Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Mice, Inbred C57BLCapsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.HLA-A11 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*11 allele family.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gliadin: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.PolysaccharidesCell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D: A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity: The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).HLA-DRB4 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 8: A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.HLA-DP beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 220.127.116.11.HLA-DP Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (1/16637)Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane. (+info)
Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (2/16637)The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin. (+info)
Expression of trophinin, tastin, and bystin by trophoblast and endometrial cells in human placenta. (3/16637)Trophinin, tastin, and bystin comprise a complex mediating a unique homophilic cell adhesion between trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at their respective apical cell surfaces. In this study, we prepared mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to each of these molecules. The expression of these molecules in the human placenta was examined immunohistochemically using the antibodies. In placenta from the 6th week of pregnancy, trophinin and bystin were found in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi, and in endometrial decidual cells at the utero placental interface. Tastin was exclusively present on the apical side of the syncytiotrophoblast. Tissue sections were also examined by in situ hybridization using RNA probes specific to each of these molecules. This analysis showed that trophoblast and endometrial epithelial cells at the utero placental interface express trophinin, tastin, and bystin. In wk 10 placenta, trophinin and bystin were found in the intravillous cytotrophoblast, while tastin was not found in the villi. After wk 10, levels of all three proteins decreased and then disappeared from placental villi. (+info)
Protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection induced by a reduced peptide bond analogue of the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope GP33. (4/16637)Recent investigations have suggested that pseudopeptides containing modified peptide bonds might advantageously replace natural peptides in therapeutic strategies. We have generated eight reduced peptide bond Psi(CH2-NH) analogues corresponding to the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope (called GP33) of the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. One of these pseudopeptides, containing a reduced peptide bond between residues 6 and 7 (Psi(6-7)), displayed very similar properties of binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and recognition by T cell receptor transgenic T cells specific for GP33 when compared with the parent peptide. We assessed in vitro and in vivo the proteolytic resistance of GP33 and Psi(6-7) and analyzed its contribution to the priming properties of these peptides. The Psi(6-7) analogue exhibited a dramatically increased proteolytic resistance when compared with GP33, and we show for the first time that MHC-peptide complexes formed in vivo with a pseudopeptide display a sustained half-life compared with the complexes formed with the natural peptide. Furthermore, in contrast to immunizations with GP33, three injections of Psi(6-7) in saline induced significant antiviral protection in mice. The enhanced ability of Psi(6-7) to induce antiviral protection may result from the higher stability of the analogue and/or of the MHC-analogue complexes. (+info)
Use of RhD fusion protein expressed on K562 cell surface in the study of molecular basis for D antigenic epitopes. (5/16637)The human D antigens, one of the most clinically important blood groups, are presented by RhD protein with a putative 12 transmembrane topology. To understand the molecular basis for the complex antigenic profile of RhD protein, we expressed a series of RhD fusion proteins using different portions of Duffy protein as a tag in erythroleukemic K562 cells. Because the reactivity of monoclonal anti-RhD antibody, LOR15C9, depends mainly on the sequence coded by exon 7 of RhD, we altered DNA sequence corresponding to the amino acid residues 323-331(A) and 350-354(B) in the exon 7. The mutation in region B resulted in a severe reduction in LOR15C9 binding by flow cytometry analysis, suggesting that region B may play an important role in constituting antigen epitopes recognized by LOR15C9. On the other hand, a slight decrease in the antibody binding was observed for the region A mutant, suggesting that the intracellularly located region A may elicit a long distance effect on the formation of exofacial antigen epitopes. In addition, using various monoclonal antibodies against RhD, we compared the antigenic profile of expressed RhD fusion protein with that of endogenous RhD in K562 cells as well as in erythrocytes. (+info)
Goodpasture antigen: expression of the full-length alpha3(IV) chain of collagen IV and localization of epitopes exclusively to the noncollagenous domain. (6/16637)BACKGROUND: Tissue injury in Goodpasture (GP) syndrome (rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage) is mediated by antibasement membrane antibodies that are targeted to the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen, one of five alpha(IV) chains that occur in the glomerular basement membrane. GP antibodies are known to bind epitopes within the carboxyl terminal noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha3(IV) chain, termed the GP autoantigen. Whether epitopes also exist in the 1400-residue collagenous domain is unknown because studies to date have focused solely on the NC1 domain. A knowledge of GP epitopes is important for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease and for the development of therapeutic strategies. METHODS: A cDNA construct was prepared for the full-length human alpha3(IV) chain. The construct was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The purified full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain was characterized by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The capacity of this chain for binding of GP antibodies from five patients was compared with that of the human r-alpha3(IV)NC1 domain by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The r-alpha3(IV) chain was secreted from 293 cells as a single polypeptide chain that did not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical molecule. An analysis of GP-antibody binding to the full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain showed binding exclusively to the globular NC1 domain. CONCLUSION: The full-length human alpha3(IV) chain possesses the capacity to bind GP autoantibodies. The epitope(s) is found exclusively on the nontriple-helical NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, indicating the presence of specific immunogenic properties. The alpha3(IV) chain alone does not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical homotrimeric molecule, suggesting that coassembly with either the alpha4(IV) and/or the alpha5(IV) chain may be required for triple-helix formation. (+info)
Identification of the human melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen epitope recognized by the antitumor monoclonal antibody 763.74 from a peptide phage library. (7/16637)To identify the epitope of the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) recognized by the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 763.74, we first expressed random DNA fragments obtained from the complete coding sequence of the MCSP core glycoproteins in phages and selected without success for binders to the murine mAb 763.74. We then used a library of random heptapeptides displayed at the surface of the filamentous M13 phage as fusion protein to the NH2-terminal portion of the minor coat protein III. After three rounds of selection on the bound mAb, several phages displaying related binding peptides were identified, yielding the consensus sequence Val-His-Leu-Asn-Tyr-Glu-His. Competitive ELISA experiments showed that this peptide can be specifically prevented from binding to mAb 763.74 by an anti-idiotypic MK2-23 mouse:human chimeric mAb and by A375 melanoma cells expressing the antigen MCSP. We screened the amino acid sequence of the MCSP molecule for a region of homology to the consensus sequence and found that the amino acid sequence Val-His-Ile-Asn-Ala-His spanning positions 289 and 294 has high homology. Synthetic linear peptides corresponding to the consensus sequence as well as to the MCSP-derived epitope inhibit the binding of mAb 763.74 to the phages displaying the consensus amino acid sequence. Finally, the biotinylated consensus peptide absorbed to streptavidin-microtiter plates can be used for the detection of mAb 763.74 in human serum. These results show clearly that the MCSP epitope defined by mAb 763.74 has been identified. (+info)
Induction of lasting complete regression of preformed distinct solid tumors by targeting the tumor vasculature using two new anti-endoglin monoclonal antibodies. (8/16637)Endoglin (EDG, CD105) is a proliferation-associated antigen on endothelial cells. In this study, two new anti-EDG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Y4-2F1 (or termed SN6j) and P3-2G8 (SN6k) were generated and used for treating distinct preformed tumors. These mAbs, both IgG1-kappa antibodies, cross-reacted weakly with mouse endothelial cells but defined epitopes different from the epitope defined by a previously reported anti-EDG mAb K4-2C10 (B. K. Seon et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 3: 1031-1044, 1997). SN6j and SN6k reacted strongly with human endothelial cells and vascular endothelium of malignant human tissues but showed no significant reactivity with tumor cells per se. The deglycosylated ricin A chain (dgRA) conjugates of the two mAbs showed a weak but specific cytotoxic activity against murine endothelial cells in vitro. In the therapeutic studies, severe combined immunodeficient mice were inoculated s.c. with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and left untreated until palpable tumors of distinct size (4-6 mm in diameter) appeared. Mice with the distinct tumors were treated by i.v. administration of individual anti-EDG conjugates, unconjugated mAbs, or a control conjugate. Long-lasting complete regression of the tumors was induced in the majority of tumor-bearing mice (n = 8 for each conjugate) when 40 microg of the individual conjugates were administered three times via the tail vein. It is remarkable that the tumors remained regressed without further therapy for as long as the mice were followed (i.e., 100 days). Control conjugate did not induce regression of the tumors in any of the treated mice, although weak nonspecific effects were observed in some of the mice (n = 8). The effects of unconjugated mAbs were small with the dose used, i.e., 34 microg three times. The anti-EDG conjugates showed antiangiogenic activity in the dorsal air sac assay in mice. The results suggest good potential of these conjugates for the clinical application. (+info)
Oxidation-Specific Epitopes in Human Coronary Atherosclerosis Are Not Limited to Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein | Circulation
The major findings of this study are that oxidation-specific epitopes are detected in cells in the majority of atherosclerotic plaques but not in control coronary segments, and in general, cell-associated Ox5 epitopes do not appear to be present on apo B, which suggests that these oxidation-specific epitopes have formed on other proteins. Several lines of evidence suggest that the cell-associated, oxidation-specific epitopes recognized by antibody Ox5 are not on apo B of OxLDL. First, there is a lack of colocalized cell-associated staining for apo B. Previous studies33 37 showed that OxLDL retains immunoreactivity for apo B antibodies on Western blot and in ELISA. The present study demonstrates that internalized OxLDL retains immunoreactivity for the apo B antibody 9A in cultured macrophages. Thus, the observation that cells in human coronary arteries with positive Ox5 staining do not stain for 9A strongly suggests that these cell-associated Ox5 epitopes are not on apo B of OxLDL. Second, the ...
Antibody‐induced growth inhibition is mediated through immunochemically and functionally distinct epitopes on the extracellular...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibody‐induced growth inhibition is mediated through immunochemically and functionally distinct epitopes on the extracellular domain of the c‐erbb‐2 (her‐2/neu) gene product p185. AU - Xu, Fengji. AU - Lupu, Ruth. AU - Rodriguez, Gustavo C.. AU - Whitaker, Regina S.. AU - Boente, Matthew P.. AU - Berchuck, Andrew. AU - Yu, Yinhua. AU - Desombre, Karen A.. AU - Boyer, Cinda M.. AU - Bast, Robert C.. PY - 1993/2/1. Y1 - 1993/2/1. N2 - Over‐expression of the c‐erbB‐2 (HER‐2/neu) gene product p185 occurs in 30% of breast and ovarian cancers. The p185 protein might serve as a target for serotherapy in that antibodies against different epitopes on the extracellular domain of p185 can inhibit growth of tumor cells in the absence of cellular or humoral effector mechanisms. To define epitopes of functional relevance, II monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for their ability to bind to the extracellular domain of p185. Results of competition studies with ...
