Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Keratin-8: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Peripherins: Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Plectin: A cytoskeletal linker protein with a molecular weight of greater than 500 kDa. It binds INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS; MICROTUBULES; and ACTIN CYTOSKELETON and plays a central role in the organization and stability of the CYTOSKELETON. Plectin is phosphorylated by CALMODULIN KINASE; PROTEIN KINASE A; and PROTEIN KINASE C.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Lamins: Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Lamin Type B: A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Demecolcine: An alkaloid isolated from Colchicum autumnale L. and used as an antineoplastic.Nerve Tissue ProteinsLens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Lamin Type A: A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plakins: A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Epithelioid Cells: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Desmogleins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Keratin-17: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.gamma Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that is highly homologous to BETA CATENIN. Gamma catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It is also found in DESMOSOMES where it mediates the link between DESMOSOMAL CADHERINS and DESMOPLAKIN.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Alexander Disease: Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Keratin-1: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Plakophilins: Members of the armadillo family of proteins that are found in DESMOSOMES and interact with various proteins including desmocadherins; DESMOPLAKIN; ACTIN FILAMENTS; and KERATINS.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar: Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mice, Inbred C57BLNuclear Lamina: A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Withanolides: Ergostane derivatives of 28 carbons with oxygens at C1, C22, and C26 positions and the side chain cyclized. They are found in WITHANIA plant genus and have cytotoxic and other effects.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Desmocollins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that are divergent from those of classical CADHERINS. Their intracytoplasmic domains bind PLAKOGLOBIN; PLAKOPHILINS; and DESMOPLAKINS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.GizzardCell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Destrin: A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Eye ProteinsBreast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Caspase 6: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 7; CASPASE 8; and CASPASE 10. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
Tonofilaments are keratin intermediate filaments that makes up tonofibrils in the epithelial tissue. In epithelial cells, ... They consist of fine fibrils in epithelial cells that are anchored to the cytoskeleton. They were discovered by Rudolf ... This protein is known to interact with intermediate filaments, specifically keratins. It is synthesized as a giant Precursor ... When the filaggrin binds to keratin intermediate filaments, it causes aggregation in macrofibrils. "tonofibril" at Dorland's ...
"Caspase Cleavage of Keratin 18 and Reorganization of Intermediate Filaments during Epithelial Cell Apoptosis". J. Cell Biol. ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Rao L, Perez D, White E (1997). "Lamin proteolysis facilitates nuclear events during apoptosis". J. Cell Biol. 135 (6 Pt 1): ... Bullrich F, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Litwack G, Alnemri ES, Croce CM (1997). "Chromosomal mapping of cell death proteases CPP32, ...
These filaments, along with actin microfilaments and microtubules, compose the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Mutations in ... Keratin-10 is a member of the type I (acidic) cytokeratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF ... 1988). "The complete sequence of the human intermediate filament chain keratin 10. Subdomainal divisions and model for folding ... Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament. ...
Intermediate Filament Protein Expression in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 40 ... The process involved resembles fibrotic wound healing by the RPE cells. The RPE cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition ... by epithelial cells of the ciliary body and the lens epithelium and is also produced by the RPE cells and the Muller cells of ... The name is derived from proliferation (by the retinal pigment epithelial and glial cells) and vitreo retinopathy to include ...
... and intermediate filaments in the brush border of intestinal epithelial cells". J Cell Biol. 94 (2): 425-43. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... "Chapter 5: Epithelial Tissue." Histology: a Text and Atlas : with Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology. Philadelphia: Wolters ... The terminal web is a filamentous structure found at the apical surface of epithelial cells that possess microvilli. It is ... "Role of myosin in terminal web contraction in isolated intestinal epithelial brush borders". J Cell Biol. 100 (5): 1647-55. doi ...
... α6β4 is an exception: it links to the keratin intermediate filament system in epithelial cells. Focal adhesions are ... cell growth, cell division, cell survival, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Knowledge of the ... One important function of integrins on cells in tissue culture is their role in cell migration. Cells adhere to a substrate ... to mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interaction. Ligands for integrins include fibronectin, vitronectin, collagen and laminin ...
