One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
A condition with damage to the lining of the lower ESOPHAGUS resulting from chronic acid reflux (ESOPHAGITIS, REFLUX). Through the process of metaplasia, the squamous cells are replaced by a columnar epithelium with cells resembling those of the INTESTINE or the salmon-pink mucosa of the STOMACH. Barrett's columnar epithelium is a marker for severe reflux and precursor to ADENOCARCINOMA of the esophagus.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Diseases of the cornea.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A naturally occurring lipid pigment with histochemical characteristics similar to ceroid. It accumulates in various normal tissues and apparently increases in quantity with age.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A ubiquitous, cytoplasmic protein found in mature OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS of all VERTEBRATES. It is a modulator of the olfactory SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.
Cells forming a framework supporting the sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS in the organ of Corti. Lateral to the medial inner hair cells, there are inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, Hensens cells, Claudius cells, Boettchers cells, and others.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Enzymes that catalyze the rearrangement of geometry about double bonds. EC 5.2.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
Liquid components of living organisms.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)

Difference between mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin and primiparous mice. (1/13068)

Mammary epithelial cells from mature virgin mice are similar to those from primiparous mice in several respects. However, there is one known difference. The cells from the mature virgin must traverse the cell cycle in order to become competent to make casein and enzymatically active alpha-lactalbumin in vitro; those from the primiparous animal can make these proteins without first traversing the cycle. In this regard, cells from human placental lactogen- and prolactin-treated mature virgins are, after involution, similar to those from primiparous mice. The developemental block in the cells from the mature virgin, imposed by preventing cell cycle traversal, has been partially delineated. It does not appear to reside at the levels of ultrastructural maturation or the formation of casein messenger RNA. Rather, the lesion is postranscriptional and may be at the level of translation, or posttranslational modification, or both.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/13068)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (3/13068)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

An ultrastructural study of implantation in the golden hamster. II. Trophoblastic invasion and removal of the uterine epithelium. (4/13068)

Sixty six implantation sites from 18 golden hamsters were examined with light and electron microscopy between 4 and 5 1/2 days of pregnancy (post-ovulation). At 4 days some blastocysts began to invade the uterine epithelium, with trophoblastic processes penetrating and engulfing portions of the uterine epithelium. The majority of epithelial cells appeared normal before invasion, although at two implantation sites three or four adjoining epithelial cells were necrotic before penetration by the trophoblast. In general the epithelial cells were degenerating at the time the trophoblast invaded the epithelium. Inclusions, representing portions of the engulfed epithelium, and varying in size and electron density, were present throughout the invading trophoblast cells at 4 1/2 and 5 days of pregnancy. At 5 1/2 days the uterine epithelium had disappeared and the embryo was now almost completely surrounded by blood lacunae.  (+info)

The postnatal development of the alimentary canal in the opossum. I. Oesophagus. (5/13068)

The oesophageal epithelium of the newborn opossum generally is two to three cells in depth and in some regions appears pseudostratified. By the 9th postnatal day the epithelium shows two distinct strata. Ciliated cells and occasional goblet cells also are observed within the epithelium during this stage and in subsequent stages. Cilia persist in the oesophagus of the adult opossum, but are restricted to the depths of the transverse folds found in the distal part of the organ. The epithelium covering the transverse folds of the adult likewise has an immature appearance. By 4-5 cm (ca. 20 days), the epithelium has assumed a more mature appearance and is of greater depth. This and later stages show three basic strata: a germinal layer, a spinous layer and, adjacent to the lumen, a flattened layer of cells that retain their nuclei. The epithelium throughout the postnatal period and in the adult does not undergo complete keratinization. The oesophageal glands begin as outgrowths from the epithelium just prior to 4-5 cm (ca. 20 days). The glands continue their development throughout the remainder of the postnatal period. The secretory units of the oesophageal glands of the the major portion of the secretory elements, and a light, rounded cell type which is less numerous and which occupies the terminal portions of the secretory units. Secretory material of the former appears complex, consisting of both neutral and acid glycoproteins. The secretory product of the light cell type is unknown at present. Both cell types are encompassed by myoepithelial cells. The relationship of the mitotic sequences to the observations made by microscopic examination of the developing oesophagus is discussed.  (+info)

Modulation of distal colonic epithelial barrier function by dietary fibre in normal rats. (6/13068)

BACKGROUND: Dietary fibre influences the turnover and differentiation of the colonic epithelium, but its effects on barrier function are unknown. AIMS: To determine whether altering the type and amount of fibre in the diet affects paracellular permeability of intestinal epithelium, and to identify the mechanisms of action. METHODS: Rats were fed isoenergetic low fibre diets with or without supplements of wheat bran (10%) or methylcellulose (10%), for four weeks. Paracellular permeability was determined by measurement of conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux across tissue mounted in Ussing chambers. Faecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were assessed by gas chromatography, epithelial kinetics stathmokinetically, and mucosal brush border hydrolase activities spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Body weight was similar across the dietary groups. Conductance and 51Cr-EDTA flux were approximately 25% higher in animals fed no fibre, compared with those fed wheat bran or methylcellulose in the distal colon, but not in the caecum or jejunum. Histologically, there was no evidence of epithelial injury or erosion associated with any diet. The fibres exerted different spectra of effects on luminal SCFA concentrations and pH, and on mucosal indexes, but both bulked the faeces, were trophic to the epithelium, and stimulated expression of a marker of epithelial differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Both a fermentable and a non-fermentable fibre reduce paracellular permeability specifically in the distal colon, possibly by promoting epithelial cell differentiation. The mechanisms by which the two fibres exert their effects are likely to be different.  (+info)

Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog. (7/13068)

Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes.  (+info)

Characterization of beta cells developed in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic epithelium. (8/13068)

The present study evaluates the development and functional properties of beta cells differentiated in vitro. The authors have previously demonstrated that when E12.5 rat pancreatic rudiments are cultured in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme, the majority of the epithelial cells differentiate into endocrine beta cells. Thus, depletion of the mesenchyme provokes the expansion of endocrine tissue at the expense of exocrine tissue. The potential use of this procedure for the production of beta cells led the authors to characterize the beta cells differentiated in this model and to compare their properties with those of the endocrine cells of the embryonic and adult pancreas. This study shows that the beta cells that differentiate in vitro in the absence of mesenchyme express the homeodomain protein Nkx6.1, a transcription factor that is characteristic of adult mature beta cells. Further, electron microscopy analysis shows that these beta cells are highly granulated, and the ultrastructural analysis of the granules shows that they are characteristic of mature beta cells. The maturity of these granules was confirmed by a double-immunofluorescence study that demonstrated that Rab3A and SNAP-25, two proteins associated with the secretory pathway of insulin, are strongly expressed. Finally, the maturity of the differentiated beta cells in this model was confirmed when the cells responded to stimulation with 16 mM glucose by a 5-fold increase in insulin release. The authors conclude that the beta cells differentiated in vitro from rat embryonic pancreatic rudiments devoid of mesenchyme are mature beta cells.  (+info)

- be able to identify simple columnar epithelium by understanding its morphology - know where simple columnar epithelium is located - know that this tissue has microvilli on its apical surface to increase its absorption ability - know what a goblet cell is and what it produces and secretes Here is an overview of simple columnar epithelia
Surface view of ciliated epithelium lining a section of a bronchus. The ciliated epithelium is broken up by several goblet cells and short microvilli. - Stock Image C005/8085
Bekijk Stockfoto van Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Lining The Bronchus Of The Human Lung He Stain Lm X160. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anion selectivity of the chloride-transport process in dog tracheal epithelium.. AU - Widdicombe, J. H.. AU - Welsh, M. J.. PY - 1980/9. Y1 - 1980/9. N2 - We have measured the fluxes of 82Br or 131I across short-circuited dog tracheal epithelium following complete replacement of chloride in the bathing medium by either bromide or iodide. In addition, we have partly replaced the bathing chloride with bromide, iodide, or thiocyanate and studied the effects of these anions on 36Cl fluxes. Our results show that the affinity sequence for the chloride transport process is I , Br congruent to Cl, that Br is transported, but that I is not. Thiocyanate is a potent inhibitor of chloride transport, and its effects are greater than those predicted by a simple competitive interaction with chloride for transport sites.. AB - We have measured the fluxes of 82Br or 131I across short-circuited dog tracheal epithelium following complete replacement of chloride in the bathing medium by either ...
Epithelium is usually classified according to two features: the number of cell layers and the shape of the cells of the more superficial layer. Simple epithelium is a single cell layer where all the cells are in contact with the underlying basal lamina and have an apical free surface. The shape of the cells can be flat (wider than high), cuboidal (as wide as high), or columnar (higher than wide). That is why simple epithelium may be named as simple squamous, simple cuboidal, and simple columnar, respectively. Pseudostratified epithelium contains cells contacting with the basal lamina, but not all of them show a free apical surface. Then, not all of the cells show the same height and the epithelium looks like it was stratified, but it is not. Stratified epithelium contains two or more layers of cells. Only cells of the deeper layer are in contact with the basal lamina and only cells of the upper layer show free surfaces. Stratified epithelium can be classified as squamous, cuboidal and columnar, ...
Mucosal epithelia are the first tissue sites of contact of HIV with the human body during the course of infection, and these play a critical role in determining its success in establishing systemic infection. We have shown that experimental disruption of tight junctions of mucosal epithelium may facilitate HIV transmission across mucosal epithelia by paracellular penetration, which requires no viral replication and, therefore, antiretroviral therapy would not be expected to block such transmission. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent of the mucosal epithelium. We have also shown that the tight junctions in HPV-infected epithelial anal lesions are disrupted, suggesting that HPV dissemination within the mucosal epithelium may increase the risk of HIV transmission. It is well documented that oncogenic type HPV-infected anogenital epithelial lesions contain elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFN-_) and tumor necrosis ...
Under the conditions of this study, inhalation exposure to MEKO at concentrations of 10, 30 or 100 ppm for 6 hours/day, 5 day/week for 13 weeks produced minimal to moderately severe olfactory epithelium degeneration in male CD-1 mice. The incidence and severity of the degeneration was concentration dependent and not progressive over time with continued exposure. The lesions were localized to the olfactory epithelium lining the dorsal meatus in the anterior portion of the nasal cavity. Large areas of olfactory epithelium laterally and posteriorly appeared unaffected. No effects to olfactory epiithelium were found at 30 ppm MEKO in > 50% of the animals, indicating that only the most sensitive animals responded at this relatively high level of exposure. The degeneration of the olfactory epithelium following exposure to MEKO is not widespread but limited primarily to cells in the dorsal anterior portion of the nasal cavity. This represents approximately 10% of the olfactory epithelium lining the ...