CD8 T Cell Response and Evolutionary Pressure to HIV-1 Cryptic Epitopes Derived from Antisense Transcription
Retroviruses pack multiple genes into relatively small genomes by encoding several genes in the same genomic region with overlapping reading frames. Both sense and antisense HIV-1 transcripts contain open reading frames for known functional proteins as well as numerous alternative reading frames (ARFs). At least some ARFs have the potential to encode proteins of unknown function, and their antigenic properties can be considered as cryptic epitopes (CEs). To examine the extent of active immune response to virally encoded CEs, we analyzed human leukocyte antigen class I-associated polymorphisms in HIV-1 gag, pol, and nef genes from a large cohort of South Africans with chronic infection. In all, 391 CEs and 168 conventional epitopes were predicted, with the majority (307; 79%) of CEs derived from antisense transcripts. In further evaluation of CD8 T cell responses to a subset of the predicted CEs in patients with primary or chronic infection, both sense- and antisense-encoded CEs were immunogenic ...
Characterization of conformation-dependent prion protein epitopes<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of conformation-dependent prion protein epitopes. AU - Kang, Hae Eun. AU - Weng, Chu Chun. AU - Saijo, Eri. AU - Saylor, Vicki. AU - Bian, Jifeng. AU - Kim, Sehun. AU - Ramos, Laylaa. AU - Angers, Rachel. AU - Langenfeld, Katie. AU - Khaychuk, Vadim. AU - Calvi, Carla. AU - Bartz, Jason C.. AU - Hunter, Nora. AU - Telling, Glenn C.. PY - 2012/10/26. Y1 - 2012/10/26. N2 - Background: Despite structural reorganization during disease, conformational prion protein epitopes remain undefined. Results: We identify specific amino acids constituting novel conformational monoclonal antibody epitopes. Conclusion: Immunoreactivities of globular domain epitopes depend on maintenance of regional tertiary structure. Significance: Our studies address how denatured conformational epitopes remain functional, provide insights into normal and disease-related prion protein, and expand epitope tagging options.. AB - Background: Despite structural reorganization during disease, ...
Neutralization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 by Antibody to gp120 Is Determined Primarily by Occupancy of Sites on the...
In a recent study (51), we found that antibodies to all the neutralization epitopes on gp120, including the CD4bs, V2 and V3 loop, and 2G12 epitopes, neutralize HIV-1MN and Hx10 at least in part by blocking attachment of virus to cells. Indeed, the only antibody that did not interfere with HIV-cell attachment was the anti-gp41 MAb 2F5, which interacts with an epitope close to the transmembrane domain of the molecule. Taken together, the data of Ugolini et al. (51) and the present study suggest two plausible mechanisms for HIV-1 neutralization. The first invokes coating of the viral surface, which obstructs the close approach of virus and target cell membranes, as the principal mechanism. Individual epitopes play a minor role in this model because of the size of the antibody molecule relative to the proximity of the neutralization epitopes on gp120 to the CD4 binding region (Fig. 4). In this model, the high degree of glycosylation (about 50%) of gp120 reduces antibody accessibility to the protein ...
Mapping of Epitopes Recognized by Antibodies Induced by Immunization of Mice with PspA and PspC - LSTM Online Archive
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) are important candidates for an alternative vaccine against pneumococcal infections. Since these antigens show variability, the use of variants that do not afford broad protection may lead to the selection of vaccine escape bacteria. Epitopes capable of inducing antibodies with broad cross-reactivities should thus be the preferred antigens. In this work, experiments using peptide arrays show that most linear epitopes recognized by antibodies induced in mice against different PspAs were located at the initial 44 amino acids of the mature protein and that antibodies against these linear epitopes did not confer protection against a lethal challenge. Conversely, linear epitopes recognized by antibodies to PspC included the consensus sequences involved in the interaction with human factor H and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Since linear epitopes of PspA were not protective, larger overlapping fragments containing 100 ...
Epitopes described in Antibody recognition of a highly conserved influenza virus epitope. - Immune Epitope Database (IEDB)
GPS-MBA: Computational Analysis of MHC Class II Epitopes in Type 1 Diabetes
As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-Ag7 in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-Ag7 and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-Ag7 and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number
Anti-HTT antibody epitopes and analysis by immunoblot.( | Open-i
Induction of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses by Hepatitis B Virus Epitope Displayed on the Virus-Like Particles of...
VLPs formed by the capsid proteins of viruses such as HBV (25, 27, 32) and human papillomavirus (33) and bacteriophages (8, 34) have been widely used for displaying foreign epitopes for vaccine development. The carriers enhance the antigenicity of the fused epitopes (35-37), which are often found to be inefficient in eliciting immune responses. In addition, VLPs allow the display of more than a single epitope, enabling the development of multivalent vaccines (25, 38, 39). MrNV capsid protein self-assembles into VLPs (18, 19); therefore, we hypothesize that MrNV VLPs can be used to display a foreign epitope and enhance B cell and T cell responses.. In this experiment, the "a" determinant of HBV was fused to the C-terminal end of NvC, forming a fusion recombinant protein, namely, NvC-aD. The production of NvC-aD can be scaled up easily, and it can be purified rapidly in a single-step IMAC purification, with approximately 95% purity. NvC-aD provides an alternative to the yeast-derived HBsAg ...
CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 individuals target epitopes from the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome and show...
This study presents in-depth combinatorial ex-vivo profiling of CD8+ T cell specificity phenotype in SARS-CoV-2 convalescent individuals. In convalescent, SARS-CoV-2 T cell recognizes a broad range of epitopes against the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. The most prominent phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cells were stem-cell memory (SCM) and transitional memory (TM2), which agrees with previous studies (Sekine et al. and Fan et al.). However, high prevalence CD8+ T cell SARS-CoV-2 specificities had a distinct phenotype to low prevalence SARS-CoV-2 specificities; being enriched for TEMRA, EM, TM2 cells and SCM and CM cells, respectively. Cross-sectional data of the recovery period revealed an increase in the number of epitope responses detected over time. Lastly, evaluation of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell response was time-dependent during early recovery phase and was associated with decrease in inflammation and sustainment of antibody neutralizing activity. ...
Widespread impact of HLA restriction on immune control and escape pathways of HIV-1. - Department of Paediatrics
The promiscuous presentation of epitopes by similar HLA class I alleles holds promise for a universal T-cell-based HIV-1 vaccine. However, in some instances, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) restricted by HLA alleles with similar or identical binding motifs are known to target epitopes at different frequencies, with different functional avidities and with different apparent clinical outcomes. Such differences may be illuminated by the association of similar HLA alleles with distinctive escape pathways. Using a novel computational method featuring phylogenetically corrected odds ratios, we systematically analyzed differential patterns of immune escape across all optimally defined epitopes in Gag, Pol, and Nef in 2,126 HIV-1 clade C-infected adults. Overall, we identified 301 polymorphisms in 90 epitopes associated with HLA alleles belonging to shared supertypes. We detected differential escape in 37 of 38 epitopes restricted by more than one allele, which included 278 instances of differential escape at the
HIV Protein Sequence/Structure Analysis in Support of Vaccine Development.
The CD4 molecules on the target macrophage and T cell are the primary receptors for the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120. In addition, chemokine receptors on the macrophage and T cell serve as co-receptors in the virus-cell interactions. An understanding of the mechanism of virus-cell interactions requires quantitative analyses of the structure-function correlations of the surface epitopes on gp120 which contains several constant (C) and variable (V) subdomains linked as C1-V1-V2-C2-V3-C3-V4-C4-V5-C5. The surface epitope inside the C4 loop is critical for CD4 binding. The epitopes inside the V1-V2 and V3 loops elicit HIV-1 neutralizing response as well as determine tropism, fusion, and infectivity of the virus. In absence of a high resolution structure of the entire gp120, we have adopted an alternative approach to analyzing the structural properties of these surface epitopes. For this purpose, we have combined theoretical and experimental techniques including sequence analysis, molecular modeling,
Alternative views of functional protein binding epitopes obtained by combinatorial shotgun scanning mutagenesis. | Profiles RNS
Epitopes described in Orchestration of CD4 T cell epitope preferences after multipeptide immunization. - Immune Epitope...
SETE: Sequence-based Ensemble learning approach for TCR Epitope binding prediction - AMiner
The immunogenicity of a viral cytotoxic T cell epitope is controlled by its MHC-bound conformation | JEM
Polymorphism at the MHC locus enhances immune defense across the population by ensuring wide variation in the T cell response to infecting pathogens through presentation of a broad array of target epitopes (22, 23). This report has demonstrated another mechanism through which MHC polymorphism can diversify the immune response to an infecting pathogen. Thus, polymorphic MHC residues can markedly affect peptide binding conformation as well as MHC-peptide binding affinity, and this can have a major impact on the T cell response. Although previous studies have also demonstrated peptide structural alterations induced by MHC polymorphism (24, 25), none have shown that such changes can influence a peptide-specific immune response to this extent.. Our data demonstrate that a single residue polymorphism between HLA-B*3501 and HLA-B*3508 controls responsiveness to the APQP epitope through a mechanism unrelated to peptide-MHC binding efficiency/stability (Fig. 2). Furthermore, HLA-B*3501+, EBV-infected ...
"Key Parameters of Tumor Epitope Immunogenicity Revealed Through a Cons" by Daniel K Wells, Marit M van Buuren et al.
Many approaches to identify therapeutically relevant neoantigens couple tumor sequencing with bioinformatic algorithms and inferred rules of tumor epitope immunogenicity. However, there are no reference data to compare these approaches, and the parameters governing tumor epitope immunogenicity remain unclear. Here, we assembled a global consortium wherein each participant predicted immunogenic epitopes from shared tumor sequencing data. 608 epitopes were subsequently assessed for T cell binding in patient-matched samples. By integrating peptide features associated with presentation and recognition, we developed a model of tumor epitope immunogenicity that filtered out 98% of non-immunogenic peptides with a precision above 0.70. Pipelines prioritizing model features had superior performance, and pipeline alterations leveraging them improved prediction performance. These findings were validated in an independent cohort of 310 epitopes prioritized from tumor sequencing data and assessed for T cell binding.
JCI - Two rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantigens correlate microbial immunity with autoimmune responses in joints
RA is an HLA class II-associated autoimmune disease in which mucosal immunity, often resulting from interaction with oral or gut microbes or from inhaled antigens in the lung, is hypothesized to cause autoimmune phenomena leading to joint inflammation and damage. However, the factors linking mucosal immunity to autoimmunity in joints have been unclear. In this study in which HLA-DR-presented peptides were identified directly from patients synovial tissue or PBMCs, 2 previously unidentified self-antigens, GNS and FLNA, were shown to be targets of T and B cell responses in 52% and 56% of RA patients, respectively. Importantly, the GNS and FLNA HLA-DR-presented T cell epitopes have considerable sequence homology with Prevotella epitopes and with similar epitopes from several related gut commensals belonging to the same order, particularly in areas predicted to be in the HLA-DR-binding groove. Moreover, T cell responses to the corresponding microbial and self-peptides were strongly correlated, ...