"GCP6 binds to intermediate filaments: a novel function of keratins in the organization of microtubules in epithelial cells". ... Cell. 12 (11): 3340-52. doi:10.1091/mbc.12.11.3340. PMC 60259 . PMID 11694571. Hirosawa M, Nagase T, Murahashi Y, Kikuno R, ... Cell. 18 (3): 781-94. doi:10.1091/mbc.E06-03-0201. PMC 1805110 . PMID 17182859. Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, ... Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC, Gygi SP (2004). "Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear ...
Keratin intermediate filaments make up the cytoskeletal scaffold within epithelial cells, which contributes to the cell ... of the intermediate filaments. K5/K14 intermediate filaments are anchored to the desmosomes of basal cells via desmoplakin and ... It dimerizes with keratin 14 and forms the intermediate filaments (IF) that make up the cytoskeleton of basal epithelial cells ... The expression of K5 is linked to the intermediate phenotype of cells undergoing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). ...
The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided ... tubulin-containing structures are anchored to the apical network of intermediate filaments in polarized CACO-2 epithelial cells ... keratin 18 to differentiate cells of epithelial origin from hematopoietic cells in tests that enumerate circulating tumor cells ... "Human intestinal M cells exhibit enterocyte-like intermediate filaments". Gut. 42 (1): 54-62. doi:10.1136/gut.42.1.54. PMC ...
Vimentin is a class-II intermediate filament that is found in various non-epithelial cells, especially mesenchymal cells. The ... IFFO1 is also called Intermediate Filament Family Orphan Isoform X1, Intermediate Filament Family Orphan, HOM-TES-103, ... "Conserved segments 1A and 2B of the intermediate filament dimer: their atomic structures and role in filament assembly". The ... Intermediate filament family orphan 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IFFO1 gene. IFFO1 has uncharacterized ...
Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided ... into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. This gene encodes a protein that is expressed in the inner root sheath of hair ...
... are the intermediate filament proteins that form a dense meshwork of filaments throughout the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. ... The keratin proteins of epithelial tissues are commonly known as "keratins" or are sometimes referred to as "epithelial ... "Intermediate filament proteins". Protein Profile. 2 (8): 795-952. PMID 8771189. Wilson NJ, Messenger AG, Leachman SA, O'Toole ... Trichocytes are the specialized epithelial cells from which hair and nail are composed. Trichocyte keratins are similar in ...
... are the intermediate filament proteins that form a dense meshwork of filaments throughout the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. ... the epithelial cells of the nail bed, the filiform papillae of the tongue, the epithelial lining of oral mucosa and esophagus, ... The keratin proteins of epithelial tissues are commonly known as "keratins" or are sometimes referred to as "epithelial ... Trichocytes are the specialized epithelial cells from which hair and nail are composed. Trichocyte keratins are similar in ...
Smith EA, Fuchs E (1998). "Defining the interactions between intermediate filaments and desmosomes". J. Cell Biol. 141 (5): ... widespread nuclear proteins recruited in specific epithelial cells as desmosomal plaque components". Cell Tissue Res. 290 (3): ... "Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113. ( Pt ... "Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113. ( Pt ...
In many other cell types, such as cells of the dermis, keratin filaments and other intermediate filaments function as part of ... In addition, keratin filaments are present in epithelial cells in general. For example, mouse thymic epithelial cells (TECs) ... Keratin filaments are intermediate filaments. Like all intermediate filaments, keratin proteins form filamentous polymers in a ... cell-cell junctional plaques, and hemidesmosomes, cell-basement membrane adhesive structures. Cells in the epidermis contain a ...
The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided ... Hesse M, Magin TM, Weber K (2002). "Genes for intermediate filament proteins and the draft sequence of the human genome: novel ... Tolstonog GV, Sabasch M, Traub P (2002). "Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments are stably associated with nuclear matrices and ... J Cell Biol. 174 (2): 169-74. doi:10.1083/jcb.200603161. PMC 2064177 . PMID 16831889. "Entrez Gene: KRT23 keratin 23 (histone ...
