HER‐2/neu) gene product p185 occurs in 30% of breast and ovarian cancers. The p185 protein might serve as a target for serotherapy in that antibodies against different epitopes on the extracellular domain of p185 can inhibit growth of tumor cells in the absence of cellular or humoral effector mechanisms. To define epitopes of functional relevance, II monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for their ability to bind to the extracellular domain of p185. Results of competition studies with ...
Retroviruses pack multiple genes into relatively small genomes by encoding several genes in the same genomic region with overlapping reading frames. Both sense and antisense HIV-1 transcripts contain open reading frames for known functional proteins as well as numerous alternative reading frames (ARFs). At least some ARFs have the potential to encode proteins of unknown function, and their antigenic properties can be considered as cryptic epitopes (CEs). To examine the extent of active immune response to virally encoded CEs, we analyzed human leukocyte antigen class I-associated polymorphisms in HIV-1 gag, pol, and nef genes from a large cohort of South Africans with chronic infection. In all, 391 CEs and 168 conventional epitopes were predicted, with the majority (307; 79%) of CEs derived from antisense transcripts. In further evaluation of CD8 T cell responses to a subset of the predicted CEs in patients with primary or chronic infection, both sense- and antisense-encoded CEs were immunogenic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of conformation-dependent prion protein epitopes. AU - Kang, Hae Eun. AU - Weng, Chu Chun. AU - Saijo, Eri. AU - Saylor, Vicki. AU - Bian, Jifeng. AU - Kim, Sehun. AU - Ramos, Laylaa. AU - Angers, Rachel. AU - Langenfeld, Katie. AU - Khaychuk, Vadim. AU - Calvi, Carla. AU - Bartz, Jason C.. AU - Hunter, Nora. AU - Telling, Glenn C.. PY - 2012/10/26. Y1 - 2012/10/26. N2 - Background: Despite structural reorganization during disease, conformational prion protein epitopes remain undefined. Results: We identify specific amino acids constituting novel conformational monoclonal antibody epitopes. Conclusion: Immunoreactivities of globular domain epitopes depend on maintenance of regional tertiary structure. Significance: Our studies address how denatured conformational epitopes remain functional, provide insights into normal and disease-related prion protein, and expand epitope tagging options.. AB - Background: Despite structural reorganization during disease, ...
In a recent study (51), we found that antibodies to all the neutralization epitopes on gp120, including the CD4bs, V2 and V3 loop, and 2G12 epitopes, neutralize HIV-1MN and Hx10 at least in part by blocking attachment of virus to cells. Indeed, the only antibody that did not interfere with HIV-cell attachment was the anti-gp41 MAb 2F5, which interacts with an epitope close to the transmembrane domain of the molecule. Taken together, the data of Ugolini et al. (51) and the present study suggest two plausible mechanisms for HIV-1 neutralization. The first invokes coating of the viral surface, which obstructs the close approach of virus and target cell membranes, as the principal mechanism. Individual epitopes play a minor role in this model because of the size of the antibody molecule relative to the proximity of the neutralization epitopes on gp120 to the CD4 binding region (Fig. 4). In this model, the high degree of glycosylation (about 50%) of gp120 reduces antibody accessibility to the protein ...
The chimeric antibodies anti-CD20 rituximab (Rtx) and anti-TNFa infliximab (Ifx) induce antidrug antibodies (ADAs) in many patients with inflammatory diseases. Because of the key role of CD4 T lymphocytes in the initiation of antibody responses, we localized the CD4 T cell epitopes of Rtx and Ifx. With the perspective to anticipate immunogenicity of therapeutic antibodies, identification of the CD4 T cell epitopes was performed using cells collected in healthy donors. Nine T cell epitopes were identified in the variable chains of both antibodies by deriving CD4 T cell lines raised against either Rtx or Ifx. The T cell epitopes often exhibited a good affinity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules and were part of the peptides identified by MHC-associated peptide proteomics assay from HLA-DR molecules of dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with the antibodies. Two-third of the T cell epitopes identified from the healthy donors stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients having ...
Past and present studies in the MUC1-Tg mouse model have indicated that in the context of that self environment, immune responses to unglycosylated MUC1 VNTR peptides are greatly reduced, thus compromising anti-MUC1 tumor immunity (4, 13-15, 28). As a strategy to increase the potency of MUC1 vaccines, we added tumor-associated Tn glycans to the peptide immunogen to more closely represent epitopes that are displayed on all MUC1+ tumors and on APCs that cross-present tumor MUC1 to T cells in patients.. To study the potential differences in T-cell responses to the MUC1 peptide (self) and the glycopeptide (foreign) epitopes, we generated two TCR-transgenic mice, one (VFT) bearing a peptide-specific TCR and the other (RFT) a glycopeptide-specific TCR. By adoptively transferring TCR-transgenic T-cell precursors or mature T cells into WT and MUC1-Tg mice, we found that the reduced responses of MUC1 peptide-specific CD4 T cells were not due to their deletion during thymic development in MUC1-Tg ...
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) are important candidates for an alternative vaccine against pneumococcal infections. Since these antigens show variability, the use of variants that do not afford broad protection may lead to the selection of vaccine escape bacteria. Epitopes capable of inducing antibodies with broad cross-reactivities should thus be the preferred antigens. In this work, experiments using peptide arrays show that most linear epitopes recognized by antibodies induced in mice against different PspAs were located at the initial 44 amino acids of the mature protein and that antibodies against these linear epitopes did not confer protection against a lethal challenge. Conversely, linear epitopes recognized by antibodies to PspC included the consensus sequences involved in the interaction with human factor H and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Since linear epitopes of PspA were not protective, larger overlapping fragments containing 100 ...
Two to three years after infection, a fraction of HIV-1-infected individuals develop serologic activity that neutralizes most viral isolates. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize the HIV-1 envelope protein have been isolated from these patients by single-cell sorting and by neutralization screens. Here, we report a new method for anti-HIV-1 antibody isolation based on capturing single B cells that recognize the HIV-1 envelope protein expressed on the surface of transfected cells. Although far less efficient than soluble protein baits, the cell-based capture method identified antibodies that bind to a new broadly neutralizing epitope in the vicinity of the V3 loop and the CD4-induced site (CD4i). The new epitope is expressed on the cell surface form of the HIV-1 spike, but not on soluble forms of the same envelope protein. Moreover, the new antibodies complement the neutralization spectrum of potent broadly neutralizing anti-CD4 binding site (CD4bs) antibodies obtained from the same ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of new epitopes from four different tumor-associated antigens. T2 - Recognition of naturally processed epitopes correlates with HLA-A*0201-binding affinity. AU - Keogh, E.. AU - Fikes, J.. AU - Southwood, S.. AU - Celis, E.. AU - Chesnut, R.. AU - Sette, A.. PY - 2001/7/15. Y1 - 2001/7/15. N2 - Forty-two wild-type and analogue peptides derived from p53, carcinoembryonic Ag, Her2/neu, and MAGE2/3 were screened for their capacity to induce CTLs, in vitro, capable of recognizing tumor target lines. All the peptides bound HLA-A*0201 and two or more additional A2 supertype alleles with an IC50 of 500 nM or less. A total of 20 of 22 wild-type and 9 of 12 single amino acid substitution analogues were found to be immunogenic in primary in vitro CTL induction assays, using normal PBMCs and GM-CSF/IL-4-induced dendritic cells. These results suggest that peripheral T cell tolerance does not prevent, in this system, induction of CTL responses against tumor-associated Ag ...
Two different BALB/c anti-CBA (H-2k)monoclonal antibodies that bind to Kk and Dk antigens blocked Tc cell-mediated lysis of L929 (Kk, Dk) target cells, but with
As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-Ag7 in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-Ag7 and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-Ag7 and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number
Anti-HTT antibody epitopes and analysis by immunoblot.(A) Diagram representing antibody epitopes on human HTT protein (relative to GenBank accession CAD38447.1)
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VLPs formed by the capsid proteins of viruses such as HBV (25, 27, 32) and human papillomavirus (33) and bacteriophages (8, 34) have been widely used for displaying foreign epitopes for vaccine development. The carriers enhance the antigenicity of the fused epitopes (35-37), which are often found to be inefficient in eliciting immune responses. In addition, VLPs allow the display of more than a single epitope, enabling the development of multivalent vaccines (25, 38, 39). MrNV capsid protein self-assembles into VLPs (18, 19); therefore, we hypothesize that MrNV VLPs can be used to display a foreign epitope and enhance B cell and T cell responses.. In this experiment, the a determinant of HBV was fused to the C-terminal end of NvC, forming a fusion recombinant protein, namely, NvC-aD. The production of NvC-aD can be scaled up easily, and it can be purified rapidly in a single-step IMAC purification, with approximately 95% purity. NvC-aD provides an alternative to the yeast-derived HBsAg ...
This study presents in-depth combinatorial ex-vivo profiling of CD8+ T cell specificity phenotype in SARS-CoV-2 convalescent individuals. In convalescent, SARS-CoV-2 T cell recognizes a broad range of epitopes against the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. The most prominent phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cells were stem-cell memory (SCM) and transitional memory (TM2), which agrees with previous studies (Sekine et al. and Fan et al.). However, high prevalence CD8+ T cell SARS-CoV-2 specificities had a distinct phenotype to low prevalence SARS-CoV-2 specificities; being enriched for TEMRA, EM, TM2 cells and SCM and CM cells, respectively. Cross-sectional data of the recovery period revealed an increase in the number of epitope responses detected over time. Lastly, evaluation of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell response was time-dependent during early recovery phase and was associated with decrease in inflammation and sustainment of antibody neutralizing activity. ...
The promiscuous presentation of epitopes by similar HLA class I alleles holds promise for a universal T-cell-based HIV-1 vaccine. However, in some instances, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) restricted by HLA alleles with similar or identical binding motifs are known to target epitopes at different frequencies, with different functional avidities and with different apparent clinical outcomes. Such differences may be illuminated by the association of similar HLA alleles with distinctive escape pathways. Using a novel computational method featuring phylogenetically corrected odds ratios, we systematically analyzed differential patterns of immune escape across all optimally defined epitopes in Gag, Pol, and Nef in 2,126 HIV-1 clade C-infected adults. Overall, we identified 301 polymorphisms in 90 epitopes associated with HLA alleles belonging to shared supertypes. We detected differential escape in 37 of 38 epitopes restricted by more than one allele, which included 278 instances of differential escape at the
The CD4 molecules on the target macrophage and T cell are the primary receptors for the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120. In addition, chemokine receptors on the macrophage and T cell serve as co-receptors in the virus-cell interactions. An understanding of the mechanism of virus-cell interactions requires quantitative analyses of the structure-function correlations of the surface epitopes on gp120 which contains several constant (C) and variable (V) subdomains linked as C1-V1-V2-C2-V3-C3-V4-C4-V5-C5. The surface epitope inside the C4 loop is critical for CD4 binding. The epitopes inside the V1-V2 and V3 loops elicit HIV-1 neutralizing response as well as determine tropism, fusion, and infectivity of the virus. In absence of a high resolution structure of the entire gp120, we have adopted an alternative approach to analyzing the structural properties of these surface epitopes. For this purpose, we have combined theoretical and experimental techniques including sequence analysis, molecular modeling,
After arriving at a final subset of constitutively expressed CHO proteins (1757 in total), we used our epitope prediction tool, EpiMatrix, to identify CHO proteins that had the potential for immunogenicity. We also compared the epitopes, as illustrated in the diagram, to common human self proteins. These preliminary results will be published as part of the proceedings of ICIW.. In our preliminary analysis, 26% of the 1757 proteins analyzed were above our threshold for likely immunogens, containing an abundance of predicted epitopes. We then compared these potential immunogens for conservation with the human genome. Some example results are illustrated the figure above; what is remarkable the number of epitopes that are not cross reactive with the human genome (represented by grey boxes with no attachments to similar epitopes (triangles) within the human genome).. The epitope network illustrated here should be reassuring except where the connections between CHO and non-CHO are absent; those ...
Pál G, Fong SY, Kossiakoff AA, Sidhu SS. Alternative views of functional protein binding epitopes obtained by combinatorial shotgun scanning mutagenesis. Protein Sci. 2005 Sep; 14(9):2405-13 ...
This epitope map visualizes all epitope residues associated with the mAb on to the structure of the DENV E protein. Epitope residues are depicted as spheres, colored according to domain, and with a size corresponding to the epitope resolution, for domain, peptide, and residue-level epitopes ...
This epitope map visualizes all epitope residues associated with the mAb on to the structure of the DENV E protein. Epitope residues are depicted as spheres, colored according to domain, and with a size corresponding to the epitope resolution, for domain, peptide, and residue-level epitopes ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
Predicting the binding of T cell receptors (TCRs) to epitopes plays a vital role in the immunotherapy, because it guides the development of therapeutic vaccines and cance
Polymorphism at the MHC locus enhances immune defense across the population by ensuring wide variation in the T cell response to infecting pathogens through presentation of a broad array of target epitopes (22, 23). This report has demonstrated another mechanism through which MHC polymorphism can diversify the immune response to an infecting pathogen. Thus, polymorphic MHC residues can markedly affect peptide binding conformation as well as MHC-peptide binding affinity, and this can have a major impact on the T cell response. Although previous studies have also demonstrated peptide structural alterations induced by MHC polymorphism (24, 25), none have shown that such changes can influence a peptide-specific immune response to this extent.. Our data demonstrate that a single residue polymorphism between HLA-B*3501 and HLA-B*3508 controls responsiveness to the APQP epitope through a mechanism unrelated to peptide-MHC binding efficiency/stability (Fig. 2). Furthermore, HLA-B*3501+, EBV-infected ...