Guarda Foto stock di Human Stomach Section Showing Antrum Of Crypts Lined By Simple Columnar Epithelium He Stain Lm X100. Cerca foto premium ad alta risoluzione su Getty Images.
Epithelium Pink transparent png is about Epithelium, Simple Columnar Epithelium, Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium, Cell Biology, Tissue, Desmosome, Stratified Squamous Epithelium, Simple Cuboidal Epithelium, Cell Junction, Gap Junction, Endothelium, Biology, Medical Imaging
These produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for active transport. The combination of the plasma membrane enfolding and the concentration of mitochondria result in a striated appearance in some of the epithelial cells. CHAPTER 3 ■ 29 Epithelium and Glands Squamous epithelium Cuboidal epithelium Columnar epithelium Pseudostratified columnar epithelium A D. Cui Figure 3-1A. Overview of types of simple epithelia (one layer of epithelial cells). Squamous epithelium (keratinized) Squamous epithelium (nonkeratinized) Cuboidal epithelium Columnar epithelium Transitional epithelium (relaxed) B Figure 3-1B. Although there are many possible causes of plaques, the more common are endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, inflammatory and immunologic factors, and hypertension. As shown in this image, deposits of cholesterol and fatty material accumulate in the inner layers of the vessel resulting in damage to the vessel wall, including disruption of the endothelium. These deposits, when hardened, may occlude ...
Looking for cuboidal epithelium? Find out information about cuboidal epithelium. A single-layered epithelium made up of cubelike cells Explanation of cuboidal epithelium
The key difference between simple and compound epithelium is that simple epithelium has a single layer of cells while compound epithelium has more than one
Mucosal basal cell proliferation and would have differentiated into mucus-secreting goblet cells. Looks like metaplastik activity occurs due to change of columnar epithelium lining the epithelium skuamus, which is accompanied by cellular atipia and increased mitotic activity that develop into mucosal dysplasia. Span of time this process has not been established, only approximately estimated between 10 to 20 years ...
Primary cancer of the kidney is derived from three principal sources: (1) tubular epithelium, which gives rise to adenocarcinoma; (2) epithelium lining the pelv
It has been a long held assumption that older bulls develop deeper folds or crypts in the epithelium covering the penis and prepuce than are found in their younger counterparts. These deeper crypts reportedly facilitate the carrier state of bovine venereal disease by providing a protected environment suitable for long term maintenance of infection. No published reports have been found to support this assumption. This study was conducted to characterize the surface architectural anatomy of the epithelium and epithelial crypts in younger and older bulls. This survey included Angus bulls sampled between December 2008 and March 2009. Bulls were placed into two groups of six according to age. Group 1 consisted of bulls 2 years of age, and group 2 consisted of bulls ≥ 5 years of age. Penile epithelium was collected from three anatomical locations (Proximal, Middle, and Distal) and tissue samples were prepared for examination by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Three parameters were ...
Biology Assignment Help, Epithelial tissue, EPITHELIA L TISSUE OR EPITHELIA Epithelium term coined by Ruysh, it was applied originally to thin skin covering the nipple. (G.epi = upon, thele = nipple) Epithelial tissues evolved first and are also formed first in the embryo. Epid
The model shows the epithelium of the colon. This model is made as part of my final project for the MSc Medical Art and is part of an online resource about epithelium:
1ETN: Molecular structure of the toxin domain of heat-stable enterotoxin produced by a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. A putative binding site for a binding protein on rat intestinal epithelial cell membranes.
The basal layer of this tissue is cuboidal, and becomes increasingly flattened as it reaches the surface. Stratified squamous epithelia can be keratinized or nonkeratinized, depending on the location it is found in. Keratinized epithelium, also called cornified is composed of numerous layers of dead squamous cells.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Cellular changes in the glandular epithelium of patients using IUCD--a source of cytologic error. by Matteo Fornari
Epithelium: Epithelium, in anatomy, layer of cells closely bound to one another to form continuous sheets covering surfaces that may come into contact with foreign substances. Epithelium occurs in both plants and animals. In animals, outgrowths or ingrowths from these surfaces form structures consisting
Proposed model for the regulation of LM-332 expression by TGF-β1 and the epithelial barrier. Confluent (polarized) epithelial cells form an intact epithelium w
Study Flashcards On A&P Epithelium at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Ep i*the li*um, n.; pl. E. {Epitheliums}, L. {Epithelia}. [NL., fr. Gr. epi upon + ? nipple.] (Anat.) The superficial layer of cells lining the alimentary canal and all its appendages, all glands and their ducts, blood vessels and lymphatics,…
The integrity of the epithelial lining in intestines of cKO mice is maintained.(A) Tamoxifen-treated F/F;Cre (cKO, n = 11) and littermate F/F controls (Ctrl
Avec les Protections Epitact Anti-Ampoule Epithelium Tact 01, dites adieu aux ampoules sur les pieds, les mains et le dos provoqu es par les frottements r p t s
Sejurus selepas dilamar, rombongan lelaki menyusul datang merisik. Sebelum ini, saya hanya dengar namanya melalui teman selama dua tahun. Disebabkan itulah, saya hanya mengundang ahli keluarga dan kenalan rapat saja.. Tags: saleha, squamous, bertunang, euro, siti, simple, epithelium, bitcoin. ...
Allergenic Extract, Epithelium official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
Everything you always wanted to know about simple epithelial tissue, but were affraid to ask - what types of simple epithelial tissue can we single out. Types of simple epithelial tissue: squamous tissue, cuboidal tissue, cylindrical tissue, pseudo-stratified tissue. What are the characteristic features of each type? Where can they be found?
Ep`i*theli*oid (?), a. [Epithelium + -oid.] Anatomy|Anat. Like epithelium; as, epithelioid cells.   © Webster 19...
In this article, we provide an overview of the experimental workflow by the Lung and Particle Research Group at Cardiff University, that led to the development of the two in vitro lung models - the normal human bronchial epithelium (NHBE) model and the lung-liver model, Metabo-Lung™. This work was jointly awarded the 2013 Lush Science Prize. The NHBE model is a three-dimensional, in vitro, human tissue-based model of the normal human bronchial epithelium, and Metabo-Lung involves the co-culture of the NHBE model with primary human hepatocytes, thus permitting the biotransformation of inhaled toxicants in an in vivo-like manner. Both models can be used as alternative test systems that could replace the use of animals in research and development for safety and toxicity testing in a variety of industries (e.g. the pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetics, and food industries). Metabo-Lung itself is a unique tool for the in vitro detection of toxins produced by reactive metabolites. This 21st ...
Surface epithelial-stromal tumors are a class of ovarian neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. Neoplasms in this group are thought to be derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (modified peritoneum) or from ectopic endometrial or Fallopian tube (tubal) tissue. This group of tumors accounts for 90% to 95% of all cases of ovarian cancer.[1][2] The pathogenesis of surface epithelial-stromal tumor is characterized by the overgrowth of the ovarian surface epithelium. Common risk factors in the development of surface epithelial-stromal tumor, include: nulliparity, early menopause, gonadal dysgenesis, family history (e.g. BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations), smoking, previous history of breast, and endometrial or colon cancer (Lynch II). The prevalence of surface epithelial-stromal tumor is approximately 3 per 100,000 individuals worldwide. Surface epithelial-stromal tumor is more commonly observed among postmenopausal women. Early clinical features of surface epithelial-stromal tumor include pelvic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphogenetic clonal growth of kidney epithelial cell line MDCK. AU - McAteer, James A.. AU - Evan, Andrew P.. AU - Gardner, Kenneth D.. PY - 1987/3. Y1 - 1987/3. N2 - MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells were cultured either 1) dispersed within hydrated collagen gel (HCG) or 2) seeded atop a collagen substrate and then immediately overlaid with HCG. Individual cells exhibited clonal growth in three dimensions to form spherical cysts made up of a simple epithelium enclosing a fluid-filled lumen. The cells of MDCK cysts were polarized with the basolateral surface in contact with the collagen gel and the apical surface bordering the lumen. The ultrastructure of MDCK cysts showed similarities to distal nephron. The cells bore apical microvilli and solitary cilia and had occluding junctions and a simple basolateral surface. MDCK cysts increased in size (, 800 μm diameter) with continued culture. MDCK cysts grown between layers of HCG were stripped free of the overlying collagen to ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Detection of interleukin‐6 and interleukin‐1 production in human thyroid epithelial cells by non‐radioactive in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical methods. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The adult ovarian surface epithelium has already been proposed as a source of stem cells and germinal cells in the literature, it has been termed the germinal epithelium therefore. that neonatal and adult mouse ovaries have come cells which can become effectively proliferated and verified [1C3]. Pacchiarotti et al. [2] discovered in neonatal and adult mouse ovaries two unique populations of feminine germline come cells with different diameters: cells with diameters of 10C15?transgene. These results lead to the fundamental study of ovarian come cells, oogenesis, and a fresh understanding of the physiology of the mammalian ovary and demonstrated that ovarian surface area epithelium might become an essential resource of germinal come cells in adult mouse ovaries. In addition to the mouse model, many related research in human beings also display that adult human being ovarian surface area epithelium might become a resource of Galeterone control cells. Bukovsky et al. verified that oocyte-like cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell volume changes of epithelial and non-epithelial malignant cells during incubation. AU - Nozawa, Shiro. AU - Tsukazaki, Katsumi. AU - Kurihara, Soju. AU - Tada, Kazuyo. AU - Hayashi, Masayoshi. AU - Okumura, Hideo. PY - 1983/1. Y1 - 1983/1. N2 - Using 4 epithelial- and 3 non-epithelial malignant tumor cell lines established in our laboratory and a newly devised grading recorder, we monitored the cell volume and the daily changes in the constituent cell populations. We found that epithelial tumor cells tended to become remarkably smaller and uniform in culture. Non-epithelial tumor cells had a larger mean cell volume than epithelial tumor cells.. AB - Using 4 epithelial- and 3 non-epithelial malignant tumor cell lines established in our laboratory and a newly devised grading recorder, we monitored the cell volume and the daily changes in the constituent cell populations. We found that epithelial tumor cells tended to become remarkably smaller and uniform in culture. ...
