Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Epithelioid Cells: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Mammary Glands, Human: Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Mice, Inbred C57BLBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.LLC-PK1 Cells: Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Pneumocytes: Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms: A family of mesenchymal tumors composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. These cells do not have a normal anatomic homolog. (From Fletcher CDM, et. al., World Health Organization Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone, 2002).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Mice, Inbred BALB CProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.PhosphoproteinsEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (1/24454)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (2/24454)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (3/24454)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

The Gab1 PH domain is required for localization of Gab1 at sites of cell-cell contact and epithelial morphogenesis downstream from the met receptor tyrosine kinase. (4/24454)

Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces mitogenesis, motility, invasion, and branching tubulogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cell lines in culture. We have previously shown that Gab1 is the major phosphorylated protein following stimulation of the Met receptor in epithelial cells that undergo a morphogenic program in response to HGF. Gab1 is a member of the family of IRS-1-like multisubstrate docking proteins and, like IRS-1, contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, in addition to multiple tyrosine residues that are potential binding sites for proteins that contain SH2 or PTB domains. Following stimulation of epithelial cells with HGF, Gab1 associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce branching tubulogenesis. Overexpression of Gab1 rescues the Met-dependent tubulogenic response in these cell lines. The ability of Gab1 to promote tubulogenesis is dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Whereas the wild-type Gab1 protein is localized to areas of cell-cell contact, a Gab1 protein lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Localization of Gab1 to areas of cell-cell contact is inhibited by LY294002, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required. These data show that Gab1 is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis downstream from the Met receptor and identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain as crucial for subcellular localization of Gab1 and biological responses.  (+info)

Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. (5/24454)

The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (6/24454)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in human breast cancer. (7/24454)

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast tissues with significantly more malignant tissues expressing FGF8 (P=0.019) at significantly higher levels (P=0.031). In situ hybridization of breast cancer tissues and analysis of purified populations of normal epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines showed that malignant epithelial cells expressed FGF8 mRNA at high levels compared to non-malignant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts. Although two of the receptors which FGF8 binds to (FGFR2-IIIc, FGFR3-IIIc) are not expressed in breast cancer cells, an autocrine activation loop is possible since expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 and FGFR1 are retained in malignant epithelial cells. This is the first member of the FGF family to have increased expression in breast cancer and a potential autocrine role in its progression.  (+info)

Role of retinoid receptors in the regulation of mucin gene expression by retinoic acid in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. (8/24454)

To investigate which retinoid receptors are critical in the regulation by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) of the mucin genes MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells, we used pan-RAR-, pan-RXR- and RAR- isotype (alpha, beta and gamma)-selective agonists and RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective antagonists (RAR is RA receptor and RXR is retinoid X receptor). RAR-, RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective agonists strongly induced mucin mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner, while the RARbeta-selective retinoid only weakly induced mucin gene expression at very high concentrations (1 microM). The pan-RXR-selective agonist by itself did not induce mucin gene expression, but acted synergistically with suboptimal concentrations of the pan-RAR agonist. A retinoid with selective anti-activator-protein-1 activity only marginally induced mucin gene expression. The RARalpha antagonist strongly inhibited mucin gene induction and mucous cell differentiation caused by RA and by the RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective retinoids. In contrast, the RARgamma antagonist only weakly inhibited RARalpha-selective-retinoid-induced mucin gene expression, but completely blocked mucin gene expression induced by the RARgamma-selective retinoid. Our studies indicate that RARalpha is the major retinoid receptor subtype mediating RA-dependent mucin gene expression and mucous cell differentiation, but that the RARgamma isotype can also induce mucin genes. Furthermore these studies suggest that RARbeta is probably not (directly) involved in RA-induced mucin gene expression.  (+info)

Renal Epithelial Cell Growth Kit (ATCC ® PCS-400-040) contains components that when added to Renal Epithelial Cell Basal Medium (ATCC ® PCS-400-030) create a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ culture environment for renal epithelial cells derived from normal human kidney (e.g., Primary Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ® PCS-400-010; Primary Renal Cortical Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ® PCS-400-011; Primary Renal Mixed Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ® PCS-400-012). The low serum (0.5% FBS) medium formulation is designed to support normal renal cell morphology as well as promote rapid growth and proliferation. No feeder layers, extracellular matrix proteins or other substrates are required.
Bronchial Epithelial Cell Growth Kit (ATCC ®  PCS-300-040) contains components that when added to Airway Epithelial Cell Basal Medium (ATCC ®  PCS-300-030) create a complete ATCC ®  Primary Cell Solutions™ culture environment for bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells derived from normal human lung (e.g., Primary Bronchial/Trachel Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ®  PCS-300-010). The serum-free medium formulation is designed to support normal bronchial/epithelial cell morphology as well as promote rapid growth and proliferation. No feeder layers, extracellular matrix proteins or other substrates are required.
Understanding how insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling in mammary epithelial cells may be modified or interrupted by modifications in the cellular environment may lead to 1) methods to increase the growth and proliferation of normal mammary epithelial cells for an increase in the amount of milk produced on a per animal basis or to 2) the development of medical interventions to disrupt the growth and proliferation of cancerous mammary epithelial cells. IGF-I, a signaling protein provided by stromal cells and through the bloodstream, stimulates the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells and is crucial for mammary development. Collagen I is an extracellular matrix protein (ECM) found in skin and in other connective tissues throughout the body. The guiding question in this dissertation was how IGF-I signaling and how binding protein profile were influenced by autocrine IGF-I and by collagen I. The MAC-T cell line was chosen as the cell model utilized in these investigations because it ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of cytokines on ICAM-1 and ZO-1 expression on human airway epithelial cells. AU - Shahana, Shahida. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - The presence of adhesion molecules on airway epithelial cells may be important in recruiting leukocytes to the epithelium. The study aimed at investigating the effects of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-8, IL-13 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on cell viability and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and zonula occludens protein (ZO)-1 expression on cultured human basal and columnar airway epithelial cells. Cycloheximide (CHX) induced cell death in both cell lines. The cytokines IL-4, IL-8, IL-13 and IFN-gamma had only minor effects on cell proliferation in the columnar 16HBE14o-cells, and inhibited the effects of CHX on cell death. IFN-gamma increased ICAM-1 expression in both cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that CHX inhibited both ICAM-1 and ZO-1 expression in the basal cell line. A combination of IL-4 and IFN-gamma appeared to break ...
Regulation of alveolar epithelial cell phenotypes in fetal sheep: roles of cortisol and lung expansion.: Our aim was to determine whether cortisols effect on a
Epithelial cells of different tissues or species diverge substantially in their culture requirements. Thus, in vivo-like culture of epithelial cells necessitates optimization of the entire culturing process including transport, isolation, medium composition and culture conditions. In the present study we established a new protocol for a differentiated cell culture system of the porcine cervical epithelium, based on easily accessible slaughterhouse material. The morphology and tested functional markers of our culture system are comparable to the native tissue as shown by histology, immunohistochemistry and alcian blue staining. The use of fibroblast-conditioned medium supported proliferation of cervical epithelial monolayers suggesting that stromal growth factors or cytokines released into the medium are required for cell growth in these epithelia. The supplementation of the conditioned medium with EGF further optimized proliferation and mitochondrial activity of the cervical epithelial cells. ...
Metzger TC, Khan IS, Gardner JM, Mouchess ML, Johannes KP, Krawisz AK, Skrzypczynska KM, Anderson MS. Lineage tracing and cell ablation identify a post-Aire-expressing thymic epithelial cell population. Cell Rep. 2013 Oct 17;5(1):166-79.. ...
This project addresses possible biological mechanisms underlying the adverse human health effects associated with exposure to the respirable fine particulate matter present in air pollution (PM2.5). Epidemiological studies suggest that humans, especially those with chronic pulmonary or cardiovascular disease, are adversely affected by exposure to PM2.5 and animal toxicological studies have shown that PM2.5 introduced into the respiratory tract cause adverse health effects such as inflammation. In order to bridge the gap between human epidemiological and animal toxicological studies, this research will investigate the effects of PM2.5 upon human respiratory tract epithelial cells. The underlying hypothesis of this research is that respirable particulates carry as yet unidentified toxic environmental chemicals into the respiratory tract where they are deposited onto the epithelial cell lining and act to disrupt normal epithelial cell functions, resulting in inflammation. ...
Epithelial cells isolated from fresh human breast surgically resected tumor and normal margin. Cryopreserved samples available in frozen aliquots. High quality human breast primary epithelial cell cultures available for research.
RT-PCR analysis of ABC, SLC and SLCO drug transporters in human lung epithelial cell models. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 61 (5) , pp. 583-591. 10.1211/jpp/61.05.0006 ...
Epithelial Cell Medium (EpiCM) is a complete medium designed for optimal growth of normal human epithelial cells in vitro. It is a sterile, liquid medium which contains essential and non-essential amino acids, vitamins, organic and inorganic compounds, hormones, growth factors, trace minerals and a low concentration of fetal bovine serum (2%). The medium is bicarbonate buffered and has a pH of 7.4 when equilibrated in an incubator with an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% air. The medium is formulated (quantitatively and qualitatively) to provide a defined and optimally balanced nutritional environment that selectively promotes proliferation and growth of normal human epithelial cells in vitro ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - miR-30 family controls proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cell models by directing a broad gene expression program that includes SOX9 and the ubiquitin ligase pathway. AU - Peck,Bailey C.E.. AU - Sincavage,John. AU - Feinstein,Sydney. AU - Mah,Amanda T.. AU - Simmons,James G.. AU - Lund,P. Kay. AU - Sethupathy,Praveen. PY - 2016/7/29. Y1 - 2016/7/29. N2 - Proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) occur in part through precise regulation of key transcription factors, such as SOX9. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as prominent fine-tuners of transcription factor expression and activity. We hypothesized that miRNAs, in part through the regulation of SOX9, may mediate IEC homeostasis. Bioinformatic analyses of the SOX9 3′-UTR revealed highly conserved target sites for nine different miRNAs. Of these, only the miR-30 family members were both robustly and variably expressed across functionally distinct cell types of the murine ...