Many approaches to identify therapeutically relevant neoantigens couple tumor sequencing with bioinformatic algorithms and inferred rules of tumor epitope immunogenicity. However, there are no reference data to compare these approaches, and the parameters governing tumor epitope immunogenicity remain unclear. Here, we assembled a global consortium wherein each participant predicted immunogenic epitopes from shared tumor sequencing data. 608 epitopes were subsequently assessed for T cell binding in patient-matched samples. By integrating peptide features associated with presentation and recognition, we developed a model of tumor epitope immunogenicity that filtered out 98% of non-immunogenic peptides with a precision above 0.70. Pipelines prioritizing model features had superior performance, and pipeline alterations leveraging them improved prediction performance. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of 310 epitopes prioritized from tumor sequencing data and assessed for T cell binding.
RA is an HLA class II-associated autoimmune disease in which mucosal immunity, often resulting from interaction with oral or gut microbes or from inhaled antigens in the lung, is hypothesized to cause autoimmune phenomena leading to joint inflammation and damage. However, the factors linking mucosal immunity to autoimmunity in joints have been unclear. In this study in which HLA-DR-presented peptides were identified directly from patients synovial tissue or PBMCs, 2 previously unidentified self-antigens, GNS and FLNA, were shown to be targets of T and B cell responses in 52% and 56% of RA patients, respectively. Importantly, the GNS and FLNA HLA-DR-presented T cell epitopes have considerable sequence homology with Prevotella epitopes and with similar epitopes from several related gut commensals belonging to the same order, particularly in areas predicted to be in the HLA-DR-binding groove. Moreover, T cell responses to the corresponding microbial and self-peptides were strongly correlated, ...
soloMERs™ are superior to and differentiated from more traditional antibody platforms as they are pre-disposed to bind novel or cryptic epitopes (canyon-binders), seeking out pockets or grooves in protein targets. soloMERs can deliver the equivalent neutralising potency as antibodies, but from a protein only 9% their size.. Their simple modular formats express well in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. soloMER re-formatting is plug-n-play with bi and tri-specificity and/or bi-paratopic potency achievable with a final molecular weight of only 25 - 35 kDa.. ...
Proper activation of DRs is critical in regulation of T cell development and function. However, the nature of functional receptors, which are expressed on T cells at stages characterized by resistance to the impact of FasL, TNF, and TRAIL, remains to be established. In this study, we have shown that engagement of distinct epitopes on CD99 induced rapid death signaling in the majority of immature T cell lines examined, apparently by a caspase-independent pathway. In contrast, only a few T cell lines were distinctly responsive to apoptosis-inducing anti-Fas and TRAIL. Differences between the Ad20/CD99-mediated death pathway and other novel nonclassical apoptotic pathways were also observed. Thus, our data suggest that CD99 may be a major DR used by the immune system to control T cells at stages before they acquire susceptibility to the impact of death-mediating cytokines of the TNF superfamily.. Previous studies have shown that activation of the CD99 domain specified by mAbs O662, L129, and DN16 ...
Now that we know what kinds of conditions need to be in place on the vaccine side of things for vaccine resistance to develop, how likely is it? How easy is it for the bacteria/viruses to evolve resistance? The short answer is, not very. When talking about diseases, antigens are the parts of viruses and bacteria that kick our immune systems into action. Theyre usually polysaccharides or proteins, and these polysaccharides and proteins have these things called epitopes. Its those epitopes that our antibodies bind to; they are what allow our immune system to latch onto and attack an invading bug. Antigens generally have multiple epitopes, and our antibodies are often able to act against more than one epitope. The more epitopes on an antigen that an antibody can bind to, the stronger the bond and the less chance the invader has of surviving. So even if we have a very narrowly designed vaccine that uses only a single protein from the target bacteria, for instance, the bacteria would need to change ...
We have professional and advanced research and production capacity for DYKDDDDK (FLAG® epitope Tag) reagents production, including Proteins, Antibodies,etc. All FLAG products are produced in house and quality controlled.
Dall, P.; Hekele, A.; Ikenberg, H.; Göppinger, A.; Bauknecht, T.; Pfleiderer, A.; Moll, J.; Hofmann, M.; Ponta, H.; Herrlich, P ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Recognition of naturally processed and ovarian cancer reactive CD8 ,sup,+,/sup, T cell epitopes within a promiscuous HLA class II T-helper region of NY-ESO-1. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Traditional vaccine approaches have failed for HIV and novel strategies are now being sought to develop immunogens designed to elicit specific activity against known broad neutralization epitopes. Structure-based vaccine design has great potential but, thus far, remains a largely unproven concept. Further structural information for the envelope (Env) glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41, is needed, particularly for understanding trimer-specific antibodies and their epitopes and to clarify atomic details of the structural elements responsible for masking crucial epitopes and for mediating the conformational rearrangements undertaken during the process of receptor-binding and membrane fusion ...
Originating manufacturer of this product. Applications: ICC-IF, IHC, WB. Validation of protein expression in IHC by comparing independent antibodies targeting different epitopes of the protein. Genetic validation in WB by siRNA knockdown. Validation of protein expression in WB by comparing independent antibodies targeting different epitopes of the protein. Immunogen: Recombinant Protein Epitope Signature Tag (PrEST ...
Dear Netters, Does anyone know of any software for the prediction of T-cell epitopes from peptide sequences? I have access to Mac, PC, VAX, SG & UNIX so the program format does not matter. Hope to hear from someone soon! Thanks, Brian Robertson Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biologie Abt. Infektionsbiologie D74 Tuebingen, FRG. Email robertson at ...
Detection of nuclear epitopes of protein 4.1 by immunofluorescent light microscopy in WI38 cells. Cultured WI38 human fibroblasts were fixed in acetone for prob
A highly conserved cryptic epitope in the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV Meng Yuan, et al., March 2020 The outbreak of COVID-19, which is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, continues to spread globally, but there is currently very little understanding of the epitopes on the…. ...
A young German company, founded in 2016, is specialised in the field of antigen recognition. The founder developed a method for the rapid and reliable characterisation of epitopes at the level of single amino acids and their allowed variations. The method identifies up to thousands of potential epitope/mimotope peptides combining even structural epitopes in single peptides to
|p|The Epitope Tag (Small Motif) Antibody Sampler Kit provides a convenient resource to detect small Epitope Tag fused protein by Western Blot. The DYKDDDDK tag, commonly referred to as Sigma®'s FLAG® Tag, is often used as a protein modification in order to simplify the labeling and detection of pro
Pk (V5) Epitope Tag (GKPIPNPLLGLDST), 1 mg. The V5 epitope tag is derived from a small epitope (Pk) present on the P and V proteins of the paramyxovirus of simian virus 5 (SV5).
Pk (V5) Epitope Tag (GKPIPNPLLGLDST), 0.1 mg. The V5 epitope tag is derived from a small epitope (Pk) present on the P and V proteins of the paramyxovirus of simian virus 5 (SV5).
This study demonstrates that use of structural information improves the definition and optimization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Epitope optimization usually requires numerous truncated peptides or a reverse immunogenetic approach, where the peptide binding motif is used to predict epitopes. These binding motifs do not reliably predict all peptides which are CTL epitopes. Comparison of 24 peptides eluted from HLA-B8 with 10 HLA-B8-restricted defined CTL epitopes demonstrated that known epitopes varied considerably at anchor positions. We used structural information based on determination of the crystal structure of the HLA-B8-GGKKKYKL complex to reassess previously described CTL epitopes, to predict new epitopes, and to predict the consequences of naturally occurring variation within epitopes. These predictions were confirmed by cytotoxicity and binding assays. Use of combined structural and immunological data more accurately defines the true peptide-binding motif of a restriction element
Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly characterized. Herein we defined the human CD4+ T cell epitope repertoire by reevaluation of previously described epitopes and evaluation of those derived from prediction of HLA Class II binding. Forty-seven epitopes were identified following in vitro TT stimulation, with 28 epitopes accounting for 90% of the total response. Despite this diverse range of epitopes, individual responses were associated with only a few immunodominant epitopes, with each donor responding on average to 3 epitopes. For the top 14 epitopes, HLA restriction could be inferred based on HLA typing of the responding donors. HLA binding predictions re-identified the vast majority of known epitopes, and identified 24 additional novel epitopes. With these epitopes, we created a TT epitope pool, which allowed us to characterize TT responses directly ex vivo using a cytokine-independent Activation Induced ...
Antigen-binding receptors on T lymphocytes and IgG antibodies with the same antigen-binding specificity as the T-cell receptors display shared or identical idiotypes. This was shown using a system where adult F1 hybrid rats between two inbred strains were inoculated with T lymphocytes from one parental strain. Such F1 hybrid rats produce antibodies directed against idiotypic determinants present on IgG alloantibodies, produced in the T donor genotype strain and with specificity for the alloantigens of the other parental strain. The idiotypic nature of the F1 antialloantibody serum against the parental alloantibodies was demonstrated both by indirect hemagglutination tests or by gel diffusion using alloantisera with different specificity as targets. Furthermore, the F1 anti-T-lymphocyte sera could be shown to contain antibodies against idiotypic parental T lymphocytes as well. This was shown by the capacity of the antisera, in the presence of complement, to wipe out the relevant parental T-cell ...
The identification of class II binding peptide epitopes from autoimmune disease-related antigens is an essential step in the development of antigen-specific immune modulation therapy. In the case of type 1 diabetes, T cell and B cell reactivity to the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) is associated with disease development in humans and in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we identify two DRB1*0401-restricted T cell epitopes from human GAD65, 274-286, and 115-127. Both peptides are immunogenic in transgenic mice expressing functional DRB1*0401 MHC class II molecules but not in nontransgenic littermates. Processing of GAD65 by antigen presenting cells (APC) resulted in the formation of DRB1*0401 complexes loaded with either the 274-286 or 115-127 epitopes, suggesting that these naturally derived epitopes may be displayed on APC recruited into pancreatic islets. The presentation of these two T cell epitopes in the islets of DRB1*0401 individuals who are at risk for type 1
Two-site immunometric assays for multideterminant antigens are described in which the antigen is reacted with an immobilized monoclonal antibody directed against one antigen determinant and a second monoclonal antibody that is directed against a distinct antigenic determinant and is of a different class or subclass than the immobilized monoclonal antibody. The second monoclonal antibody is labeled in direct versions of the assay and is reacted with a labeled antibody against it in indirect versions of the assay. The immobilizing medium and classes (subclasses) of the antibodies may be selected so as to reduce the likelihood of nonspecific binding enhance sensitivity and/or permit signal amplification.
Autoimmunity is frequently involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes, and viral infections have been implicated in some cases. We have investigated the possibility that islet cells and viruses share antigenic determinants with the result that antiviral antibodies would cross-react with islet cells. Antibody titers to Coxsackie B2, B3, B4, and B5, Influenza A and B, and mumps viruses were compared with islet cell antibody (ICA) titers in newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetic patients and in some diabetic patients followed prospectively for 1 yr postdiagnosis. Nondiabetic patients, with cultureproven Coxsackie B4 infections and large rises in Coxsackie B4 antibody titers, were evaluated for islet cell antibodies. No relationship between ICA and viral antibody titers was found either in diabetic or nondiabetic patients. We conclude that it is unlikely that islet cells and the viruses tested share antigenic determinants and other mechanisms relating viral infection and ...
Vita R, Zarebski L, Greenbaum JA, Emami H, Hoof I, Salimi N, Damle R, Sette A, Peters B. The Immune Epitope Database 2.0. Nucleic Acids...
In diseases with a strong association with an HLA haplotype, identification of relevant T cell epitopes may allow alteration of the pathologic process. In this report we use a reverse immunogenetic approach to predict possible HLA class II-restricted T cell epitopes by using complete pool sequencing data. Data from HLA-DR2(B1*1501), -DR3(B1*0301), -DQ2(A1*0501, B1*0201), and -DQ8(A1*0301, B1*0302) alleles were used by a computer program that searches a candidate protein to predict ligands with a relatively high probability of being processed and presented. This approach successfully identified both known T cell epitopes and eluted single peptides from the parent protein. Furthermore, the program identified ligands from proteins in which the binding motif of the HLA molecule was unable to do so. When the information from the nonbinding N- and C-terminal regions in the pool sequence was removed, the ability to predict several ligands was markedly reduced, particularly for the HLA-DQ alleles. This suggests
Computational methods provide approaches to identify epitopes in protein Ags to help characterizing potential biomarkers identified by high-throughput genomic or proteomic experiments. PEPOP version 1.0 was developed as an antigenic or immunogenic peptide prediction tool. We have now improved this tool by implementing 32 new methods (PEPOP version 2.0) to guide the choice of peptides that mimic discontinuous epitopes and thus potentially able to replace the cognate protein Ag in its interaction with an Ab. In the present work, we describe these new methods and the benchmarking of their performances. Benchmarking was carried out by comparing the peptides predicted by the different methods and the corresponding epitopes determined by X-ray crystallography in a dataset of 75 Ag-Ab complexes. The Sensitivity (Se) and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) parameters were used to assess the performance of these methods. The results were compared to that of peptides obtained either by chance or by using the
We determined the antigenic specificity and protective immunogenicity of two chemically synthesized peptides of type 5 streptococcal M protein. The synthetic peptides, designated S-M5(1-20) and S-M5(20-40), represent the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the native pepsin-extracted M5 molecule, which is known to contain at least one heart cross-reactive epitope. Initial studies showed that neither of the synthetic peptides was able to bind purified heart-reactive M5 antibodies. In addition, S-M5(1-20), but not S-M5(20-40), contained type-specific antigenic determinants as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assays. When covalently linked to tetanus toxoid, S-M5(1-20), but not S-M5(20-40), evoked significant levels of type-specific, opsonic (and presumably protective) antibodies in rabbits without evoking heart cross-reactive antibodies. ...