The mammary gland epithelium comprises two major cell types: basal and luminal. Basal cells interact directly with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and express higher levels of the ECM receptors, integrins, than luminal cells. We show that deletion of beta1 integrin from basal cells abolishes the regenerative potential of the mammary epithelium and affects mammary gland development. The mutant epithelium was characterized by an abnormal ductal branching pattern and aberrant morphogenesis in pregnancy, although at the end of gestation, the secretory alveoli developed from beta1 integrin-positive progenitors. Lack of beta1 integrin altered the orientation of the basal-cell division axis and in mutant epithelium, in contrast to control tissue, the progeny of beta1 integrin-null basal cells, identified by a genetic marker, was found in the luminal compartment. These results reveal, for the first time, the essential role of the basal mammary epithelial cell-ECM interactions mediated by beta1 integrins in the
Epithelium (plural: epithelia) is one of the four main types of tissue in the body of animals. It is made up of one or more layers of cells. The outermost layer of the skin is a special type of epithelium. It has an important function: it forms a mechanical defence against infection: see innate immunity. Epithelia are found on the surface of organs and many other parts of the body. One main function of epithelia is moving fluids into or out of an organ or body part. It also protects organs and carries sense organs. There are many different types of epithelium that do different things in the body, including the excretory system. The epithelium covers blood vessels and hollow organs such as the stomach and kidneys. All glands are made from epithelial cells. In some areas, the epithelium secretes sweat, oil, or mucus. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport, and sensing. Epithelial layers have no blood vessels: they get oxygen and ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Permeability of different parts of the peritoneal mesothelium to solutes: An in vitro study. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
i) Squamous epithelium: The cells of this tissue are thin and flat forming a delicate lining. It is found in the alveoli and blood vessels. Tongue, oesophagus and lining of mouth also made up of squamous epithelium.. (ii) Cuboidal epithelium: The cells of this tissue are cube like in appearance. It is found in the lining of kidney tubules and ducts of salivary glands etc.. (iii) Columnar epithelium: The cells of this tissue are more tall and wide, placed side by side. Their nuclei are situated near the bases. They may have finger like . projections - the microvilli on their free surfaces. This tissue usually lives in the internal surface of stomach and intestine.. (iv) Ciliated epithelium: The cells of this tissue are modifications of columnar epithelial cells. They have many small hair like projections called cilia on their free ends. This type of epithelium is found in trachea and oviduct.. (v) Striated squamous epithelium: Cells of this tissue are similar to squamous epithelial cells but in ...
Culturing of respiratory viruses in well-differentiated pseudostratified human airway epithelium as a tool to detect unknown viruses ...
Metzger TC, Khan IS, Gardner JM, Mouchess ML, Johannes KP, Krawisz AK, Skrzypczynska KM, Anderson MS. Lineage tracing and cell ablation identify a post-Aire-expressing thymic epithelial cell population. Cell Rep. 2013 Oct 17;5(1):166-79.. ...
The mucosa is referred to as a mucous membrane, because mucus production is a characteristic feature of gut epithelium. The membrane consists of epithelium, which is in direct contact with ingested food, and the lamina propria, a layer of connective tissue analogous to the dermis. In addition, the mucosa has a thin, smooth muscle layer, called the muscularis mucosa (not to be confused with the muscularis layer, described below).. Epithelium-In the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, and anal canal, the epithelium is primarily a non-keratinised, stratified squamous epithelium. In the stomach and intestines, it is a simple columnar epithelium. Notice that the epithelium is in direct contact with the lumen, the space inside the gastrointestinal tract. Interspersed among its epithelial cells are goblet cells, which secrete mucus and fluid into the lumen, and enteroendocrine cells, which secrete hormones into the interstitial spaces between cells. Epithelial cells have a very brief lifespan, averaging from ...
Epi-On Crosslinking in Beverly Hills. Dr. Boxer Wachler offers crosslinking to patients in Los Angeles without the need for epithelium removal.
A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basal membrane. Only one layer is in contact with the basement membrane; the other layers adhere to one another to maintain structural integrity. Although this epithelium is referred to as squamous, many cells within the layers may not be flattened; this is due to the convention of naming epithelia according to the cell type at the surface. In the deeper layers, the cells may be columnar or cuboidal.[1] There are no intercellular spaces. This type of epithelium is well suited to areas in the body subject to constant abrasion, as the thickest layers can be sequentially sloughed off and replaced before the basement membrane is exposed. It forms the outermost layer of the skin and the inner lining of the mouth, esophagus and vagina.[2] ...
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Tobacco smoke exposure is the strongest aetiological factor associated with lung cancer. In this study, using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), we comprehensively examined the effect of active smoking by comparing the transcriptomes of clinical specimens obtained from current, former and never smokers, and identified genes showing both reversible and irreversible expression changes upon smoking cessation. Twenty-four SAGE profiles of the bronchial epithelium of eight current, twelve former and four never smokers were generated and analyzed. In total, 3,111,471 SAGE tags representing over 110 thousand potentially unique transcripts were generated, comprising the largest human SAGE study to date. We identified 1,733 constitutively expressed genes in current, former and never smoker transcriptomes. We have also identified both reversible and irreversible gene expression changes upon cessation of smoking; reversible changes were
The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Orthrias angorae (Steindachner, 1897) were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histological structure consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The esophageal mucosa consists of undifferentiated basal epithelial cells, mucous cells and surface epithelial cells. It was observed that the J-shaped stomach had a meshwork of folds in the cardiac region, and longitudinal folds in the fundic and pyloric regions. A single layer of columnar cells, PAS positive only in their apical portions, forms the epithelium. The convoluted tube-shape intestine is lined by simple columnar epithelial cells, which have microvilli at the apical surface. The wall of the esophagus and stomach are thicker than that of the intestine because of the thick muscle layer. There were numerous goblet cells in the intestine. There were numerous gastric glands ...
Our laboratory is interested in the wound response and repair of epithelium, neurons and extracellular matrix. 1. In the healthy cornea there are no blood vessels and thus the tissue provides an excellent model to study the communication between nerves and epithelium following injury. Primary neurons are co-cultured with epithelial cells to ask how signaling pathways communicate. These include but are not limited to glutamatergic and purinergic receptor-mediated calcium transients. 2. In addition to these signaling events we have found that when epithelial cells are injured nucleotides are released immediately and cause a distinct phosphorylation of EGF receptor residues that ultimately affect the ability of a cell to migrate. 3. To study controlling factors on extracellular matrix or stromal formation we have developed scaffold-free long-term cultures and these have recently enabled us to study the role of hypoxia, which occurs in a diurnal pattern in this tissue as one sleeps. Our experiments ...
Whiteley, H J. and Horton, D L., The effect of age on the mitotic activity of the ear epithelium in the cba mouse. (1963). Subject Strain Bibliography 1963. 1419 ...
Bronchial epithelium. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a cultured bronchial epithelial cell. The respiratory epithelium is composed of a mixed population of ciliated, nonciliated, and mucous-secreting cells from proximal to distal airways. In vitro models ( cell culture) using primary cells and cell lines are essential for understanding the function and pathophysiology of these cells in diseases such as asthma. Magnification: x 2000 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C022/6437
Epithelium (epi- + thele + -ium) is ane o the fower basic teepes o ainimal tishie, alang wi connective tishie, muscle tishie an nervish tishie. Epithelial tishies line the cavities an surfaces o bluid veshels an organs ootthrou the bouk. An ensaumple is the epidermis, the ootermost layer o the skin. Thare are three preencipal shapes o epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, an cuboidal. Thir can be arranged in a single layer o cells as semple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers o twa or mair cells deep as stratifeed (layered), aither squamous, columnar or cuboidal. Aw glands are made up o epithelial cells. Functions o epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, pertection, transcellular transport, an sensin. Epithelial layers conteen na bluid veshels, sae thay maun receive nourishment via diffusion o substances frae the unnerleein connective tissue, throu the basement membrane.[1][2] Cell junctions are weel-employed in epithelial ...
Recent computational and analytical studies have shown that cellular fabric-as embodied by average cell size, aspect ratio and orientation-is a key indicator of the stresses acting in an embryonic epithelium. Cellular fabric in real embryonic tissues could not previously be measured automatically because the cell boundaries tend to be poorly defined, significant lighting and cell pigmentation differences occur and tissues contain a variety of cell geometries. To overcome these difficulties, four algorithms were developed: least squares ellipse fitting (LSEF), area moments (AM), correlation and axes search (CAS) and Gabor filters (GF). The AM method was found to be the most reliable of these methods, giving typical cell size, aspect ratio and orientation errors of 18%, 0.10 and 7.4 degrees, respectively, when evaluated against manually segmented images. The power of the AM algorithm to provide new insights into the mechanics of morphogenesis is demonstrated through a brief investigation of ...
Epithelial & Connective Tissue Microscope Slides. Slides include Simple columnar epithelium, Transitional epithelium, Cuboidal epithelium, and Endothelium...
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The vaginal epithelium is a tissue lining the inside of the vagina. Though its not the same as skin, it has many similar features...
Synthetic response of stimulated respiratory epithelium: modulation by prednisolone and iKK2 inhibition.: The airway epithelium plays a central role in wound re
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Most primary lung cancers originate from the epithelium lining the airways. In dogs, most develop in the alveoli where oxygen is taken up into the body, but in people and in cats most originate in the main airways (bronchi).
1ETN: Molecular structure of the toxin domain of heat-stable enterotoxin produced by a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli. A putative binding site for a binding protein on rat intestinal epithelial cell membranes.
In that study MCM7 and cyclin E proteins were found to be elevated in the epithelium lining the K14E6 mouse cervix and vagina ...
Mucosal folds occupy most of the potential lumenal space, so that cilia on the epithelial surface can effectively move the egg toward the uterus. The simple columnar epithelium of the mucosa contains both secretory cells and ciliated cells. ...
The stratified squamous epithelium of the ectocervix is rich in glycogen at certain times of the month. This guarantees a good supply of sugar for the sperms. ...
สำนักงานวิทยทรัพยากร เป็นหอสมุดกลางของจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัยที่เพียบพร้อม สมบูรณ์ด้วยทรัพยากรสารสนเทศทุกประเภทที่มีมาตรฐาน สามารถให้บริการสนองความต้องการด้านการเรียน การสอน และการวิจัย
The following pages link to Template:Respiratory Epithelium EM01: Displayed 2 items. View (previous 50 , next 50) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500) ...
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Cuboidal epithelium consists of epithelial cells that are hexagonal or appear square-like in sectional view. These cells may be are arranged in single...