We have established a spontaneously immortalised mammary epithelial cell line, BME65Cs. This cell line exhibits the majority of normal MECs features, whereas growth character, the ability to form colonies and expression of relevant breast tumor genes are significantly different from breast cancer cells (MCF-7). These data suggest that BME65Cs cells are not derived from malignant transformations. Whether or not in vitro spontaneous transformation is correlated with in vivo benign tumor transformation, the immortal BME65Cs cell line will be a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis and cellular senescence. In contrast, TERT or SV40 gene mediated immortalization by the random integration of exogenous genes may bring an unforeseeable influence on natural gene expression and regulation.. There are three types of human mammary epithelial cell progenitors have been identified. The first is thought to be a luminal-restricted progenitor; the second type is a bipotent progenitor ...
Lin, H., Li, H., Cho, H.-J., Bian, S., Roh, H.-J., Lee, M.-K., Kim, J. S., Chung, S.-J., Shim, C.-K. and Kim, D.-D. (2007), Air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers as an in vitro model for airway drug transport studies. J. Pharm. Sci., 96: 341-350. doi: 10.1002/jps.20803 ...
Increased Growth of a Newly Established Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Transformed with HPV-16 E7 in Diabetic Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Nothing screws up a perfectly good theory faster than reality and the reality is that studies about the long-term results of Trans-Epithelial v PRK v LASEK v Epi-Lasik seem inconclusive. In the end, the patient gets about the same result. Surgeons who do Trans-Epithelial swear by it - and may be correct - but the studies have not shown it to be significantly better. Trans-Epithelial may not be better than the other surface ablation techniques, but it certainly does not appear to be any worse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors Controlling Growth, Motility, and Morphogenesis of Normal and Malignant Epithelial Cells. AU - Birchmeier, Carmen. AU - Meyer, Dirk. AU - Riethmacher, Dieter. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Factors that control epithelial growth, motility, and morphogenesis play important roles in malignancy and in normal development. Here we discuss the molecular nature and the function of two types of molecules that control the development and maintenance of epithelia: Components that regulate epithelial cell adhesion; and soluble factors and their receptors that regulate growth, motility, differentiation, and morphogenesis. In development, the establishment of epithelial cell characteristics and organization is crucially dependent on cell adhesion and the formation of functional adherens junctions. The integrity of adherens junctions is frequently disturbed late in tumor progression, and the resulting loss of epithelial characteristics correlates with the metastatic potential of ...
HIV-1 infections of women are mainly acquired through female reproductive tract where cervical and vaginal epithelial cells are the first line of defense. Although HIV-1 does not directly infect epithelial cells, HIV-1 obligatorily interacts with and crosses over epithelial layer to infect susceptible target cells, mainly CD4+ T cells, in the lamina propria to initiate an infection. However, the mechanism and ramification of the interaction of HIV-1 and epithelial cells in vaginal transmission of HIV-1 remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that cervical epithelial cells are not a passive barrier, but actively respond to HIV-1 to change mucosal milieu and facilitate HIV-1 transmission. We tested this hypothesis by studying the responses of cervical epithelial cells to HIV-1 through profiling genome-wide transcription. We found 1) cervical epithelial cells actively respond to HIV-1. Five hundred forty-three transcripts/genes in cervical epithelial cells were significantly altered in expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognition of the neural chemoattractant netrin-1 by integrins α6β4 and α3β1 regulates epithelial cell adhesion and migration. AU - Yebra, Mayra. AU - Montgomery, Anthony M P. AU - Diaferia, Giuseppe R.. AU - Kaido, Thomas. AU - Silletti, Steve. AU - Perez, Brandon. AU - Just, Margaret L.. AU - Hildbrand, Simone. AU - Hurford, Rosemary. AU - Florkiewicz, Elin. AU - Tessier-Lavigne, Marc. AU - Cirulli, Vincenzo. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Netrins, axon guidance cues in the CNS, have also been detected in epithelial tissues. In this study, using the embryonic pancreas as a model system, we show that Netrin-1 is expressed in a discrete population of epithelial cells, localizes to basal membranes, and specifically associates with elements of the extracellular matrix. We demonstrate that α6β4 integrin mediates pancreatic epithelial cell adhesion to Netrin-1, whereas recruitment of α6β4 and α3β1 regulate the migration of CK19+/PDX1+ putative pancreatic progenitors on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PRRX2 as a novel TGF-β-induced factor enhances invasion and migration in mammary epithelial cell and correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer. AU - Juang, Yu Lin. AU - Jeng, Yung Ming. AU - Chen, Chi Long. AU - Lien, Huang Chun. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - TGF-β and cancer progression share a multifaceted relationship. Despite the knowledge of TGF-β biology in the development of cancer, several factors that mediate the cancer-promoting role of TGF-β continue to be identified. This study aimed to identify and characterise novel factors potentially related to TGF-β-mediated tumour aggression in breast cells. We treated the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A with TGF-β and identified TGF-β-dependent upregulation of PRRX2, the gene encoding paired-related homeobox 2 transcription factor. Overexpression of PRRX2 enhanced migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth of MCF10A cells and induced partial epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), as determined by ...
The continued presence of bacterial and viral antigens in the lumen of the vagina coupled with the periodic presence of antigens in the lumena of the upper reproductive tract provide an ongoing challenge that can compromise female reproductive health and threaten life. Separating underlying tissues from luminal antigens, polarized epithelial cells of the cervix, uterus and Fallopian tubes have evolved to protect against potential pathogens. Once thought to function exclusively by providing a crucial barrier, mucosal epithelial cells are now known to function as sentinels that recognize antigens, respond in ways that lead to bacterial and viral killing, as well as signal to underlying immune cells when pathogenic challenge exceeds their protective capacity. Unique to epithelial cells of the female reproductive tract is the regulatory control of the female sex hormones. Acting both directly and indirectly through underlying stromal cells, estradiol and progesterone regulate epithelial cell innate ...
Diabetic Mouse Tracheal and Bronchial Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the tracheal and bronchial tissues of Diabetic (db/db) mice. Diabetic Mouse Stomach Epithelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 3 are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6cells per ml. The method we use to isolate primary epithelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. Cells are incubated with EpCAM-1 (CD326) antibody, following the application of magnetic beads pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
According to the John Hopkins Lupus Center, the presence of squamous epithelial cells in a urine sample often indicates that the sample was contaminated. However, epithelial cells can also indicate...
... cells that play an essential function in the pathogenesis of influenza A pathogen infection. the lack of TNF- induction in L5D1 virus-challenged pigs, coincided with better cell loss of life and the decreased discharge of contagious pathogen from infected pig epithelial cells. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a protein suppressor of the JAK-STAT pathway, was constitutively highly expressed and transcriptionally upregulated in H5N1 virus-infected pig epithelial cells and macrophages, in contrast to the corresponding human cells. The overexpression of SOCS3 in infected human macrophages dampened TNF- induction. In summary, we found that the reported low susceptibility of pigs to contemporary Eurasian HPAI H5N1 computer virus infections coincides at the level of innate immunity of respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages with a reduced output of viable computer virus and an attenuated ...
Inactivation of the ARF-p53 tumor suppressor pathway leads to immortalization of murine fibroblasts. The role of this pathway in immortalization of human epithelial cells is not clear. We analyzed the functionality of the p14(ARF)-p53 pathway in human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) immortalized by human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6, the p53 degradation-defective E6 mutant Y54D, or hTERT. E6-MEC or E6Y54D-MEC maintains high-level expression of p14(ARF). Late-passage hTERT-immortalized MEC express p53 but down-regulate p14(ARF). Enforced expression of p14(ARF) induces p53-dependent senescence in hTERT-MEC, while both E6-MEC and E6Y54D-MEC are resistant. We show that E6Y54D inhibits p14(ARF)-induced activation of p53 without inactivation of the p53-dependent DNA damage response. Hence, p53 degradation and inhibition of p14(ARF) signaling to p53 are independent functions of HPV16 E6. Our observations imply that long-term proliferation of MEC requires inactivation of the p14(ARF)-p53 pathway.
Interferons play a critical role in regulating both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Previous reports have shown increased levels of IFN-γ, IFN-γ-inducing IL-12 and IFN-γ-inducible chemokine IP-10 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study focuses on the regulation of the IP-10 secretion in co-cultures of lung epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No IP-10 secretion was detected in cells cultured alone, whereas a significant increase in IP-10 levels was observed in epithelial cell/PBMC co-cultures. Furthermore, the results show that interactions between lung epithelial cells, lymphocytes and monocytes are needed for basal IP-10 secretion. Interestingly, we have also shown that incubation with IL-12 can induce an IFN-γ independent increase in IP-10 levels in co-cultures. Furthermore, inhibition studies supported the suggestion that different intracellular pathways are responsible of IFN-γ and IL-12 mediated IP-10 secretion.