... again in contrast to epithelial cells. While epithelial cells form the lining of body structures, it is fibroblasts and related ... Thus they express the intermediate filament protein vimentin, a feature used as a marker to distinguish their mesodermal origin ... In certain situations epithelial cells can give rise to fibroblasts, a process called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). ... Unlike the epithelial cells lining the body structures, fibroblasts do not form flat monolayers and are not restricted by a ...
2002). "Stage-specific expression of the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 13 in luminal epithelial cells of secretory ... Sajjan US, Sylvester FA, Forstner JF (2000). "Cable-Piliated Burkholderia cepacia Binds to Cytokeratin 13 of Epithelial Cells ... Regulation of Keratin 13 Gene Expression and its Underlying Mechanism in Breast Cancer Cells". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 296 (1-2 ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The Status, Quality, and ...
... s (or Type II cytokeratins) constitutes the Type II intermediate filaments (IFs) of the intracytoplasmatic ... which is present in all mammalian epithelial cells. The type 2 cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral, high molecular weight ... coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. Type II cytokeratins are encoded on chromosome ...
"Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis". J. Cell Sci. 113 (13): ... a novel armadillo-like protein present in nuclei and desmosomes of epithelial cells". J. Cell Sci. 112 (14): 2265-76. PMID ... and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. This protein may act in cellular desmosome- ... Cell. Proteomics. 4 (6): 785-95. doi:10.1074/mcp.M500021-MCP200. PMID 15778465. Zhang Y, Wolf-Yadlin A, Ross PL, Pappin DJ, ...
... thus collaborating to cell-cell adhesion and basal cell-underlying connective tissue connection. The intermediate filaments of ... which help cells resist mechanical stress. Expression of these cytokeratins within epithelial cells is largely specific to ... "Intermediate-sized filaments of human endothelial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 81 (3): 570-80. doi:10.1083/jcb.81.3.570 ... "Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562-73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197 ...
Strengthening of epithelial cells with these intermediate filaments may prevent onset of apoptosis, or cell death, by reducing ... In combination with proteins and desmosomes, the intermediate filaments form cell-cell connections and anchor the cell-matrix ... Keratin intermediate filaments in epithelial cells provide protection for different mechanical stresses the skin may endure. ... Eukaryotic cells contain three main kinds of cytoskeletal filaments: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. ...
... s (or Type I cytokeratins) are cytokeratins that constitute the Type I intermediate filaments (IFs) of the ... which is present in all mammalian epithelial cells. Most of the type I keratins consist of acidic, low molecular weight ... coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. Type I keratins are encoded on chromosome 17q ...
"The function of intermediate filaments in cell shape and cytoskeletal integrity". J. Cell Biol. 134 (4): 971-83. doi:10.1083/ ... Because of this, vimentin is often used as a marker of mesenchymally-derived cells or cells undergoing an epithelial-to- ... Vimentin is a type III intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed in mesenchymal cells. IF proteins are found in all ... Katsumoto T.; Mitsushima A.; Kurimura T. (1990). "The role of the vimentin intermediate filaments in rat 3Y1 cells elucidated ...
... of an epithelial cell. Myofibroblasts usually stain for the intermediate filament vimentin which is a general mesenchymal ... Partial smooth muscle differentiation of a fibroblastic cell Activation of a stellate cell (e.g. hepatic Ito cells or ... They are positive for other smooth markers like intermediate filament type desmin in some tissues, but may be negative for ... A myofibroblast is a cell that is in between a fibroblast and a smooth muscle cell in phenotype. There are many possible ways ...
intermediate filament. · perinuclear region of cytoplasm. 生物过程. · M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic ... 上皮角蛋白(英语:Epithelial keratin). (软α-角蛋白). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... J. Cell. Sci. October 2000, 113 (19): 3473-84. PMID 10984438.. *^ Dreuillet C, Tillit J, Kress M, Ernoult-Lange M. In vivo and ...
the main intermediate filament (IF) protein of muscle cells. In skeletal muscle, desmin IFs form a scaffold that interconnects ... presence of desmin, regarded as a marker of myogenic cells, in glomerular epithelial cells (GECs) of the kidney was studied in ... the intermediate filament (IF) protein occurring exclusively in muscle and endothelial cells. Desmin IFs are present throughout ... immunohistochemistry of intermediate filaments allows for the differentiation between fat-storing cells, which are desmin- and ...