We have identified six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) mapping to both linear and conformation-dependent epitopes within the V2 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clone HXB10. Three of the MAbs (12b, 66c, and 66a) were able to neutralize the molecular clones HXB10 and HXB2, with titers in the range of 9.5 to 20.0 micrograms/ml. MAbs mapping to the crown of the V2 loop (12b, 60b, and 74) bound poorly to cell surface-expressed oligomeric gp120, suggesting an explanation for the poor or negligible neutralizing activity of MAbs to this region. In contrast, MAbs 12b and 60b demonstrated good reactivity with recombinant gp120 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format, suggesting differential epitope exposure between the recombinant and native forms of gp120. Cross-competition analysis of these MAbs and additional V1V2 MAbs for gp120 binding enabled us to assign the MAbs to six groups (A to F). Selection of neutralization escape mutants with MAbs 10/76b and 11/68b, belonging to nonoverlapping
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of cell cycle expression of Ia-like antigenic determinants on normal human multipotential (CFU-GEMM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells with regulation in vitro by acidic isoferritins. AU - Lu, L.. AU - Broxmeyer, H. E.. AU - Meyers, P. A.. AU - Moore, M. A.. AU - Thaler, H. T.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - An association has been established between human Ia-like antigenic determinants, expression during DNA synthesis on multipotential (CFU-GEMM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells, and the regulatory action of acidic isoferritins in vitro. Treatment of human bone marrow cells with monoclonal anti-Ia (NE1-011) plus complement inhibited colony formation of CFU-GEMM and BFU-E by 50%-70%. Reduction of colonies was similar whether bone marrow cells were exposed to anti-Ia plus complement, high specific activity tritiated thymidine (3HTdr), or acidic isoferritins. No further decrease was apparent with 3HTdr or acidic isoferritins after Ia-antigen+ CFU-GEMM or BFU-E ...
CD8+ T cells have the potential to control HSV-2 infection. However, limited information has been available on CD8+ T cell epitopes or the functionality of antigen specific T cells during infection or following immunization with experimental vaccines. Peptide panels from HSV-2 proteins ICP27, VP22 and VP13/14 were selected from in silico predictions of binding to human HLA-A*0201 and mouse H-2Kd, Ld and Dd molecules. Nine previously uncharacterized CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified from HSV-2 infected BALB/c mice. HSV-2 specific peptide sequences stabilized HLA-A*02 surface expression with intermediate or high affinity binding. Peptide specific CD8+ human T cell lines from peripheral blood lymphocytes were generated from a HLA-A*02+ donor. High frequencies of peptide specific CD8+ T cell responses were elicited in mice by DNA vaccination with ICP27, VP22 and VP13/14, as demonstrated by CD107a mobilization. Vaccine driven T cell responses displayed a more focused immune response than those induced
The details of bibliography - Towards a vaccine for rheumatic fever: identification of a conserved target epitope on M protein of group a strepococci
The vast majority of therapeutic antibodies have a conformational or discontinuous epitope. Pepscan developed its proprietary CLIPSTM technology to construct constrained peptides which enable the 3D spatial conformation of these epitopes to be addressed. Our epitope mapping platform allows you to identify any type of epitope in a cost-effective and timely manner.. Pepscan developed this epitope mapping platform using solid support with a proprietary hydrogel matrix into which peptide sequences are directly synthesized using robust Fmoc peptide synthesis in a high density. This results in highly sensitive arrays and enables reliable detection of even the weakest binding signals. These immobilized peptide arrays are reusable and can be tested multiple times. This therefore permits screening of a series of antibodies or sera on a single array, making linear epitope mapping a fast and cost-effective option for best candidate selection and further development.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutralizing epitopes in the membrane-proximal region of HIV-1 gp41. T2 - Genetic variability and co-variation. AU - Dong, Xiao Nan. AU - Chen, Ying Hua. PY - 2006/8/15. Y1 - 2006/8/15. N2 - Recent investigations on the passive immunization have proved that neutralizing antibodies directed to the membrane-proximal region of HIV-1 gp41 are potent anti-viral components, so this region is thought to be an attractive target for AIDS vaccine. Three key neutralizing epitopes, ELDKWA (aa662-667), NWFDIT (aa671-676) and ERDRDR (aa739-744) have been mapped in this region. In this study, their genetic variability and co-variation was evaluated. There exists marked shift in the predominant sequence patterns on these three neutralizing epitopes over time. Compared with subtype B, non-B clades exhibit significant genetic variability and co-variation on these three epitopes. Among HIV-1 strains isolated in recent 5 years, about one third displays epitope variants simultaneously on three ...
Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play pivotal roles in human cancer and are the targets of a major class of emerging anti-cancer drugs. In a single tumor, multiple PTKs are active and a substantial number are essential for maintaining the transformed phenotype. Though large numbers of phosphorylation sites have been mapped in cancer cells through mass spectrometry (MS), the identity of the specific kinases that phosphorylate these sites are with very few exceptions unknown. We propose to use emerging peptide microarray technology to identify consensus phosphorylation sequences for the entire set of human PTKs. We will generate a set of mammalian expression vectors producing every PTK fused to glutathione S-transferase. Each PTK will be affinity purified from a mammalian cell overexpression system and subjected to peptide microarray screening. These screens will reveal specific sequences preferred by each kinase at phosphorylation sites in their target substrates. We will use this data to mine ...
Journal of Immunology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different areas of immunology and therapy. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, as well as clinical studies related to classical immunology, molecular immunology, clinical immunology, cancer immunology, transplantation immunology, immune pathology, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, and immunotherapy.
We recently discover a new immune escape mechanism that may help viruses escape from immune detection, which might compromise vaccine efficacy. Viruses that cause chronic infection in human contain higher numbers of T cell epitopes whose TCR-facing amino acids are identical to those of numerous peptides from the human proteome. We postulate that viruses that incorporate such human-like epitopes may exploit host tolerance to avoid or suppress effector responses. In order to predict these human-like epitopes, we developed an immunoinformatics tool, JanusMatrix.. Using JanusMatrix, we have identified T cell epitopes in H7N9 influenza HA protein that are highly conserved with human genome epitopes, and these epitopes possess low immunogenicity, activate natural Tregs and suppress bystander effector T cell responses in vitro. The human like T cell epitopes may contribute to the delayed, low titer of H7N9 hemagglutination inhibiting antibody responses and diminished seroconversion rates that have been ...
Background: Identification and validation of a targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), that is, breast cancers negative for oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and HER2 amplification, is currently one of the most urgent problems in breast cancer treatment. EGFR is one of the best-validated driver genes for TNBC. EGFR is normally activated following the release of ligands such as TGF alpha, mediated by the two MMP-like proteases ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase)-10 and ADAM-17. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumour effects of a monoclonal antibody against ADAM-17 on an in vitro model of TNBC. Methods: We investigated an inhibitory cross-domain humanised monoclonal antibody targeting both the catalytic domain and the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM17-D1(A12) in the HCC1937 and HCC1143 cell lines. Results: D1(A12) was found to significantly inhibit the release of TGFa, and to decrease downstream EGFR-dependent cell signalling. D1(A12) treatment ...
Advances in the field of T cell immunology have contributed to the understanding that cross-reactivity is an intrinsic characteristic of the T cell receptor (TCR), and that each TCR can potentially interact with many different T cell epitopes. To better define the potential for TCR cross-reactivity between epitopes derived from the human genome, the human microbiome, and human pathogens, we developed a new immunoinformatics tool, JanusMatrix, that represents an extension of the validated T cell epitope mapping tool, EpiMatrix. Initial explorations, summarized in this synopsis, have uncovered what appear to be important differences in the TCR cross-reactivity of selected regulatory and effector T cell epitopes with other epitopes in the human genome, human microbiome, and selected human pathogens. In addition to exploring the T cell epitope relationships between human self, commensal and pathogen, JanusMatrix may also be useful to explore some aspects of heterologous immunity and to examine T cell
Monoclonal antibodies on MOUSE Tissue - posted in Immunology: Heres a question for the ages..Does anyone have a CLUE as to whether a protocol exists to use mouse monoclonal antibodies on mouse tissues without the outrageous background staining?? All suggestions are welcome. Thanx.
A long-standing question in the field of immunology concerns the factors that contribute to Th cell epitope immunodominance. For a number of viral membrane proteins, Th cell epitopes are localized to exposed protein surfaces, often overlapping with Ab binding sites. It has therefore been proposed that Abs on B cell surfaces selectively bind and protect exposed protein fragments during Ag processing, and that this interaction helps to shape the Th cell repertoire. While attractive in concept, this hypothesis has not been thoroughly tested. To test this hypothesis, we have compared Th cell peptide immunodominance in normal C57BL/6 mice with that in C57BL/6( micro MT/ micro MT) mice (lacking normal B cell activity). Animals were first vaccinated with DNA constructs expressing one of three different HIV envelope proteins, after which the CD4(+) T cell response profiles were characterized toward overlapping peptides using an IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay. We found a striking similarity between the peptide ...
BACKGROUND The role of humoral immunity in COVID-19 is not fully understood, owing, in large part, to the complexity of antibodies produced in response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a pressing need for serology tests to assess patient-specific antibody response and predict clinical outcome.METHODS Using SARS-CoV-2 proteome and peptide microarrays, we screened 146 COVID-19 patients plasma samples to identify antigens and epitopes. This enabled us to develop a master epitope array and an epitope-specific agglutination assay to gauge antibody responses systematically and with high resolution.RESULTS We identified linear epitopes from the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins and showed that the epitopes enabled higher resolution antibody profiling than the S or N protein antigen. Specifically, we found that antibody responses to the S-811-825, S-881-895, and N-156-170 epitopes negatively or positively correlated with clinical severity or patient survival. Moreover, we found that the ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Immunodominant Epitopes by people in this website by year, and whether Immunodominant Epitopes was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Epitope Mapping covers all the major methods for the identification and definition of epitopes. The Pepscan assay is used to define B cell epitopes and makes use of synthetic peptides but can only be used if the amino acid sequence is known. It can be adapted for the delineation of both helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells. The identification of combined B and T cell epitopes can also be achieved using synthetic peptides.
Get high-quality data from your epitope mapping studies. Learn the advantages and limitations of different epitope mapping techniques and how SPR can expedite your antibody therapeutics development.
Characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted epitopes derived from viral pathogens is imperative for formulating therapeutic interventions, as well as for vaccine design and monitoring. Sensitive, easy and cost-effective assays that measure the frequency of antigen-specific T lymphocytes are crucial for evaluating and improving vaccines and therapies. This paper reviews the ELISPOT technique that allows for quantifying HIV-specific T lymphocytes at the single cell level from peripheral blood by detection of antigen-induced cytokine secretion. The assay can be used successfully to quantify T cell immune responses in humans infected with different pathogens and to assess T cell immunogenicity of vaccines in phase I/II and III clinical trials. This review focuses on the ELISPOT methodology and discusses how it can be standardized and potentially used by multiple international laboratories attached to clinical trial sites.
Autoantibodies targeting extracellular, rather than intracellular, domains of an antigen have a higher probability of being pathogenic by modulating receptor function, which can be studied in vitro and in vivo. However, since epitopes may vary between species, matching epitope targets between human autoantibodies and murine models is important for animal studies. For instance, the majority of patients with anti-MOG antibodies did not recognize conformational intact mMOG [56], whereas epitopes recognized by anti-NMDAR antibodies are similar between the two species [35], or at least share some cross-reactivity as in the case of anti-AQP4 antibodies [62, 134]. Longitudinal studies of autoimmune neurological disorders in humans are necessary to substantiate findings from animal models and determine whether the same mechanisms are relevant to human disease. Based on these results, decisions can be made as to whether the therapies that have proved effective in animal models are translatable to human ...
Peptides that are antigenic for T lymphocytes are ligands for two receptors, the class I or II glycoproteins that are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex, and the idiotypic / chain T-cell antigen receptor1-9. That a peptide must bind to an MHC molecule to interact with a T-cell antigen receptor is the molecular basis of the MHC restriction of antigen-recognition by T lymphocytes10,11. In such a trimolecular interaction the amino-acid sequence of the peptide must specify the contact with both receptors: agretope residues bind to the MHC receptor and epitope residues bind to the T-cell antigen receptor12,13. From a compilation of known antigenic peptides, two algorithms have been proposed to predict antigenic sites in proteins. One algorithm uses linear motifs in the sequence14, whereas the other considers peptide conformation and predicts antigenicity for amphipathic -helices15,16. We report here that a systematic delimitation of an antigenic site precisely identifies a ...