Act1/CIKS is an intracellular protein that has been shown to play an important role in mediating IL-17A and IL-25 signaling effects. Recently, defects in Act1 function and/or expression has been implicated in inflammatory disease, such as psoriatic arthritis and atopic dermatitis. We have found that the modulation of Act1 expression levels in human airway epithelial cells changes the expression levels of some genes, in the absence of cytokine stimulation. RNAseq is a powerful new technique to quantitatively measure changes at the transcriptome level. Here we describe the use of RNAseq to globally analyze the effects of modulating Act1 expression in human airway epithelial cells. ...
The p53 tumor suppressor protein has been implicated as a mediator of programmed cell death (PCD). A series of nontransformed mammary epithelial cell (MEC) lines were used to correlate p53 function with activation of PCD. Treatment of MECs expressing mutant, inactive, or no p53 with DNA-damaging agents did not induce apoptosis. Upon introduction of temperature-sensitive p53 into HC11 cells, which lack wild-type (wt) p53, PCD was observed after mitomycin treatment at 32 degrees, when the ts p53 protein is in wt conformation. Thus, wt p53 mediates activation of PCD in response to mitomycin in HC11 cells. Treatment of the MCF10-A cells, which express wt p53, with various DNA-damaging agents led to nuclear accumulation of p53. Only mitomycin treatment led to an increase in the number of apoptotic nuclei. ErbB-2-transformed MCF10-A cells responded to mitomycin, cisplatin, and 5-Fl-uracil, suggesting that signaling from activated ErbB-2 enhances the cells ability to respond to DNA damage. A ...
The underlying mechanisms of protein sorting in polarized epithelial cells are poorly understood. Several studies have determined membrane targeting of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) using epithelial cells such as Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Polarized epithelial cells are composed of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains with specific protein compositions separated by tight junctions. Purinergic, muscarinic, and adrenergic receptors are a few examples of GPCRs that have been shown to localize to specific membranes in MDCK cells. The current work seeks to determine the differences in subcellular localization of the human prostaglandin E2 receptors. The EP receptors are all GPCRs, which differ in their second messenger pathways. The EP3 receptor is unique in that it has eight different isoforms that differ in the lengths of the carboxyl tail. The EP3 isoforms, as well as the EP2 and EP4 receptors, have distinct properties, including different agonist-induced ...
Background/Aims: In vivo autofluorescence endoscopic imaging and spectroscopy have been used to detect and differentiate benign ( hyperplastic) and preneoplastic ( adenomatous) colonic lesions. This fluorescence is composed of contributions from the epithelium, lamina propria, and submucosa. Because epithelial autofluorescence in normal and diseased tissues is poorly understood, this was the focus of the present study. Methods: Whole colonic crypts were isolated, and short term primary cultures of epithelial cells were established from biopsies of normal, hyperplastic, and adenomatous colon. Autofluorescence ( 488 nm excitation) was examined by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescently labelled organelle probes and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify subcellular sources of fluorescence. Results: Mitochondria and lysosomes were identified as the main intracellular fluorescent components in all cell types. Normal and hyperplastic epithelial cells were weakly ...
The airway epithelial cell core provides investigators with primary culture preparations of human and mouse airway epithelial cells. We routinely procure human tissues from lung transplantation donors and explanted lungs and surgical tissues, including those with lung disease. The core can also culture airway cells obtained by lung and nasal brushing or scraping. In collaboration with core users, Brody Lab members will establish cultures from mice or materials provided by the core users. Core users can be instructed on all methods for culture, manipulation and evaluation of preparations. Lead time of one month should be provided to allow for scheduling and the necessary period for cell growth. IRB permission may be required for some tissues and studies.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Altered p27Kip1 phosphorylation, localization, and function in human epithelial cells resistant to transforming growth factor β-mediated G1 arrest. AU - Ciarallo, Sandra. AU - Subramaniam, Venkateswaran. AU - Hung, Wesley. AU - Lee, Jin Hwa. AU - Kotchetkov, Rouslan. AU - Sandhu, Charanjit. AU - Milic, Andrea. AU - Slingerland, Joyce M. PY - 2002/5/6. Y1 - 2002/5/6. N2 - p27Kip1 is an important effector of G1 arrest by transforming growth factor β(TGF-β). Investigations in a human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) model, including cells that are sensitive (184s) and resistant (184A1L5R) to G1 arrest by TGF-β, revealed aberrant p27 regulation in the resistant cells. Cyclin El-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) and cyclin A-cdk2 activities were increased, and p27-associated kinase activity was detected in 184A1L5R cells. p27 from 184A1L5R cells was localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm, showed an altered profile of phosphoisoforms, and had a reduced ability to bind and inhibit ...
Migration and proliferation of the human colon cancer cell lines LIM1215 and Caco-2 were stimulated in a concentration dependent manner by u-PA. Maximal effects were obtained at supraphysiological concentrations. Selective suppression of u-PAR expression markedly ablated u-PA mediated motogenesis and mitogenesis, indicating that these processes were mediated by binding to functional u-PAR. A wide range of signalling molecules activated through u-PA binding have been implicated in regulating the resultant cellular migration and/or proliferation.8 11-16 Those responsible for the effects described in the present study are unknown and their identification will be the focus of further investigation. This is the first report of such effects of u-PA in gastrointestinal epithelial cells although similar actions have been described in other cell types.7-10 39 40 Despite the fact that u-PA stimulated indices of proliferation in LIM1215 cells, its stimulatory action on wound closure was not ablated in ...
The importance of epimorphin in control of morphogenesis of mammary epithelia is supported by the following observations: first, morphogenesis of epimorphin-negative epithelial cells was induced only by addition of epimorphin but not by growth factors alone. Second, epimorphin could induce different patterns of morphological differentiation, depending on the way it was presented to the cells. Third, morphogenesis of epimorphin-expressing epithelial cells was completely blocked by anti-epimorphin antibodies, even in the presence of growth factors. And fourth, as long as a growth factor could elicit growth from cells, it could augment the morphogenesis, but it did not matter which growth factor was used. Indeed, cells branched very well in the presence of function blocking antibodies to HGF, if epimorphin and another growth factor such as EGF were present.. Epimorphin was present in the mammary gland of virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice within the mesenchyme and around ducts and alveoli. ...
Tubular epithelial cells of bigenic pancreas express Sox9 and GLUT2 at E17.5.At E17.5 both control and bigenic tubular epithelial cells express Sox9. Sox9 (gree
Mucosal surfaces, such as the lung and the intestine, are lined by a single layer of epithelial cells. The human epithelial lining is positioned at the interface between the luminal/external environment and the organism. Not only does the intestinal epithelial lining serve as a physical barrier, but it also serves as a sensor of nutrients, toxins, and microorganisms. Thus colonic epithelial cells can respond to luminal stimuli by inducing intracellular signaling events, leading to the production and release of chemokines through the basolateral surface (13, 31).. LPA has been shown to play a role in immunoregulation, affecting various cell types. In human umbilical endothelial cells, LPA stimulates expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, which interacts with activated lymphocytes (23). More recently, LPA has been shown to enhance IL-13 expression in T cells (41). Furthermore, LPA has been shown to stimulate IL-8/CXCL8 production in human bronchial epithelial cells (42) and in human ...
Isolation of intestinal epithelial cells - posted in Immunology: Hi, I was wondering whether anyone could share a detailed protocol on how to isolate viable,intact colonic epithelial cells from mice. I have tried numerous methods with EDTA where in the colon is cut longitudinally and then incubated in 5-30mM EDTA shaking at 37 degrees for 15 minute shakes. Ive also tried to evert the colon onto a glass rod and then shake in EDTA. The fractions that come off do not seem to yield any IE...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated by several stimuli and transduce the signal inside cells, generating diverse responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Each MAPK cascade comprises a series of molecules, and regulation takes place at different levels. They communicate with each other and with additional pathways, creating a signaling network that is important for cell fate determination. In this review, we focus on ERK, JNK, p38 and ERK5, the major MAPKs, and their interactions with PI3K-Akt, TGFβ/Smad and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. More importantly, we describe how MAPKs regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the rapidly renewing epithelia that lines the gastrointestinal tract and, finally, we highlight the recent findings on nutritional aspects that affect MAPK transduction cascades.
Purpose In multiple cell metazoans, the ability of polarized epithelial cells to convert to motile mesenchymal cells in order to relocate to another location is ruled by a exclusive procedure termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT systems for their extension and success Busulfan IC50 advantages. A conclusion The understanding of EMT shall give more effective goals in clinical studies to deal with therapy-resistant metastatic lesions. mesenchymal-epithelial changeover (MET), its countermeasure reverting the mesenchymal cells back again to epithelial cells (Hugo et al. 2007; Thiery and Sleeman 2006). While small is normally known relating to the function of MET fairly, a huge number of pathways and proteins governing EMT possess been identified. For example, the building-up Busulfan IC50 of mesenchymal indicators and shedding of epithelial indicators such as deposition of N-cadherin with destruction of E-cadherin are main features of EMT. The EMT indicators consist of genetics and ...