Product Development Options
soloMERs™ are superior to and differentiated from more traditional antibody platforms as they are pre-disposed to bind novel or cryptic epitopes ("canyon-binders"), seeking out pockets or grooves in protein targets. soloMERs can deliver the equivalent neutralising potency as antibodies, but from a protein only 9% their size.. Their simple modular formats express well in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. soloMER re-formatting is "plug-n-play" with bi and tri-specificity and/or bi-paratopic potency achievable with a final molecular weight of only 25 - 35 kDa.. ...
CD99 Signals Caspase-Independent T Cell Death | The Journal of Immunology
Proper activation of DRs is critical in regulation of T cell development and function. However, the nature of functional receptors, which are expressed on T cells at stages characterized by resistance to the impact of FasL, TNF, and TRAIL, remains to be established. In this study, we have shown that engagement of distinct epitopes on CD99 induced rapid death signaling in the majority of immature T cell lines examined, apparently by a caspase-independent pathway. In contrast, only a few T cell lines were distinctly responsive to apoptosis-inducing anti-Fas and TRAIL. Differences between the Ad20/CD99-mediated death pathway and other novel nonclassical apoptotic pathways were also observed. Thus, our data suggest that CD99 may be a major DR used by the immune system to control T cells at stages before they acquire susceptibility to the impact of death-mediating cytokines of the TNF superfamily.. Previous studies have shown that activation of the CD99 domain specified by mAbs O662, L129, and DN16 ...
Harpocrates Speaks: Vaccine Resistance
Now that we know what kinds of conditions need to be in place on the vaccine side of things for vaccine resistance to develop, how likely is it? How easy is it for the bacteria/viruses to evolve resistance? The short answer is, not very. When talking about diseases, antigens are the parts of viruses and bacteria that kick our immune systems into action. Theyre usually polysaccharides or proteins, and these polysaccharides and proteins have these things called epitopes. Its those epitopes that our antibodies bind to; they are what allow our immune system to latch onto and attack an invading bug. Antigens generally have multiple epitopes, and our antibodies are often able to act against more than one epitope. The more epitopes on an antigen that an antibody can bind to, the stronger the bond and the less chance the invader has of surviving. So even if we have a very narrowly designed vaccine that uses only a single protein from the target bacteria, for instance, the bacteria would need to change ...
DYKDDDDK (FLAG® epitope Tag) Proteins, Antibodies Research Reagents | Sino Biological
Increasing incidence of CD44v7/8 epitope expression during uterine cervical carcinogenesis
Dear Netters, Does anyone know of any software for the prediction of T-cell epitopes from peptide sequences? I have access to Mac, PC, VAX, SG & UNIX so the program format does not matter. Hope to hear from someone soon! Thanks, Brian Robertson Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biologie Abt. Infektionsbiologie D74 Tuebingen, FRG. Email robertson at mpib-tuebingen.mpg.de ...
Detection of nuclear epitopes of protein 4.1 by immunof | Open-i
Resources | Biologics by Fortebio
Enterprise Europe Network
A young German company, founded in 2016, is specialised in the field of antigen recognition. The founder developed a method for the rapid and reliable characterisation of epitopes at the level of single amino acids and their allowed variations. The method identifies up to thousands of potential epitope/mimotope peptides combining even structural epitopes in single peptides to
Epitope Tag Small Motif Antibody Sampler Kit
|p|The Epitope Tag (Small Motif) Antibody Sampler Kit provides a convenient resource to detect small Epitope Tag fused protein by Western Blot. The DYKDDDDK tag, commonly referred to as Sigma®'s FLAG® Tag, is often used as a protein modification in order to simplify the labeling and detection of pro
Pk (V5) Epitope Tag (GKPIPNPLLGLDST) - NB600-384 | acris-antibodies.com
Pk (V5) Epitope Tag (GKPIPNPLLGLDST) - AM09145PU-N | acris-antibodies.com
Functional and structural characteristics of NY-ESO-1-related HLA A2-restricted epitopes and the design of a novel immunogenic...
Human Leukocyte Antigenic Specificity HL-A3: Frequency of Occurrence | Science
Reactivity of antiserum against HL-A3, a human leukocyte and tissue antigenic specificity, depends upon a property of the lymphocyte as well as on the potency of the serum. Many reactions of HL-A3 antiserums can only be recognized through absorption or by a two-stage test not in general use. Interpretations of donor-recipient compatibility and of the constitution of HL-A alleles affected by these findings. ...
DYKDDDDK Epitope Tag Antibody (29E4.G7) [DyLight 405] (NBP1-97399): Novus Biologicals
Evidence for Combining Anti-HER2 Therapies
DI-fusion Epitopes recognized by human T lymphocytes in the ROP2...
Combined structural and immunological refinement of HIV-1 HLA-B8-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes. - Department of...
This study demonstrates that use of structural information improves the definition and optimization of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Epitope optimization usually requires numerous truncated peptides or a reverse immunogenetic approach, where the peptide binding motif is used to predict epitopes. These binding motifs do not reliably predict all peptides which are CTL epitopes. Comparison of 24 peptides eluted from HLA-B8 with 10 HLA-B8-restricted defined CTL epitopes demonstrated that known epitopes varied considerably at anchor positions. We used structural information based on determination of the crystal structure of the HLA-B8-GGKKKYKL complex to reassess previously described CTL epitopes, to predict new epitopes, and to predict the consequences of naturally occurring variation within epitopes. These predictions were confirmed by cytotoxicity and binding assays. Use of combined structural and immunological data more accurately defines the true peptide-binding motif of a restriction element
Definition of Human Epitopes Recognized in Tetanus Toxoid and Development of an Assay Strategy to Detect Ex Vivo Tetanus CD4+ T...
Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly characterized. Herein we defined the human CD4+ T cell epitope repertoire by reevaluation of previously described epitopes and evaluation of those derived from prediction of HLA Class II binding. Forty-seven epitopes were identified following in vitro TT stimulation, with 28 epitopes accounting for 90% of the total response. Despite this diverse range of epitopes, individual responses were associated with only a few immunodominant epitopes, with each donor responding on average to 3 epitopes. For the top 14 epitopes, HLA restriction could be inferred based on HLA typing of the responding donors. HLA binding predictions re-identified the vast majority of known epitopes, and identified 24 additional novel epitopes. With these epitopes, we created a TT epitope pool, which allowed us to characterize TT responses directly ex vivo using a cytokine-independent Activation Induced ...
Shared idiotypic determinants on B and T lymphocytes reactive against the same antigenic determinants. I. Demonstration of...
Antigen-binding receptors on T lymphocytes and IgG antibodies with the same antigen-binding specificity as the T-cell receptors display shared or identical idiotypes. This was shown using a system where adult F1 hybrid rats between two inbred strains were inoculated with T lymphocytes from one parental strain. Such F1 hybrid rats produce antibodies directed against idiotypic determinants present on IgG alloantibodies, produced in the T donor genotype strain and with specificity for the alloantigens of the other parental strain. The idiotypic nature of the F1 antialloantibody serum against the parental alloantibodies was demonstrated both by indirect hemagglutination tests or by gel diffusion using alloantisera with different specificity as targets. Furthermore, the F1 anti-T-lymphocyte sera could be shown to contain antibodies against idiotypic parental T lymphocytes as well. This was shown by the capacity of the antisera, in the presence of complement, to wipe out the relevant parental T-cell ...
Naturally processed T cell epitopes from human glutamic acid decarboxylase identified using mice transgenic for the type 1...
The identification of class II binding peptide epitopes from autoimmune disease-related antigens is an essential step in the development of antigen-specific immune modulation therapy. In the case of type 1 diabetes, T cell and B cell reactivity to the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) is associated with disease development in humans and in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we identify two DRB1*0401-restricted T cell epitopes from human GAD65, 274-286, and 115-127. Both peptides are immunogenic in transgenic mice expressing functional DRB1*0401 MHC class II molecules but not in nontransgenic littermates. Processing of GAD65 by antigen presenting cells (APC) resulted in the formation of DRB1*0401 complexes loaded with either the 274-286 or 115-127 epitopes, suggesting that these naturally derived epitopes may be displayed on APC recruited into pancreatic islets. The presentation of these two T cell epitopes in the islets of DRB1*0401 individuals who are at risk for type 1
Patent US4474892 - Two-site immunoassays using monoclonal antibodies of different classes or ... - Google Patents
Two-site immunometric assays for multideterminant antigens are described in which the antigen is reacted with an immobilized monoclonal antibody directed against one antigen determinant and a second monoclonal antibody that is directed against a distinct antigenic determinant and is of a different class or subclass than the immobilized monoclonal antibody. The second monoclonal antibody is labeled in direct versions of the assay and is reacted with a labeled antibody against it in indirect versions of the assay. The immobilizing medium and classes (subclasses) of the antibodies may be selected so as to reduce the likelihood of nonspecific binding enhance sensitivity and/or permit signal amplification.
Autoimmunity is frequently involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes, and viral infections have been implicated in some cases. We have investigated the possibility that islet cells and viruses share antigenic determinants with the result that antiviral antibodies would cross-react with islet cells. Antibody titers to Coxsackie B2, B3, B4, and B5, Influenza A and B, and mumps viruses were compared with islet cell antibody (ICA) titers in newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetic patients and in some diabetic patients followed prospectively for 1 yr postdiagnosis. Nondiabetic patients, with cultureproven Coxsackie B4 infections and large rises in Coxsackie B4 antibody titers, were evaluated for islet cell antibodies. No relationship between ICA and viral antibody titers was found either in diabetic or nondiabetic patients. We conclude that it is unlikely that islet cells and the viruses tested share antigenic determinants and other mechanisms relating viral infection and ...
The Immune Epitope Database 2.0 (2009) - IEDB Solutions Center
Use of complete eluted peptide sequence data from HLA-DR and -DQ molecules to predict T cell epitopes, and the influence of the...
In diseases with a strong association with an HLA haplotype, identification of relevant T cell epitopes may allow alteration of the pathologic process. In this report we use a reverse immunogenetic approach to predict possible HLA class II-restricted T cell epitopes by using complete pool sequencing data. Data from HLA-DR2(B1*1501), -DR3(B1*0301), -DQ2(A1*0501, B1*0201), and -DQ8(A1*0301, B1*0302) alleles were used by a computer program that searches a candidate protein to predict ligands with a relatively high probability of being processed and presented. This approach successfully identified both known T cell epitopes and eluted single peptides from the parent protein. Furthermore, the program identified ligands from proteins in which the binding motif of the HLA molecule was unable to do so. When the information from the nonbinding N- and C-terminal regions in the pool sequence was removed, the ability to predict several ligands was markedly reduced, particularly for the HLA-DQ alleles. This suggests
Benchmarking the PEPOP methods for mimicking discontinuous epitopes | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text
Computational methods provide approaches to identify epitopes in protein Ags to help characterizing potential biomarkers identified by high-throughput genomic or proteomic experiments. PEPOP version 1.0 was developed as an antigenic or immunogenic peptide prediction tool. We have now improved this tool by implementing 32 new methods (PEPOP version 2.0) to guide the choice of peptides that mimic discontinuous epitopes and thus potentially able to replace the cognate protein Ag in its interaction with an Ab. In the present work, we describe these new methods and the benchmarking of their performances. Benchmarking was carried out by comparing the peptides predicted by the different methods and the corresponding epitopes determined by X-ray crystallography in a dataset of 75 Ag-Ab complexes. The Sensitivity (Se) and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) parameters were used to assess the performance of these methods. The results were compared to that of peptides obtained either by chance or by using the
Type-specific immunogenicity of a chemically synthesized peptide fragment of type 5 streptococcal M protein. | JEM
We determined the antigenic specificity and protective immunogenicity of two chemically synthesized peptides of type 5 streptococcal M protein. The synthetic peptides, designated S-M5(1-20) and S-M5(20-40), represent the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of the native pepsin-extracted M5 molecule, which is known to contain at least one heart cross-reactive epitope. Initial studies showed that neither of the synthetic peptides was able to bind purified heart-reactive M5 antibodies. In addition, S-M5(1-20), but not S-M5(20-40), contained type-specific antigenic determinants as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent inhibition assays. When covalently linked to tetanus toxoid, S-M5(1-20), but not S-M5(20-40), evoked significant levels of type-specific, opsonic (and presumably protective) antibodies in rabbits without evoking heart cross-reactive antibodies. ...