Adoptive transfer of transplant donor or third party donor derived CMV-specific T cells (CMV-CTL) can effectively treat CMV infections in HSCT recipients. In clinical trials, infusion of partially matched third party CMV-CTLs, has demonstrated high response rates against persistent CMV infection. T-cells (TC) generated in vitro or directly selected in vivo demonstrate a striking preponderance of specificity for 1-2 immunodominant (ID) epitopes presented by specific HLA alleles. ID epitopes elicit higher TC functional activity in vivo, compared to sub-dominant (SD) epitopes. The relative clinical efficacy of TC directed against ID versus SD epitopes in vivo remains undefined. Agents augmenting activity of TC responsive to SD epitopes are unexplored. When these alleles are co-inherited in humans, epitopes of CMVpp65 presented by HLA A*02:01 are ID over HLA A*24:02 presented epitopes. We describe an in vivo model to assess efficacy of CMV-CTLs using colon carcinoma cells (coca)transduced to express ...
Tumour-specific mutations are ideal targets for cancer immunotherapy as they lack expression in healthy tissues and can potentially be recognized as neo-antigens by the mature T-cell repertoire.
This study demonstrates that prediction of conformational B-cell epitope in an antigen is possible from is primary sequence. This study will be very useful in predicting conformational B-cell epitopes in antigens whose tertiary structures are not available. A web server CBTOPE has been developed for predicting B-cell epitope ...
By developing a novel epitope selection algorithm in paper II, we aimed to identify optimal MHC class II-restricted HIV epitopes with broad viral and host coverage. Employing both immunological and virological approaches, a set of peptides was shown to induce broad HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses, where the number of targeted Gag epitopes was inversely correlated with HIV viral load. In order to further trace events of HIV disease progression, we investigated whether the combined pattern of HIV evolution and CD8+ T cell functionality could explain the risk of HIV disease progression in HLA-B*5701+ patients (paper III). HIV Gag sequence diversity was shown to be lower and multi-functional responses higher against wild-type and autologous HLA-B*5701-restricted epitopes in subjects of low risk of disease progression. Both of these studies highlight the power of multidisciplinary approaches, integrating complex evolutionary and immunological data, to understand the mechanisms underlying T cell ...
The term avidity describes binding by antibody classes that are secreted as joined, multivalent structures (such as IgM and IgA). Although avidity measures the strength of binding, just as affinity does, the avidity is not simply the sum of the affinities of the antibodies in a multimeric structure. The avidity depends on the number of identical binding sites on the antigen being detected, as well as other physical and chemical factors. Typically, multimeric antibodies, such as pentameric IgM, are classified as having lower affinity than monomeric antibodies, but high avidity. Essentially, the fact that multimeric antibodies can bind many antigens simultaneously balances their slightly lower binding strength for each antibody/antigen interaction.. Antibodies secreted after binding to one epitope on an antigen may exhibit cross reactivity for the same or similar epitopes on different antigens. Because an epitope corresponds to such a small region (the surface area of about four to six amino ...
In MHC class I and class II molecules, only certain epitopes of an internalized peptide can be presented. These epitopes are ... The internalized antigen is digested into smaller peptides containing epitopes, which are then presented to T cells by the MHC ...
The specific region an antibody recognizes on an antigen is called an epitope. There have been efforts in epitope mapping since ... If the topology of a cell membrane has yet to be determined, epitope insertion into proteins can be used in conjunction with ... The primary antibody recognizes the target molecule (antigen) and binds to a specific region called the epitope. This is ... Ladner, Robert C. (2007-01-01). "Mapping the Epitopes of Antibodies". Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 24 (1): 1- ...
Fussell H, Thomas M, Street J, Darke C (1996). "HLA-A9 antibodies and epitopes". Tissue Antigens. 47 (4): 307-12. doi:10.1111/j ...
However, IgE antibodies against the α-Gal epitope should be taken into account in the diagnosis of milk and meat allergy. It is ... Much later, both xylose and core α1,3-fucose were revealed as heart pieces of two independent glycan epitopes for rabbit IgG. ... Still, because of the two possible epitopes and the different carrier structures, the plural CCDs is in frequent use even ... 1993). "Fucose alpha 1,3-linked to the core region of glycoprotein N-glycans creates an important epitope for IgE from honeybee ...
Dominant epitopes of the alpha 2 helix". J. Immunol. 149 (11): 3563-8. PMID 1385528. Marsh, S. G.; Albert, E. D.; Bodmer, W. F ...
Antibody binding subsequently spread to other epitopes. The similarity and cross-reactivity between the initial targets of nRNP ... and Sm autoantibodies identifies a likely commonality in cause and a focal point for intermolecular epitope spreading. Elevated ...
Epitopes that are not targeted or targeted to a lower degree during an immune response are known as subdominant epitopes. The ... The immunodominant epitope will be a BCR that has a particular 'goldilocks' amount of affinity for its epitope determined by ... If subdominant epitopes are introduced without the dominant epitope, the immune response will be focused to that subdominant ... Meanwhile, if the dominant epitope is introduced with the subdominant epitope, the immune response will be directed against the ...
Sun J, Kudahl UJ, Simon C, Cao Z, Reinherz EL, Brusic V (2014). "Large-Scale Analysis of B-Cell Epitopes on Influenza Virus ... There are also tools which are used for T and B cell epitope mapping, proteasomal cleavage site prediction, and TAP- peptide ... Saha S, Bhasin M, Raghava GP (2005). "Bcipep: a database of B-cell epitopes". BMC Genomics. 6 (1): 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6- ... Ali M, Pandey RK, Khatoon N, Narula A, Mishra A, Prajapati VK (2017). "Exploring dengue genome to construct a multi-epitope ...
The simplest approach is to rapidly change non-essential epitopes (amino acids and/or sugars) on the surface of the pathogen, ... Saha S, Bhasin M, Raghava GP (2005). "Bcipep: a database of B-cell epitopes". BMC Genomics. 6: 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6-79. ... A publicly accessible database has been established for the cataloguing of epitopes from pathogens known to be recognizable by ... Söllner J, Mayer B (2006). "Machine learning approaches for prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins". Journal of ...
DRB1*0101 and most DR4 have in common a 'shared epitope'. In this hypothesis a common region of the beta chain, positions 67 to ... Morel PA, Erlich HA, Fathman CG (1988). "A new look at the shared epitope hypothesis". Am. J. Med. 85 (6A): 20-22. doi:10.1016/ ... Gorman JD, David-Vaudey E, Pai M, Lum RF, Criswell LA (2004). "Particular HLA-DRB1 shared epitope genotypes are strongly ... 2007). "Association of DRB1 shared epitope genotypes with early mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: results of eighteen years of ...
"The shared epitope hypothesis. An approach to understanding the molecular genetics of susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis". ...
July 2000). "Crystal structure of the allergen Equ c 1. A dimeric lipocalin with restricted IgE-reactive epitopes". The Journal ...
Certain LPS epitopes have been examined to determine their function in antigenic specificity. The particular groups on the ... Determination of some LPS epitopes responsible for specificity. Adv Exp Med Biol. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ... Palusiak A, Sidorczyk Z (2010). "Characterization of epitope specificity of Proteus penneri 7 lipopolysaccharide core region". ... Progress in serological classification of further strains from genus Proteus and determination of epitopes and new serogroups. ...
85-98 El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2017). In silico prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins. In: Y. ... Y. and Honavar, V. (2014). Building Classifier Ensembles for B-Cell Epitope Prediction. In: De, R.K. and Tomar, N. (Ed). ... El-Manzalawy, Y. and Honavar, V. (2010). Recent Advances in B-Cell Epitope Prediction Methods. Immunome Research Suppl. 2:S2. ... El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2008). Predicting linear B-cell epitopes using string kernels. Journal of ...
The word itself is an analogy to epitopes. Shape theory of olfaction Vibration theory of olfaction "The scent of life. The ...
At least four IgE epitopes have been identified. Three other egg white proteins are also identified as allergenic: ovalbumin ( ... "Specificity of IgE antibodies to sequential epitopes of hen's egg ovomucoid as a marker for persistence of egg allergy". ...
Binder M, Otto F, Mertelsmann R, Veelken H, Trepel M. (2006). "The epitope recognized by rituximab". Blood. 108 (6): 1975-1978 ...
Epitope recognition contributes to cerebellar involvement.[29] Reduced GABA levels increase glutamate levels as a consequence ...
They are sharing some epitopes in the structural proteins. Luque, D.; González, J. M.; Gómez-Blanco, J.; Marabini, R.; Chichón ... J.; Mena, I.; Angulo, I.; Carrascosa, J. L.; Verdaguer, N.; Trus, B. L.; Bárcena, J.; Castón, J. R. (2012). "Epitope Insertion ...
The membrane is then probed with antibodies for epitopes of interest. This method has also been discussed in later work by the ... It is most often used to detect carbohydrate epitopes. Thus, eastern blot can be considered an extension of the biochemical ... In principle, eastern blotting is similar to lectin blotting (i.e., detection of carbohydrate epitopes on proteins or lipids). ...
HSE is used in predicting discontinuous B-cell epitopes. Song et al. have developed an online webserver termed HSEpred to ... Sweredoski, Michael J.; Baldi, Pierre (2008), "PEPITO: Improved discontinuous B-cell epitope prediction using multiple distance ...
The residues His71, Arg75, Tyr76, Arg77, Asn78, Ile79, Tyr117 in the exosite I epitope are involved in the interaction with TBA ... Oligonucleotide inhibitors of human thrombin that bind distinct epitopes. Journal of Molecular Biology 272, 688-698, doi: ...
demonstrated that epitope-mapping tools could accurately identify the epitopes responsible for 95% of the murine T-cell ... T-cell and B-cell epitope mapping algorithms can computationally predict epitopes based on the genomic sequence of pathogens, ... Epitope mapping identifies the sites of antibodies to which their target antigens bind. In the past, scientists would have to ... The 'immunome' of a pathogen is described by its set of epitopes, and can be defined by comparing genome sequences and applying ...
Deans JP, Polyak MJ (February 2008). "FMC7 is an epitope of CD20". Blood. 111 (4): 2492, author reply 2493-4. doi:10.1182/blood ...
... ic escape Antitoxin Conformational epitope Epitope Linear epitope Magnetic immunoassay Neutralizing antibody Original ... Using the "lock and key" metaphor, the antigen can be seen as a string of keys (epitopes) each of which matches a different ... A hapten is a small molecule that changes the structure of an antigenic epitope. In order to induce an immune response, it ... Any such feature constitutes an epitope. Most antigens have the potential to be bound by multiple antibodies, each of which is ...
Epitope IgG4-related disease Vidarsson, Gestur; Dekkers, Gillian; Rispens, Theo (2014). "IgG subclasses and allotypes: from ... rheumatoid factor production and the presence of shared epitope". Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 26 (2): 253-260. PMID ...
Epitope tags include ALFA-tag, V5-tag, Myc-tag, HA-tag, Spot-tag, T7-tag and NE-tag. These tags are particularly useful for ... Epitope tags are short peptide sequences which are chosen because high-affinity antibodies can be reliably produced in many ... Gelerter, Bruce (June 11, 2014). "PEMF For Treatment Of Corneal Disorders And Injuries".[self-published source?] "Epitope Tags ... an epitope tag derived from the T7 major capsid protein of the T7 gene (MASMTGGQQMG). Used in different immunoassays as well as ...
A key determinant in T cell epitope immunogenicity is the binding strength of T cell epitopes to major histocompatibility ... T cell epitope content is one of the factors that contributes to antigenicity. Likewise, T Cell epitopes can cause unwanted ... Epitopes with higher binding affinities are more likely to be displayed on the surface of a cell. Because a T cell's T cell ... T cell epitope content, which is one of the factors that contributes to the risk of immunogenicity can now be measured ...
Deans JP, Polyak MJ (February 2008). "FMC7 is an epitope of CD20". Blood. 111 (4): 2492, author reply 2493-4. doi:10.1182/blood ... ISBN 978-1-84110-100-2. Polyak MJ, Ayer LM, Szczepek AJ, Deans JP (July 2003). "A cholesterol-dependent CD20 epitope detected ... Serke S, Schwaner I, Yordanova M, Szczepek A, Huhn D (April 2001). "Monoclonal antibody FMC7 detects a conformational epitope ...
epitope (plural epitopes). *(biochemistry) That part of a biomolecule (such as a protein) that is the target of an immune ... Retrieved from "" ...
B cell epitopes of gliadin.. Osman AA1, Günnel T, Dietl A, Uhlig HH, Amin M, Fleckenstein B, Richter T, Mothes T. ... Thus, AGA directed against these modified epitopes can be regarded as specific for CoD. This is the first study demonstrating ...
... BRAIN ROBERTSON robertson at Tue Oct 20 03:32:52 EST 1992 *Previous message: ... Dear Netters, Does anyone know of any software for the prediction of T-cell epitopes from peptide sequences? I have access to ...
10 shows an epitope map of the HCV capsid protein region. FIGS. 11A to 11H present a DNA sequence corresponding to the sequence ... An epitope map of the HCV capsid region is presented in FIG. 10: the location of the protein coding sequences corresponding to ... An epitope map of the HCV capsid region is presented in FIG. 10: the location of the immunoreactive protein coding sequences ... The region comprising the first 35 amino acids spans one of the epitopes and the region spanning residues 34-90 encompasses the ...
... nigel at nigel at Wed Dec 22 12:39:14 EST 1993 *Previous message: # of ... Which epitope tags have been used in flies? Does anyone know of commercial sources for monoclonals 12CA5 and 9E10? Thanks Nigel ...