Tubulointerstitial and glomerular accumulations of immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, are a prominent feature of a variety of nephritis (6, 31, 32, 33). The C-C family of chemokines is major mononuclear cell chemoattractants and may be central to the recruitment of these cells. As LPS is involved in the onset or progression of acute and chronic renal diseases (2, 3, 4, 5), C-C chemokines produced by renal cells after LPS exposure (44, 45, 46) may play a predominant role in the pathogenesis. LPS initiates multiple intracellular signaling events, including the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and three distinct MAPKs: p38 MAPK, ERK, and JNK (7). Recently, it has been documented that LPS-induced MCP-1 gene expression in rat tubular epithelial cells is NF-κB dependent (46). In our studies performed by using various inhibitors, the LPS-mediated MCP-1 mRNA increase was dependent on NF-κB activation, but not on the three MAPK signaling pathways. In contrast, much less is known about the ...
Far from simply representing passive targets of environmental or immunological attack, epithelial cells play an active role in the generation and expression of protective immune responses
This aspect is covered in more detail elsewhere. However, one of the exciting new areas of immunology has been the recognition that epithelial cells play an
In cancer, epithelial cell de-differentiation is a feature of rapidly dividing cells under non-controlled growth and it often reflects a change in the gene expression pattern; however, the relationship between proliferation and alterations in cellular differentiation has not yet been identified. This work examined how changes in the characteristics of cells that discriminate their differentiated and proliferative states can be used to improve on current pancreatic cancer chemotherapeutic strategies. PepT1, a high substrate-capacity and low-affinity transporter system, has been suggested as an attractive drug delivery target for pancreatic cancer. Through a combination of immunological assays, PepT1 normally restricted to the apical surfaces in polarised intestinal epithelial cells, was shown to distribute at the cell membrane of non-polarised cancerous ductal cells. Anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer agents, like ibuprofen or gemcitabine, were conjugated to selected amino acids to enhance their ...
The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the digestive tract of Orthrias angorae (Steindachner, 1897) were investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histological structure consists of four layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa. The esophageal mucosa consists of undifferentiated basal epithelial cells, mucous cells and surface epithelial cells. It was observed that the J-shaped stomach had a meshwork of folds in the cardiac region, and longitudinal folds in the fundic and pyloric regions. A single layer of columnar cells, PAS positive only in their apical portions, forms the epithelium. The convoluted tube-shape intestine is lined by simple columnar epithelial cells, which have microvilli at the apical surface. The wall of the esophagus and stomach are thicker than that of the intestine because of the thick muscle layer. There were numerous goblet cells in the intestine. There were numerous gastric glands ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
The epithelial lining of the intestine forms a barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the hosts internal milieu and is critical for fluid and electrolyte secretion and nutrient absorption. In the early 1990s, my laboratory discovered that intestinal epithelial cells could alter their phenotype and produce proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines when stimulated by pathogenic enteric luminal microbes or proinflammatory agonists produced by cells in the underlying mucosa. It is now well accepted that intestinal epithelial cells can be induced to express and secrete specific arrays of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial defense molecules. The coordinated release of molecules by intestinal epithelial cells is crucial for activating intestinal mucosal inflammatory responses as well as mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. More recent studies have focused on the intestinal epithelial signaling pathways that culminate in immune activation as well as the role of these pathways in ...
Dear Histonetters, I am looking for a way to determine if the epithelial cells in a voided urine cell block are from the bladder or collecting ducts of the kidneys. Do any of you know of an antibody that will stain epithelial cells from the kidney but not the bladder, or vice versa? Thank you in advance for your suggestions. Amanda Moklebust This electronic message transmission contains information which may be confidential or privileged. The information is intended to be for the use of the individual or entity named above. If you are not the intended recipient, be aware that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of the contents of this information is prohibited. If you have received this electronic transmission in error, please leave a message via telephone at (206) 288-6266, notify me by electronic reply, and delete this message. Opinions and ideas in this message that do not relate to official business are understood as neither given nor endorsed by the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. To ...
Our objective is to understand the mechanisms by which cell-cell contact-mediated signaling in polarized epithelial cells regulates epithelial architecture and...
Bronchial Epithelial Cell Medium-basal https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-3211-b https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
EpSCs are pluripotent and have the capability of being differentiated into all different epithelial cell types. EpSCs are considered a key resource fo...
Epithelial cells have an apical-basolateral axis of polarity, which is required for epithelial functions including barrier formation, vectorial ion transport and sensory perception. Here we review what is known about the sorting signals, machineries
Just received the pathology report frm the Needle Aspiration and it came back Rare atypical Dutal Epithelial Cells.. I am in a panic.. scheduled to have a Lumpectomy on the 19th of November. I am confu...
Here, we show for the first time that dsDNA damage and telomere malfunction in human breast epithelial cells results in a p53- and activin A-dependent COX-2 induction. By identifying signaling events leading to COX-2 induction, this study complements our previous work establishing a direct link between COX-2 and malignant phenotypes (3). Strikingly, COX-2 expression, and its associated phenotypes, are not confined to the initial cell with telomere malfunction, but are also induced in cells in the absence of DNA damage through the cell-nonautonomous action of activin A (Fig. 5D). Although induction of this pathway is self-limiting (i.e., leading to cell cycle arrest) in HMEC (intact p16/Rb pathway), it is not in vHMEC (silenced p16), where cells continue to proliferate. Finally, we show in vivo that high COX-2 expression is associated with high levels of γH2AX, TRF2, and activin A in a pilot cohort of DCIS lesions.. Our study highlights the coordinated action of p53, activin A, and p38 in ...
Watch the video lecture Epithelium: Epithelial Cells Exhibit Polarity and prepare for your medical exams with high-yield content ✓ & quiz questions ✓ now!
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [L Lembo-Fazio, G Nigro, G Noël, G Rossi, F Chiara, K Tsilingiri, M Rescigno, A Rasola, M L Bernardini].
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Fibroblasts/Epithelial cells Antibody (D7-FIB) [DyLight 488]. Validated: Flow, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Encounters with Epithelial Cells Over the past decade, many bacterial pathogens have been shown to enter epithelial cells (Fig. 114-2); the bacteria often use specialized surface structures that bind to receptors, with consequent internalization. However, the exact role and the importance of this process in infection and disease are not well defined for most of these pathogens. Bacterial entry into host epithelial cells is seen as a means for dissemination to adjacent or deeper tissues or as a route to sanctuary to avoid ingestion and killing by professional phagocytes. ...
423 Most human breast cancers are reported to be refractory to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) mediated growth regulation while producing large amounts of TGFβ1 (reviewed in Cancer Metastasis Rev 20 (1-2):133, 2001). Ionizing radiation (IR) activates TGFβ1 through a redox mechanism (Radiat Res 166:839-48, 2006) Our recent studies show that TGFβ1 depletion in irradiated epithelial cells compromises ataxia telengiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase activity and autophosphorylation, leading to reduced phosphorylation of critical DNA damage transducers γH2AX, Chk2, p53 and Rad17, abrogation of the cell cycle block and apoptosis (Cancer Res 66 (22):10861, 2006). Radiosensitivity is increased as a result in both Tgfβ1 null murine epithelial cells and non-malignant human epithelial cells in which TGFβ signaling is inhibited. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGFβ inhibition might increase clonogenic cell death in irradiated cancer cells. We first established the relative TGFβ1 sensitivity in ...
POSTDOCTORAL POSITION Available immediately on an NIH funded project, to study the role of the membrane-associated cytoskeleton in development. Specifically we are interested in the role of the membrane skeleton in 1) establishing/maintaining cell polarity in epithelial cells, 2) cell signaling, 3) cell adhesion, and 4) cell shape changes that lead to morphogenetic movements in epithelial cell sheets. Background information can be found in Thomas & Kiehart (1994) [Development 120;2039-50]. Since this early publication we have completed the sequence of this large protein, and obtained mutants in the gene encoding it which show a number of developmental defects in tissues of epithelial origin. Members of my lab will be attending this years fly meeting where we will be happy to discuss the work with anyone who is interested [3 posters attended by Thomas, Zarnescu and Das]. We also have a side interest in the evolution of the membrane skeleton in collaboration with Penn States outstanding molecular ...
Bowen NJ, et al. (2009) Gene expression profiling supports the hypothesis that human ovarian surface epithelia are multipotent and capable of serving as ovarian cancer initiating cells. (Translated from eng) BMC Med Genomics 2:71 (in eng ...
This work has been made available to the staff and students of the University of Sydney for the purposes of research and study only. It constitutes material that is held by the University for the purposes of reporting for HERDC and the ERA. This work may not be downloaded, copied and distributed to any third party ...
The [email protected] Centre provides a platform for research students to deposit their Ph.D. theses and make it available to the entire scholarly community in open access ...
Influenza virus causes an infection in the respiratory tract, or nose, throat and lungs. The virus is inhaled or transmitted, usually via your fingers, to the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose or eyes. It then travels down the respiratory tract and binds to epithelial cells lining the lung airways via specific molecules on the cell surface. Once inside the cells, the virus hijacks the protein manufacturing machinery of the cell to generate its own viral proteins and create more viral particles. Once mature viral particles are produced, they are released from the cell and can then go on to invade adjacent cells.. ...
now we are interested in the molecular reasons for strong attachment - are there any hard molecular markers for attachment I should look at first ...
A biologist is studying the epithelial cells in a variety of plants and animals. She counts the chromosomes in the epithelial cells of several organisms and finds the following numbers: Organism A: 32 chromosomes Organism B: 26 chromosomes ...
A biologist is studying the epithelial cells in a variety of plants and animals. She counts the chromosomes in the epithelial cells of several organisms and finds the following numbers: Organism A: 32 chromosomes Organism B: 26 chromosomes ...