Identification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for polymorphic antigenic determinants within the V2...
We have identified six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) mapping to both linear and conformation-dependent epitopes within the V2 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clone HXB10. Three of the MAbs (12b, 66c, and 66a) were able to neutralize the molecular clones HXB10 and HXB2, with titers in the range of 9.5 to 20.0 micrograms/ml. MAbs mapping to the crown of the V2 loop (12b, 60b, and 74) bound poorly to cell surface-expressed oligomeric gp120, suggesting an explanation for the poor or negligible neutralizing activity of MAbs to this region. In contrast, MAbs 12b and 60b demonstrated good reactivity with recombinant gp120 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format, suggesting differential epitope exposure between the recombinant and native forms of gp120. Cross-competition analysis of these MAbs and additional V1V2 MAbs for gp120 binding enabled us to assign the MAbs to six groups (A to F). Selection of neutralization escape mutants with MAbs 10/76b and 11/68b, belonging to nonoverlapping
Association of cell cycle expression of Ia-like antigenic determinants on normal human multipotential (CFU-GEMM) and erythroid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of cell cycle expression of Ia-like antigenic determinants on normal human multipotential (CFU-GEMM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells with regulation in vitro by acidic isoferritins. AU - Lu, L.. AU - Broxmeyer, H. E.. AU - Meyers, P. A.. AU - Moore, M. A.. AU - Thaler, H. T.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - An association has been established between human Ia-like antigenic determinants, expression during DNA synthesis on multipotential (CFU-GEMM) and erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cells, and the regulatory action of acidic isoferritins in vitro. Treatment of human bone marrow cells with monoclonal anti-Ia (NE1-011) plus complement inhibited colony formation of CFU-GEMM and BFU-E by 50%-70%. Reduction of colonies was similar whether bone marrow cells were exposed to anti-Ia plus complement, high specific activity tritiated thymidine (3HTdr), or acidic isoferritins. No further decrease was apparent with 3HTdr or acidic isoferritins after Ia-antigen+ CFU-GEMM or BFU-E ...
Cells | Free Full-Text | CD8+ T Lymphocyte Epitopes From The Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 ICP27, VP22 and VP13/14 Proteins To...
CD8+ T cells have the potential to control HSV-2 infection. However, limited information has been available on CD8+ T cell epitopes or the functionality of antigen specific T cells during infection or following immunization with experimental vaccines. Peptide panels from HSV-2 proteins ICP27, VP22 and VP13/14 were selected from in silico predictions of binding to human HLA-A*0201 and mouse H-2Kd, Ld and Dd molecules. Nine previously uncharacterized CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified from HSV-2 infected BALB/c mice. HSV-2 specific peptide sequences stabilized HLA-A*02 surface expression with intermediate or high affinity binding. Peptide specific CD8+ human T cell lines from peripheral blood lymphocytes were generated from a HLA-A*02+ donor. High frequencies of peptide specific CD8+ T cell responses were elicited in mice by DNA vaccination with ICP27, VP22 and VP13/14, as demonstrated by CD107a mobilization. Vaccine driven T cell responses displayed a more focused immune response than those induced
Towards a vaccine for rheumatic fever: identification of a conserved target epitope on M protein of group a strepococci «...
Pepscan Epitope mapping | Pepscan
The vast majority of therapeutic antibodies have a conformational or discontinuous epitope. Pepscan developed its proprietary CLIPSTM technology to construct constrained peptides which enable the 3D spatial conformation of these epitopes to be addressed. Our epitope mapping platform allows you to identify any type of epitope in a cost-effective and timely manner.. Pepscan developed this epitope mapping platform using solid support with a proprietary hydrogel matrix into which peptide sequences are directly synthesized using robust Fmoc peptide synthesis in a high density. This results in highly sensitive arrays and enables reliable detection of even the weakest binding signals. These immobilized peptide arrays are reusable and can be tested multiple times. This therefore permits screening of a series of antibodies or sera on a single array, making linear epitope mapping a fast and cost-effective option for best candidate selection and further development.. ...
GLOBAL PEPTIDE MICROARRAY PROFILING OF TYROSINE KINASES DEREGULATED IN CANCER | Innovative Molecular Analysis Technologies ...
Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play pivotal roles in human cancer and are the targets of a major class of emerging anti-cancer drugs. In a single tumor, multiple PTKs are active and a substantial number are essential for maintaining the transformed phenotype. Though large numbers of phosphorylation sites have been mapped in cancer cells through mass spectrometry (MS), the identity of the specific kinases that phosphorylate these sites are with very few exceptions unknown. We propose to use emerging peptide microarray technology to identify consensus phosphorylation sequences for the entire set of human PTKs. We will generate a set of mammalian expression vectors producing every PTK fused to glutathione S-transferase. Each PTK will be affinity purified from a mammalian cell overexpression system and subjected to peptide microarray screening. These screens will reveal specific sequences preferred by each kinase at phosphorylation sites in their target substrates. We will use this data to mine ...
Structural and Antigenic Definition of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Glycoprotein Epitopes Targeted by Monoclonal Antibodies
Journal of Immunology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different areas of immunology and therapy. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, as well as clinical studies related to classical immunology, molecular immunology, clinical immunology, cancer immunology, transplantation immunology, immune pathology, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, and immunotherapy.
Influenza - Institute for Immunology and Informatics (iCubed)
We recently discover a new immune escape mechanism that may help viruses escape from immune detection, which might compromise vaccine efficacy. Viruses that cause chronic infection in human contain higher numbers of T cell epitopes whose TCR-facing amino acids are identical to those of numerous peptides from the human proteome. We postulate that viruses that incorporate such human-like epitopes may exploit host tolerance to avoid or suppress effector responses. In order to predict these human-like epitopes, we developed an immunoinformatics tool, JanusMatrix.. Using JanusMatrix, we have identified T cell epitopes in H7N9 influenza HA protein that are highly conserved with human genome epitopes, and these epitopes possess low immunogenicity, activate natural Tregs and suppress bystander effector T cell responses in vitro. The human like T cell epitopes may contribute to the delayed, low titer of H7N9 hemagglutination inhibiting antibody responses and diminished seroconversion rates that have been ...
Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Targeting ADAM-17 with an inhibitory monoclonal antibody has antitumour effects in...
Background: Identification and validation of a targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), that is, breast cancers negative for oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors and HER2 amplification, is currently one of the most urgent problems in breast cancer treatment. EGFR is one of the best-validated driver genes for TNBC. EGFR is normally activated following the release of ligands such as TGF alpha, mediated by the two MMP-like proteases ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase)-10 and ADAM-17. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumour effects of a monoclonal antibody against ADAM-17 on an in vitro model of TNBC. Methods: We investigated an inhibitory cross-domain humanised monoclonal antibody targeting both the catalytic domain and the cysteine-rich domain of ADAM17-D1(A12) in the HCC1937 and HCC1143 cell lines. Results: D1(A12) was found to significantly inhibit the release of TGFa, and to decrease downstream EGFR-dependent cell signalling. D1(A12) treatment ...
"The two-faced T cell epitope: Examining the host-microbe interface wit" by Leonard Moise, Andres H. Gutierrez et al.
Advances in the field of T cell immunology have contributed to the understanding that cross-reactivity is an intrinsic characteristic of the T cell receptor (TCR), and that each TCR can potentially interact with many different T cell epitopes. To better define the potential for TCR cross-reactivity between epitopes derived from the human genome, the human microbiome, and human pathogens, we developed a new immunoinformatics tool, JanusMatrix, that represents an extension of the validated T cell epitope mapping tool, EpiMatrix. Initial explorations, summarized in this synopsis, have uncovered what appear to be important differences in the TCR cross-reactivity of selected regulatory and effector T cell epitopes with other epitopes in the human genome, human microbiome, and selected human pathogens. In addition to exploring the T cell epitope relationships between human self, commensal and pathogen, JanusMatrix may also be useful to explore some aspects of heterologous immunity and to examine T cell
Monoclonal antibodies on MOUSE Tissue - Immunology - BioForum
Epitope Mapping - Paperback - Olwyn M. R. Westwood; Frank C. Hay - Oxford University Press
Epitope Mapping covers all the major methods for the identification and definition of epitopes. The Pepscan assay is used to define B cell epitopes and makes use of synthetic peptides but can only be used if the amino acid sequence is known. It can be adapted for the delineation of both helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells. The identification of combined B and T cell epitopes can also be achieved using synthetic peptides.
The ELISPOT assay: an easily transferable method for measuring cellular responses and identifying T cell epitopes. - Semantic...
Characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted epitopes derived from viral pathogens is imperative for formulating therapeutic interventions, as well as for vaccine design and monitoring. Sensitive, easy and cost-effective assays that measure the frequency of antigen-specific T lymphocytes are crucial for evaluating and improving vaccines and therapies. This paper reviews the ELISPOT technique that allows for quantifying HIV-specific T lymphocytes at the single cell level from peripheral blood by detection of antigen-induced cytokine secretion. The assay can be used successfully to quantify T cell immune responses in humans infected with different pathogens and to assess T cell immunogenicity of vaccines in phase I/II and III clinical trials. This review focuses on the ELISPOT methodology and discusses how it can be standardized and potentially used by multiple international laboratories attached to clinical trial sites.
Mapping autoantigen epitopes: molecular insights into autoantibody-associated disorders of the nervous system | Journal of...
Autoantibodies targeting extracellular, rather than intracellular, domains of an antigen have a higher probability of being pathogenic by modulating receptor function, which can be studied in vitro and in vivo. However, since epitopes may vary between species, matching epitope targets between human autoantibodies and murine models is important for animal studies. For instance, the majority of patients with anti-MOG antibodies did not recognize conformational intact mMOG , whereas epitopes recognized by anti-NMDAR antibodies are similar between the two species , or at least share some cross-reactivity as in the case of anti-AQP4 antibodies [62, 134]. Longitudinal studies of autoimmune neurological disorders in humans are necessary to substantiate findings from animal models and determine whether the same mechanisms are relevant to human disease. Based on these results, decisions can be made as to whether the therapies that have proved effective in animal models are translatable to human ...