Cancer is reminiscent of the developing embryo. Both involve cell movement, tissue growth, and changes in cell identity. The difference lies in the embryos capacity for regulating these events to ensure proper organisation and function. The embryo can thus serve as a tool to understand mechanisms of tissue control that go awry in cancer.. Carcinomas are the most frequent form of cancer in the adult body. They derive from cellular sheets called epithelia, which make up the skin and line internal organs. In the developing embryo, epithelia remodel and expand in a controlled manner. I study the first dynamic epithelium that arises in mouse embryonic development. Specifically, I show in a genetic mutant that this epithelium can grow excessively and become disorganised. I use a combination of imaging and sequencing methods to probe the cellular basis for this defect, and will ultimately use genetics to reverse the dysregulation.. Compromised epithelial maintenance is a consistent beginning stage ...
Epithelial tissue serves the main purpose of providing protection for â ¦ Living tissue; Simple cuboidal epithelium-consists of a single layer of cells that are roughly square in shape when cut in cross-section. Epithelial. Furthermore, the permanent tissue has differentiated cells which are not capable of dividing. Types of Simple Epithelium Simple Squamous Epithilium This tissue consists of thin flat, tile like polygonal or hexagonal cells with a centrally located oval or spherical nucleus. Simple tissues: Simple tissues are composed of cells which are structurally and functionally similar. Nervous tissue: Internal communication â ¢ Brain, spinal cord, and nerves Muscle tissue: Contracts to cause movement â ¢ Muscles attached to bones (skeletal) â ¢ Muscles of heart (cardiac) â ¢ â ¦ Types of epithelial tissue : 1. Overview and Key Difference 2. Location . Parenchyma is the kind of simple permanent tissue found all through the plant body. The key difference between simple and ...
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Many ovarian cancers originate from ovarian surface area epithelium, where they develop from cysts intermixed with stroma. OVCAR3 rodents (= 0.004) and an increased success of treated SKOV3 rodents compared with handles (= 0.01). Equivalent growth development control was noticed using murine IFN shipped by murine MSC in Identity8-Ur ovarian carcinoma. As a potential system of growth eliminating, MSC created IFN activated caspase-dependent growth cell apoptosis. Our outcomes demonstrate that ovarian carcinoma engraft MSC to participate in myofibrovascular systems and that IFN created by MSC intratumorally modulates growth kinetics, ending in lengthened success. in a concentration-dependent way (Fig. 1). Individual OVCAR3 cells had been most delicate to individual IFN (inhibitory focus 50% [IC50] = 5 IU/ml; Fig. 1A): these cells had been around GSK2636771 supplier 20 situations even more delicate than SKOV3 cells (IC50 = 100 IU/ml, Fig. 1C) and around 200 situations even more delicate than HEY ...
These cells appear to be cuboidal when the organ or the tube is not stretched (in reality, squeezed like when your bladder fills up, the tissue actually compress hence, stretched). When these cells are stretched (compress) they look flat and irregular, squamous. ...
Covid-19: Intracellular observation of reconstituted human respiratory epithelium MucilAir ™ infected with SARS-CoV-2. © Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Inserm; Olivier Terrier, CNRS; Andrés Pizzorno, Signia Therapeutics; Elisabeth … Read more. ...
Slit-lamp photo of the right eye showing an area of 90% thinning peripherally, extending FROM the 6:00 to the 1:00 oclock position. Neovascular changes within the furrow are present with an intact epithelium and a leading edge of lipid deposition anteriorly. The left eye showed similar but much milder changes with a 10% thinning over a three clock hour area ...
Cytotoxic α/β+ and γ/δ+ T cells in murine intestinal epithelium | Joanne L. Viney; Peter J. Kilshaw; Thomas T. MacDonald | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Our objective is to understand the mechanisms by which cell-cell contact-mediated signaling in polarized epithelial cells regulates epithelial architecture and...
We propose to combine computational and experimental approaches to investigate the mechanisms of epithelial morphogenesis, defined as the set of processes that...
Epithelial tissue covers or lines body surfaces as well as serving to absorb, filtrate, protect, and secrete various substances. The tissue is classified by the number of cell layers it has (simple=1 cell layer, stratified = more than 1 cell layer) and the shape of the cells (squamous=flat, cuboidal...
an epithelial tissue with cells of many different shapes are called? transitional epithelium, found in the urinary tract......... In the urinary tra...
Skin consists of an outer layer of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that covers the exterior of the vertebrate body. ... The most basic types of metazoan tissues are epithelium and connective tissue, both of which are present in nearly all ... There are many different types of epithelium, modified to suit a particular function. In the respiratory tract there is a type ... "Glandular epithelium". Epithelial Cells. Davidson College. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2013 ...
Skin consists of an outer layer of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that covers the exterior of the vertebrate body. ... The most basic types of metazoan tissues are epithelium and connective tissue, both of which are present in nearly all ... There are many different types of epithelium, modified to suit a particular function. In the respiratory tract there is a type ... "Glandular epithelium". Epithelial Cells. Davidson College. Retrieved 25 June 2013.. *^ Ruppert, Edward E.; Fox, Richard, S.; ...
Epithelium. Papilloma/carcinoma. (8010-8139). *Small cell carcinoma. *Combined small cell carcinoma ...
The proximal 2/3rds is lined by transitional epithelium cells while distal 1/3rd is lined by stratified squamous epithelium ... Epithelium pre-prostatic urethra. This is the intramural part of the urethra and varies between 0.5 and 1.5 cm in length ... The epithelium of the urethra starts off as transitional cells as it exits the bladder. Further along the urethra there are ... In the male the pelvic part of the sinus forms the prostatic urethra and epithelium as well as the membranous urethra and bulbo ...
Epithelium. Papilloma/carcinoma. (8010-8139). *Small cell carcinoma. *Combined small cell carcinoma ...
Epithelium. Papilloma/carcinoma. (8010-8139). *Small cell carcinoma. *Combined small cell carcinoma ...
Epithelium. Composition by cell type[edit]. Main article: List of distinct cell types in the adult human body ...
Epithelium. Papilloma/carcinoma. (8010-8139). *Small cell carcinoma. *Combined small cell carcinoma ...
The cystic spaces have epithelium referred to as papillary infoldings that protrude into them. Additionally, the epithelium has ... High magnification micrograph of a Warthin tumor showing the characteristic bilayered epithelium. ...
A benign papillomatous tumor is derived from epithelium, with cauliflower-like projections that arise from the mucosal surface ...
Most of the epithelium (from the nose to the bronchi) is covered in ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, commonly ... The epithelium lining the respiratory tract is covered in small hairs called cilia. These beat rhythmically out from the lungs ... The respiratory tract is covered in epithelium, which varies down the tract. There are glands and mucus produced by goblet ... Note that image is incorrectly labeled "ciliated stratified epithelium" at upper right. ...
1. Epithelium. 2. Anterior elastic lamina. 3. substantia propria. 4. Posterior elastic lamina. 5. Endothelium of the anterior ... e. Transition to the sclera, with more distinct fibrillation, and surmounted by a thicker epithelium. f. Small blood vessels ...
Mucosa: intestinal epithelium. Simple columnar. Contains goblet cells, Paneth cells. Similar to duodenum. ? ...
Epithelium. All tissues bounding a free surface. Equidistant. Equally spaced, as the spiral lines on some snail shells. ...
The epithelium of the Thick segment is low simple cuboidal epithelium. The epithelium of the Thin segment is simple squamous. ... b. Epithelium. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1223 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918 ... and they can be distinguished from the thick ascending limb by the thickness of the epithelium. Like the ascending limb, the ...
Olfactory nerve fibers, which originate in the epithelium, pass through the cribriform plate, connecting the epithelium to the ... Such dysfunctions show no change over time and can sometimes reflect damage not only to the olfactory epithelium, but also to ... The peripheral olfactory system consists mainly of the nostrils, ethmoid bone, nasal cavity, and the olfactory epithelium ( ... Olfactory sensory neurons in the epithelium detect odor molecules dissolved in the mucus and transmit information about the ...
Boucaud-Camou, Eve (1980). "Junctional structures in digestive epithelia of a cephalopod". Tissue Cell. 12 (2): 395-404. doi: ... and cephalopod digestive epithelium.[44] Since the 1970s gap junctions have continued to be found in nearly all animal cells ... "Coexistence of gap and septate junctions in an invertebrate epithelium". J. Cell Biol. 50 (1): 92-101. doi:10.1083/jcb.50.1.92 ...
Glandular epithelia of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital tracts, both endocrine and exocrine cells, as well as ... Glandular epithelia of the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital tracts, both endocrine and exocrine cells, as well as ... The subsets of cytokeratins which an epithelial cell expresses depends mainly on the type of epithelium, the moment in the ... Furthermore, this applies also to the malignant counterparts of the epithelia, (carcinomas), as the cytokeratin profile is ...
... or stratified epithelium as stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, and stratified columnar epithelium ... Stratified epitheliumEdit. Stratified epithelium differs from simple epithelium in that it is multilayered. It is therefore ... The word epithelium (/ˌɛpɪˈθiːliəm/) uses the Greek roots ἐπί (epi), "on" or "upon", and θηλή (thēlē), "nipple". Epithelium is ... Epithelium Photomicrographs. 1Histology at KUMC epithel-epith02 Simple squamous epithelium of the glomerulus (kidney) 2 ...
Sensory epithelium and receptorsEdit. The VNO is a tubular crescent shape and split into two pairs, separated by the nasal ... The medial, concave area of the lumen is lined with a pseudo stratified epithelium that has three main cell types: receptor ... Odors are chemicals detected by the sensory cells in the nasal epithelium through the process of olfaction. Vomodors are ... Witt M, Hummel T (2006). "Vomeronasal versus olfactory epithelium: is there a cellular basis for human vomeronasal perception ...
Respiratory epitheliumEdit. Main article: Respiratory epithelium. All of the lower respiratory tract including the trachea, ... Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells are found throughout the respiratory epithelium including the alveolar epithelium,[19] though ... bronchi, and bronchioles is lined with respiratory epithelium. This is a ciliated epithelium interspersed with goblet cells ... Particles from the air being removed by the cilia on the respiratory epithelium lining the passageways,[37] in a process called ...
"Vaginal epithelium". Dartmouth College. Retrieved 2018-02-15. Hafez, E. S.; Kenemans, P. (2012-12-06). Atlas ... "Stratified Squamous Epithelium: Vaginal Lining and Rugae". Retrieved 15 February 2018. Snell, Richard S. (2004). ... These structures not only allow expansions and an increase in surface area of the vaginal epithelium, they provide the space ... rugae are structures of the vagina that are transverse ridges formed out of the supporting tissues and vaginal epithelium in ...