肠上皮细胞(intestinal epithelial cells,IECs)是机体抵御病原微生物的第一道防线,是联系宿主和肠道微生物的主要桥梁.IECs与微生物的相互作用可能会引起免疫失调,然而益生菌能通过屏障与免疫调节功能来预防肠道疾病的发生.首先,益生菌具有生物拮抗功能,可以通过争夺营养,代谢产物,以及占位效应来调节肠道内微生物菌群,抑制肠道外源性潜在致病菌的生长;其次,益生菌能够改善机体的免疫功能,IECs通过模式识别受体识别益生菌及代谢产物,调节多个信号通路,调控受体的表达,激发机体自身非特异性免疫应答,从而产生一系列的免疫保护反应.另外,益生菌能够诱导肠道上皮细胞产生大量富含黏蛋白 ...
K+ channels are expressed in a wide variety of cell types, including airway epithelial cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of various Kv and KCa channels in cell proliferation and cell volume ...
J:162039 Lee KS, Lee YS, Lee JM, Ito K, Cinghu S, Kim JH, Jang JW, Li YH, Goh YM, Chi XZ, Wee H, Lee HW, Hosoya A, Chung JH, Jang JJ, Kundu JK, Surh YJ, Kim WJ, Ito Y, Jung HS, Bae SC, Runx3 is required for the differentiation of lung epithelial cells and suppression of lung cancer. Oncogene. 2010 Jun 10;29(23):3349-61 ...
The Millicell-ERS-2 (Electrical Resistance System) voltohmmeter for cell analysis reliably measures membrane potential and resistance of epithelial cells in culture .
Immediately soothing upon application, EZ Derm provides an environment that protects the migration and proliferation of epithelial cells and...
Small airway (airway diameter , 1-2 mm) inflammation is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma including airways hyper-responsiveness, spontaneous exacerbations of symptoms, and tissue remodeling [3]. Non-invasive markers of inflammation, such as NO gas in the exhaled breath, could assist in the management of airway inflammation, but the anatomical source remains unclear. Our study demonstrates that small airway epithelial cells can be differentiated at an air-liquid interface to express markers such as mucin and cilia. The differentiated epithelium produces a very small, but detectable, amount of NO gas at baseline. However, the production is significantly increased, due to the upregulation of iNOS, following exposure to soluble inflammatory mediators, most notably a combination of IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ. As such, iNOS in the small airway epithelium is a probable source of NO in the exhaled breath of asthma.. Bronchioles are generally , 1 mm in diameter, are devoid of ...
We previously developed a model in which rabbit gall bladder epithelial cells in collagen gels proliferated and formed multicellular spherical cysts after 2 to 4 days. In the present study, we examined in depth the dynamic processes of loss and reestablishment of cell polarity of rabbit gallbladder epithelial cells isolated and cultured in collagen gel. Six hours after being place in culture, the isolated epithelial cells had lost the morphologic features and phenotypic markers inherent in the in vivo gallbladder mucosa, and autophagic vacuoles appeared transiently, reflecting epithelial cell injury, or remodelling, or both. After 12 hours, mucin dots appeared in clumps of epithelial cells and gradually became larger, and the epithelial cell clumps were transformed into multicellular cysts after 1 to 2 days. The luminal surfaces of the mucin dots (intracytoplasmic inclusions or small lumens sealed by several epithelial cells) and multicellular cysts were covered by microvilli and presented profiles of
Primary airway epithelial cell culture provides a valuable tool for studying cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, and the role of immune system factors in asthma
The paired non-malignant and malignant African-American prostate epithelial cell lines RC-77 T/E and RC-77 N/E represent one of only a few cell lines derived from African-American prostate cancer patients [30]. E006AA, RC-165 N, and MDA-PCa 2a/2b are other African-American patient-derived cell lines. E006AA also has a highly tumorigenic derivative, E006AA-hT, and an associated stroma cell line, S006AA [27]. While the E006AA-hT model can be used to examine the differences between less and more highly tumorigenic cancers, it does not have a non-malignant paired epithelial cell line. The RC-165 N cell line is unique because it was derived from benign prostate tissue of an African-American male and was immortalized by telomerase [41]. This cell line is useful for understanding the functions of the androgen receptor in prostate epithelial cells. MDA-PCa 2a/2b cells are tumorigenic but differ in vivo and in vitro. These cell lines are a useful androgen sensitive model, but, unlike RC-77 cells, they do ...
In this work, the interaction between a rat cortical thymic epithelial cell (TEC) line (R-TNC.1) with nursing activity and thymocytes as well as BWRT 8 thymocyte hybridoma (TH) cells has been studied. The R-TNC.1 cell line significantly bound thymocytes and TH. Binding was stronger during the first 30 min of cell incubation and was followed by a progressive deadhesion. Among adherent thymocytes the proportion of apoptotic cells increased with culture time which was a consequence of higher capacity of the line for binding of apoptotic than viable cells and induction of apoptosis in a subset of adherent thymocytes. Emperiopolesis activity of this thymic nurse cell (TNC) line was manifested by engulfment of thymocytes as well as TH cells. A subset of viable intra-TNC thymocytes has been triggered to die by apoptosis, whereas other internalized thymocytes have been stimulated to proliferate, as measured by an increase in the percentage of cells in mitosis and higher incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for active acetylcholine metabolism in human amniotic epithelial cells. T2 - Applicable to intracerebral allografting for neurologic disease. AU - Sakuragawa, Norio. AU - Misawa, Hidemi. AU - Ohsugi, Keiko. AU - Kakishita, Kouji. AU - Ishii, Takashi. AU - Thangavel, Ramasamy. AU - Tohyama, Jun. AU - Elwan, Mohamed. AU - Yokoyama, Yasunobu. AU - Okuda, Osamu. AU - Arai, Hajime. AU - Ogino, Ikuko. AU - Sato, Kiyoshi. PY - 1997/8/22. Y1 - 1997/8/22. N2 - Human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells have been used for allotransplantation in patients with lysosomal storage disease due to lack of expression of HLA antigens. Previously, we have reported the expression of differentiation markers for both neural stem cells, and neuron and glial cells. In the present study, we investigated the presence of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) and acetylcholine (ACh) in HAE cells using different experimental approaches. Cultured HAE cells showed strong immunoreactivity against ChAT antibody. ...
Stem cells of somatic tissues are hypothesized to protect themselves from mutation and cancer risk through a process of selective segregation of their template DNA strands during asymmetric division. Mouse mammary epithelium contains label-retaining epithelial cells that divide asymmetrically and retain their template DNA. Immunohistochemistry was used in murine mammary glands that had been labeled with [3H]thymidine during allometric growth to investigate the co-expression of DNA label retention and estrogen receptor (ER)-α or progesterone receptor (PR). Using the same methods, we investigated the co-localization of [3H]thymidine and ER-α or PR in mammary tissue from mice that had received treatment with estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin subsequent to a long chase period to identify label-retaining cells. Label-retaining epithelial cells (LRECs) comprised approximately 2.0% of the entire mammary epithelium. ER-α-positive and PR-positive cells represented about 30-40% of the LREC subpopulation.
Purpose: : Epithelial cells from several mucosal sites (including conjunctiva) have been shown to actively participate during inflammatory episodes by producing and secreting cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of cytokines/chemokine secretion from conjunctival epithelial cells under the effect of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines to further clarify the role of conjunctival epithelium in ocular surface inflammation. Methods: : IOBA-NHC (normal human conjunctival) epithelial cells were exposed to Th1- (IFN-γ and TNF-α) or Th2- (IL-4 and IL-13) derived cytokines for 48 h. Time dependency (30 min, 2 h and 24 h) of TNF-α induced cytokine/chemokine secretion was additionally studied. Cytokine/chemokine production was determined in supernatants by a 22-multiplex bead-based assay in a Luminex 100-IS. Additionally, eotaxin-2 and -3 production was analyzed with by ELISA. Results: : After 48 h of Th1 stimulation, cells produced high levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL8, RANTES ...
Although approximately two-thirds of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, only a small proportion of epithelial cells in the mammary gland express the ER. The origin of the ER-positive breast cancers is unknown. Recently, we have developed a culture method to grow two morphologically and antigenically distinguishable types of normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) derived from reduction mammoplasty. In this report, we studied the expression of ER in these two types of cells and their transformed cell lines. The results indicate that Type I HBEC with luminal and stem cell characteristics expressed a variant ER (approximately 48 kd) by Western blot analysis. This variant ER contains a deletion in the DNA binding domain (exon 2) as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. The lack of the DNA-binding domain of the variant ER was also confirmed by the ER-estrogen responsive element binding assay, as well as by the immunofluorescence staining of the ER using anti-ER antibodies which recognize ...
Interferonε (IFNε) is a unique type I IFN that has distinct functions from IFNα/β. IFNε is constitutively expressed at mucosal tissues, including the female genital mucosa, and is reported to be modulated by estrogen and seminal plasma. However, its regulation by cytokines, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IL-22 and IFNα, which are commonly present in the female genital mucosa, is not well documented in freshly isolated primary cervical cells from tissues. We determined the effect of these cytokines on gene expression of type I IFNs in an immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line (A2EN) and in primary cervical epithelial cells. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to induce IFNε, and TNFα induced the strongest response in both cell types. Pretreatment of cells with the IκB inhibitor, which blocks the NF-κB pathway, suppressed TNFα-mediated IFNε gene induction and promoter activation. Expression of IFNα, IFNβ, and IFNε was differentially regulated in response to
Cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) thymic epithelial cells establish key microenvironments for T-cell differentiation and arise from thymic epithelial cell progenitors (TEP). However, the nature of TEPs and the mechanism controlling their stemness in the postnatal thymus remain poorly defined. Using TEC clonogenic assays as a surrogate to survey TEP activity, we found that a fraction of cTECs generates specialized clonal-derived colonies, which contain cells with sustained colony-forming capacity (ClonoTECs). These ClonoTECs are EpCAM+MHCII-Foxn1lo cells that lack traits of mature cTECs or mTECs but co-express stem-cell markers, including CD24 and Sca-1. Supportive of their progenitor identity, ClonoTECs reintegrate within native thymic microenvironments and generate cTECs or mTECs in vivo. Strikingly, the frequency of cTECs with the potential to generate ClonoTECs wanes between the postnatal and young adult immunocompetent thymus, but it is sustained in alymphoid Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- counterparts. ...