A pentapeptide as minimal antigenic determinant for MHC class I-restricted T lymphocytes
Peptides that are antigenic for T lymphocytes are ligands for two receptors, the class I or II glycoproteins that are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex, and the idiotypic / chain T-cell antigen receptor1-9. That a peptide must bind to an MHC molecule to interact with a T-cell antigen receptor is the molecular basis of the MHC restriction of antigen-recognition by T lymphocytes10,11. In such a trimolecular interaction the amino-acid sequence of the peptide must specify the contact with both receptors: agretope residues bind to the MHC receptor and epitope residues bind to the T-cell antigen receptor12,13. From a compilation of known antigenic peptides, two algorithms have been proposed to predict antigenic sites in proteins. One algorithm uses linear motifs in the sequence14, whereas the other considers peptide conformation and predicts antigenicity for amphipathic -helices15,16. We report here that a systematic delimitation of an antigenic site precisely identifies a ...
Adoptive transfer of transplant donor or third party donor derived CMV-specific T cells (CMV-CTL) can effectively treat CMV infections in HSCT recipients. In clinical trials, infusion of partially matched third party CMV-CTLs, has demonstrated high response rates against persistent CMV infection. T-cells (TC) generated in vitro or directly selected in vivo demonstrate a striking preponderance of specificity for 1-2 immunodominant (ID) epitopes presented by specific HLA alleles. ID epitopes elicit higher TC functional activity in vivo, compared to sub-dominant (SD) epitopes. The relative clinical efficacy of TC directed against ID versus SD epitopes in vivo remains undefined. Agents augmenting activity of TC responsive to SD epitopes are unexplored. When these alleles are co-inherited in humans, epitopes of CMVpp65 presented by HLA A*02:01 are ID over HLA A*24:02 presented epitopes. We describe an in vivo model to assess efficacy of CMV-CTLs using colon carcinoma cells (coca)transduced to express ...
Mutant MHC Class II Epitopes Drive Therapeutic Immune Responses to Cancer
Identification of conformational B-cell Epitopes in an antigen from its primary sequence. - open
This study demonstrates that prediction of conformational B-cell epitope in an antigen is possible from is primary sequence. This study will be very useful in predicting conformational B-cell epitopes in antigens whose tertiary structures are not available. A web server CBTOPE has been developed for predicting B-cell epitope http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/cbtope/.. ...
Antibodies- Online Textbook Chapters - Alyvea.com
The term avidity describes binding by antibody classes that are secreted as joined, multivalent structures (such as IgM and IgA). Although avidity measures the strength of binding, just as affinity does, the avidity is not simply the sum of the affinities of the antibodies in a multimeric structure. The avidity depends on the number of identical binding sites on the antigen being detected, as well as other physical and chemical factors. Typically, multimeric antibodies, such as pentameric IgM, are classified as having lower affinity than monomeric antibodies, but high avidity. Essentially, the fact that multimeric antibodies can bind many antigens simultaneously balances their slightly lower binding strength for each antibody/antigen interaction.. Antibodies secreted after binding to one epitope on an antigen may exhibit cross reactivity for the same or similar epitopes on different antigens. Because an epitope corresponds to such a small region (the surface area of about four to six amino ...
Anti-peptide antibodies to epitopes masked by the carbohydrate moieties in transferrin. - Queen's University Belfast
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-peptide antibodies to epitopes masked by the carbohydrate moieties in transferrin.. AU - McFerran, Neil. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031906970&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 10909806. VL - 26(1). SP - S48. JO - Biochemical society transactions. JF - Biochemical society transactions. SN - 0300-5127. IS - 1. ER - ...
"Extremely acidophilic archaea from the genus Ferroplasma | interleukin...
The E2 envelope glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) binds to the host entry factor CD81 and is the principal target for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Most NAbs recognize hypervariable region 1 on E2, which undergoes frequent mutation, thereby allowing GANT61 molecular weight the virus to evade neutralization.. Consequently, there is great interest in NAbs that target conserved epitopes. One such NAb is AP33, a mouse monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conserved, linear epitope on E2 and potently neutralizes a broad range of HCV genotypes. In this study, the X-ray structure of AP33 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide spanning residues 412 to 423 of HCV E2 was determined to 1.8 angstrom. In the complex, the peptide adopts a beta-hairpin conformation and docks into a deep binding pocket on the antibody. The major determinants of antibody recognition are E2 residues L413, N415, G418, and W420. The structure is compared to the recently described HCV1 Fab in complex with the same epitope. ...
Classification of acute myeloid leukemias--a comparison of FAB and immunophenotyping. - Semantic Scholar
A large number of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) directed against components on myeloid (granulocytic/monocytic) cells have been generated. Individual McAbs were identified which are selectively reactive with antigenic determinants expressed by myeloid cells at specific stages of differentiation in a lineage-restricted fashion. The composite phenotype obtained by a combination of antimyeloid McAbs allows for a precise definition of the normal or malignant cell type under investigation. Cell binding studies on normal and leukemic cells and the biochemical characterization of the antigens provided the basis for a grouping of those antimyeloid McAbs into clusters of differentiation (CD). The reactivity patterns of CD11, CD13, CD14, CD15, and CD33 McAbs and the characteristics of the respective antigens are reviewed. These CD McAbs distinguish leukemic cells of myeloid from those of lymphoid origin. The monocytic nature of AML cells can be recognized by CD14 McAbs, whereas the other CD McAbs react with both
downloads - EPITOPIC - Antibody Epitopes Alive
Controlling T-Cell Activation with Biomaterials by Uday Prakhya - OpenWetWare
Adaptive immunity is governed by the response of immune cells (T-cells and B-cells) to specific antigens. T-cells and B-cells encounter antigens via Antigen Presenting Cells or APCs in the lymph nodes. B-cells, which control long term immunity are activated by binding to APCs and additional signaling from helper T-cells. Killer T-cells, which actively seek out infected cells, require binding to an epitope on an expressed antigen, as well as costimulation via other receptors on the APC. Manipulating these two-signal pathways is key to modulating immune response (3) There are three main characteristics of biomaterials to consider when attempting to engineer immune responses: Epitope content, size, and multivalency.  Adaptive immune responses are controlled by the presence of antigen binding sites or epitopes. These epitopes are sequences of amino acids on an antigen recognized by T-cell or B-cell receptors. These epitopes are presented via two different pathways. Extracellular antigens are ...
Method for identifying and validating dominant T helper cell epitopes using an HLA-DM-assisted class II binding assay - The...
A human monoclonal antibody derived from a vaccinated volunteer recognizes heterosubtypically a novel epitope on the...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Naphatsawan Boonsathorn, Sumolrat Panthong, Sarawut Koksunan, Malinee Chittaganpitch, Siripaporn Phuygun, Sunthareeya Waicharoen, Apichai Prachasupap, Tadahiro Sasaki, Ritsuko Kubota-Koketsu, Mayo Yasugi, Ken-Ichiro Ono, Yasuha Arai, Takeshi Kurosu, Pathom Sawanpanyalert, Kazuyoshi Ikuta, Yohei Watanabe].
Strategy for Identifying Dendritic Cell-Processed CD4 T Cell Epitopes from the HIV Gag p24 Protein - pdf descargar
Strategy for Identifying Dendritic Cell-Processed CD4 T Cell Epitopes from the HIV Gag p24 Protein. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Thioether cross-linked 4E10 peptide epitope from gp41 | SBIR.gov
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): 4E10 is a monoclonal antibody that was derived from the B cells of a patient with persistent HIV infections. In vitro and in vivo, 4E10 neutralizes a wide variety of HIV and SHIV strains. As such, an immunogen that elicits 4E10-like antibody responses in humans would be a huge advance toward the goal of designing a safe and effective vaccine against HIV. Although the epitope for 4E10 was found to be a six amino acid peptide (NWFNIT) from the fusogenic domain of gp41, attempts to use this peptide as an immunogen to elicit antibodies that mimic the HIV neutralizing activity of 4E10 have been totally unsuccessful. This result indicates that antigen presentation is possibly the missing link that lies between immunization with NWFNIT-containing immunogens and the successful elicitation of 4E10-like antibodies in vivo. For over a decade we have been developing methods in peptide chemistry to induce linear synthetic peptides to assume new conformations. The ...
The experimental analysis of mutlitple computationally-driven methods for the deletion of broadly distributed T cell epitopes...
The Experimental Analysis of Mutlitple Computationally-Driven Methods for the Deletion of Broadly Distributed T cell Epitopes in a Functional Biotherapeutic Candidate A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillm ent o f the requirements for the degree of D octor o f Philosophy by Regina Salvat Thayer School o f Engineering D artmouth College Hanover, N ew Hampshire January 4, 2015 Chairman Exam ining Committee: Professor Karl Griswold M em ber Professor M argaret Ackerman M em ber Professor Chris Bailey-Kellogg M emb er___________________________ Professor Lenny M oise F. Jon Kull Dean o f Graduate Studies ...
The specific region an antibody recognizes on an antigen is called an epitope. There have been efforts in epitope mapping since ... If the topology of a cell membrane has yet to be determined, epitope insertion into proteins can be used in conjunction with ... The primary antibody recognizes the target molecule (antigen) and binds to a specific region called the epitope. The attached ... Ladner, Robert C. (2007-01-01). "Mapping the Epitopes of Antibodies". Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. 24 (1): 1- ...
Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants
However, IgE antibodies against the α-Gal epitope should be taken into account in the diagnosis of milk and meat allergy. It is ... Much later, both xylose and core α1,3-fucose were revealed as heart pieces of two independent glycan epitopes for rabbit IgG. ... Still, because of the two possible epitopes and the different carrier structures, the plural CCDs is in frequent use even ... 1993). "Fucose alpha 1,3-linked to the core region of glycoprotein N-glycans creates an important epitope for IgE from honeybee ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Epitopes that are not targeted or targeted to a lower degree during an immune response are known as subdominant epitopes. The ... The immunodominant epitope will be a BCR that has a particular 'goldilocks' amount of affinity for its epitope determined by ... If subdominant epitopes are introduced without the dominant epitope, the immune response will be focused to that subdominant ... Meanwhile, if the dominant epitope is introduced with the subdominant epitope, the immune response will be directed against the ...
PMC 4682376 . Sun J, Kudahl UJ, Simon C, Cao Z, Reinherz EL, Brusic V (2014). "Large-Scale Analysis of B-Cell Epitopes on ... There are also tools which are used for T and B cell epitope mapping, proteasomal cleavage site prediction, and TAP- peptide ... Saha S, Bhasin M, Raghava GP (2005). "Bcipep: a database of B-cell epitopes". BMC Genomics. 6 (1): 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6- ... The immune epitope database and analysis resource. Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics, Proceedings 4146, 126-132 (2006). ...