Outer enamel epithelium • Painless Parker • Pakistan Medical and Dental Council • Palatal expander • Palate • Palatine uvula • ... Junctional epithelium • Ken Cranston • Kolynos • Korff fibers • Laser diode • Laser scalpel • Lateral periodontal cyst • ... Sulcular epithelium • :Superior alveolar artery • Superior mouth • Supernumerary roots • Swedish Dental Association • Sydney ... Inner enamel epithelium • Interdental brush • Interdental papilla • Interdental plate • Internal resorption • International ...
c. Columnar epithelium. d. Its striated border. e. Goblet cells. f. Leucocytes in epithelium. f'. Leucocytes below epbithelium ... Simple columnar epithelium labeled at right, third from top.) Transverse section of a villus, from the human intestine. X 350. ... Enterocytes, along with goblet cells, represent the principal cell types of the epithelium of the villi in the small intestine ... a. Basement membrane, here somewhat shrunken away from the epithelium. b. Lacteal. ...
The normal cornea (Fig 1) has from the front to the back the following layers: 1. Epithelium 2. Bowmans membrane 3. Stroma 4. ...
There are many different types of epithelium, modified to suit a particular function. In the respiratory tract there is a type ... The most basic types of metazoan tissues are epithelium and connective tissue, both of which are present in nearly all ... Skin consists of an outer layer of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that covers the exterior of the vertebrate body. ... ISBN 978-0-632-06429-8. Bernd, Karen (2010). "Glandular epithelium". Epithelial Cells. Davidson College. Archived from the ...
"The retinal pigment epithelium". Webvision. Retrieved 1 January 2018.. *^ Photobiology of the retina "Light-Induced Damage to ... Retinal pigment epithelium - single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells (with extrusions not shown in diagram). This layer is ... The term retinal detachment is used to describe a separation of the neurosensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium.[57 ... Squid eyes do not have an analog of the vertebrate retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Although their photoreceptors contain a ...
Composition of ductal epithelium two or more layers of cuboidal cells double layer of cuboidal cells [20] ...
A reversible epithelium". Nature. 318 (6044): 311. doi:10.1038/318311a0. PMID 4069209. Diamond, J. M.; Karasov, W. H.; Phan, D ... Diamond, J. M.; Tormey, J. M. (1966). "Role of long extracellular channels in fluid transport across epithelia". Nature. 210 ( ... Moreno, J. H.; Diamond, J. M. (1974). "Role of hydrogen bonding in organic cation discrimination by gallbladder epithelium". ... A mechanism for coupling of water and solute transport in epithelia". The Journal of General Physiology. 50 (8): 2061-2083. doi ...
Epithelium capsule Crypts Location Adenoid (also termed "pharyngeal tonsil"). Ciliated pseudostratified columnar (respiratory ... Ciliated pseudostratified columnar (respiratory epithelium). Roof of pharynx Palatine tonsils. Non-keratinized stratified ... epithelium). Incompletely encapsulated. No crypts, but small folds. Roof of pharynx Tubal tonsils. ...
Epithelium: Stratified Epithelia. Stratified epithelia contain two or more layers of cells. ... Transitional epithelium is found along almost all of the urinary tract.. Its appearance changes as the epithelium becomes ... Stratified squamous keratinising epithelium. This type of epithelium is protective against chemical and mechanical damage, and ... This type of epithelium is constantly renewing itself. Cells in the bottom layer divide, and the daughter cells move towards ...
Examples: simple squamous epithelium, glandular cuboidal epithelium, transitional epithelium, myoepithelium[CARO]. [ http:// ... epithelium. Go to external page Copy ...
Synonyms: epithelium pigmentosum (iris) iris epithelium pigmented epithelium of iris iris epithelial tissue epithelium ... An epithelium that is part of a iris [Automatically generated definition]. [ OBOL. :. automatic ] ... iris epithelium. Go to external page Copy ...
Germinal epithelium (male). Germinal epithelium of the testicle. 1 basal lamina, 2 spermatogonia, 3 spermatocyte 1st order, 4 ... The germinal epithelium is the innermost layer of the testicle. Germinal epithelium is also known as the wall of the ... The cells in the epithelium are connected via tight junctions. One may observe two types of cell in the germinal epithelium: ... Anatomy Atlases - Microscopic Anatomy, plate 02.21 - "Stratified Germinal Epithelium". *Swiss embryology (from UL, UB, and UF) ...
... epithelium refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make up the outer surface ... The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make up the ...
Epithelium occurs in both plants and animals. In animals, outgrowths or ingrowths from these surfaces form structures ... Epithelium, in anatomy, layer of cells closely bound to one another to form continuous sheets covering surfaces that may come ... and transitional epithelium. In stratified epithelium, which is found in the epithelium of the skin and of many mucous ... This epithelium lines parts of the respiratory passages, the vas deferens, and the epididymis. Transitional epithelium lines ...
The integrity and function of the epithelium are a critical requirement for effective... ... The respiratory epithelium forms a continuous layer of cells that separates air from liquid throughout the lung. ... Apical Membrane Basolateral Membrane Fetal Lung Alveolar Epithelium Tracheal Epithelium These keywords were added by machine ... Active transport of Na+ and Cl− across the canine tracheal epithelium in vitro. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 112:811-815.PubMedGoogle ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Tracheal Epithelium in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Tracheal Epithelium. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Tracheal Epithelium in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Tracheal Epithelium. Tracheal epithelium at the cellular level showing specialized cells and their internal structures.. Brush ...
Microbes on the human vaginal epithelium. Richard W. Hyman, Marilyn Fukushima, Lisa Diamond, Jochen Kumm, Linda C. Giudice, ... Microbes on the human vaginal epithelium. Richard W. Hyman, Marilyn Fukushima, Lisa Diamond, Jochen Kumm, Linda C. Giudice, ... Microbes on the human vaginal epithelium. Richard W. Hyman, Marilyn Fukushima, Lisa Diamond, Jochen Kumm, Linda C. Giudice, and ... As seen in Table 2, the most reads for any microbe on subject 10s vaginal epithelium were for Gardnerella, followed by Gemella ...
Mechanically patterning airway epithelium. Victor D. Varner, Jason P. Gleghorn, Erin Miller, Derek C. Radisky, Celeste M. ... Mechanically patterning airway epithelium. Victor D. Varner, Jason P. Gleghorn, Erin Miller, Derek C. Radisky, Celeste M. ... Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium. Victor D. Varner, Jason P. Gleghorn, Erin Miller, Derek C. Radisky, ... In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and ...
Epithelium definition, any animal tissue that covers a surface, or lines a cavity or the like, and that, in addition, performs ... Derived forms of epithelium. epithelial, adjective. Word Origin for epithelium. C18: New Latin, from epi- + Greek thēlē nipple ... epithelium. *. This is ultimately coated with epithelium, but neither the villi nor the glands of the mucous membrane are ever ... OTHER WORDS FROM epithelium. ep·i·the·li·al, adjectivein·ter·ep·i·the·li·al, adjectivenon·ep·i·the·li·al, adjectivesub·ep·i·the ...
Definition of junctional epithelium. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... junctional epithelium. Definition: a wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells attached to the tooth surface and to the gingival ...
Definition of germinal epithelium. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... germinal epithelium. Definition: a cuboidal layer of peritoneal epithelium covering the gonads, previously thought to be the ...
Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or ... This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of ... The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. ... In examining apoptosis in the airway epithelium, it should be noted that several methods examine epithelium both in situ and in ...
... the functional significance of TJ in salivary gland epithelium is poorly understood. Interactions between different ... data regarding the regulatory components of the TJ that could potentially affect cellular functions of the salivary epithelium. ... Tight Junctions in Salivary Epithelium. Olga J. Baker. 1. 1Department of Oral Biology, University at Buffalo, State University ... D. W. Powell, "Barrier function of epithelia," The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 241, no. 4, pp. G275-G288, 1981. View ...
Moore, L., Leongamornlert, D., Coorens, T.H.H. et al. The mutational landscape of normal human endometrial epithelium. Nature ... The mutational landscape of normal human endometrial epithelium. *Luiza Moore ORCID:,2, ... 8 Comparison between normal endometrial epithelium and endometrial cancer.. a, b, Normal endometrial glands show a lower total ... The uterine endometrium adopts multiple physiological states over a lifetime and is lined by a gland-forming epithelium1,2. ...
Video Tag: Epithelium. Newest Endoscopic Treatments for Bariatrics/GERD. Chair: Brian R. Davis, MD Faculty: Bipan Chand, MD; ... epithelium, esophageal cancer, esophageal injury, esophageal perforation, esophageal wall, esophagitis, esophagogastric ...
... epithelium consisting of one or more layers of elongated cells of cylindrical or prismatic shape. See more. ... Epithelium made up of cells that are taller than they are wide and that form a single layer. ... epithelium consisting of one or more layers of elongated cells of cylindrical or prismatic shape. ...
... the endothelia and epithelia of the blood-brain barrier allow little glucose to diffuse across their paracellular... ... Epithelium-capillary interactions in the eye: The retinal pigment epithelium and the choriocapillaris. Int Rev Cytol 1989;114: ... Tight Junction Retinal Pigment Epithelium Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Transepithelial Electrical Resistance Neural Retina ... The retinal pigment epithelium induces fenestration of endothelial cells in vivo. Curr Eye Res 1992;11:863-873.PubMedCrossRef ...
Good Luck Pedro Marco Antunes wrote: , , Hello! , Im interested in working in the Drosophila pupal epithelium. , However, most ... Drosophila] Drosophila pupal epithelium. Pedro Alex via (by ppinto from Mon Mar 5 07:10:59 EST ... Hi Marc, I am working a little bit with drosophila epithelium, specifically the abdomen. What I can say is that it is not very ... epithelium? The Thorax or the Abdomen? , Thank you for any help! , Marc , _______________________________________________ , ...
E073-IgE Rat Epithelia. 6224-0. 602690. E073-IgE Rat Epithelia. kU/L. 6224-0. ...
... Quantitative ImmunoCAP® Fluorescent Enzyme Immunoassay Send Out. kU/L. ...
Video Tag: Squamous Epithelium. SAGES Webinar : Preparing for the ABSITE-December 2016. ... squamous epithelium, stabbing pain, staples, stomach, stool, stricture, strictureplasty, submucosa, submucosal nodule, subtotal ... columnar epithelium, common bile duct, computed tomography, congenital hemolytic anemia, constipation, continence, COPD, ...
E084-IgE Hamster Epithelium. 6135-8. 602702. E084-IgE Hamster Epithelium. kU/L. 6135-8. ...