This review discusses the major advantages and limitations of epitope tagging and describes a number of recent applications. ... Epitope tagging is a recombinant DNA method by which a protein encoded by a cloned gene is made immunoreactive to a known ... Epitope tagging Annu Rev Genet. 1998;32:601-18. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genet.32.1.601. ... Epitope tagging is a recombinant DNA method by which a protein encoded by a cloned gene is made immunoreactive to a known ...
The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories, conformational epitopes and linear epitopes, based on their ... Similar to T cell epitopes, B cell epitopes can be divided into two groups: conformational or linear. B cell epitopes are ... A database of B-cell epitopes SYFPEITHI - First online database of T cell epitopes IEDB - Database of T and B cell epitopes ... To find epitopes to use for the vaccine, in silico mapping is often used. Once candidate epitopes are found, the constructs are ...
Scale bar: 5 μm.) (E) Dual fluorescent images of the SM1 epitope (Green) and the exposed epitope Pan127 (Red) of purified Tfp ... The SM1 mAb recognizes the conserved epitope EYYLN in the pilin monomer. In the native Tfp fiber, the SM1 EYYLN epitope was ... Force-dependent polymorphism in type IV pili reveals hidden epitopes. Nicolas Biais, Dustin L. Higashi, Jasna Brujić, Magdalene ... Force-dependent polymorphism in type IV pili reveals hidden epitopes. Nicolas Biais, Dustin L. Higashi, Jasna Brujić, Magdalene ...
Identifying epitopes of HIV-1 that induce protective antibodies.. Zolla-Pazner S1. ...
... Rev Infect Dis. May-Jun 1987;9(3):544-61. doi: 10.1093/clinids/9.3.544. ... several distinct epitopes in GM1-binding domains were identified by different monoclonal antibodies. Polyclonal rabbit antisera ... a finding suggesting that the peptides generated antibodies to epitopes near, but not in, a GM1-binding domain. A hypothetical ...
already done , , It is likely not the case, but theoretically your epitope still can be , conformational - protein can refold ... Linear_``,,´ ´_Conformational_``,,´´_Epitope _ ` `,,´´_Retrieval. redeamer alion85 at Tue Feb 10 16:37:16 EST 2004 ... after linear epitope mapping is completed ... then i wont have any feeling at all just plain persuadive data:) , , , Peter , ... Previous message: ``,,´´_Linear_``,,´ ´_Conformational_``,,´´_Epitope_ ` `,,´´_Retrieval *Next message: Everywhere life is full ...
Finding epitopes in real proteins. You shall use the neural network to find potential epitopes in the Sars virus. In the ... Q20: How many high binding epitopes do you find? Is this number reasonable (how large a fraction of random 9meric peptides are ... Also you have identified potential CTL epitope vaccine candidates for the SARS virus. All you need now is to find some venture ... Prediction of T cell epitopes. Overview. During this exercise you will use bioinformatics tools to predict peptide-MHC binding ...
A linear or a sequential epitope is an epitope that is recognized by antibodies by its linear sequence of amino acids, or ... Such segments are called epitopes. Likewise, it is only paratope of the antibody that comes in contact with the epitope. ... Therefore, antibodies that recognize linear epitopes instead of conformational epitopes are chosen for immunodetection. In ... Conformational epitope Polyclonal B cell response Goldsby, Richard; Kindt, TJ; Osborne, BA; Janis Kuby (2003). "Antigens ( ...
The selected epitopes and the corresponding complementary peptides that we grafted in the CDR3 of the single domain antibody ... Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a ... Here we show that designed antibodies can be obtained by the method that we present for essentially any disordered epitope. We ... These aspects also mean that the two peptides must be designed to bind to essentially the same epitope sequence (because the ...
Roomp, K., Antes, I., & Lengauer, T. (2010). Predicting MHC class I epitopes in large datasets. BMC Bioinformatics, 11. https ... I prediction methods on comparatively large HLA-A and HLA-B allele peptide binding datasets extracted from the Immune Epitope ...
Influenza Virus Cell Epitope 2PK3 Cell Internal Image Foreign Epitope These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Townsend, A.R.M., Rothbard, J., Gotch, F.M., Bahadur, G., Wraith, D., and McMichael, A.J. (1986). The epitopes of influenza ... Zaghouani, H., Steinman, R., Nonacs, R., Shah, H., Gerhard, W. and Bona, C. (1993). Presentation of a viral T cell epitope ... Bona C.A. (1994) Development of Vaccines by Grafting Microbial Epitopes in Immunoglobulins. In: Kurstak E. (eds) Modern ...
Detecting Cryptic Epitopes Created by Nanoparticles Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ...
7. According to the patent-in-suit, epitope mapping is used to locate and characterize the various epitopes functionally ... T 0861/08 (Subtilisin changed epitopes/NOVOZYMES) of 20.8.2009. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2009:T086108.20090820 ... There is, however, no evidence for these continuous epitopes in the patent-in-suit nor any reason (should they be present) to ... According to Table VII, positions 170 and 195 have a high probability of being in the same epitope and they are both classified ...
Although accurate predictors for T-cell epitopes are already in place, the prediction of the B-cell epitopes requires further ... Our BEST (B-cell Epitope prediction using Support vector machine Tool) method predicts epitopes from antigen sequences, in ... We overview the available approaches for the prediction of B-cell epitopes and propose a novel and accurate sequence-based ... Empirical evaluation on benchmark datasets demonstrates that BEST outperforms several modern sequence-based B-cell epitope ...
Metzger D.W., Naeve C.W., Van Cleave V.H. (1989) Epitope Mimicry by Anti-Idiotype Sequences in Reverse Orientation. In: Atassi ... combining sites of three anti-lysozyme monoclonal antibodies and of the complex between one of the antibodies and its epitope, ...
We use cookies to give you a better experience on By continuing to use our site, you are agreeing to the use of cookies as set in our privacy policy. ...
Shifting epitopes between viral proteins alters epitope density and immunodominance patterns in inbred mouse models (48, 51, 79 ... Effect of epitope flanking residues on the presentation of N-terminal cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes. Eur. J. Immunol. 29:2213 ... Peptides encompassing both epitopes (black bars), RK9 only (blue bars), KK9 only (green bars), or no epitope (white bars) were ... The endogenous processing of an immunodominant Gag epitope is more efficient than that of subdominant epitopes. (A) HLA-A3 HeLa ...
"Identifying MHC class I epitopes by predicting the TAP transport efficiency of epitope precursors," Journal of Immunology, vol ... High Throughput T Epitope Mapping and Vaccine Development. Giuseppina Li Pira,1 Federico Ivaldi,2 Paolo Moretti,2 and Fabrizio ... S. Lata, M. Bhasin, and G. P. Raghava, "MHCBN 4.0: a database of MHC/TAP binding peptides and T-cell epitopes," BMC Research ... F. Kern, I. P. Surel, and I. P. Surel, "T-cell epitope mapping by flow cytometry," Nature Medicine, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 975-978 ...
The epitope targeted by the anti-V3 loop neutralizing mAb 3074 is present in 87% of circulating strains, distributed nearly ... The mAb 3074 thus targets an epitope that is nearly completely conserved among circulating HIV-1 strains, demonstrating the ... Since some variable loop regions are naturally immunogenic, designing immunogens to mimic their conserved epitopes may be a ... cross-strain neutralization epitopes within these loops has proven difficult. We recently developed a method to derive ...
Epitope mapping of disaccharides/mAb 4C7 interactions probed by STD-NMR. Chemical structures and epitope binding of ... Binding epitopes of mAb 4C7 with oligosaccharides by STD-NMR. In order to dissect, at a molecular level, the binding of mAb 4C7 ... The synthetic oligosaccharides were used to probe and characterize the minimal binding epitopes for a series of Bp and Bm LPS- ... Deciphering minimal antigenic epitopes associated with Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei lipopolysaccharide O- ...
In the allergen epitope mapping study, two sets of ELISPOT experiments are performed to identify peptide epitopes. First, pools ... We have participated in two recently completed large-scale T cell epitope mapping projects, one to characterize epitopes ... For the allergen epitope mapping study, we needed to link the results of T cell reactivities stored in ELICAT with information ... IMMUNOCAT-A Data Management System for Epitope Mapping Studies. Jo L. Chung, Jian Sun, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, and ...
Epitope Prediction Servers. Over a dozen servers that predict epitopes are available (Google Search for "epitope prediction ... T Lymphocyte Epitopes. It is unfortunate that epitope has caught on as the term to describe the peptide fragments that T cells ... Antibody epitopes may also be called determinants, which is an historically earlier but equally good term. The term epitope ... It offers an interactive 3D view of the epitopes, in Jmol, as well as a list of possible epitopes. No publication is cited. ...
Keywords: Epitope prediction; HLA class-I; protein-peptide interaction; structural bioinformatics; vaccine design ...
T cell epitopes are predominantly localized in the CDRs of tumor Ig VH. To elucidate the precise nature of antigenic epitopes ... However, it is unlikely that this failure is due to a lack of T cell epitopes in their Id, because epitope-prediction analysis ... The presence of multiple T cell epitopes in individual Id proteins, the likelihood of these epitopes to functionally associate ... As additional T cell epitopes in human Id proteins are characterized, such defined antigenic epitopes may serve as candidates ...
  • Although epitopes are usually non-self proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized (as in the case of autoimmune diseases) are also epitopes. (
  • Another technique involves high-throughput mutagenesis, an epitope mapping strategy developed to improve rapid mapping of conformational epitopes on structurally complex proteins. (
  • We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). (
  • Taken together, these results indicate that the design strategy that we propose makes it possible to obtain antibodies targeting given epitopes in disordered proteins or protein regions. (
  • In this work, we introduce a computational method of rational design of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) that makes it possible to obtain antibody against virtually any target epitope within intrinsically disordered peptides and proteins or within disordered regions in structured proteins. (
  • Antibody epitopes can occur on the surfaces of native folded proteins, or equally well on denatured conformations of proteins. (
  • I found that all but one of the proteins in the SARS-CoV-2 virus have what we call unsafe epitopes, which are parts of proteins that are capable of causing immune conditions, autoimmune conditions, and immune responses against proteins in our own body," he explained during the press conference. (
  • Although epitopes are usually thought to be derived from nonself proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized are also classified as epitopes. (
  • Intensive research is currently taking place to design reliable tools that will predict epitopes on proteins. (
  • A convenient solution for detection and purification of various proteins is offered by Epitope tags (also known as affinity or fusion tags). (
  • Antibodies directed against these specific epitope tags can bind to the fusion proteins bearing the epitope, thus allowing the detection of these tagged proteins. (
  • Same epitope tag can be used for various proteins of different sizes. (
  • The epitope tagged proteins are commonly used for western blotting and immunoprecipitation. (
  • Epitope tag antibodies can be conjugated to beads (agarose, sepharose, metal, etc.) in order facilitate isolation or immunoprecipitation of tagged proteins. (
  • We analyzed the amino acid sequences to determine the extent of identity of the epitopes of each protein with other proteins in the databanks. (
  • Individual or combinations of 15-mer peptide epitopes with low to no identity with other proteins were reactive with positive control sera from both women and men but were unreactive with negative control sera. (
  • Since the GAD 67 isoform is highly homologous to GAD 65 but is usually not a target of the GAD autoantibodies in IDDM sera, we created six GAD 65 /GAD 67 chimeric proteins to maintain the overall GAD protein conformation and used these chimeric proteins to map conformation-dependent epitopes of GAD 65 targeted by IDDM sera. (
  • To identify additional epitopes, HLA class I peptide affinity algorithms were used to identify a panel of peptides derived from the β-cell proteins islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP), insulin, insulinoma-associated antigen 2 (IA-2), and phogrin that were predicted to bind HLA-A*0201. (
  • This PhD thesis had two main objectives, first to characterize the bacterially expressed, affinity-purified glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins (GST) as alternative antigens for serology in terms of displayed epitope repertoire, using a panel of 92 VLP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) generated against 9 mucosal alpha papillomavirus types. (
  • It is shown here that GST-L1 fusion proteins display a broad variety of epitopes and thus are well suited for detection of human HPV antibodies. (
  • In conclusion, bacterially expressed GST fusion proteins are good candidates to be used as antigens in HPV serology and are also useful tools to define and characterize the complex patterns of conformational and linear cross-reactive epitopes. (
  • Antibodies target proteins as either conformational or linear epitopes. (
  • Given a putative vaccine or antigen protein 'cocktail', or a set of such cocktails, and a test set of natural or background proteins, this tool will calculate the proportion of all epitope-length peptides in the test sequence set that are 'covered' ( i.e. , matched) by some peptide or peptides in each protein cocktail. (
  • Background Previous small studies have demonstrated positive immunohistochemical staining in rabbit and human atherosclerotic plaques by antibodies that recognize oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), but none have examined a large number of human coronary arteries or evaluated whether epitopes recognized by these antibodies might be present on plaque proteins other than OxLDL. (
  • Extracellular Ox5 staining colocalized with apo B, but cell-associated Ox5 staining occurred in the absence of cell-associated apo B staining, which suggests that cell-associated epitopes for Ox5 were on proteins other than LDL. (
  • Thus, epitopes for Ox5 can form on proteins other than apo B. Also, phorbol ester-treated macrophages cultured in apo B-free medium developed epitopes for Ox5. (
  • First, some of the "anti-OxLDL" antibodies used in these studies can recognize oxidation epitopes on proteins other than apo B, 31 32 which demonstrates that these antibodies are not specific for OxLDL alone. (
  • Studies employing monoclonal antibodies have revealed several conformational epitopes of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins, and one linear epitope composed of 345 to 353 amino acid residues of the HN protein has been defined ( 5 , 7 - 9 , 22 , 28 ). (
  • Among the HN proteins, mutations in and around the linear epitope of field NDVs are not rare, and some Korean field strains ( 4 , 11 ) and foreign NDVs registered in the GenBank database harbor the same (E347K) or somewhat different mutations around the linear epitope ( 4 ). (