Tissue type-specific expression of intermediate filament proteins in a cultured epithelial cell line from bovine mammary gland ... Tissue type-specific expression of intermediate filament proteins in a cultured epithelial cell line from bovine mammary gland ... tissue-specific patterns of intermediate filament expression can be maintained in permanent epithelial cell lines in culture, ... are detected as minor cytokeratins in some cell clones. BMGE+H cells do not produce vimentin filaments as determined by ...
Intermediate filaments in bluegill retinal pigment epithelial cells. Title Intermediate filaments in bluegill retinal pigment ... Intermediate filaments in bluegill retinal pigment epithelial cells, by Ernesto Pérez, Jr. Instantiates * Intermediate ... Intermediate filaments in bluegill retinal pigment epithelial cells, by Ernesto Pérez, Jr. Publication * 1999 ... Intermediate filaments in bluegill retinal pigment epithelial cells, by Ernesto Pérez, Jr Resource Information ...
Tonofilaments are keratin intermediate filaments that makes up tonofibrils in the epithelial tissue. In epithelial cells, ... They consist of fine fibrils in epithelial cells that are anchored to the cytoskeleton. They were discovered by Rudolf ... This protein is known to interact with intermediate filaments, specifically keratins. It is synthesized as a giant Precursor ... When the filaggrin binds to keratin intermediate filaments, it causes aggregation in macrofibrils. "tonofibril" at Dorlands ...
Keratin intermediate filaments in epithelial cells (red stain).. Cytokeratins are keratin proteins found in the ... "Intermediate-sized filaments of human endothelial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 81 (3): 570-80. doi:10.1083/jcb.81.3.570 ... "Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562-73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197 ... They are an important component of intermediate filaments, which help cells resist mechanical stress.[1] Expression of these ...
Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002 Feb;14(1):110-22. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; ... make up the largest subgroup of intermediate filament proteins and represent the most abundant proteins in epithelial cells. ... The primary function of keratins is to protect epithelial cells from mechanical and nonmechanical stresses that result in cell ... Hard and soft principles defining the structure, function and regulation of keratin intermediate filaments.. Coulombe PA1, ...
"Caspase Cleavage of Keratin 18 and Reorganization of Intermediate Filaments during Epithelial Cell Apoptosis". J. Cell Biol. ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Rao L, Perez D, White E (1997). "Lamin proteolysis facilitates nuclear events during apoptosis". J. Cell Biol. 135 (6 Pt 1): ... Bullrich F, Fernandes-Alnemri T, Litwack G, Alnemri ES, Croce CM (1997). "Chromosomal mapping of cell death proteases CPP32, ...
1994). A specifically apical sub-membrane intermediate filament cytoskeleton in non-brush-border epithelial cells. J. Cell Sci ... These data suggest a novel function for intermediate filaments organizing the apical pole of simple polarized epithelial cells. ... 1991). Expression of intermediate filament proteins in fetal and adult human kidney: modulations of intermediate filament ... containing structures are anchored to the apical network of intermediate filaments in polarized CACO-2 epithelial cells. J. ...
p120 catenin is required for growth factor-dependent cell motility and scattering in epithelial cells. Mol. Biol. Cell. 14:1964 ... In mammalian tissues, alterations in intermediate filament (IF) gene expression represent an early reaction of cells surviving ... "Hard" and "soft" principles defining the structure, function and regulation of keratin intermediate filaments. Curr. Opin. Cell ... The "ins" and "outs" of intermediate filament organization. Trends Cell Biol. 10:420-428. ...