The simplest approach is to rapidly change non-essential epitopes (amino acids and/or sugars) on the surface of the pathogen, ... Saha S, Bhasin M, Raghava GP (2005). "Bcipep: a database of B-cell epitopes". BMC Genomics. 6: 79. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-6-79. ... A publicly accessible database has been established for the cataloguing of epitopes from pathogens known to be recognizable by ... Söllner J, Mayer B (2006). "Machine learning approaches for prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins". Journal of ...
DRB1*0101 and most DR4 have in common a 'shared epitope'. In this hypothesis a common region of the beta chain, positions 67 to ... Morel PA, Erlich HA, Fathman CG (1988). "A new look at the shared epitope hypothesis". Am. J. Med. 85 (6A): 20-22. doi:10.1016/ ... Gorman JD, David-Vaudey E, Pai M, Lum RF, Criswell LA (2004). "Particular HLA-DRB1 shared epitope genotypes are strongly ... 2007). "Association of DRB1 shared epitope genotypes with early mortality in rheumatoid arthritis: results of eighteen years of ...
La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology
"Immune Epitope Database (IEDB)". Immuneepitope.org. 2012-10-08. Retrieved 2012-10-13. "La Jolla Institute for Allergy & ... The database interface is designed to be intuitive and easily searched and to propel the dissemination of immune epitope ... the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB). The IEDB is groundbreaking because it contains antibody and T cell ... epitope data curated from scientific literature, presented collectively to facilitate basic research. ...
Major urinary proteins
El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2017). In silico prediction of linear B-cell epitopes on proteins. In: Y. Zhou, E ... Y. and Honavar, V. (2014). Building Classifier Ensembles for B-Cell Epitope Prediction. In: De, R.K. and Tomar, N. (Ed). ... El-Manzalawy, Y. and Honavar, V. (2010). Recent Advances in B-Cell Epitope Prediction Methods. Immunome Research Suppl. 2:S2. ... El-Manzalawy, Y., Dobbs, D., and Honavar, V. (2008). Predicting linear B-cell epitopes using string kernels. Journal of ...
The membrane is then probed with antibodies for epitopes of interest. This method has also been discussed in later work by the ... It is most often used to detect carbohydrate epitopes. Thus, eastern blotting can be considered an extension of the biochemical ... In principle, eastern blotting is similar to lectin blotting (i.e. detection of carbohydrate epitopes on proteins or lipids). ...
Half sphere exposure
demonstrated that epitope-mapping tools could accurately identify the epitopes responsible for 95% of the murine T-cell ... T-cell and B-cell epitope mapping algorithms can computationally predict epitopes based on the genomic sequence of pathogens, ... Epitope mapping identifies the sites of antibodies to which their target antigens bind. In the past, scientists would have to ... The 'immunome' of a pathogen is described by its set of epitopes, and can be defined by comparing genome sequences and applying ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
... ic escape Antitoxin Conformational epitope Epitope Linear epitope Magnetic immunoassay Neutralizing antibody Original ... Using the "lock and key" metaphor, the antigen can be seen as a string of keys (epitopes) each of which matches a different ... A hapten is a small molecule that changes the structure of an antigenic epitope. In order to induce an immune response, it ... Any such feature constitutes an epitope. Most antigens have the potential to be bound by multiple antibodies, each of which is ...
ISBN 1-84110-100-1. Polyak MJ, Ayer LM, Szczepek AJ, Deans JP (July 2003). "A cholesterol-dependent CD20 epitope detected by ... Deans JP, Polyak MJ (February 2008). "FMC7 is an epitope of CD20". Blood. 111 (4): 2492; author reply 2493-4. doi:10.1182/blood ... Serke S, Schwaner I, Yordanova M, Szczepek A, Huhn D (April 2001). "Monoclonal antibody FMC7 detects a conformational epitope ...
Oxidation-Specific Epitopes in Human Coronary Atherosclerosis Are Not Limited to Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein | Circulation
Formation of Oxidation Epitopes In Vitro. To determine the conditions under which Ox5 epitopes might be formed on proteins in ... Finally, epitopes recognized by Ox5 can be formed on human monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro. The presence of Ox5 epitopes ... Oxidation-Specific Epitopes Can Be Formed on Human Proteins Exposed to Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Emulsions. Ox5 epitopes were ... Furthermore, the antibody recognized an oxidized phospholipid epitope rather than a protein epitope, so it is possible that the ...
CD8 T Cell Response and Evolutionary Pressure to HIV-1 Cryptic Epitopes Derived from Antisense Transcription
... The Journal of ... These findings indicate that the HIV-1 genome might encode and deploy a large potential repertoire of unconventional epitopes ... In all, 391 CEs and 168 conventional epitopes were predicted, with the majority (307; 79%) of CEs derived from antisense ... CD8 T Cell Response and Evolutionary Pressure to HIV-1 Cryptic Epitopes Derived from Antisense Transcription. ...
6xHistidine Epitope Tag (HHHHHH) - DP3514 | acris-antibodies.com
In the last couple of years many peptide sequences/epitopes for the purification of recombinant proteins have been established. ... Product Description for 6xHistidine Epitope Tag. Rabbit anti 6xHistidine Epitope Tag.. Properties: (HHHHHH). Presentation: Aff ... Recommended Secondary Antibodies for 6xHistidine Epitope Tag (9 products). Catalog No.. Host. Clone/Iso.. Pres.. React.. ... In the last couple of years many peptide sequences/epitopes for the purification of recombinant proteins have been established ...
Cryptic self epitopes - Wikipedia
In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity. Self epitopes, which are found in high concentration on the ... However, self epitopes which appear in very low concentration on APC are termed cryptic in the sense that they do not delete ... Lanzavecchia, A (1995). "How can cryptic epitopes trigger autoimmunity?" (PDF). J. Exp. Med. 181: 1945-8. doi:10.1084/jem.181.6 ... are known as dominant epitopes. These are stimulants of negative selection mechanisms to remove potentially self destructing ...
Epitope - Wikipedia
The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories, conformational epitopes and linear epitopes, based on their ... A database of B-cell epitopes SYFPEITHI - First online database of T cell epitopes IEDB - Database of T and B cell epitopes ... A linear epitope is formed by a continuous sequence of amino acids from the antigen. T cell epitopes are presented on the ... The proportion of epitopes that are conformational is unknown. By contrast, linear epitopes interact with the ...
epitope - Wiktionary
B cell epitopes of gliadin. - PubMed - NCBI
Hepatitis C virus epitopes - Genelabs Incorporated
10 shows an epitope map of the HCV capsid protein region. FIGS. 11A to 11H present a DNA sequence corresponding to the sequence ... An epitope map of the HCV capsid region is presented in FIG. 10: the location of the protein coding sequences corresponding to ... An epitope map of the HCV capsid region is presented in FIG. 10: the location of the immunoreactive protein coding sequences ... The region comprising the first 35 amino acids spans one of the epitopes and the region spanning residues 34-90 encompasses the ...
This review discusses the major advantages and limitations of epitope tagging and describes a number of recent applications. ... Epitope tagging is a recombinant DNA method by which a protein encoded by a cloned gene is made immunoreactive to a known ... Epitope tagging Annu Rev Genet. 1998;32:601-18. doi: 10.1146/annurev.genet.32.1.601. ... Epitope tagging is a recombinant DNA method by which a protein encoded by a cloned gene is made immunoreactive to a known ...
Force-dependent polymorphism in type IV pili reveals hidden epitopes | PNAS
Scale bar: 5 μm.) (E) Dual fluorescent images of the SM1 epitope (Green) and the exposed epitope Pan127 (Red) of purified Tfp ... The SM1 mAb recognizes the conserved epitope EYYLN in the pilin monomer. In the native Tfp fiber, the SM1 EYYLN epitope was ... Force-dependent polymorphism in type IV pili reveals hidden epitopes. Nicolas Biais, Dustin L. Higashi, Jasna Brujić, Magdalene ... Force-dependent polymorphism in type IV pili reveals hidden epitopes. Nicolas Biais, Dustin L. Higashi, Jasna Brujić, Magdalene ...
Identifying epitopes of HIV-1 that induce protective antibodies. - PubMed - NCBI
Epitopes of the cholera family of enterotoxins
... Rev Infect Dis. May-Jun 1987;9(3):544-61. doi: 10.1093/clinids/9.3.544. ... several distinct epitopes in GM1-binding domains were identified by different monoclonal antibodies. Polyclonal rabbit antisera ... a finding suggesting that the peptides generated antibodies to epitopes near, but not in, a GM1-binding domain. A hypothetical ...
Linear ``||´ ´ Conformational ``||´´ Epitope ` `||´´ Retrieval
already done , , It is likely not the case, but theoretically your epitope still can be , conformational - protein can refold ... Linear_``,,´ ´_Conformational_``,,´´_Epitope _ ` `,,´´_Retrieval. redeamer alion85 at hotmail.com Tue Feb 10 16:37:16 EST 2004 ... after linear epitope mapping is completed ... then i wont have any feeling at all just plain persuadive data:) , , , Peter , ... Previous message: ``,,´´_Linear_``,,´ ´_Conformational_``,,´´_Epitope_ ` `,,´´_Retrieval *Next message: Everywhere life is full ...
Prediction of T cell epitopes
Finding epitopes in real proteins. You shall use the neural network to find potential epitopes in the Sars virus. In the ... Q20: How many high binding epitopes do you find? Is this number reasonable (how large a fraction of random 9meric peptides are ... Also you have identified potential CTL epitope vaccine candidates for the SARS virus. All you need now is to find some venture ... Prediction of T cell epitopes. Overview. During this exercise you will use bioinformatics tools to predict peptide-MHC binding ...
Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins | PNAS
The selected epitopes and the corresponding complementary peptides that we grafted in the CDR3 of the single domain antibody ... Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a ... Here we show that designed antibodies can be obtained by the method that we present for essentially any disordered epitope. We ... These aspects also mean that the two peptides must be designed to bind to essentially the same epitope sequence (because the ...
Predicting MHC class I epitopes i... preview & related info | Mendeley
Development of Vaccines by Grafting Microbial Epitopes in Immunoglobulins | SpringerLink
Influenza Virus Cell Epitope 2PK3 Cell Internal Image Foreign Epitope These keywords were added by machine and not by the ... Townsend, A.R.M., Rothbard, J., Gotch, F.M., Bahadur, G., Wraith, D., and McMichael, A.J. (1986). The epitopes of influenza ... Zaghouani, H., Steinman, R., Nonacs, R., Shah, H., Gerhard, W. and Bona, C. (1993). Presentation of a viral T cell epitope ... Bona C.A. (1994) Development of Vaccines by Grafting Microbial Epitopes in Immunoglobulins. In: Kurstak E. (eds) Modern ...