  • Therefore, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis with a partial F gene to understand the genetic relationship of 56 NDV strains obtained during 2000 to 2006, investigated chronologically the variations of the linear epitope by HN gene analyses, and then compared the complete amino acid sequences of F and HN proteins of several NDVs. (
  • Recombinant proteins can be expressed with an epitope tag to enable easier identification, purification and detection. (
  • Therefore we have extended several existing structural prediction algorithms to build a method for identifying epitopes on the appropriate outer surface of intact virus capsids (which are structurally different from globular proteins in both shape and arrangement of multiple repeated elements) and applied it here as a proof of principle concept to the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). (
  • We have employed pAbs and mAbs, genetically engineered chimeric B-subunit proteins, checkerboard immunoblotting (CBIB), synthetic peptides and their antisera, and sequential overlapping synthetic hexapeptides representing the B-subunit chain to identify epitopes in the CT family. (
  • T cell epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules are typically peptides between 8 and 11 amino acids in length, whereas MHC class II molecules present longer peptides, 13-17 amino acids in length, and non-classical MHC molecules also present non-peptidic epitopes such as glycolipids. (
  • Some of these reactions were blocked by GM1 ganglioside but not by the oligosaccharide of GM1, a finding suggesting that the peptides generated antibodies to epitopes near, but not in, a GM1-binding domain. (
  • But, when an antigen is broken down in a lysosome, it yields small peptides, which can be recognized through the amino acids that lie continuously in a line, and hence are called linear epitopes. (
  • The procedure consists in the sequence-based design of one or more complementary peptides targeting a selected disordered epitope and the subsequent grafting of such peptides on an antibody scaffold. (
  • the modulation of epitope immunodominance and the processing and presentation of HIV peptides for MHC class I recognition were shown to be dependent on flanking residues that were N terminal to the natural epitopes (see the related article beginning on page 3563). (
  • Peptides are typically too short to have a well-defined fold, yet sometimes can simulate the epitope, binding to antibodies. (
  • In the absence of the crystal structure of an antibody:antigen complex, a common way to identify the epitope recognized by a particular antibody is to display random peptides (for example, using phage display libraries ), and then to identify the sequences of the peptides with the highest affinity for the antibody. (
  • The Pepitope Server predicts epitopes on the surface of a 3D protein antigen model, based on a list of peptides that bind to the antibody. (
  • The classical experimental approach for the development of an epitope-based vaccine involves the use of recombinant domains or overlapping 15-mer peptides spanning the full length of the target antigen, and the analysis of the induced antibody and/or T cell immune responses in vitro or in vivo. (
  • On the other hand, in silico tools can select peptides that are more likely to contain epitopes, reducing the number of sequence candidates. (
  • The ability of these two peptides to elicit PAP-specific Th responses suggests that they represent naturally processed PAP-specific MHC class II epitopes. (
  • To that end, several groups have identified MHC class I epitopes from different potential prostate tumor antigens, including prostate-specific antigen (16 , 23 , 24 , 25) , prostate-specific membrane antigen (16 , 26) , and PAP (27) , with the concept of using these peptides as vaccine antigens. (
  • These analyses permitted the synthesis of a recombinant His 6 fusion protein of 111 amino acids with an M r of ~13.4 kDa, which consisted of 15-mer peptides of two distinct epitopes each for ALD, ENO, and GAP. (
  • However, the IDDM epitopes have been difficult to further define because the antibodies do not bind GAD protein fragments or synthetic peptides. (
  • We identified peptides IAPP9-17, IGRP215-223, IGRP152-160, islet IA-2(172-180), and IA-2(482-490) as novel HLA-A*0201-restricted T-cell epitopes in type 1 diabetic patients. (
  • Analysis of 1,152 peptides containing missense mutations previously identified in breast and colorectal cancer revealed that individual cancers accumulate on average ∼10 and ∼7 novel and unique HLA-A*0201 epitopes, respectively, including genes implicated in the neoplastic process. (
  • Concatamers of these peptides were analyzed with several epitope prediction algorithms for HLA-A*0201 binders. (
  • To perform high-throughput, high-resolution mapping of linear antibody epitopes, we have used ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays generating several hundred thousand different peptides per array. (
  • This invention pertains to the identification of antibody mediated epitope mimics and applications of the identification of said mimic peptides in the design of biotherapeutics and vaccines. (
  • We describe here a strategy to identify helper T-cell epitopes for HER2/neu that focuses on peptides predicted to bind to numerous histocompatibility alleles (promiscuous epitopes), which would encourage their use in therapeutic vaccines for the general cancer patient population. (
  • Furthermore, we compared the antigenicities of synthetic peptide analogues representing the linear epitope mutants, which were presently revealed by use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) employing synthetic peptides and chicken antiserum. (
  • Epitope tagging is a recombinant DNA method by which a protein encoded by a cloned gene is made immunoreactive to a known antibody. (
  • The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories, conformational epitopes and linear epitopes, based on their structure and interaction with the paratope. (
  • Epitopes that are masked when protein subunits aggregate are called cryptotopes. (
  • Neotopes are epitopes that are only recognized while in a specific quaternary structure and the residues of the epitope can span multiple protein subunits. (
  • In contrast, most antibodies recognize a conformational epitope that has a specific three-dimensional shape and its protein structure. (
  • In contrast, in immunohistochemistry where protein structure is preserved, antibodies that recognize conformational epitopes are preferred. (
  • In this work we describe a rational design method that enables one to obtain antibodies targeting any specific epitope within a disordered protein or disordered region. (
  • Using current methods, however, it is laborious and sometimes difficult to generate antibodies to target specific epitopes within a protein, in particular if these epitopes are not effective antigens. (
  • Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. (
  • In some cases, however, these procedures may require significant amounts of time and resources, in particular if one is interested in targeting weakly immunogenic epitopes in protein molecules. (
  • An epitope is the portion of the surface of an antigen that binds to an antibody , or the peptide fragment of a protein antigen that binds to the T lymphocyte antigen receptor when presented by the cognate major histocompatibility protein. (
  • It is unfortunate that epitope has caught on as the term to describe the peptide fragments that T cells recognize, since these are not necessarily derived from the surfaces of protein antigens, but may be derived from portions that were buried in the folded protein. (
  • Antibody epitopes can be made up of discontinuous portions of a protein antigen's sequence, or of a continuous portion. (
  • In contrast, T cell epitopes always represent a continuous fragment of the sequence of a protein antigen. (
  • T cell epitopes are always peptide fragments, and hence, represent a denatured (unfolded) form of the native protein. (
  • These sequences can then be used to predict where the epitope lies on the native protein, taking into account that the epitope on the native protein may be discontinuous. (
  • ElliPro is a web-tool that implements a method for identifying continuous epitopes in the protein regions protruding from the protein's globular surface and, together with a residue clustering algorithm, the MODELLER program and the Jmol viewer, allows the prediction and visualization of antibody epitopes in a given protein sequence or structure. (
  • We report here that T cell lines generated from lymphoma patients actively immunized with idiotype protein specifically recognized multiple, unique immunodominant epitopes in autologous tumor idiotype. (
  • Vaccination with Id protein has been shown to elicit both CD8 + and CD4 + T cell responses ( 14 - 18 ), suggesting the presence of antigenic epitopes in Id that can stably associate with MHC class I and class II molecules. (
  • Epitope-tagging technology provides you a powerful means to functionally analyze your protein of interest without the need for an antibody specific to each new protein under study. (
  • The epitope tagging technique involves fusion of a protein of interest to a peptide epitope that is recognized by a readily available antibody. (
  • The results suggest that the HA epitope recognized by MAb 8C1C is the major epitope responsible for eliciting HI antibody, and HPC5.5 is a practical candidate protein to develop a new vaccine against avian infectious coryza caused by Av. paragallinarum serovar C. (
  • The graph shows the binding of an RGS-His fusion protein to immobilised antibodies against a tetra-His, a penta-His and an RGS-His epitope. (
  • All antibodies recognize the epitope but only the anti-RGS-His antibody shows no dissociation when bound to the RGS-fusion protein after an association time of 450 seconds. (
  • In spite of the immunogenic weakness previously attributed to epitope-based vaccines a synthetic vaccine containing a 17 amino acid-epitope of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV pilus exceeded the protective potential of its cognate protein composed of 115 amino acids. (
  • T cell epitope prediction dates back to 1980s, when the first algorithm was developed based on the identification of amphipathic helical regions on protein antigens. (
  • To identify the p-HLA epitopes, we will examine a variety of clinically relevant tumor antigens, including alpha feto-protein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in HCC, and canonical and cryptic protein antigens specific to the EBV-sequence and HPV-sequence open reading frames (ORFs). (
  • An epitope can theoretically be constructed in two ways: as a continuous epitope made of a single, unbroken sequence of amino acids, or as a discontinuous epitope made of amino acids that are not sequential in the primary structure, but are brought into close contact upon folding of the protein. (
  • An invariant, "universal" T-cell epitope in the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein. (
  • Exceptions are linear epitopes , which are determined by the amino acid sequence (the primary structure ) rather than by the 3D shape ( tertiary structure ) of a protein. (
  • Epitopes can be mapped using protein microarrays , and with the ELISPOT or ELISA techniques. (
  • When incorporated into the protein of interest, epitope tags make protein detection and identification very robust and easy. (
  • These epitope tag reagents are suitable for a wide variety of applications including Western Blot, Immunoprecipitation, Protein Purification, Flow Cytometry, and Immunofluorescence Microscopy. (
  • Epitope tagging is a common experimental technique by which a well characterized and specific sequence of amino acids called the "epitope" (recognized by a particular antibody) is combined with a protein of interest. (
  • These epitope tags allow detection and purification without disturbing the structure of the protein to which they are fused. (
  • The epitope tag is composed of 3 to 14 amino acids and does not disrupt normal protein functions. (
  • The epitope tag antibodies we provide are extremely specific and provide outstanding performance for protein purification, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation applications. (
  • BioLegend's Posi-Tag Epitope Tag Protein can be utilized as a positive control in Western blotting experiments where many epitope tags are commonly used. (
  • We identified, by epitope mapping, the common and distinct epitopes of each protein detected by the sera of women patients with trichomonosis and by the sera of men highly seropositive to the immunogenic protein α-actinin (positive control sera). (
  • These data indicate that it is possible to identify epitopes and that either singly, in combination, or as a composite protein represent targets for a point-of-care serodiagnostic test for T. vaginalis . (
  • The GAD autoantibodies of IDDM are specific for the GAD 65 isoform, do not bind denatured GAD protein, and target epitope(s) dependent on conformation of the protein. (
  • OptMAVEn-2.0 was used to design and rank variable antibody fragments targeting five epitopes of Zika envelope protein and three of hen egg white lysozyme. (
  • An epitope is typically a protein segment that is five to six amino acids long. (
  • Thus, a full-length protein will have a variety of epitopes to where specific antibodies will bind. (
  • Addgene: Inntags: small self-structured epitopes for innocuous protein tagging. (
  • Here we describe a DNA plasmid encoding a polyepitope or "polytope" protein, which contained multiple contiguous minimal murine CTL epitopes. (
  • Here, we show that vaccination with a DNA plasmid expressing an artificial polyepitope or "polytope" protein comprising a series of contiguous minimal CTL epitopes was capable of inducing multiple independent MHC-restricted CTL responses. (
  • The polytope plasmid, pSTMPDV, encoded an artificial murine polytope protein (Fig. 1 ⇓ B ) comprising 10 contiguous CD8 CTL epitopes (Table I ⇓ ). This plasmid was constructed by removing the murine polytope gene from pBSMP ( 14 ) using Sal I and cloning it into Xho I-cut pDNAVacc. (
  • In several cases, multiple distinct epitopes could be identified for the same target protein, suggesting an efficient approach to the generation of paired antibodies. (
  • Generally, it is thought that Env epitopes that induce broadly neutralizing Abs are difficult to access and poorly immunogenic because of the characteristic oligomerization, conformational flexibility, sequence diversity and extensive glycosylation of Env protein. (
  • Conformational epitopes within mature Env can be found within a single protomer, and distant patches of amino acid sequences that are brought together by protein folding. (
  • The structures reveal virus conformational changes, the Fab-binding mode to the capsid, the residues comprising the epitope and indicate a potential interaction of U4 with the minor structural protein, L2. (
  • Epitope tagging eliminates the need to produce a new antibody for each different protein. (
  • The experimenter can choose the fitting tag epitope for the recombinant protein so that it can be manipulated in the desired experimental application such as Western blotting , IP, IHC , and affinity purification. (
  • The neutralization epitope comprised at least seven independent protein portions of gH that served as the target to inhibit cell-to-cell spread. (
  • The combinational neutralizing activity between two species of Fab protein A (Fab-pp) forms and the inhibition of cell-to-cell infection were characterized, and the neutralization domain of gH was found to comprise a cluster of the seven neutralization epitopes and to prevent cell-to-cell infection. (
  • Reactivity of some, but not all, synthetic hexapeptides with epitope activity with polyclonal antisera can be reduced by pretreatment of the serum with the native toxin protein indicating that certain continuous epitopes are exposed on the surface of the native protein. (