... cells of epithelial and mesenchymal origin contribute to the structure and function of developing organs. However, these ... The epithelial intermediate filaments, cytokeratins, are replaced by vimentin. Meanwhile, the underlying basement membrane is ... The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells. Cell. 2008;133(4):704-15.PubMedGoogle ... The remaining cells maintain an epithelial phenotype including apico-basal polarity and cell-cell adhesions [103]. In addition ...
Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that are the major components of intermediate filaments in epithelial cells however, their ... Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that are the major components of intermediate filaments in epithelial cells however, their ... to induce plasma membrane remodelling allowing invasion and to spread from cell to cell and disseminate to the whole organism. ... to induce plasma membrane remodelling allowing invasion and to spread from cell to cell and disseminate to the whole organism. ...
keywords = "Calcium, Cells, Culture, Epithelial, Intermediate filament, Keratin, Thymic",. author = "Sands, {Sandra S.} and ... determines keratin intermediate filament density and distribution in immortalized cultured thymic epithelial cells (TECs). In: ... determines keratin intermediate filament density and distribution in immortalized cultured thymic epithelial cells (TECs). ... determines keratin intermediate filament density and distribution in immortalized cultured thymic epithelial cells (TECs), ...
... interaction of intermediate filament keratins with non-muscle myosin II-C in human colonic epithelial cells. A1 Originalartikel ... interaction of intermediate filament keratins with non-muscle myosin II-C in human colonic epithelial cells ...
What do intermediate filaments do? Form tough supporting meshwork in cytoplasm. Common in epithelial cells and just beneath ... MCBG - Basic Cell Structure Flashcards Preview CJ: UoL Medicine Semester One (ESA1) , MCBG - Basic Cell Structure , Flashcards ... The belief that an ancestral eukaryote developed mitochondria through fusing with another cell. ... Basic Cell Structure flashcards from Catherine Jones ... What protects the cell from being digested by its own lysosomes ...
... and cell type‐dependent expression patterns and properties ... Illustration depicting a mammalian epithelial cell model, where ... Intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a diversegroup of evolutionary conserved cytoskeletal structures, with context‐, tissue ... Cell 155: 1639-1651. Chung BM, Rotty JD and Coulombe PA (2013) Networking galore: intermediate filaments and cell migration. ... Intermediate filaments integrate cell fate control with mechanosensing and three‐dimensional arrangement of cells and tissues. ...
Definition of keratin filaments. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ... keratin filaments. Definition: a class of intermediate filaments that form a network within epithelial cells and anchor to ...
Epithelial cell migration requires the interaction between the vimentin and keratin intermediate filaments ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) induced cytotoxicity in epithelial cells is associated with EBNA1 degradation and ... Vimentin as a Marker of Early Differentiating, Highly Motile Corneal Epithelial Cells ... IIβ-binding protein 1 activates expression of E2F1 and p73 in HPV-positive cells for genome amplification upon epithelial ...
Keratin intermediate filaments: intermediaries of epithelial cell migration Essays Biochem (October, 2019) ... Similar to wounded skin, inflammatory cells and keratinocytes of the hyperthickened epidermis were the major producers of HO-1 ... Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland ... Institute of Cell Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Hönggerberg, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland ...
Specialized epithelial cell found at the basal part of the epithelium, hugging the basal cells of the acinus; has contractile ... Attached to intracellular attachment plaque through intermediate filaments ... Forms a belt or tight junction surrounding the apical portion of the epithelial cell; No space between cells Important in ... Type of gland according to mechanism of product release: Apical portion of the epithelial cells is released with the product ...
1985). The organizational fate of intermediate filament network in two epithelial cell types during mitosis. J. Cell Biol 100, ... 1982). Cyclic AMP-modulated phosphorylation of intermediate filament proteins in cultured avian myogenic cells. Mol. Cell. Biol ... 1990). Dynamic properties of intermediate filaments: disassembly and reassembly during mitosis in baby hamster cells. Cell ... 1991). Intermediate filaments formed de novo from tail-less cytokeratins in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. J. Cell Biol 115 ...
n. Any of a group of protein filaments that are a component of the cytoskeleton in animal cells, are composed of a variety of ... intermediate filament synonyms, intermediate filament pronunciation, intermediate filament translation, English dictionary ... The keratins are intermediate filament proteins and are important for integrity and mechanical stability of epithelial cells ... intermediate filament. n.. Any of a group of protein filaments that are a component of the cytoskeleton in animal cells, are ...