... or stratified epithelium as stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cuboidal epithelium, and stratified columnar epithelium ... Stratified epitheliumEdit. Stratified epithelium differs from simple epithelium in that it is multilayered. It is therefore ... The word epithelium (/ˌɛpɪˈθiːliəm/) uses the Greek roots ἐπί (epi), "on" or "upon", and θηλή (thēlē), "nipple". Epithelium is ... Epithelium Photomicrographs. 1Histology at KUMC epithel-epith02 Simple squamous epithelium of the glomerulus (kidney) 2 ...
The airway epithelium is considered an essential controller of inflammatory, immune and regenerative … ... The airway epithelium in asthma Nat Med. 2012 May 4;18(5):684-92. doi: 10.1038/nm.2737. ... The airway epithelium is considered an essential controller of inflammatory, immune and regenerative responses to allergens, ... Improved understanding of the epitheliums function in maintaining the integrity of the airways and its dysfunction in asthma ...
become detached from the epithelium [17][18][16]. Basal cellsEdit. The basal layer of the epithelium is the most mitotically ... These are the vaginal squamous epithelium of the lower vagina, the columnar epithelium of the endocervix, and the squamous ... The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of (squamous) cells.[1][2][3] ... The mucous found on the epithelium is secreted by the cervix and uterus.[7] The rugae of the epithelium create a involuted ...
columnar epithelium synonyms, columnar epithelium pronunciation, columnar epithelium translation, English dictionary definition ... n. Epithelium consisting of one or more cell layers, the most superficial of which is composed of elongated and somewhat ... Related to columnar epithelium: cuboidal epithelium, Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. columnar epithelium. n.. ... Anatomically, the SCJ is the border between the squamous epithelium and the mucin-producing columnar epithelium of the cervix. ...
transitional epithelium synonyms, transitional epithelium pronunciation, transitional epithelium translation, English ... dictionary definition of transitional epithelium. n. pl. ep·i·the·li·a or ep·i·the·li·ums Membranous tissue composed of one or ... epithelium. (redirected from transitional epithelium). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ep·i·the·li· ... epithelium. (ˌɛpɪˈθiːlɪəm) n, pl -liums or -lia (-lɪə) (Anatomy) an animal tissue consisting of one or more layers of closely ...
Cancer and Cell Fate in the Intestinal Epithelium. This is a part of Medicine in the Genomic Era ... Cancer and Cell Fate in the Intestinal Epithelium Disrupting the normal processes of differentiation and maturation of the ...
  • Columnar epithelium covers the intestinal tract from the end of the esophagus to the beginning of the rectum. (
  • Columnar epithelium has cells taller than they are wide (column-shaped). (
  • By layer, epithelium is classed as either simple epithelium, only one cell thick (unilayered) or stratified epithelium as stratified squamous epithelium , stratified cuboidal epithelium , and stratified columnar epithelium that are two or more cells thick (multi-layered), [5] [6] and both types of layering can be made up of any of the cell shapes. (
  • This kind of epithelium is therefore described as pseudostratified columnar epithelium . (
  • Anatomically, the SCJ is the border between the squamous epithelium and the mucin-producing columnar epithelium of the cervix. (
  • The lumen of the spermathecal reservoir was lined by a single layered columnar epithelium (Figure 2A, B) with the nucleus placed in the center of the cell with a predominance of decondensed chromatin (Figure 2B). (
  • Pleural histology showed occasional strips of columnar epithelium , with ciliated metaplasia on the surface of the pleura. (
  • Pathological examination revealed gastric adenomyoma, which was composed of cysts and glandular structures lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium surrounded by hypertrophic smooth muscle bundles. (
  • The cells in the inner mucosal layer were taller than broader with oval nuclei giving the appearance of simple columnar epithelium resting on the basement membrane. (
  • Pathological assessment revealed hyperkeratosis, epidermal acanthosis and a well-circumscribed neoplastic tumor composed of papillary projection lined by columnar epithelium with decapitating secretion that was diagnostic for Hidradenoma papilliferum (Figure 2). (
  • In the histological examination, the cyst was lined by flattened, cuboidal or ciliated columnar epithelium supported by underlying fibrous stroma (Figure 2b). (
  • The sinus tract for each patient was lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium with seromucinous glands. (
  • Barrett's esophagus (BE), a condition wherein metaplastic columnar epithelium replaces normal stratified squamous epithelium, is a consequence of chronic esophageal mucosal injury caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [1]. (
  • Simple columnar epithelium is made up of a single layer of cells that are longer than they are wide. (
  • This is used mainly in one type of classification (pseudostratified columnar epithelium). (
  • Columnar epithelium can be further classified into ciliated columnar epithelium and glandular columnar epithelium. (
  • Some tissues contain goblet cells and are referred to as simple glandular columnar epithelium. (
  • 4) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: These can be ciliated or non-ciliated. (
  • What is Stratified Columnar Epithelium? (
  • Stratified columnar epithelium is a type of epithelial tissue composed of two or more layers of columnar epithelial cells . (
  • A rare type of this tissue, stratified columnar epithelium, is only found in a few places in the body, including parts of the anus, conjunctiva in the eye, uterus , and pharynx. (
  • Stratified columnar epithelium may be found in the pharynx. (
  • Stratified columnar epithelium can be found in the urethra. (
  • In the bladder, stratified columnar epithelium can function as a stretchy material to allow distention. (
  • Other animals, like the horse or human, have simple columnar epithelium in the uterus instead. (
  • Stratified columnar epithelium is often confused with pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissue, as they can look very similar under a microscope. (
  • Adding to their layered appearance, pseudostratified columnar cells may have nuclei at the bottom or middle of the cells, unlike stratified columnar epithelium, whose nuclei usually rest near the bottom of the cell. (
  • The conjunctiva of the eye contains stratified columnar epithelium. (
  • It is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cilia, goblet cells, basal cells and seromucinous glands. (
  • The cilia present over the columnar epithelium serves to increase the absorptive surface area more. (
  • Columnar Epithelium is a form of epithelium that is of a general columnar or prismatic shape. (
  • Columnar epithelium is found chiefly upon the free surfaces of mucous membranes, but also occurs in some of the secreting glands. (
  • Simple columnar epithelium of a primate gallbladder. (
  • Slide, Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium, sec. (
  • Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium Microscope Slide contains a section through the trachea. (
  • columnar epithelium epithelium whose cells are of much greater height than width. (
  • originally thought to represent a transition between stratified squamous and columnar epithelium. (
  • The function of this type of epithelium is mostly protective - the higher the number of layers, the more protective it is. (
  • This type of epithelium is constantly renewing itself. (
  • This type of epithelium can either be keratinising (i.e. the skin) or non-keratinising (i.e. the oesophagus). (
  • This type of epithelium is protective against chemical and mechanical damage, and water loss, and is found in skin, and oral epithelia. (
  • This type of epithelium will provide more protection than a single layer, but it can't absorb. (
  • This type of epithelium covers surfaces exposed to friction. (
  • This is a specialized type of epithelium found lining organs that can stretch, such as the urothelium that lines the bladder and ureter of mammals. (
  • The outermost layer of the skin is a special type of epithelium. (
  • This type of epithelium is well suited to areas in the body subject to constant abrasion, as the layers can be sequentially sloughed off and replaced before the basement membrane is exposed. (
  • Note the rounded surface of the apical cells -- a distinguishing characteristic of this type of epithelium. (
  • Squamous epithelium has cells that are wider than their height (flat and scale-like). (
  • Mucous membranes lining the inside of the mouth, the oesophagus, and part of the rectum are lined by nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. (
  • A one-cell layer of simple squamous epithelium forms the alveoli of the respiratory membrane, and the endothelium of capillaries, and is a minimal barrier to diffusion. (
  • Squamous epithelium is one of several types of epithelia. (
  • In anatomy , squamous epithelium (from Latin squama , "scale") is an epithelium characterised by its most superficial layer consisting of flat, scale-like cells called squamous cell. (
  • Epithelium may possess only one layer of these cells, in which case it is referred to as simple squamous epithelium , or it may possess multiple layers, referred to then as stratified squamous epithelium . (
  • A simple squamous epithelium is characterized by the presence of squamous cells which are all in contact with the basement membrane . (
  • Stratified squamous epithelium is characteristic of the normal lining of the esophagus , as seen in this section. (
  • The epidermal layer of human skin is formed by stratified squamous epithelium. (
  • A stratified squamous epithelium consists of squamous (flattened) epithelial cells arranged in layers upon a basement membrane . (
  • Stratified squamous epithelium is further classified by the presence or absence of keratin at the apical surface. (
  • In this article, we review recent advances from studies of acetaldehyde-mediated carcinogenesis in the squamous epithelium, focusing especially on acetaldehyde-mediated DNA adducts. (
  • Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the Cornea . (
  • Amphibian Simple Squamous Epithelium, w.m. (
  • Squamous epithelium lines both the vagina and the vaginal part of the cervix. (
  • squamous epithelium that composed of flattened platelike cells. (
  • Outer protective surface of stratified squamous epithelium. (
  • Examples: endothelium, mesothelium, glandular squamous epithelium. (
  • In histological views, lingual epithelium is similar to epidermis, classified into stratified squamous epithelium [ 11 ]. (
  • Histological, each filiform papillae consist of essentially two parts: a stratified squamous epithelium, including a basal cell layer and a cornified, curved spine projecting from the surface. (
  • Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. (
  • The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. (
  • This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. (
  • The airway epithelium is the first barrier and first line of host defense in the airway. (
  • In this paper, I examine the occurrence and function of apoptosis both in the normal airway epithelium and in the epithelium in several airways diseases. (
  • In examining apoptosis in the airway epithelium, it should be noted that several methods examine epithelium both in situ and in culture. (
  • The airway epithelium is considered an essential controller of inflammatory, immune and regenerative responses to allergens, viruses and environmental pollutants that contribute to asthma pathogenesis. (
  • When analyzing the small airway epithelium, though, they did not find significant differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers, but they did find significant overall upregulation of cancerization genes in smokers with COPD. (
  • Analysis of these genes in the large and small airway epithelia obtained from the same individuals revealed that molecular cancerization occurs more frequently in the large airway epithelium than in the small airway epithelium. (
  • Shaykhiev and colleagues drew the following conclusions: Smoking is associated with acquisition of molecular cancerization features in the large airway epithelium prior to the development of disease, and the large airway epithelium is likely more susceptible to smoking-induced changes than the small airway epithelium, implying that it may be the primary site of molecular alterations leading to lung cancer in smokers. (