Free Online Library: Phosphorylation of p53 protein in A549 human pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to asbestos fibers. (Research). by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues
Looking for online definition of Epithelioid cells in the Medical Dictionary? Epithelioid cells explanation free. What is Epithelioid cells? Meaning of Epithelioid cells medical term. What does Epithelioid cells mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclooxygenase-2-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid by rat intestinal epithelial cells. AU - Seon, Hwa Lee. AU - Rangiah, Kannan. AU - Williams, Michelle V.. AU - Wehr, Angela Y.. AU - DuBois, Raymond N.. AU - Blair, Ian A.. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - Rat intestinal epithelial cells mat permanently express the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene (RIES cells) were used to investigate COX-2-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. A targeted chiral lipidomics approach was employed to quantify AA metabolites that were secreted by the cells into the culture media. When intact RIES cells were treated with calcium ionophore A-23187 (1 μM) for 1 h, 11-(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) was the most abundant metabolite, followed by prostaglandin (PG) E2, 15-(S)-HETE, 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (ETE), and 15-(R)-HETE. Incubation for a further 23 h after the calcium ionophore was removed resulted in a substantial increase in PGE2 ...
The splicing-factor oncoprotein SRSF1 (also known as SF2/ASF or ASF/SF2) is upregulated in breast cancers. We investigated the ability of SRSF1 to transform human and mouse mammary epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. SRSF1-overexpressing COMMA-1D cells formed tumors, following orthotopic transplantation to reconstitute the mammary gland. In three-dimensional (3D) culture, SRSF1-overexpressing MCF-10A cells formed larger acini than control cells, reflecting increased proliferation and delayed apoptosis during acinar morphogenesis. These effects required the first RNA-recognition motif and nuclear functions of SRSF1. SRSF1 overexpression promoted alternative splicing of BIM (also known as BCL2L11) and BIN1 to produce isoforms that lack pro-apoptotic functions and contribute to the phenotype. Finally, SRSF1 cooperated specifically with MYC to transform mammary epithelial cells, in part by potentiating eIF4E activation, and these cooperating oncogenes are significantly coexpressed in human breast ...
Purpose: Autologous serum (AS) eye drops offer a potential treatment alternative for non-healing corneal epithelial defects in clinical practice. In corneal epithelial cell cultures, fetal bovine serum (FBS) is often used to support the growth of the cells. The dose-dependent effect of AS and FBS on viability, migration and proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) have not been specified yet. The purpose of this study was to analyse the concentration-dependent effects of AS and FBS on HCEC viability, migration and proliferation, in vitro.. Methods: First, AS was prepared from 13 patients according to the regulations of the LIONS Cornea Bank Saar-Lor-Lux, Trier/Westpfalz. HCECs were firstly cultured in DMEM/F12 with 5% FBS, 0.5% DMSO, 10 ng/mL human epidermal growth factor, 1% insulin-transferrin-selenium, then were incubated in serum media which was consisting of DMEM/F12 supplemented by 5%, 10%, 15% or 30% AS or FBS for 24 hours. Thereafter, HCEC viability was analysed using Cell ...
Increasing expression of the normal human CMR cDNA in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells results in a progressive increase in the level of CFTR protein expression, but a limit on the level of cAMP-Stimulated chloride secretion Academic Article ...
Epithelial cells are uniquely positioned at the interface between inside and outside of the organism, which makes them perfect candidates for initiating and orchestrating local immune responses. In addition to establishing which TLR receptors are expressed in primary nasal epithelial cells from healthy individuals, our data furthermore suggest that nasal epithelium has developed a delicate response system towards microbial exposures. Firstly, despite the presence of TLR4 and its prime co-stimulatory molecules CD14 and MD-2, nasal epithelium from healthy individuals does not respond to LPS. As the nasal mucosa is constantly exposed to high concentrations of endotoxin, this unresponsiveness could provide a mechanism to dampen the inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa in order to avoid a chronic inflammatory response. Secondly, levels of TLR expression in individuals varies strongly, to the extent that some individuals not express TLRs that others do. Thirdly, not only are the expression levels ...
Kazantseva, M., Cooney, D., & Hickey, A. (2002). Development of a lung model utilizing human alveolar epithelial cells for evaluating aerosol drug delivery. In Respiratory Drug Delivery VIII (pp. 707 - 710). Raleigh, NC: Davis Horwood International Publishing, Ltd ...
The thymus constitutes the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the generation of naive T cells. Its stromal compartment is largely composed of a scaffold of different subsets of epithelial cells that provide soluble and membrane-bound molecules essential for thymocyte maturation and selection. With senescence, a steady decline in the thymic output of T cells has been observed. Numeric and qualitative changes in the stromal compartment of the thymus resulting in reduced thymopoietic capacity have been suggested to account for this physiologic process. The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying thymic senescence are, however, only incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that TGF-beta signaling in thymic epithelial cells exerts a direct influence on the cells capacity to support thymopoiesis in the aged mouse as the physiologic process of thymic senescence is mitigated in mice deficient for the expression of TGF-beta RII on thymic epithelial cells. Moreover, TGF-beta signaling in
Haemophilus influenzae is a common commensal organism of the human respiratory tract that initiates infection by colonizing the nasopharyngeal epithelium. In some individuals, colonization is followed by localized respiratory tract or systemic disease. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which H. influenzae attaches to and persists within the nasopharynx, we examined the interactions between a nonpiliated clinical isolate of H. influenzae and human epithelial cells. We noted substantial adherence that occurred independently of pili and required viable bacteria capable of de novo protein synthesis. Comparison of profiles of outer membrane proteins synthesized during incubation with epithelial cells for adherent and nonadherent bacteria identified several candidate adhesin molecules. In addition, a small number of adherent bacteria were capable of entering epithelial cells in a process that was inhibited by cytochalasin D and colchicine. The suggestion from our studies is that one or more of ...
0052] The media and methods disclosed herein may be used to culture a variety of mammalian cells, including primary epithelial cells (e.g., keratinocytes, cervical epithelial cells, bronchial epithelial cells, tracheal epithelial cells, kidney epithelial cells and retinal epithelial cells) and established cell lines (e.g., 293 embryonic kidney cells, HeLa cervical epithelial cells and PER-C6 retinal cells, MDBK (NBL-1) cells, CRFK cells, MDCK cells, CHO cells, BeWo cells, Chang cells, Detroit 562 cells, HeLa 229 cells, HeLa S3 cells, Hep-2 cells, KB cells, LS 180 cells, LS 174T cells, NCI-H-548 cells, RPMI 2650 cells, SW-13 cells, T24 cells, WI-28 VA13, 2RA cells, WISH cells, BS-C-I cells, LLC-MK2 cells, Clone M-3 cells, I-10 cells, RAG cells, TCMK-1 cells, Y-1 cells, LLC-PK1 cells, PK(15) cells, GH1 cells, GH3 cells, L2 cells, LLC-RC 256 cells, MH1C1 cells, XC cells, MDOK cells, VSW cells, and TH-I, B1 cells, or derivatives thereof), fibroblast cells from any tissue or organ (including but not ...
Cryopreserved renal medullary epithelial cells not exposed to antimicrobials or phenol red. Medium kit optimized specifically for renal epithelial cells.
Ming, C. H., Wasserman, D., Hartwig, S., & Osenblum, N. D. (2004). P38MAPK Acts in the BMP7-dependent stimulatory pathway during Epithelial Cell Morphogenesis and is regulated by Smadl1. Journal Of Biological Chemistry, 279(13), 12051-12059. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Cyclin D1 and other cyclins activate cyclin-dependent kinases to promote cell growth, and their overexpression has been associated with cell transformation and tumorigenesis (1 , 2) . In this issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Dragnev et al. (3) report that promoting proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, which results in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, is a mechanism of cancer chemoprevention by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and some other structurally unrelated agents. This research group has previously shown that RA prevents carcinogenic transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B by causing G1 cell cycle arrest and triggering cyclin D1 degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (4, 5, 6) . In the present study, the authors demonstrate further that cyclin E is also targeted for degradation by RA treatment. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR), a nonclassical retinoid) and ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been postulated to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). The lack of representative premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cell system for EBV infection has hampered research investigation into the regulation and involvement of EBV infection in NPC pathogenesis. We have compared the efficiency of EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells with different biological properties including immortalized, primary and cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. EBV infection could be achieved in all the nasopharyngeal epithelial cells examined with variable infection rate. TGF-β effectively enhanced EBV infection into nasopharyngeal epithelial cells both in the immortalized and primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Stable infection of EBV was achieved in a telomerase-immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, NP460hTert. The expression pattern of EBV-encoded genes and biological properties of this EBV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The alpha C protein mediates internalization of group B Streptococcus within human cervical epithelial cells. AU - Bolduc, G. R.. AU - Baron, M. J.. AU - Gravekamp, C.. AU - Lachenauer, C. S.. AU - Madoff, L. C.. PY - 2002/11/1. Y1 - 2002/11/1. N2 - Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial chorioamnionitis and neonatal pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Deletion of the alpha C protein gene (bca) attenuates the virulence of GBS in an animal model; significant survival differences in the first 24 h of infection suggest a pathogenic role for the alpha C protein early in the infection process. We examined the role of alpha C protein in the association between GBS and mucosal surfaces using a human cervical epithelial cell line, ME180. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that 9-repeat alpha C protein binds to the surface of ME180 cells. Isolated N-terminal region of this protein also binds to these cells and competitively inhibits ...