Epithelial cadherin; Uvomorulin E-cadherin, a 120 kDa molecule, is a prototypical member of the classical cadherin family of ... E-cadherin is the main adhesion molecule of the adherens junctions of epithelial cells, and via catenins it is linked to the ... Via plakoglobin and desmoplakin, they are connected to intermediate cytoskeletal filaments. Thus, E-cadherin and other members ... 2012) Epithelial Cell. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 1291-1292. doi:10.1007 ...
Ultrastructural examination revealed paranuclear whorls of intermediate filaments in the rhabdoid cells (Fig. 5f). ... Tumor cells do not express keratin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, or S100 protein, as assessed by immunohistochemistry ( ... EM of rhabdoid cell demonstrating large cytoplasm containing whorls of intermediate filaments. (g and h) Corresponding sections ... Each was composed of atypical spindle cells admixed with variable numbers (5-20%) of cells with prominent hyaline cytoplasmic ...
The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Intermediate Filaments will be held in Lucca (Barga), Italy. Apply today to reserve your ... 8 Induces Deregulation of Caveolin-1 and Diminished Caveolar and Mitochondrial Ca2+ Responses in Colonic Epithelial Cells ... Intermediate Filaments in Cell Differentiation, Adhesion, Migration and Senescence Discussion Leaders: Karen Ridge ( ... Intermediate Filaments as the Platform to Underpin the Social Network of Cells and Tissues. ...
... which are cells that line the surfaces and cavities of the body. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... Keratins are a group of tough, fibrous proteins that form the structural framework of epithelial cells, ... Fragile intermediate filaments in the oral mucosa might be damaged when eating or brushing ones teeth. Damage to intermediate ... Keratins are a group of tough, fibrous proteins that form the structural framework of epithelial cells, which are cells that ...
  • Cells of the BMGE+H line are characterized by an unusual epithelial morphology and represent the first example of a nonmalignant permanent cell line in vitro that produces cytokeratin but not vimentin filaments. (rupress.org)
  • The nonhelical tail domain is involved in promoting KRT5-KRT14 filaments to self-organize into large bundles and enhances the mechanical properties involved in resilience of keratin intermediate filaments in vitro. (genecards.org)
  • We have developed a method based on measurements of different molecular forms of CK18 that can be used to investigate cell death modes of epithelially derived cells in vitro and in vivo ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Mouse ES cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent cells derived in vitro from preimplantation embryos (Evans, at al. (google.es)
  • Advances in cell isolation, in vitro culture techniques, and genetic manipulation of animal models have increased our understanding of the development and maintenance of the pulmonary epithelium. (jci.org)
  • We are pursuing signal transduction studies to understand the physiologically important pathways that regulate cell motility and biophysical studies such as in vitro motility assays to understand how these molecular motors function at the molecular level. (northwestern.edu)
  • 2000 ). Keratin-dependent, epithelial resistance to tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. (biologists.org)
  • Recent work in cancer has identified an analogous plasticity of cellular phenotypes whereby epithelial cancer cells acquire mesenchymal features that permit escape from the primary tumor. (springer.com)
  • Because local invasion is thought to be a necessary first step in metastatic dissemination, EMT and epithelial plasticity are hypothesized to contribute to tumor progression. (springer.com)
  • The majority of MRT samples and cell lines have sustained biallelic inactivating mutations of the hSNF5 (integrase interactor 1) gene, suggesting that hSNF5 may act as a tumor suppressor. (pnas.org)
  • SCCA is a tumor-associated antigen originally isolated from squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Serum antigen levels have been used to follow the tumor status of squamous cell carcinomas, including those of the head and neck, oral cavity, esophagus, and lung [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers at St. Jude are growing tumor cells in cultures to study new drugs for treatment. (wikibooks.org)
  • If there are migrating tumor cells, one expects them to be present in TAM from smoking as well as nonsmoking HNSCC patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Repercussions of Mitochondria deformity Induced by anti-HSP90 Drug 17 AAG Human tumor cells. (ccmb.res.in)