  • 3. Olfactory epithelium (20 - 50 cm2). (
  • In humans, this tissue -- called the olfactory epithelium -- is a single flat sheet lining the roof of the nasal cavity. (
  • In dogs, however, the olfactory epithelium forms a complex maze, folding and curling over a number of bony protrusions, called turbinates, that form in the nasal cavity. (
  • The olfactory epithelium contains specialized neurons that bind to odor molecules and send signals to the brain that are interpreted as smell. (
  • Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have uncovered new details in how the olfactory epithelium develops. (
  • The new knowledge could help scientists prove that turbinates and the resulting larger surface area of the olfactory epithelium are one definitive reason dogs smell so well. (
  • First author Lu M. Yang, a graduate student in Ornitz's lab, found that a newly discovered stem cell the researchers dubbed FEP cells control the size of the surface area of the olfactory epithelium. (
  • When the stem cells can't signal properly, turbinate growth and olfactory epithelium surface area experience an arrested development. (
  • Within the nasal cavity , the turbinates or nasal conchae serve to direct the inspired air toward the olfactory epithelium in the upper posterior region. (
  • The olfactory epithelium consists of 3 cell types: basal, supporting, and olfactory receptor cells. (
  • As previously mentioned, the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) sends fibers to the olfactory epithelium to detect caustic chemicals, such as ammonia. (
  • Transitional epithelium is found along almost all of the urinary tract. (
  • When the cells of an epithelial surface are several layers deep, various epithelial types can be distinguished: stratified, stratified ciliated, and transitional epithelium. (
  • Transitional epithelium has cells that can change from squamous to cuboidal, depending on the amount of tension on the epithelium. (
  • Although the lining of tailgut cysts can include different epithelium types, including columnar, transitional, or squamous tissues, glandular or transitional epithelium differentiate tailgut cysts from epidermoid and dermoid cysts. (
  • Histopathologic examination of the polyp under a microscope revealed edema covered by fibrovascular stromal tissue and a fibroepithelial structure composed of normal transitional epithelium with distinctive vascularization (Figure 2d). (
  • What is transitional epithelium? (
  • Transitional epithelium is multiple layers of cells that work together to line the urinary system. (
  • The function of transitional epithelium is to protect the urinary system from the toxins of urine. (
  • Transitional epithelium is a stratified epithelium in which the shape of the surface cells changes depending on the amount of stretch. (
  • When a transitional epithelium is not stretched, the cells of the surface layers are large and rounded. (
  • Transitional epithelia is a type of tissue consisting of multiple layers of epithelial cells which can contract and expand. (
  • Some functions of the transitional epithelium cells: accommodates fluctuation of volume of the liquid in an organ or tube (i.e. urinary bladder), and protection against the caustic effects of urine . (
  • The choroidal capillaries are fenestrated, and the barrier is formed by the overlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). (
  • Phagocytosis by retinal pigment epithelium explants in culture. (
  • Retinal pigment epithelium detach. (
  • We have exploited a method for isolating microvilli from the mouse eye using wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-agarose beads to begin to understand the specific molecular composition of apical microvilli of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and expand our knowledge of the potential function of this interface. (
  • More dynamic and less organized structures are present in the epithelial cells of the placenta and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), 1 which perform endocytosis and phagocytosis, respectively. (
  • Adenocarcinomas and adenomas typically arise from a part of the retina called the retinal pigment epithelium or RPE. (
  • Patients with adenomas of the retinal pigment epithelium typically have no symptoms. (
  • Should adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium be suspected, a biopsy should be considered. (
  • [19] The cells of the vaginal epithelium retain an usually high level of glycogen compared to other epithelial tissue in the body. (
  • Endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels , the heart , and lymphatic vessels ) is a specialized form of epithelium. (
  • It should also be noted that not all vaginas contain this form of epithelium. (
  • Reconstruction of Corneal Epithelium by Limbal Allograft Tra. (
  • Cuboidal epithelium has cells whose height and width are approximately the same (cube shaped). (
  • The RPE is a low-cuboidal epithelium containing very long sheet-like apical microvilli that project into a complex extracellular matrix, referred to as the interphotoreceptor matrix. (
  • cuboidal epithelium epithelium whose cells are of approximately the same height and width, and appear square in transverse section. (
  • Germinal epithelium of the testicle . (
  • The germinal epithelium is the innermost layer of the testicle . (
  • Germinal epithelium is also known as the wall of the seminiferous tubule within the testes. (
  • One may observe two types of cell in the germinal epithelium: The large Sertoli cells (which are not dividing) function as supportive cells to the developing sperm. (
  • Typically the spermatogenic cells will make four to eight layers in the germinal epithelium. (
  • In the past, this has been referred to as germinal epithelium but the term "germinal epithelium" is misleading, because the epithelium covering the surface of the ovary is a continuation of the peritoneum. (
  • Squamous, or flattened, epithelial cells, very thin and irregular in outline, occur as the covering epithelium of the alveoli of the lung and of the glomeruli and capsule of the kidney. (
  • The respiratory epithelium forms a continuous layer of cells that separates air from liquid throughout the lung. (
  • In the fetal lung, the epithelium actively secretes Cl− fluid secretion is a major requirement for normal pulmonary growth and development. (
  • In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. (
  • Airspaces of the lung are lined by an epithelium whose cellular composition changes along the proximal-to-distal axis to meet local functional needs for mucociliary clearance, hydration, host defense, and gas exchange. (
  • Here, we review the development of the pulmonary epithelium, its roles in normal lung function, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating epithelial maintenance. (
  • Lung, Bronchiole, Epithelium, Bronchiole - Necrosis in a female B6C3F1/N mouse from a subchronic study. (
  • Lung, Epithelium - Necrosis in a male Wistar Han rat from a chronic study. (
  • Lung, Epithelium, Alveolus - Necrosis in a female F344/N rat from a subchronic study. (
  • Lung, Epithelium - Necrosis should be diagnosed and graded whenever present. (
  • The goal of this study is to determine whether, like cigarette smoke, hookah tobacco smoke will induce lung cancer-associated alterations in normal human respiratory epithelia in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and whether hookah smoke will increase stem cell signaling and enhance the malignant phenotype of human lung cancer cells. (
  • In a recent work, researchers analyzed the airway epithelia of healthy nonsmokers, healthy smokers and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for expression of so-called "molecular cancerization" features (i.e., the genes upregulated in lung cancer compared with nonmalignant adjacent tissue). (
  • Shaykhiev and colleagues analyzed the large and small airway epithelia of healthy nonsmokers, healthy smokers and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is typically caused by long-term smoking, for expression of so-called "molecular cancerization" features (i.e., the genes upregulated in lung cancer compared with nonmalignant adjacent tissue). (
  • As such, simple squamous epithelia are seen lining body cavities and capillaries to reduce friction, as well as lining the alveoli of the lung to facilitate gas exchange . (
  • The epithelium is a particularly complicated and dynamic tissue, and dysregulation of epithelial structure and function is a hallmark of several lung diseases. (
  • Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue , along with connective tissue , muscle tissue and nervous tissue . (
  • Simple epithelium is a single layer of cells with every cell in direct contact with the basement membrane that separates it from the underlying connective tissue. (
  • The lamina propria of connective tissue is under the epithelium. (
  • In humans, epithelium is classified as a primary body tissue, the other ones being connective tissue , muscle tissue and nervous tissue . (
  • Shows: uterine glands, stroma (connective tissue) and epithelium. (
  • In biology and medicine, epithelium is a tissue composed of layers of cells that line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body. (
  • The breast epithelium is the cellular tissue lining the milk-producing ducts of the breast. (
  • A biopsy is a more radical procedure in which a substantial amount of tissue is cut out of breast epithelium when a mass has already been discovered. (
  • The more the breast tissue shows signs of slower growth and shrinkage with age, called involution, the lower the rate of cancer of the breast epithelium. (
  • It's hardly surprising that not doing so can lead to abnormal medical conditions, like cancer in the breast epithelium tissue. (
  • The vaginal epithelium is the tissue lining the inside of the vagina in humans and other animals. (
  • Epithelium is a kind of tissue found throughout the body, both internally and externally. (
  • Columnar tissue is typically tightly packed, resting on a basement membrane, or a layer of fibers that connects the epithelia to the underlying structure. (
  • Epithelium (plural: epithelia) is one of the four main types of tissue in the body of animals . (
  • They are arranged with their long axes parallel to each other, so that their free ends form the surface of the epithelium, while their deeper cuds either rest upon the tissues beneath the epithelium or upon other epithelial cells of different shape which form one or more layers between the columnar cells and the underlying tissue. (
  • We then consider a new model of homeostasis in lingual epithelium and papillae, in which tissue maintenance depends on multiple-stem cell population. (
  • The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. (
  • Cubical epithelium is found in many glands and ducts ( e.g., the kidney), the middle ear, and the brain. (
  • This is ultimately coated with epithelium , but neither the villi nor the glands of the mucous membrane are ever reproduced. (
  • Ciliated epithelium also occurs on the lining membranes of the nose and the adjoining bony cavities, the mucous membrane of the uterus and the Fallopian tubes, the vasa efferentia of the testis and a part of the epididymus, the ventricles of the brain (except the fifth), the Mitral canal of the spinal cord, and the ducts of some glands. (
  • Epithelia can also be organized into clusters of cells that function as exocrine and endocrine glands. (
  • [ citation needed ] [6] The mucous found on the epithelium is secreted by the cervix and uterus. (
  • Vaginal epithelium extends the length of the vagina, from its opening at the vulva to the cervix , where it is replaced by cervical and ovarian epithelium. (
  • Cervix epithelium. (
  • HPV infection of keratinized epithelium , such as the penile skin, might generate lower and weaker immune responses than infection of mucosal epithelium such as the cervix or anal canal. (
  • Epithelium may be protective, absorptive, or secretory. (
  • Absorptive epithelia such as kidney and intestine have their apical surface decorated with highly organized apical microvilli of uniform length and width. (
  • Goblet cells secrete the mucus layer that protects the epithelium from the lumenal contents. (
  • Epidermis , or skin, is one kind of epithelium. (
  • If a specimen looks stratified, but you can identify cilia, the specimen is pseudostratified ciliated epithelium since stratified epithelium cannot have cilia but may be very rarely found in fetal oesophagus. (
  • The possession of cilia, which are very motile organs, presents a marked departure in specialization from the usual metabolic functions of epithelium. (