Detecting Cryptic Epitopes Created by Nanoparticles | Science Signaling
EPO - T 0861/08 (Subtilisin changed epitopes/NOVOZYMES) of 20.8.2009
7. According to the patent-in-suit, epitope mapping is used to locate and characterize the various epitopes functionally ... T 0861/08 (Subtilisin changed epitopes/NOVOZYMES) of 20.8.2009. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2009:T086108.20090820 ... There is, however, no evidence for these continuous epitopes in the patent-in-suit nor any reason (should they be present) to ... According to Table VII, positions 170 and 195 have a high probability of being in the same epitope and they are both classified ...
CiteSeerX - BEST: Improved Prediction of B-Cell Epitopes from Antigen Sequences
Although accurate predictors for T-cell epitopes are already in place, the prediction of the B-cell epitopes requires further ... Our BEST (B-cell Epitope prediction using Support vector machine Tool) method predicts epitopes from antigen sequences, in ... We overview the available approaches for the prediction of B-cell epitopes and propose a novel and accurate sequence-based ... Empirical evaluation on benchmark datasets demonstrates that BEST outperforms several modern sequence-based B-cell epitope ...
Epitope Mimicry by Anti-Idiotype Sequences in Reverse Orientation | SpringerLink
JCI - Portable flanking sequences modulate CTL epitope processing
Shifting epitopes between viral proteins alters epitope density and immunodominance patterns in inbred mouse models (48, 51, 79 ... Effect of epitope flanking residues on the presentation of N-terminal cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes. Eur. J. Immunol. 29:2213 ... Peptides encompassing both epitopes (black bars), RK9 only (blue bars), KK9 only (green bars), or no epitope (white bars) were ... The endogenous processing of an immunodominant Gag epitope is more efficient than that of subdominant epitopes. (A) HLA-A3 HeLa ...
High Throughput T Epitope Mapping and Vaccine Development
"Identifying MHC class I epitopes by predicting the TAP transport efficiency of epitope precursors," Journal of Immunology, vol ... High Throughput T Epitope Mapping and Vaccine Development. Giuseppina Li Pira,1 Federico Ivaldi,2 Paolo Moretti,2 and Fabrizio ... S. Lata, M. Bhasin, and G. P. Raghava, "MHCBN 4.0: a database of MHC/TAP binding peptides and T-cell epitopes," BMC Research ... F. Kern, I. P. Surel, and I. P. Surel, "T-cell epitope mapping by flow cytometry," Nature Medicine, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 975-978 ...
Comparative Magnitude of Cross-Strain Conservation of HIV Variable Loop Neutralization Epitopes
The epitope targeted by the anti-V3 loop neutralizing mAb 3074 is present in 87% of circulating strains, distributed nearly ... The mAb 3074 thus targets an epitope that is nearly completely conserved among circulating HIV-1 strains, demonstrating the ... Since some variable loop regions are naturally immunogenic, designing immunogens to mimic their conserved epitopes may be a ... cross-strain neutralization epitopes within these loops has proven difficult. We recently developed a method to derive ...
Deciphering minimal antigenic epitopes associated with Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei lipopolysaccharide O...
Epitope mapping of disaccharides/mAb 4C7 interactions probed by STD-NMR. Chemical structures and epitope binding of ... Binding epitopes of mAb 4C7 with oligosaccharides by STD-NMR. In order to dissect, at a molecular level, the binding of mAb 4C7 ... The synthetic oligosaccharides were used to probe and characterize the minimal binding epitopes for a series of Bp and Bm LPS- ... Deciphering minimal antigenic epitopes associated with Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei lipopolysaccharide O- ...
IMMUNOCAT-A Data Management System for Epitope Mapping Studies
In the allergen epitope mapping study, two sets of ELISPOT experiments are performed to identify peptide epitopes. First, pools ... We have participated in two recently completed large-scale T cell epitope mapping projects, one to characterize epitopes ... For the allergen epitope mapping study, we needed to link the results of T cell reactivities stored in ELICAT with information ... IMMUNOCAT-A Data Management System for Epitope Mapping Studies. Jo L. Chung, Jian Sun, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, and ...
Imaging Glycan Epitopes with Glycosyltransferases
Epitopes - Proteopedia, life in 3D
Epitope Prediction Servers. Over a dozen servers that predict epitopes are available (Google Search for "epitope prediction ... T Lymphocyte Epitopes. It is unfortunate that epitope has caught on as the term to describe the peptide fragments that T cells ... Antibody epitopes may also be called determinants, which is an historically earlier but equally good term. The term epitope ... It offers an interactive 3D view of the epitopes, in Jmol, as well as a list of possible epitopes. No publication is cited. ...
Interaction Profiling of T-Cell Epitopes with MHC-Class I Molecul...: Ingenta Connect
JCI - Autologous lymphoma vaccines induce human T cell responses against multiple, unique epitopes
T cell epitopes are predominantly localized in the CDRs of tumor Ig VH. To elucidate the precise nature of antigenic epitopes ... However, it is unlikely that this failure is due to a lack of T cell epitopes in their Id, because epitope-prediction analysis ... The presence of multiple T cell epitopes in individual Id proteins, the likelihood of these epitopes to functionally associate ... As additional T cell epitopes in human Id proteins are characterized, such defined antigenic epitopes may serve as candidates ...
Advaxis Live Listeria Vaccine Induces Epitope Spreading - Drugs.com MedNews
"The finding of epitope spreading adds to the growing list of therapeutic mechanisms associated with live Lm therapy." ... Epitope spreading is a mechanism which can provide a continued therapeutic response when escape mutations arise in one or ... Yvonne Paterson, have shown that epitope spreading occurs in response to a form of the Companys proprietary technology that ... targets tumor blood vessels (anti angiogenic antigen). Epitope spreading occurs when the immune system is able to attack ...
AntibodyPeptidesProteinProteinsPredictionImmunogenic epitopesTumorImmunotherapyReagentsHumanVaccineProteinDifferent epitopesCharacterizationImmunologyLinear epitopePeptide epitopeHelper T-cell epitopCytotoxic T Cell EpitopIdentified T cell epitopesImmuneMoleculesImmunogenicBindEnzyme-LinkeVaccinesViral epitopesPredict epitopesClass I peptideNovel epitopesCryptic epitopesAntigen EpitopesAntibody epitopeIndependent epitopeRecognitionCellSpecificitiesDeterminantsDominantAmino acidImmunodominanceConformation
- Results: We identify specific amino acids constituting novel conformational monoclonal antibody epitopes. (elsevier.com)
- All DYKDDDDK (FLAG® epitope Tag) reagents are produced in house and quality controlled, including 1 DYKDDDDK (FLAG® epitope Tag) Antibody, 1 DYKDDDDK (FLAG® epitope Tag) Protein. (sinobiological.com)
- Background: Despite structural reorganization during disease, conformational prion protein epitopes remain undefined. (elsevier.com)
- Significance: Our studies address how denatured conformational epitopes remain functional, provide insights into normal and disease-related prion protein, and expand epitope tagging options. (elsevier.com)
- Telling, Glenn C. / Characterization of conformation-dependent prion protein epitopes . (elsevier.com)
- Alternative views of functional protein binding epitopes obtained by combinatorial shotgun scanning mutagenesis. (uchicago.edu)
- At least some ARFs have the potential to encode proteins of unknown function, and their antigenic properties can be considered as cryptic epitopes (CEs). (harvard.edu)
- In the last couple of years many peptide sequences/epitopes for the purification of recombinant proteins have been established. (acris-antibodies.com)
- The polyhistidine "tag" (His-tag) is the most used affinity epitope for the purification of recombinant proteins . (acris-antibodies.com)
- Key Parameters of Tumor Epitope Immunogenicity Revealed Through a Cons" by Daniel K Wells, Marit M van Buuren et al. (psjhealth.org)
- Many approaches to identify therapeutically relevant neoantigens couple tumor sequencing with bioinformatic algorithms and inferred rules of tumor epitope immunogenicity. (psjhealth.org)
- However, there are no reference data to compare these approaches, and the parameters governing tumor epitope immunogenicity remain unclear. (psjhealth.org)
- These findings were validated in an independent cohort of 310 epitopes prioritized from tumor sequencing data and assessed for T cell binding. (psjhealth.org)
- citation needed] Epitopes can be mapped using protein microarrays, and with the ELISPOT or ELISA techniques. (wikipedia.org)
- Following synthesis, the resulting epitope tag allows the antibody to find the protein or other gene product enabling lab techniques for localisation, purification, and further molecular characterization. (wikipedia.org)
- This, by altering the structure of the protein, can produce new epitopes that are called neoantigenic determinants as they give rise to new antigenic determinants. (wikipedia.org)
- Epitope binning Mimotope Odotope Polyclonal B cell response Protein tag Huang, J. (wikipedia.org)
- Epitope tagging is a recombinant DNA method by which a protein encoded by a cloned gene is made immunoreactive to a known antibody. (nih.gov)
- In some cases, however, these procedures may require significant amounts of time and resources, in particular if one is interested in targeting weakly immunogenic epitopes in protein molecules. (pnas.org)
- An epitope is the portion of the surface of an antigen that binds to an antibody , or the peptide fragment of a protein antigen that binds to the T lymphocyte antigen receptor when presented by the cognate major histocompatibility protein. (proteopedia.org)
- Antibody epitopes can be made up of discontinuous portions of a protein antigen's sequence, or of a continuous portion. (proteopedia.org)
- In contrast, T cell epitopes always represent a continuous fragment of the sequence of a protein antigen. (proteopedia.org)
- T cell epitopes are always peptide fragments, and hence, represent a denatured (unfolded) form of the native protein. (proteopedia.org)
- These sequences can then be used to predict where the epitope lies on the native protein, taking into account that the epitope on the native protein may be discontinuous. (proteopedia.org)
- ElliPro is a web-tool that implements a method for identifying continuous epitopes in the protein regions protruding from the protein's globular surface and, together with a residue clustering algorithm, the MODELLER program and the Jmol viewer, allows the prediction and visualization of antibody epitopes in a given protein sequence or structure. (proteopedia.org)
- We report here that T cell lines generated from lymphoma patients actively immunized with idiotype protein specifically recognized multiple, unique immunodominant epitopes in autologous tumor idiotype. (jci.org)
- Vaccination with Id protein has been shown to elicit both CD8 + and CD4 + T cell responses ( 14 - 18 ), suggesting the presence of antigenic epitopes in Id that can stably associate with MHC class I and class II molecules. (jci.org)
- Epitope-tagging technology provides you a powerful means to functionally analyze your protein of interest without the need for an antibody specific to each new protein under study. (agilent.com)
- The epitope tagging technique involves fusion of a protein of interest to a peptide epitope that is recognized by a readily available antibody. (agilent.com)
- The results suggest that the HA epitope recognized by MAb 8C1C is the major epitope responsible for eliciting HI antibody, and HPC5.5 is a practical candidate protein to develop a new vaccine against avian infectious coryza caused by Av. paragallinarum serovar C. (unboundmedicine.com)
- In spite of the immunogenic weakness previously attributed to epitope-based vaccines a synthetic vaccine containing a 17 amino acid-epitope of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type IV pilus exceeded the protective potential of its cognate protein composed of 115 amino acids. (frontiersin.org)