  • The cellular outcome is dependent on several factors, including the type of drug used, the concentration of drug that will reach the tumor cells, and the properties of the tumor and its microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The percentage of Ki67-positive tumor cells in pre-Tam biopsies was significantly higher than the percentage in the corresponding posttreatment biopsies ( z = 4.29, P = 0.0001). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, no relevant modifications of the expression pattern of ER, progesterone receptors, HER-2/ neu , p53, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen have been observed in cervical tumor biopsies after conventional Tam treatment in vivo (3) , suggesting that Tam has minimal activity, if any, in cervical cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antiangiogenic targeted therapies inhibit the progression of RCC, but have limited impacts on invasion or metastasis of tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These treatments effectively inhibit tumor progression through deprivation of oxygen and nutrition from the tumor microenvironment, but cannot block metastasis of RCC cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EMT is characterized by a combined loss of epithelial cell junction proteins, such as E-cadherin, and the gain of mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, and is believed to play an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vertebrates, intermediate filament (IF) proteins are among the cellular constituents whose regulation is altered within hours after injury. (rupress.org)
  • The evolution of multicellular organisms permitted the development of specialized cell types and the diversification of cellular phenotypes. (springer.com)
  • Intermediate filaments are important cellular stress proteins that help in maintaining the cellular organisation and homoeostasis on injury. (els.net)
  • Individual or multiple mutations of an intermediate filament (IF) molecule can affect different biophysical properties of the filaments (purple boxes), which in turn can interfere with distinct cellular activities (green boxes). (els.net)
  • This wide expression and distribution of vimentin, an intermediate filament that can sustain extremely large cellular deformations, will provide stability to the HNS cells submitted to regular morphological adaptations caused by a seasonal severe arid biotope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is the role that intermediate filaments play in the integration of both intra- and inter-cellular processes and signals that marks them out as the most important "social networking" platform in cell biology. (grc.org)
  • they cross link intermediate filament with one another (forming a bundle or network) or to various cellular structures (ex. (studyblue.com)
  • Our approach can be extended to other cellular compartments and cell states, and our data provide the first broad biochemical framework for understanding C phase. (mcponline.org)
  • Spermatogenesis is a process that involves an array of cellular and biochemical events, collectively culminating in the formation of haploid spermatids from diploid precursor cells known as spermatogonia. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cellular uptake and mutagenic potential of metal oxide nanoparticles in bacterial cells. (ccmb.res.in)
  • The evidence of cellular change of mouse stem cells in response to a rat scaffold is a promising step toward establishment of a xenogenic scaffold source for engineered kidneys. (ufl.edu)
  • Here, we review the development of the pulmonary epithelium, its roles in normal lung function, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating epithelial maintenance. (jci.org)
  • In addition to their cell-cell adhesive functions, both β -catenin and plakoglobin interact with a number of intracellular partners including signaling proteins and transcription factors, which accounts for their involvement in cellular signaling [ 1 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Expression of RAGE and HMGB1 in thymic epithelial tumors, thymic hyperplasia and regular thymic morphology. (abcam.com)
  • Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) in adult mice have been classified into distinct subsets based on keratin expression profiles. (jimmunol.org)
  • The results demonstrate that initial patterning of the thymic epithelial compartment as defined by differential keratin expression does not depend on inductive signals from hematopoietic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are organized into a three-dimensional network rather than forming epithelial sheets arranged on a basement membrane as is characteristic of epithelial organization in other organs ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, the livers of the mice expressing K8 G61C were not more susceptible to perfusion injury, suggesting that the hepatocytes were not more fragile due to lack of intermediate filaments. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have shown that the progeny of irradiated nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured with TGFβ exhibit compromised morphogenesis, polarity, and growth control when cultured in reconstituted basement membrane ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The authors described the corneal epithelial basement membrane as thickened with an intracellular "peculiar substance" that reacted with periodic acid and Schiff`s reagent. (molvis.org)