PURPOSE. A previous report has described an ocular surface reconstruction method involving the use of cultivated corneal epithelium derived from limbal explants. In the current study, a new culture system was developed involving the in vitro propagation on amniotic membrane (AM) of epithelial cells from enzymatically dissociated limbal epithelium. The purpose of this new method is to produce a cultivated epithelial cell layer that contains stem cells and that is superior to explanted cultivated epithelium. The new cell-suspension technique was compared with the existing explant method. METHODS. Limbal epithelial cells were dissociated from donor eyes by dispase and seeded on the denuded AM. Small pieces of limbal epithelium were also cultured on denuded AM as explant cultures. The cultivated epithelium was examined by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for cornea-specific keratins (K3 and K12). RESULTS. Both cell-suspension and explant culture methods produced a healthy epithelial cell ...
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-organ autosomal recessive disease of fluid-transporting epithelia, due to a mutation in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. CFTR is a cAMP-regulated Cl-channel involved in various regulatory processes. Salt and water transport depend on CFTR and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), operating in concert with the paracellular pathway through the tight junctions (TJ). The ionic composition of the ASL has been assumed to be altered in CF, resulting in a fatal accumulation of viscous mucus in the airways.. ASL samples were collected from tracheal and nasal fluid in normal and transgenic CF mice and from the fluid covering the apical surface of normal bronchial cells (16HBE14o-) and a CF human bronchial cell line (CFBE41o-). Analysis of the elemental content of the ASL was performed by X-ray microanalysis. The ASL contained more Na and Cl in CFTR-deficient or DF508-CFTR-containing cells than in control cells with ...
Background. Peritoneal mesothelial cells play an important role in peritoneal dialysis and are often exposed to dialysis fluid containing high glucose levels. Loss of peritoneal function is a major complication associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis. In this study, we hypothesized that high glucose levels induce apoptosis, and that insulin attenuates this apoptosis in peritoneal mesothelial cells. To clarify this hypothesis, we examined the effects of insulin on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and apoptosis in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells.. Methods. Phosphorylated insulin receptor and Akt were detected by western blot analysis. Apoptosis was evaluated by measuring caspase 3 activity and by TUNNEL staining.. Results. Insulin (100 nmol/L) increased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Furthermore, insulin (1-100 nmol/L) dose-dependently stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Treatment with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ...
Reduction of the cholesterol level in membranes of epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells reverses the apical-to-basolateral transport ratio of the apical membrane marker protein influenza virus haemagglutinin and the secreted glycoprotein gp80. At the same time, basolateral transport of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein is unaffected [Keller and Simons (1998) J. Cell Biol. 140, 1357-1367]. To investigate whether cholesterol depletion influences apical sorting mechanisms specifically, or apical transport capacity more generally, we studied the effect of cholesterol depletion on the secretion of three different classes of molecules from the apical and basolateral surfaces of MDCK cell layers: glycoprotein gp80, sulphated proteoglycans and proteins, and non-glycosylated rat growth hormone. In each case, cholesterol depletion reduced the fraction secreted to the apical medium and increased the fraction secreted basolaterally. The fact that this was observed for all sulphated ...
Purpose: To describe a standardized, xenogenic-free protocol for the manufacture of limbal epithelial stem cell grafts and a no touch surgical technique for its standardized transplantation. Setting: Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium. Methods: The limbo-amnion composite graft is generated by cultivating limbal epithelial stem cells on a standardized (thermolysin treated and spongy layer removed) amniotic membrane, stretched within an interlockable amnion ring. The cells are cultured in CnT-20 medium with the addition of 1% human AB serum for a period of 2 weeks. Fibrin glue is applied to the surgically prepared recipients cornea and in one fluid motion, the composite graft within the amnion ring construct is transferred from culture and positioned onto the graft bed. The required size is cut out at the level of the limbus by means of a trephine and/or microsurgical scissors. Results: The lightweight, plastic interlockable ring offered stability to the graft during culture, ...
A proteomics approach to ventilator-induced lung injury might identify protein patterns that contribute to epithelial injury. To identify changes in alveolar type II cells (ATII), rats were mechanically ventilated for 5 hours with a high tidal volume (HTV; 20 ml/kg, no positive end expiratory pressure) or a low tidal volume (LTV; 6 ml/kg, positive end expiratory pressure 4 cmH2O) and compared with pooled controls without mechanical ventilation (SV). ATII were isolated and lysed. Protein expression was compared using the recently introduced cleavable isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT) methodology. After tryptic digestion, cysteine containing peptides were tagged with biotin, extracted using an avidin-coated column and identified by HPLC and mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation. Spectra were interrogated against the Swissprot database and quantified using the ProteinProspector software. HTV ventilation resulted in morphologic changes, pulmonary edema and neutrophil influx in the ...
The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Keratinocytes make up to 95% of the cells in the skin.[16] The epithelial cells on the external surface of the body typically ... Epithelial tissue is composed of closely packed cells, bound to each other by cell adhesion molecules, with little ... Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much ...
For example, cancers of the liver parenchyma arising from malignant epithelial cells is called hepatocarcinoma, while a ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ... Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers, particularly in older ...
Thorens B (1993). "Facilitated glucose transporters in epithelial cells". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55: 591-608. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Oxygen binds with red blood cells in the blood stream. The oxygen affinity with hemoglobin on red blood cell surfaces enhances ... Just like prokaryotic cells, in eukaryotes, facilitated diffusion occurs in the nucleoplasm on chromatin filaments, accounted ... The in vitro model, which is a very well known method of facilitated diffusion, that takes place outside of a living cell, ...
The second cell type are the cells belonging to the spermatogenic cell lineage. These develop to eventually become sperm cells ... The cells in the epithelium are connected via tight junctions. One may observe two types of cell in the germinal epithelium: ... The large Sertoli cells (which are not dividing) function as supportive cells to the developing sperm. ... Spermatozoon). Typically the spermatogenic cells will make four to eight layers in the germinal epithelium.[1] ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ... The pancreas has many functions, served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells. ... "islet cell cancers",[28] even though it is now known that they do not actually arise from islet cells as previously thought.[27 ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... cytologically benign cells (with nuclei of uniform size, regular nuclear membranes, and light chromatin) and, ... have the characteristic pineocytomatous/neurocytic rosettes, which is an irregular circular/flower-like arrangement of cells ...
Sato S, Lin LR, Reddy VN, Kador PF (August 1993). "Aldose reductase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells". Experimental ... mast cell granule. • Schwann cell microvillus. • Schmidt-Lanterman incisure. • nucleoplasm. • cell projection cytoplasm. • ... The involvement in oxidative stress diseases, cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process endows AKR1B1 the ... cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process including cardiovascular disorders, sepsis, and cancer.[13] ...
Kampf C; Roomans GM (May 2001). "Effects of hypochlorite on cultured respiratory epithelial cells". Free Radic. Res. 34 (5): ... Nitric oxide can diffuse through the plasma membrane into neighbouring cells, allowing cell signalling, so nitroindazole ...
The subsets of cytokeratins which an epithelial cell expresses depends mainly on the type of epithelium, the moment in the ... Cytokeratins interact with desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, thus collaborating to cell-cell adhesion and basal cell-underlying ... Thus a specific cytokeratin expression profile allows the identification of epithelial cells. Furthermore, this applies also to ... Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562-73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197. PMID 17551517.. *^ Franke WW, Schmid E, Osborn M, Weber K (June 1979). " ...
"Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 288 (1): 33-39. doi: ...
"Candida albicans interactions with epithelial cells and mucosal immunity". Microbes and Infection. 13 (12-13): 963-976. doi: ... Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ... Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid-Schiff, which stains carbohydrates in fungal cell walls in magenta. ...
These are epithelial cells that are coated with bacteria.. Two positive results in addition to the discharge itself are enough ... The presence of clue cells on wet mount. Similar to the whiff test, the test for clue cells is performed by placing a drop of ... If present, clue cells can be visualized under a microscope. They are so-named because they give a clue to the reason behind ... Micrograph of bacterial vaginosis - cells of the cervix covered with rod-shaped bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis (arrows).. ...
... s were originally found in neutrophils, but have since been found in many other cells including epithelial cells ... "Epithelial cell-derived antibacterial peptides human beta-defensins and cathelicidin: multifunctional activities on mast cells ... and epithelial cell-derived cathelicidin, utilizes formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) as a receptor to chemoattract human ... "Interactions between neutrophil-derived antimicrobial peptides and airway epithelial cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 77 ( ...
"Possible novel receptor for PGD2 on human bronchial epithelial cells". International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 143 ... an increase in the expression of DP2 by these cells, an enhanced rate of differentiation of precursor cells to Th2 cells in ... DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model ... a subpopulation of cytotoxic T cells (i.e. CD8+ T cells), thalamus, ovary, and spleen, and, in the central nervous system, by ...