- An epitope can theoretically be constructed in two ways: as a continuous epitope made of a single, unbroken sequence of amino acids, or as a discontinuous epitope made of amino acids that are not sequential in the primary structure, but are brought into close contact upon folding of the protein. (chemgapedia.de)
- An invariant, "universal" T-cell epitope in the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein. (who.int)
- Exceptions are linear epitopes , which are determined by the amino acid sequence (the primary structure ) rather than by the 3D shape ( tertiary structure ) of a protein. (thefullwiki.org)
- When incorporated into the protein of interest, epitope tags make protein detection and identification very robust and easy. (biolegend.com)
- These epitope tag reagents are suitable for a wide variety of applications including Western Blot, Immunoprecipitation, Protein Purification, Flow Cytometry, and Immunofluorescence Microscopy. (biolegend.com)
- Epitope tagging is a common experimental technique by which a well characterized and specific sequence of amino acids called the "epitope" (recognized by a particular antibody) is combined with a protein of interest. (biolegend.com)
- These epitope tags allow detection and purification without disturbing the structure of the protein to which they are fused. (biolegend.com)
- The epitope tag is composed of 3 to 14 amino acids and does not disrupt normal protein functions. (biolegend.com)
- BioLegend's Posi-Tag Epitope Tag Protein can be utilized as a positive control in Western blotting experiments where many epitope tags are commonly used. (biolegend.com)
- We identified, by epitope mapping, the common and distinct epitopes of each protein detected by the sera of women patients with trichomonosis and by the sera of men highly seropositive to the immunogenic protein α-actinin (positive control sera). (dovepress.com)
- We analyzed the amino acid sequences to determine the extent of identity of the epitopes of each protein with other proteins in the databanks. (dovepress.com)
- These data indicate that it is possible to identify epitopes and that either singly, in combination, or as a composite protein represent targets for a point-of-care serodiagnostic test for T. vaginalis . (dovepress.com)
- The GAD autoantibodies of IDDM are specific for the GAD 65 isoform, do not bind denatured GAD protein, and target epitope(s) dependent on conformation of the protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Since the GAD 67 isoform is highly homologous to GAD 65 but is usually not a target of the GAD autoantibodies in IDDM sera, we created six GAD 65 /GAD 67 chimeric proteins to maintain the overall GAD protein conformation and used these chimeric proteins to map conformation-dependent epitopes of GAD 65 targeted by IDDM sera. (diabetesjournals.org)
- OptMAVEn-2.0 was used to design and rank variable antibody fragments targeting five epitopes of Zika envelope protein and three of hen egg white lysozyme. (mdpi.com)
- An epitope is typically a protein segment that is five to six amino acids long. (prosci-inc.com)
- Addgene: Inntags: small self-structured epitopes for innocuous protein tagging. (addgene.org)
- Here we describe a DNA plasmid encoding a polyepitope or "polytope" protein, which contained multiple contiguous minimal murine CTL epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
- Here, we show that vaccination with a DNA plasmid expressing an artificial polyepitope or "polytope" protein comprising a series of contiguous minimal CTL epitopes was capable of inducing multiple independent MHC-restricted CTL responses. (jimmunol.org)
- The polytope plasmid, pSTMPDV, encoded an artificial murine polytope protein (Fig. 1 ⇓ B ) comprising 10 contiguous CD8 CTL epitopes (Table I ⇓ ). This plasmid was constructed by removing the murine polytope gene from pBSMP ( 14 ) using Sal I and cloning it into Xho I-cut pDNAVacc. (jimmunol.org)
- The structures reveal virus conformational changes, the Fab-binding mode to the capsid, the residues comprising the epitope and indicate a potential interaction of U4 with the minor structural protein, L2. (bioportfolio.com)
- Epitope tagging eliminates the need to produce a new antibody for each different protein. (antibodies-online.com)
- The experimenter can choose the fitting tag epitope for the recombinant protein so that it can be manipulated in the desired experimental application such as Western blotting , IP, IHC , and affinity purification. (antibodies-online.com)
- The neutralization epitope comprised at least seven independent protein portions of gH that served as the target to inhibit cell-to-cell spread. (asm.org)
- The combinational neutralizing activity between two species of Fab protein A (Fab-pp) forms and the inhibition of cell-to-cell infection were characterized, and the neutralization domain of gH was found to comprise a cluster of the seven neutralization epitopes and to prevent cell-to-cell infection. (asm.org)
- Reactivity of some, but not all, synthetic hexapeptides with epitope activity with polyclonal antisera can be reduced by pretreatment of the serum with the native toxin protein indicating that certain continuous epitopes are exposed on the surface of the native protein. (springer.com)
- A major tetrapeptide epitope has been identified in a conserved region of the protein. (springer.com)
Helper T-cell epitop1
Cytotoxic T Cell Epitop1
Identified T cell epitopes1
- A neoantigenic determinant is an epitope on a neoantigen, which is a newly formed antigen that has not been previously recognized by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
- 13 ) have the potential to generate novel epitopes that might serve as targets for an immune response. (aacrjournals.org)
- The results indicate a general mechanism in which thiol-reactive haptens generate cryptic epitopes normally concealed from the immune system. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Since immune cross reactivity has been reported within the Dengue virus serogroup, we hypothesized that T cells specific for this A*0201 restricted WNV stretch of envelope would cross-recognize different flaviviruses due to epitope conservation. (jimmunol.org)
- Conformational Occlusion of Blockade Antibody Epitopes, a Novel Mechanism of GII.4 Human Norovirus Immune Evasion. (bioportfolio.com)
- The data describe a novel immune escape mechanism and better define suitable target epitopes for ATT. (rupress.org)
- T cell epitopes are presented on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell, where they are bound to MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Further, some H-2L d specific alto CTL clones lost reactivity to the mutant molecules, demonstrating the presence of CTL epitopes in this region of the H-2L d antigen. (springer.com)
- If an antibody binds to an antigen's epitope, the paratope could become the epitope for another antibody that will then bind to it. (wikipedia.org)
- However, epitopes containing 20 or less amino acids of Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani bind to multiple HLA-DR and MHC receptors. (frontiersin.org)
- The Antigen Binding Site of the variable region of the antibody will be unique in order to specifically bind to an epitope derived from the antigen. (prosci-inc.com)
- The aim of this project is to select peptide epitopes that mimic neutralization sensitive domains of HIV-1 envelope and may function as candidate HIV-1 vaccines. (europa.eu)
- Another constraint to the use of epitope vaccines was their restriction to some MHC or HLA phenotypes. (frontiersin.org)
- Thus synthetic epitope vaccines may better meet the requirements of the regulatory agencies since they have lower costs and are easier to produce. (frontiersin.org)
- Development of CD8 αβ CTL epitope-based vaccines requires an effective strategy capable of co-delivering large numbers of CTL epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
- The ability to deliver large numbers of CTL epitopes using relatively small polytope constructs and DNA vaccination technology should find application in the design of human epitope-based CTL vaccines, in particular in vaccines against EBV, HIV, and certain cancers. (jimmunol.org)
- A polytope DNA vaccination approach, perhaps combined with an immunomodulatory cytokine, thus offers an ideal strategy for the design of epitope-based CTL vaccines. (jimmunol.org)
- Identifying the conformational epitopes on the virus capsid supports the development of improved recombinant vaccines to maximize long-term protection against multiple types of HPV. (bioportfolio.com)
- Combinatorial peptide-based epitope mapping from Ebola virus DNA vaccines and infections reveals residue-level determinants of antibody binding. (bioportfolio.com)
- However, limited information has been available on CD8+ T cell epitopes or the functionality of antigen specific T cells during infection or following immunization with experimental vaccines. (mdpi.com)
- There are several servers that attempt to predict epitopes . (proteopedia.org)
Class I peptide1
- However, as far as we are aware, no systematic work has yet been conducted using the 3D structure of a virus to identify novel epitopes. (psu.edu)
- However, self epitopes which appear in very low concentration on APC are termed cryptic in the sense that they do not delete autoreactive T-cells which will then join the peripheral adult T cell repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
- B cell epitopes of gliadin. (nih.gov)
- Examples include imaging of of O-GlcNAc, O-GalNAc (Tn antigen), T antigen, sialyllactosamine (sLN), hyaluronan (HA), and heparan sulfate epitopes in different cell lines. (rndsystems.com)
- Rubinstein ND, Mayrose I, Pupko T. A machine-learning approach for predicting B-cell epitopes. (proteopedia.org)
- Interaction Profiling of T-Cell Epitopes with MHC-Class I Molecul. (ingentaconnect.com)
- While Ab's specific for tumor idiotype have been well described in patients with B cell malignancies, the precise antigenic epitopes in human idiotype recognized by autologous T cells remain largely unknown. (jci.org)
- Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen. (citizendium.org)
- Tissue, cells or virus corresponding to Zebrafish Gut Secretory Cell Epitopes. (abcam.com)
- IHC image of Zebrafish Gut Secretory Cell Epitopes staining in a section of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded Zebra fish Larvae (5 days) performed on a Leica BOND™ system using the standard protocol F. The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6, epitope retrieval solution 1) for 20mins. (abcam.com)
- Human MHC class I epitopes derived from PAP have been identified previously, and peptide-specific CTLs have been shown to be able to lyse an MHC-restricted prostate cancer cell line. (aacrjournals.org)
- In humans, few β-cell epitopes have been reported, thereby limiting the study of β-cell-specific CTLs in type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These data suggest that many β-cell epitopes are recognized by CTLs in recent-onset type 1 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The first two, GAD114-123 ( 8 ) and insulin B chain 22-30 ( 9 ), were chosen for study based on homology to known NOD CD4 + T-cell epitopes and then confirmed by culturing and expanding CD8 + T-cells in vitro from the peripheral blood of HLA-A*0201 and HLA-A*2402 type 1 diabetic patients, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The McMaster T-cell Epitope Centre (MTEC) uses new epitope-specific tools to determine the frequency and function of T cells reactive with the cat allergen, Fel d 1. (mcmaster.ca)
- Epitopes recognized by the B-Cell receptor are located on the surface of the Antigen . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
- It is important to note that a unique antibody is produced by a B cell lymphocyte which recognizes and binds to a single unique epitope. (prosci-inc.com)
- Nine previously uncharacterized CD8+ T cell epitopes were identified from HSV-2 infected BALB/c mice. (mdpi.com)
- Although a limited number of immunodominant peptide epitopes are consistently observed in diseases such as HIV-1 infection, the relationship between immunodominance and antigen processing in humans is largely unknown. (jci.org)
- Antigen discovery and specification of immunodominance hierarchies for MHCII-restricted epitopes. (harvard.edu)