  • Different clonal cell lines have been isolated from cultures of mammary gland epithelium of lactating cow's udder and have been grown in culture media containing high concentrations of hydrocortisone, insulin, and prolactin. (rupress.org)
  • This review focuses on the parallels between epithelial plasticity/EMT in the mammary gland and other organs during development, and on a selection of developmental EMT regulators that are misexpressed specifically during breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Expressed in many hormone-independent mammary carcinoma cell lines. (abcam.com)
  • Though there are many different types of epithelial cells in the body that may be arranged in a number of ways, the cells are always contiguous with one another so that they create an uninterrupted barrier. (fsu.edu)
  • Cytokeratin subtype expression patterns are used to an increasing extent in the distinction of different types of epithelial malignancies. (thermofisher.com)
  • The cytokeratin intermediate filament network in a culture of MDOK cells, illustrated above, was visualized by fixing an adherent culture in methanol, followed by treatment with mouse anti-cytokeratin (pan) monoclonal antibodies and goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Cy2. (fsu.edu)
  • Monoclonal and polyclonal primary antibodies are focused on cell biology, neurobiology and molecular biology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This is important because spermatozoa and their cell-surface antigens appear long after 'self' tolerance is established, and a compromise in BTB function would result in the host producing antibodies against its own sperm. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Distribution of Keratin Intermediate Filaments and Mitochondria in HJ1.Ov Cell Cultures - An adherent log phase culture of tahr ovary cells was treated for one hour with MitoTracker Red CMXRos in order to label the mitochondrial network, and the fixed cells were then incubated with mouse anti-cytokeratin primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse secondary antibodies (IgG) conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488. (fsu.edu)
  • Although the origin of pannus is still under debate, 6-9 observations based on detailed morphological studies have provided sufficient evidence indicating that the area of cartilage-pannus junction contains chondrocyte derived cells, 10 that react with monoclonal anti-type II collagen antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • Presented in Figure 2(a) is the fluorescence emission profile from a culture of Indian Muntjac deerskin fibroblast cells that were immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-bovine alpha -tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Cy5. (microscopyu.com)
  • Fluorescence emission in a culture of rat kangaroo ( PtK2 line) epithelial kidney cells that were immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-vimentin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse F(ab')2 fragments conjugated to biotin is demonstrated in Figure 2(c). (microscopyu.com)
  • New monoclonal antibodies recognizing phosphorylated proteins in mitotic cells. (mpg.de)
  • These cell (BMGE+H), which grow in monolayers of typical epithelial appearance, are not tightly packed, but leave intercellular spaces spanned by desmosomal bridges. (rupress.org)
  • Intercellular and extracellular signals are critical to the suppression of neoplastic growth, whereas disruption of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions is implicated, if not required, for neoplastic progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • By inhibiting these and other regulatory mechanisms, HPV E6 and E7 allow for the accumulation of genetic mutations and the survival of mutated cells ( 8 , 42 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • They are present at high concentration in the parallel actin bundle scaffold at the core of hair cell stereocilia and are the target of deafness mutations in mice and humans. (northwestern.edu)
  • [ 7 ] Initially the coupled alpha-helices of unit-length filaments uncoil as they're strained, then as the strain increases they transition into beta-sheets , and finally at increased strain the hydrogen bonds between beta-sheets slip and the ULF monomers slide along each other. (omicsgroup.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) has been found to play an important role in malignant progression of various cancer cells, in addition to lymphangiogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gas exchange occurs primarily across the attenuated blood-air barrier that is formed by the juxtaposition of alveolar type I (ATI) epithelial cells and microcapillary endothelial cells. (jci.org)
  • One of the most robust markers that has been successfully used for urinary podocyte diagnostics is podocalyxin, a sialoprotein that is expressed on podocytes but also on a variety of nonrenal as well as on glomerular endothelial and parietal epithelial cells. (physiology.org)