  • A major tetrapeptide epitope has been identified in a conserved region of the protein. (
  • Electron microscopy is a low-resolution method that can localize epitopes on larger antigens like virus particles. (
  • Although antibodies can normally be obtained against a wide variety of antigens, there are still hard targets, including weakly immunogenic epitopes, which are not readily amenable to existing production techniques. (
  • Rapid epitope identification from complex class-II-restricted T-cell antigens," Trends in Immunology , vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 583-588, 2001. (
  • Epitope spreading occurs when the immune system is able to attack antigens that are not the original target of an immune therapy but released from tumor cells killed by the therapy. (
  • It is of the highest priority that a focused effort is undertak en to develop novel Env antigens capable of inducing broad and potent neutralising antibodies to a wide variety of strains. (
  • Consistently, this consortium is developing a new generation of Env antigens based on complex but conserved epitopes to induce broad neutralising antibodies. (
  • On the other hand, synthetic vaccines based on immunogenic epitopes offer advantages over traditional vaccines since they are chemically defined antigens free from deleterious effects. (
  • The cloning of genes encoding the T cell receptor (TCR), the identification of tumor-associated antigens and the subsequent characterization of the first HLA-restricted T cell-defined antigenic epitope, were key findings illustrating direct recognition of cancer cells by T cells. (
  • • The structure recognized by an antibody is called an antigenic determinant or epitope . • In contrast, an epitope composed of a single segment of polypeptide chain is termed a continuous or linear epitope . • The interaction between an antibody and its antigen can be disrupted by high salt concentrations, extremes of pH, detergents, and sometimes by competition with high concentrations of the pure epitope itself. ">Antibodies bind to conformational shapes on the surfaces of antigens (Janeway Immunobiology Section 3.8) - The interaction of the antibody molecule with specific antigen. (
  • To further understand such effects, we applied in silico -based epitope prediction algorithms and high throughput post hoc analysis to identify candidate tumor antigens. (
  • Gain and loss of serological and CTL epitopes specific for the H-2D d and H-2L d antigens were examined. (
  • Rational design of immunotherapeutics relies on clear knowledge of the immunodominant epitopes of antigens. (
  • Disclosed herein is a reductionistic system incorporating known participants of MHC class II antigen processing in solution to generate peptide pools from antigens, including those for which no immunodominant epitope has yet been identified, that are highly enriched for proteolytic fragments containing their immunodominant epitopes. (
  • HLA-DM-mediated editing contributes significantly to immunodominance and is exploited in discovering immunodominant epitopes from novel or previously uncharacterized antigens, particularly antigens associated with pathogens, tumors or autoimmune diseases. (
  • With the use of enzyme-linked immunosorption assays (ELISAs) with and without the GM1 ganglioside receptor for these toxins, several distinct epitopes in GM1-binding domains were identified by different monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-specific monoclonal antibodies: production and epitope mapping. (
  • Three conformational epitopes were detected on HA by blocking ELISA and immuno-dot blot analysis using a panel of five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with HI activity, designated 8C1C, 4G8B, 24E4D, 11E11B, and 10D1A. (
  • A complete characterization of monoclonal antibodies also includes the determination of epitope specificity for a given set of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • BIA technology (Biomolecular Interaction Analysis) is ideally suited to automatically test panels of monoclonal antibodies and define their epitope specificity pattern. (
  • This report provides you with information about the epitope specificity pattern for your set of monoclonal antibodies i.e. which antibodies bind to the same epitope and which can bind simultaneously because they have different binding sites on the antigen. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies are directed exclusively against a specific epitope of an antigen, whereas the various antibodies of a polyclonal serum recognize several epitopes of a single antigen. (
  • Identification of the epitope is a key step in the characterization of monoclonal antibodies, especially those used in therapeutic strategies. (
  • However, laboratory-based methods of developing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (e.g., immunized mice, hybridomas, and phage display) are time-consuming and are often unable to target a specific antigen epitope or reach (sub)nanomolar levels of affinity. (
  • To this end, we developed Optimal Method for Antibody Variable region Engineering (OptMAVEn) for de novo design of humanized monoclonal antibody variable regions targeting a specific antigen epitope. (
  • Methods and Results Immunohistochemistry was performed on atherosclerotic (n=87) and nonatherosclerotic (n=51) coronary arterial segments from 20 patients by use of monoclonal antibodies that recognize epitopes on macrophages, smooth muscle cells, apolipoprotein (apo) B, and OxLDL. (
  • To enhance for isolation of quaternary epitope-targeting Abs (QtAbs), we previously used HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) to bind B cells from long-term non-progressor subjects to identify a panel of monoclonal Abs. (
  • An increasing number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal Abs (mAbs) against HIV have been identified in recent years and have illuminated new neutralizing epitopes on the envelope (Env) glycoprotein complex. (
  • During the past 30 years my laboratory has generated 40+ monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to structural and conformational epitopes on human ACE as well as ACE from rats, mice and other species. (
  • Ten neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to gH were used to map the epitopes by immunohistochemical analysis and were categorized into seven epitope groups. (
  • Two of these epitopes which are recognized by distinct monoclonal antibodies contain overlapping continuous residues located within the highly conserved fusion peptide. (
  • Dear Netters, Does anyone know of any software for the prediction of T-cell epitopes from peptide sequences? (
  • Our BEST (B-cell Epitope prediction using Support vector machine Tool) method predicts epitopes from antigen sequences, in contrast to some method that predict only from short sequence fragments, using a new architecture based on averaging selected scores generated from sliding 20-mers by a Support Vector Machine (SVM). (
  • Metzger D.W., Naeve C.W., Van Cleave V.H. (1989) Epitope Mimicry by Anti-Idiotype Sequences in Reverse Orientation. (
  • Three of the epitopes bound by protective mAbs are linear sequences on GP 1 , whereas the other two are conformational epitopes shared between GP 1 and sGP ( Table 2 ). (
  • Genetic sequences coding for epitopes that are recognized by common antibodies can be fused to genes, thus aiding further molecular characterization of the gene product. (
  • Amino acid sequences that are linear in shape are called Continuous epitopes while Discontinuous epitopes refer to amino acid sequences which have a folded conformation. (
  • Results are expressed as mean epitope-coverage over all test sequences. (
  • Options include epitope length, the number of mismatches in each epitope to score (from zero to the maximum you set), and a rarity limit (epitope-length fragments occurring in fewer than this minimum number of sequences will be ignored). (
  • Tag antibodies use short peptide sequences linked to their epitopes. (
  • Nine clones were selected for their neutralizing ability and their Fab sequences of heavy (H) and light (L) chains and used, in addition to TI-57, an anti-gH human MAb from a hybridoma, to characterize the neutralization epitopes of gH ( 18 ). (
  • Such antigenic epitopes may serve as candidates for novel peptide-vaccine strategies, and as tools to selectively expand tumor antigen-specific T cells for adoptive immunotherapy and for monitoring T cell immunity in vaccinated patients. (
  • NORTH BRUNSWICK, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Oct 8, 2009 - Advaxis, Inc . (OTCBB: ADXS) , the live, attenuated Listeria monocytogenes ( Lm ) vaccine company, in collaboration with its scientific founder and Scientific Advisory Board Chair Dr. Yvonne Paterson, have shown that epitope spreading occurs in response to a form of the Company's proprietary technology that targets tumor blood vessels (anti angiogenic antigen). (
  • Hence, screening for the identification of the topographical repertoire of B-cell epitopes that elicit cross-protective immune response seems essential in the engineering of a superior PspA-based vaccine. (
  • Herein, we revisit epitope identification in PspA and the utility of hybridoma technology in directing the identification of protective epitope regions of PspA that can be used in vaccine research. (
  • Rather than take Dr. Lyons-Weiler's advice urging them to remove what are known as epitopes from their jab formulas, vaccine companies instead rushed through the development process to get the vaccines out the door quickly as part of President Donald Trump's Operation Warp Speed program . (
  • Dr. Lyons-Weiler tried to warn every single vaccine company that announced it would be developing a COVID-19 vaccine about these epitopes, only to receive no response. (
  • Not a single, to my knowledge, not a single vaccine manufacturer took heed of my warning to remove those unsafe epitopes from the vaccines before they formulated their vaccines, in spite of being emailed my study with a plea to please consider taking out those unsafe epitopes," Dr. Lyons-Weiler fumed towards the end of his speech. (
  • Therefore, the efficacy yield of a synthetic vaccine can be potentiated by using the proper combination of target epitopes. (
  • In light of the recent availability of genomic tools, we believe that in the near future an increasing number of vaccine candidates, composed of defined epitopes, will be available for synthetic vaccines showing improved protection. (
  • Identification of T-cell or B-cell epitopes in the targeted antigen is the main goal in designing epitope-based vaccine, immune-diagnostic tests and antibody production. (
  • MTEC will use unique Major Histocompatibility (MHC) class II tetramers containing T cell epitopes of the major cat allergen Fel d 1 in order to characterize allergen-specific T cells before and after intervention with (1) a peptide-based therapeutic vaccine comprised of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Fel d 1, and (2) bronchial (segmental) allergen challenge with cat allergen extract. (
  • In addition, a vaccine that can induce broad CTL responses against multiple antigenic targets is likely to be of benefit in diseases such as melanoma, in which individual target Ags may be down-regulated ( 3 , 8 ), and HIV, in which individual epitopes may mutate ( 9 ). (
  • In conclusion, this study describes novel HSV-2 epitopes eliciting strong CD8+ T cell responses that may facilitate epitope based vaccine design and aid immunomonitoring of antigen specific T cell frequencies in preclinical and clinical settings. (
  • citation needed] MHC class I and II epitopes can be reliably predicted by computational means alone, although not all in-silico T cell epitope prediction algorithms are equivalent in their accuracy. (
  • RESULTS: We have examined the performance of four diverse MHC Class I prediction methods on comparatively large HLA-A and HLA-B allele peptide binding datasets extracted from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis resource (IEDB). (
  • Although accurate predictors for T-cell epitopes are already in place, the prediction of the B-cell epitopes requires further research. (
  • We overview the available approaches for the prediction of B-cell epitopes and propose a novel and accurate sequence-based solution. (
  • Over a dozen servers that predict epitopes are available ( Google Search for "epitope prediction server" ). (
  • Ponomarenko J, Bui HH, Li W, Fusseder N, Bourne PE, Sette A, Peters B. ElliPro: a new structure-based tool for the prediction of antibody epitopes. (
  • Using epitope prediction algorithms and high throughput post hoc analysis, we found evidence to support the notion that the human tumorigenic process results in the generation of multiple immune targets. (
  • ref 14 ), developed at the Max-Plank Institute, facilitates the prediction of epitopes that can bind to MHC class I molecules based on a score calculated for each subsequence. (
  • We have analysed how reliably several freely available structure-based B cell epitope prediction programs can identify already known viral epitopes of FMDV in the context of the viral capsid. (
  • In addition, such techniques can be relatively time-consuming and costly, especially if the screening for a specific epitope is required. (
  • In contrast, a linear epitope is formed by the 3-D conformation adopted by the interaction of contiguous amino acid residues. (
  • A linear epitope is not determined solely by the primary structure of the involved amino acids. (
  • These results show that ultrahigh-density peptide microarrays can be used for linear epitope mapping. (
  • However, they displayed cumulative mutations in and around the linear epitope of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (residues 345 to 353) with time. (
  • Generally, an antigen has several different epitopes. (
  • Depending on its size and structure, an antigen may contain many different epitopes. (
  • Conformational and linear epitopes interact with the paratope based on the 3-D conformation adopted by the epitope, which is determined by the surface features of the involved epitope residues and the shape or tertiary structure of other segments of the antigen. (
  • A conformational epitope is formed by the 3-D conformation adopted by the interaction of discontiguous amino acid residues. (
  • Detailed analysis revealed a minimal determinant of an immunodominant epitope, comprising critical residues at the amino terminus that may be a product of somatic hypermutation. (
  • Taking a very conservative approach requiring a consensus between all three top methods predicts a number of previously described antigenic residues as potential epitopes on more than one serotype of FMDV, consistent with experimental results. (
  • The consensus results identified novel residues as potential epitopes on more than one serotype. (
  • We identified six E-glycoprotein residues that are incorporated into three distinct flavivirus cross-reactive epitopes. (
  • The third epitope consists of discontinuous residues that are structurally related to the strictly conserved tryptophan at dengue virus serotype 2 E-glycoprotein position 231. (
  • Identification and Characterization of Haemagglutinin Epitopes of Avibacterium Paragallinarum Serovar C." Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 131, no. 3-4, 2008, pp. 406-13. (
  • Human convalescent sera gave diffuse patterns of reactivity with discontinuous (conformational) epitopes. (
  • Identifying epitopes of HIV-1 that induce protective antibodies. (
  • hello did anyone do any reseach on enhancing the immunity of neutralizing epitope,since they are just a few AAs,can not induce strong response .i want to add a few bps to it ,but i do not know how and where i can get some knowledge of these things. (