  • But there are secreting varieties of epithelium possessing a ' cuticle ' which appears to be morphologically anal ogous to the cilia, but in which the fibrils are less highly developed, probably not motile, and, therefore, functionally not the equiva. (
  • ciliated epithelium epithelium bearing vibratile, hairlike processes (cilia) on its free surface. (
  • Using solely a gene-based procedure, PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene coupled with very deep sequencing of the amplified products, the microbes on 20 human vaginal epithelia of healthy women have been identified and quantitated. (
  • We have applied one of these gene-based methods (PCR amplification of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene and very deep sequencing of the PCR products) to the ecological niche of the normal healthy human vaginal epithelium. (
  • Under direct visualization using a speculum, a sterile cryoloop (Hampton Research, Aliso Viejo, CA) was passed across the vaginal epithelium in the posterior vaginal fornix and was immediately plunged into liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C until use. (
  • Total DNA was prepared by the use of a DNeasy kit, as described by the manufacturer (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). The total DNA from each vaginal epithelium was aliquoted and stored frozen at -80°C until use. (
  • The reverse primer was SDBact1492aA22 ( 4 , 6 ), 5′-TACGGYTACCTTGTTACGACTT-3′, Y = C +T. The primers were added to an aliquot of the total DNA from the vaginal epithelium from any given subject. (
  • The vaginal epithelium is the aglandular inner lining of the vagina consisting of multiple layers of ( squamous ) cells. (
  • [8] [11] Although hormone induced changes occur in the other tissues and organs of the female reproductive system, the vaginal epithelium is more sensitive and its structure is an indicator of estrogen levels. (
  • [13] The vaginal epithelium is divided into layers of cells, including the basal cells , the parabasal cells, the superficial squamous flat cells , and the intermediate cells. (
  • [6] The epithelial cells of the uterus possess some of the same characteristics of the vaginal epithelium. (
  • Vaginal epithelium forms transverse ridges or rugae that are most prominent in the lower third of the vagina. (
  • What Is Vaginal Epithelium? (
  • Vaginal epithelium is specially constructed to allow the unique functions of the vagina and the reproductive system to occur. (
  • Doctors specializing in the female reproductive system, called gynecologists, are required to familiarize themselves with the normal appearance of vaginal epithelium and its cells. (
  • A multitude of other diseases can also be indicated by irregularities in the vaginal epithelium. (
  • Women with artificial vaginas, resulting from sexual reassignment surgery, will not have vaginal epithelium. (
  • A post-op transwoman can definitely have normal vaginal epithelium, depending on the technique used. (
  • The intermediate layers lie upon the basal layer and the superficial layer is the outermost layer of the epithelium. (
  • The basal layer of the epithelium is the most mitotically active and reproduces new cells. (
  • A more classical view of epithelial responses to injury and inflammation emphasized the ability of the epithelium to respond to insults by secretion of water and mucous into the airways and mediator secretion (e.g., cytokines and chemokines) into the local environment and into the circulation. (
  • This membrane may be distressed and the ability of the epithelium to hold tight to the cornea can be compromised. (
  • Another unique characteristic of the RPE is the "reversed polarity" of proteins such as the Na,K-ATPase pump, EMMPRIN, and the adhesion molecule N-CAM at the apical surface, rather than at the basolateral surface where these proteins are found in other epithelia ( 6 - 9 ). (
  • The epithelium is the outermost layer of cells of the cornea. (
  • In stratified ciliated epithelium the superficial cells are ciliated and columnar. (
  • This investigation provides the first systematic determination of the cellular and molecular progression of vocal fold (VF) epithelium development in a murine model. (
  • Response of adult murine uterine epithelium to 50% methoxychlor. (
  • Development and systematic characterisation of an in vitro otopathogenic infection model of the murine middle ear epithelium as a tool to better understand the complex pathophysiology of Otitis media. (
  • Structure of Murine lingual epithelia and papillae, cell genesis model for filiform and fungiform papillae and Predictions of the cell genesis hypothesis compared with experimental results. (
  • Epithelia are found on the surface of organs and many other parts of the body. (
  • The epithelium covers blood vessels and hollow organs such as the stomach and kidneys. (
  • Your search - epithelium - did not match any records in OMICS International database. (
  • These forms of epithelium have their own structure and functions, distinct from that of the vagina. (
  • In vertebrate animals, the outer layer of the skin, called the epidermis, is composed of epithelium. (
  • Tracheal epithelium at the cellular level showing specialized cells and their internal structures. (
  • The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data regarding the regulatory components of the TJ that could potentially affect cellular functions of the salivary epithelium. (
  • This review discusses basic cellular mechanisms that regulate establishment of the conducting airway and gas exchange systems as well as the functional maintenance of the epithelium during postnatal life. (
  • In some cases, detachment of viable cells from the epithelial surface and nuclear condensation (pyknosis) and cellular shrinkage of scattered cells within the epithelium, suggestive of imminent death of individual cells, may be interpreted as epithelial degeneration because it may be consistent with reversible damage to an epithelial surface, and evidence of outright necrosis may be lacking. (
  • Epithelial barrier disruption is mainly manifested by an increased para-cellular permeability of the epithelium. (
  • As an example, we developed a model of intestinal tract epithelium that exhibits cellular polarization, tight junction formation, and expression of key receptors. (
  • Ciliated epithelium lines the trachea, bronchi of the lungs, parts of the nasal cavities, the uterus and oviduct of the female, and the vas deferens and epididymis of the male. (
  • The ciliated type is also called respiratory epithelium as it is almost exclusively confined to the larger respiratory airways of the nasal cavity, trachea and bronchi. (
  • 2. Respiratory epithelium (about 130 - 150 cm2) - covers the maximum surface area of the nasal cavity. (
  • The odorant-sensitive tips of the receptors protrude into the nasal cavity from the free surface of the epithelium. (
  • High frequency microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other modern devices has the potential to damage eye tissues, but its effect on the lens epithelium is unknown at present. (
  • Epithelium made up of cells that are taller than they are wide and that form a single layer. (
  • epithelium formed of a single layer of prismatic cells taller than they are wide. (
  • Epithelium , in anatomy, layer of cells closely bound to one another to form continuous sheets covering surfaces that may come into contact with foreign substances. (
  • This article is about epithelium in animal anatomy. (
  • Bioelectric effects of hyperosmolar solutions on epithelium of guinea-pig isolated trachea. (
  • Exposure of guinea-pig trachea (GPT) to mucosal or serosal hypertonic solution elicits relaxation of the airway smooth muscle which is thought to be due to release of epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF). (
  • In animals, outgrowths or ingrowths from these surfaces form structures consisting largely or entirely of cells derived from the surface epithelium. (
  • There is proliferation of the surface epithelium of the ovary. (
  • 1975. Active transport of Na + and Cl− across the canine tracheal epithelium in vitro . (
  • 1981. Ion contents and other properties of isolated cells from dog tracheal epithelium. (
  • Cigarette smoke inhibition of ion transport in canine tracheal epithelium. (
  • 1982. Chloride secretion by canine tracheal epithelium. (
  • 1980. Fluid transport across the canine tracheal epithelium. (
  • 1979. The effects of sodium substitution and ouabain on ion transport by dog tracheal epithelium. (
  • 1979. Localization of Na pumps in the tracheal epithelium of the dog. (
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Tracheal Epithelium in minutes with SmartDraw. (
  • The epithelium of the terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts (i.e., the centriacinar region) and alveoli are particularly susceptible to injury due to the large surface area and fragility of the alveolar type I cells, the metabolic activity of P450 enzymes in Clara cells, and the generally thinner mucous layer. (
  • The four major classes of simple epithelium are (1) simple squamous, (2) simple cuboidal, (3) simple columnar, and (4) pseudostratified. (
  • Advances in cell isolation, in vitro culture techniques, and genetic manipulation of animal models have increased our understanding of the development and maintenance of the pulmonary epithelium. (
  • Differentiation of an Induced Pluripotent Stem cell (iPS) clone derived from cutaneous biopsy in a population of heavy smokers (plus patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ) in order to obtain differentiated bronchial epithelia in vitro. (
  • For each of these same patients, generation of bronchial epithelium in vitro from bronchial biopsy using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures. (
  • Confrontation of the two models of in vitro generation of bronchial epithelium by iPS and ALI in order to validate our model of study of the human bronchial epithelium COPD generated by the iPS. (
  • Inducing a 'COPD-like' epithelial phenotype by exposing the bronchial epithelia generated from the iPS to a source of in vitro toxin (tobacco) and studying its effects by transcriptomic analysis via high-throughput sequencing (NGS) at key steps during the model. (
  • 1968. Electron microscopic observations of the bronchial epithelium of dogs. (
  • An epithelium that is part of a iris [Automatically generated definition]. (
  • The saccular macula is an elliptical thickened area of sensory epithelium that lies on the anterior vertical wall of the saccule. (
  • the sensory epithelium lies on the crista ampullaris. (
  • The vestibular sensory epithelium is located on the maculae of the saccule and utricle and the cristae of the semicircular canals. (
  • sense epithelium ( sensory epithelium ) neuroepithelium (def. (
  • pigmentary epithelium ( pigmented epithelium ) that made of cells containing granules of pigment. (
  • Overexpression of fetal human pigment epithelium-derived factor in Escherichia coli. (
  • Pigment epithelium-derived factor behaves like a noninhibitory serpin. (
  • The epithelium itself has multiple layers of cells including a lower membrane that holds on to the underlying layers of the cornea. (
  • In stratified epithelium, which is found in the epithelium of the skin and of many mucous membranes ( e.g., mouth, esophagus, rectum, conjunctiva, vagina), the surface cells are flattened, those of the middle layer are polyhedral, and those of the lowest layer are cubical or columnar. (
  • [3] However, when taller simple columnar epithelial cells are viewed in cross section showing several nuclei appearing at different heights, they can be confused with stratified epithelia. (
  • Epithelium ( epi- + thele + -ium ) is ane o the fower basic teepes o ainimal tishie , alang wi connective tishie , muscle tishie an nervish tishie . (
  • Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. (
  • Histological analyses in Hif2a-uKO mice revealed persistence of the intact luminal epithelium, which blocked direct contact between stroma and embryo, inactivation of PI3K-AKT pathway (embryonic survival signal), and failed embryo invasion. (
  • These findings provide new insight that stromal HIF2α allows trophoblast invasion through detachment of the luminal epithelium and activation of an embryonic survival signal. (
  • The cells in the epithelium are connected via tight junctions. (
  • Important for the barrier function of intestinal epithelium, its cells are joined securely together by four types of junctions (cell junctions), which can be identified at the ultrastructural level: Gap junctions Desmosomes Adherens junctions Tight junctions Gap junctions bring the adjacent cells within 2 nanometers of each other. (