  • There is no guarantee that any one T cell epitope will automatically induce immunogenicity, so I typically would make a few different ones and see which worked. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Defining promiscuous MHC class II helper T-cell epitopes for the HER2/neu tumor antigen. (
  • Several cytotoxic T-cell epitopes for HER2/neu have been identified that enable the design of peptide-based therapeutic vaccines for tumors expressing this TAA. (
  • Association of idiotype-specific T cell responses with previously documented molecular remissions in idiotype-vaccinated patients suggests that the newly identified T cell epitopes may be clinically relevant. (
  • Schulten V, Westernberg L, Birrueta G, Sidney J, Paul S, Busse P, Peters B, Sette A. Allergen and Epitope Targets of Mouse-Specific T Cell Responses in Allergy and Asthma. (
  • In the current study, we sought to identify Th epitopes derived from PAP that might be used to elicit PAP-specific Th responses, ultimately in the context of human vaccines targeting PAP. (
  • Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from subjects with and without PAP-specific Th responses, we screened a panel of 10 potential peptide epitopes for peptide-specific T-cell proliferation. (
  • Murine studies (31 , 32) , in fact, suggest that immunization with MHC class I peptide epitopes requires additional CD4+ T-cell help to elicit effective CTL responses. (
  • Therefore, even though FcγRIIB can inhibit antibody responses, other mechanisms (such as epitope masking and enhanced antigen clearance) play a more dominant role in vivo . (
  • Mice vaccinated with this plasmid made MHC-restricted CTL responses to each of the epitopes, and protective CTL were demonstrated in recombinant vaccinia virus, influenza virus, and tumor challenge models. (
  • Nevertheless, it is expected that inclusion of peptide epitopes capable of eliciting HER2/neu-specific T helper responses into these vaccines may enhance their effectiveness in the clinic. (
  • An understanding of flavivirus E-glycoprotein cross-reactive epitopes is therefore critical for improving public health responses to these serious diseases. (
  • Identifying the conformational epitopes on the virus capsid supports the development of improved recombinant vaccines to maximize long-term protection against multiple types of HPV. (
  • Identification of CD8+ T Cell Epitopes Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Understanding Tuberculosis Pere-Joan Cardona, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/30644. (
  • Epitope mapping is the process of identification of the molecular determinants for antibody-antigen recognition on the antigen. (
  • Identification of epitopes targeted by IDDM sera may allow one to distinguish between GAD antibody-positive individuals at high and low risk of developing IDDM and to determine if differences in the autoimmune repertoire directed at GAD are present. (
  • The identification of HLA class I-restricted β-cell epitopes would enable the testing of similar strategies in humans. (
  • The part of the antigen that immunoglobulin or antibodies bind to is called a B-cell epitope. (
  • If an antibody binds to an antigen's epitope, the paratope could become the epitope for another antibody that will then bind to it. (
  • However, epitopes containing 20 or less amino acids of Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani bind to multiple HLA-DR and MHC receptors. (
  • The Antigen Binding Site of the variable region of the antibody will be unique in order to specifically bind to an epitope derived from the antigen. (
  • The aim of this project is to select peptide epitopes that mimic neutralization sensitive domains of HIV-1 envelope and may function as candidate HIV-1 vaccines. (
  • Another constraint to the use of epitope vaccines was their restriction to some MHC or HLA phenotypes. (
  • Thus synthetic epitope vaccines may better meet the requirements of the regulatory agencies since they have lower costs and are easier to produce. (
  • Development of CD8 αβ CTL epitope-based vaccines requires an effective strategy capable of co-delivering large numbers of CTL epitopes. (
  • The ability to deliver large numbers of CTL epitopes using relatively small polytope constructs and DNA vaccination technology should find application in the design of human epitope-based CTL vaccines, in particular in vaccines against EBV, HIV, and certain cancers. (
  • A polytope DNA vaccination approach, perhaps combined with an immunomodulatory cytokine, thus offers an ideal strategy for the design of epitope-based CTL vaccines. (
  • Combinatorial peptide-based epitope mapping from Ebola virus DNA vaccines and infections reveals residue-level determinants of antibody binding. (
  • However, limited information has been available on CD8+ T cell epitopes or the functionality of antigen specific T cells during infection or following immunization with experimental vaccines. (
  • T cell epitopes are presented on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell, where they are bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (
  • Further, some H-2L d specific alto CTL clones lost reactivity to the mutant molecules, demonstrating the presence of CTL epitopes in this region of the H-2L d antigen. (
  • From these results we conclude that the amino acid sequence encompassing from position 63 to 70 of the H-2D d and H-2L d molecules forms major alto- antigenic epitopes recognized by multiple antibodies and CTLs. (
  • For example, the epitope is the specific piece of the antigen to which an antibody binds. (
  • The part of an antibody that binds to the epitope is called a paratope. (
  • One activation epitope Ab binds to a site on CD18 distinct from that of the blocking Abs, indicating that the blocking Abs suppress a conformational change in LFA-1. (
  • It is important to note that a unique antibody is produced by a B cell lymphocyte which recognizes and binds to a single unique epitope. (
  • An epitope , also known as an antigenic determinant, is a biological structure or sequence to which an antibody binds. (
  • Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen. (
  • The neutralizing epitopes of gH are conformational, making gH hardly detectable by Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and therefore, the conformational epitopes were mapped immunohistochemically. (
  • A linear or a sequential epitope is an epitope that is recognized by antibodies by its linear sequence of amino acids, or primary structure. (
  • The SVM predictor utilizes a comprehensive and custom designed set of inputs generated by combining information derived from the chain, sequence conservation, similarity to known (training) epitopes, and predicted secondary structure and relative solvent accessibility. (
  • Empirical evaluation on benchmark datasets demonstrates that BEST outperforms several modern sequence-based B-cell epitope predictors including ABCPred, method by Chen et al. (
  • Finally, we show that DQ8 imparts susceptibility to EAMG and responsiveness to an epitope within the sequence α320-337 as a dominant trait. (
  • An alternative to using large mixtures of individual plasmids is to use an epitope-based approach whereby minigenes, which only code for an epitope sequence, are expressed in vaccination plasmids ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • An alto CTL epitope of the H-2D d antigen was also localized to this stretch of amino acid sequence, as one of several H-2D d specific CTL clones reacted with the mutant molecule in which amino acids were replaced at position 63 to 70. (
  • The epitope sequence is a link to the database which will provide deatils of all epitopes containing that sequence. (
  • Similar to T cell epitopes, B cell epitopes can be divided into two groups: conformational or linear. (
  • While Ab's specific for tumor idiotype have been well described in patients with B cell malignancies, the precise antigenic epitopes in human idiotype recognized by autologous T cells remain largely unknown. (
  • An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells. (
  • 13 ) have the potential to generate novel epitopes that might serve as targets for an immune response. (
  • The results indicate a general mechanism in which thiol-reactive haptens generate cryptic epitopes normally concealed from the immune system. (
  • Conformational Occlusion of Blockade Antibody Epitopes, a Novel Mechanism of GII.4 Human Norovirus Immune Evasion. (
  • The data describe a novel immune escape mechanism and better define suitable target epitopes for ATT. (
  • Outflanking immunodominance to target subdominant broadly neutralizing epitopes. (
  • Generally, it is thought that the broadly neutralizing epitopes may be relatively weakly immunogenic and structurally difficult to access [ 1 ]. (
  • One means of eliciting CD8+ CTLs has been to immunize directly with antigen-specific MHC class I peptide epitopes recognized by CD8+ T cells. (
  • Single epitope tagging is also cheaper than production cost of an antigen specific antibody. (
  • While performing molecular assays involving use of antibodies such as in the Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA, one should carefully choose antibodies that recognize linear or conformational epitopes. (
  • Therefore, antibodies that recognize linear epitopes instead of conformational epitopes are chosen for immunodetection. (
  • 28 29 Also, immunohistochemical studies have used a variety of antibodies that recognize epitopes on OxLDL to demonstrate the presence of these epitopes in rabbit 30 31 32 33 34 and human 35 36 atherosclerotic lesions. (
  • VirScan highlights both donor and recipient contributions to the viral antibody repertoire, and acquisition of new viral epitopes after HCT. (
  • Age, CMV serostatus, and receipt of glucocorticoids correlate with recognition of viral epitopes after HCT. (
  • There are several servers that attempt to predict epitopes . (
  • B cell epitopes of gliadin. (
  • B cell epitopes are mainly conformational. (
  • Recognition of oligonucleotide-encoded T cell epitopes indtroduce dinto a gene unrelated to the original antigen. (
  • Examples include imaging of of O-GlcNAc, O-GalNAc (Tn antigen), T antigen, sialyllactosamine (sLN), hyaluronan (HA), and heparan sulfate epitopes in different cell lines. (
  • Rubinstein ND, Mayrose I, Pupko T. A machine-learning approach for predicting B-cell epitopes. (
  • Interaction Profiling of T-Cell Epitopes with MHC-Class I Molecul. (
  • Activation epitope up-regulation requires divalent cations, is sensitive to cellular signal transduction events, and correlates with cell adhesion. (
  • In addition, the stimulated appearance of these activation epitopes is absent in cell lines from patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1/variant that has previously been shown to be defective in LFA-1 activation. (
  • Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Zebrafish Gut Secretory Cell Epitopes. (
  • IHC image of Zebrafish Gut Secretory Cell Epitopes staining in a section of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded Zebra fish Larvae (5 days) performed on a Leica BOND™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20mins. (
  • Human MHC class I epitopes derived from PAP have been identified previously, and peptide-specific CTLs have been shown to be able to lyse an MHC-restricted prostate cancer cell line. (
  • In humans, few β-cell epitopes have been reported, thereby limiting the study of β-cell-specific CTLs in type 1 diabetes. (
  • These data suggest that many β-cell epitopes are recognized by CTLs in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients. (
  • The first two, GAD114-123 ( 8 ) and insulin B chain 22-30 ( 9 ), were chosen for study based on homology to known NOD CD4 + T-cell epitopes and then confirmed by culturing and expanding CD8 + T-cells in vitro from the peripheral blood of HLA-A*0201 and HLA-A*2402 type 1 diabetic patients, respectively. (
  • The McMaster T-cell Epitope Centre (MTEC) uses new epitope-specific tools to determine the frequency and function of T cells reactive with the cat allergen, Fel d 1. (
  • Epitopes recognized by the B-Cell receptor are located on the surface of the Antigen . (
  • Some of the most straightforward that I have used are fusions to 'universal' T cell epitopes (a quick pubmed search will give you plenty of hits). (
  • Thanx for your suggestions.Would you please like to send me your paper about what you have done about universal t cell epitopes? (
  • Nine previously uncharacterized CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified from HSV-2 infected BALB/c mice. (
  • Each epitope was partially or completely resistant to concanavalin A blocking of the glycomoiety of gH, and their antibodies inhibited the cell-to-cell spread of infection. (
  • B-cell epitopes in GroEL of Francisella tularensis. (
  • Equally important, we show that the force-induced conformation exposes hidden epitopes previously buried in the Tfp fiber. (
  • However, as far as we are aware, no systematic work has yet been conducted using the 3D structure of a virus to identify novel epitopes. (
  • We identified several protective mAbs directed toward five unique epitopes on Ebola glycoprotein. (
  • The best way to identify an antibody epitope is from a crystal structure of the antibody:antigen complex, where the contacts are evident. (
  • Here, we have demonstrated that endogenous processing and presentation of a human immunodominant HIV-1 epitope is more efficient than that of a subdominant epitope. (
  • Here, we show that targeting two epitopes of the same antigen in the same cancer cells via monospecific T cells, which have similar pMHC and pMHC-TCR affinity, results in eradication of large, established tumors when targeting the apparently subdominant but not the dominant epitope. (
  • Using exhaustive length and substitution analysis, we have successfully examined the specificity of a panel of polyclonal antibodies raised against linear epitopes of the human proteome and obtained very detailed descriptions of the involved specificities. (
  • A further amino acid substitution at position 70 resulted in the gain of additional H-2D d specificities, allowing to localize more than half of all the relevant H-2D d serological epitopes to position 63 to 70. (
  • There are two main methods of epitope mapping: either structural or functional studies. (
  • Methods for structurally mapping epitopes include X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron microscopy. (
  • Methods for functionally mapping epitopes often use binding assays such as western blot, dot blot, and/or ELISA to determine antibody binding. (
  • Epitope mapping is a powerful tool in analysing the surface topography of an antigen. (
  • Our antibody service "eitope mapping" includes the generation of working plans for the experimental setup, the performance of the epitope mapping analysis on a Biacore instrument and the complete evaluation of the results documented in a written report with figures. (
  • Fine epitope mapping could be achieved by this approach with microgram quantities of antibodies and in a short time compared to conventional mapping methods. (
  • Two alternative epitope mapping approaches identified similar, although not necessarily identical, epitopes. (
  • Detailed epitope mapping studies revealed that two of the four epitopes were located in the gp41 subunit of Env. (
  • This approach identified epitopes unique to T. vaginalis , indicating these peptide-epitopes as possible targets for a serodiagnostic test. (
  • We developed a panel of mAbs that recognize activation epitopes on the CD18 subunit, and show that stimulation of T lymphocytes appears to be accompanied by a conformational change in a subpopulation of LFA-1 that does not require ligand binding. (
  • Epitopes bound by Ebola GP mAbs. (
  • Protective mAbs map to exposed epitopes in the wing domain and loop face of the β-platform. (
  • Use the Find motif, Ligand or epitope option. (