Characteristic hyphae can be seen interspersed among the epithelial cells. Trichophyton tonsurans, the causative agent of tinea ... The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated ... with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent ...
The Caco-2 cell line is a continuous line of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, developed by the ... Caco-2 cells are most commonly used not as individual cells, but as a confluent monolayer on a cell culture insert filter (e.g ... 2005). "The Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal barrier: influence of cell and culture-related factors on Caco-2 cell ... the cells differentiate to form a polarized epithelial cell monolayer that provides a physical and biochemical barrier to the ...
"Inflammatory cytokines induce apoptotic and necrotic cell shedding from human proximal tubular epithelial cell monolayers". ... Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules ... Racusen LC (1998). "Epithelial cell shedding in acute renal injury". Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. 25 (3 ... Racusen LC, Fivush BA, Li YL, Slatnik I, Solez K (April 1991). "Dissociation of tubular cell detachment and tubular cell death ...
The border of vocal fold cysts contains squamous or epithelial cells. In the case of retention cysts, the border consists of ... Ligament cysts are usually larger in size than sub-epithelial cysts.[7] They are yellow in colour and unlike sub-epithelial ... Sub-epithelial cysts (also known as mucous retention cysts) are closed lesions that occur from a build-up of tissue on the ... Sub-epithelial vocal fold cysts and ligament vocal fold cysts are characterized by similar symptoms.[1] The presence and ...
It also serves as a passage for urine to flow.[1] Urine typically contains epithelial cells shed from the urinary tract. Urine ... The epithelium of the urethra starts off as transitional cells as it exits the bladder. Further along the urethra there are ... Urethral smooth muscle cells are mechanically coupled to each other to coordinate mechanical force and electrical signaling in ... One limitation is the inability to definitively identify low-grade cancer cells and urine cytology is used mostly to identify ...
8560-8580) Complex epithelial neoplasms. Carcinoma In situ[edit]. The term carcinoma in situ (or CIS) is a term for cells that ... Non-hematopoietic mesenchymal cells ⇨ sarcoma. *Hematopoietic cells *Bone marrow-derived cells that normally mature in the ... Composed of large, monotonous rounded or overtly polygonal-shaped cells with abundant cytoplasm.. Small cell carcinoma. Cells ... Certain combinations of mutations in the given progenitor cell ultimately result in that cell (also called a cancer stem cell) ...
HPV infects epithelial cells in the anogenital tract and oral cavity. Normally, HPV is detected and cleared by the immune ... For example, muscle and liver cells contain more copies of mtDNA per mitochondrion than blood and skin cells do. Due to the ... Chloroplasts contain multiple copies of cpDNA and the number can vary not only from species to species or cell type to cell ... For this virus to persist, the circular genome must be replicated and inherited during cell division. Cells can recognize ...
... at cell-cell junctions of epithelial cells". Genes Cells. 7 (5): 475-85. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2002.00533.x. PMID 12047349.. ... regulation of cell adhesion. • cell adhesion. • cell-cell junction assembly. • keratinization. • cornification. • cell-cell ... cell-cell contact zone. • cell-cell junction. • spindle. • desmosome. • cell junction. • midbody. • spindle midzone. • ... cell nucleus. • cell-cell adherens junction. Biological process. • cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of cytokinesis. • ...
Duncan KG, Bailey KR, Kane JP, Schwartz DM (April 2002). "Human retinal pigment epithelial cells express scavenger receptors BI ... recognition of apoptotic cell. • lipid transport. • low-density lipoprotein particle clearance. • blood vessel endothelial cell ... cell surface. • lysosomal membrane. • caveola. • extracellular exosome. • microvillus membrane. Biological process. • ... defining the rules for lipid traders". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 36 (1): 39-77. doi:10.1016/ ...
... migration of surrounding epithelial cells followed by mitosis (dividing) of the cells, and introduction of blood vessels from ... However, larger or deeper ulcers often require the presence of blood vessels to supply inflammatory cells. White blood cells ... induce the corneal epithelial cells and resident leucocytes to upregulate pro-inflammatory, and MMP-activating cytokines (IL-1 ... FHV-1 causes ulceration by direct infection of the epithelial cells. Lesions appear as round or dendritic (branching) ulcers. ...
"The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Generates Cells with Properties of Stem Cells". Cell. 133 (4): 704-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... The retractions include one paper in Cell, one in Cancer Cell, two in Genes & Development and one in Cancer Research.[14][15][ ... Hanahan, D.; Weinberg, R. A. (2011). "Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation". Cell. 144 (5): 646-674. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... In the late 20th century, advances in genetics led to the discovery of over one hundred cancer cell types. Cancer cells were ...
This changes the phenotype of these cells from epithelial to endothelial. Endovascular cytotrophoblasts, like their ... Once these cells penetrate through the first few layers of cells of the decidua, they lose their ability to proliferate and ... Cell Biology, 37(1), 1-16. Bischof, P., & Irminger-Finger, I. (2005). "The human cytotrophoblastic cell, a mononuclear ... Cytotrophoblastic cells play an important role in the implantation of a newly fertilized egg in the uterus. The formation of ...
Autonomous role of medullary thymic epithelial cells in central CD4(+) T cell tolerance. Nature Immunology. 2010-06, 11 (6): ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表
"The cell of origin of ovarian epithelial tumours". Lancet Oncol. 9 (12): 1191-7. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70308-5. PMC 4176875 ... Prognosis and treatment is the same as for the most common type of ovarian cancer, which is epithelial ovarian cancer.[5][6] ... is a cancer of the cells lining the peritoneum, or abdominal cavity. ... "Phase II trial of bevacizumab in persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer or primary peritoneal cancer: a Gynecologic ...
"Repigmentation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro",. abstract = "Cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE ... Boulton M, Marshall J. Repigmentation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. Experimental eye research. 1985 Aug; ... Boulton, M & Marshall, J 1985, Repigmentation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro, Experimental eye research, ... Repigmentation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. In: Experimental eye research. 1985 ; Vol. 41, No. 2. pp. ...
Purpose: To describe a standardized, xenogenic-free protocol for the manufacture of limbal epithelial stem cell grafts and a no ... Methods: The limbo-amnion composite graft is generated by cultivating limbal epithelial stem cells on a standardized ( ... The cells are cultured in CnT-20 medium with the addition of 1% human AB serum for a period of 2 weeks. Fibrin glue is applied ... The quick, sutureless, and manipulation-free technique ensured transplantation of viable, proliferating limbal epithelial stem ...
Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body. Perfect for a doctor, researcher, science ... One-of-a-kind painting of a group of epithelial cells. ... One-of-a-kind painting of a group of epithelial cells. ... Blue Batik Purkinje Cell - original watercolor painting of brain cell - neuroscience art ... First I used a rubbery fluid to draw the design of the cells. After it dried, I wet the whole paper and applied watercolor ...
Please note that the pictures do not represent a squamous cell as such, but just a typical epithelial cell. A squamous cell is ... Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Indiana Medical School) Here is a diagram of typical epithelial cell structure, showing ... on this picture you can see the single row of epithelial cells, with the nuclei forming bumps that rise out of the flat cells) ... Endothelial cells also have a specific organelle not found in other epithelial cells: Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are regulated ...
In Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, a team of well-versed experimenters and cli ... Many powerful new techniques for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells have been developed in the past decade. ... and the interaction of epithelial cells with bacteria. Several protocols cover the culturing of epithelial cells and their use ... Applications of Epithelial Cell Culture in Studies of Drug Transport Staffan Tavelin, Johan Gråsjö, Jan Taipalensuu, Göran ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
As they report in the European Respiratory Journal, they have already successfully counteracted this mechanism in the cell ... Cell aging in lung epithelial cells. Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health ... IMAGE: Green cells show markers of the lung epithelium, red cells are undergoing senescence. The nuclei are stained in blue. ... 2017): Senolytic drugs target alveolar epithelial cell function and attenuate experimental lung fibrosis ex vivo. European ...
... have a stable karyotype and are phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. ... ATCC hTERT immortalized bronchial epithelial cells have an extended lifespan, consistently form an electrically tight ... Bronchial Epithelial Cells * HBEC3-KT (ATCC® CRL-4051™) ATCC® Number: CRL-4051™ Organism: Homo sapiens, human ... Authentication of cell lines via STR profile analysis is becoming a requirement of ... ...
... have a stable karyotype and are phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. ... ATCC hTERT immortalized bronchial epithelial cells have an extended lifespan, consistently form an electrically tight ... Cell Origin. * Human (1) Bronchial Epithelial Cells * CuFi-4 (ATCC® CRL-4015™) ATCC® Number: CRL-4015™ Organism: Homo sapiens, ... Epithelial Cells Immortalized E6/ E7 And Htert Expression (1) * Epithelial Cells Immortalized With Htert, Hpv- 16 E6/ E7- Lx... ...
... and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. ... ATCC hTERT immortalized renal epithelial cells have an extended ... Cell Origin. * Human (1) Renal Epithelial Cells * RPTEC/TERT1 OAT1 (ATCC® CRL-4031-OAT1™) ATCC® Number: CRL-4031-OAT1™ Organism ... Cell Type: Epithelial Cells Immortalized With Plxsn-Htert Retroviral Transfection Tissue: Renal Cortex; Proximal Tubules, ... Cell Type: Epithelial Cells Immortalized With Htert And Sv40 Large T Antigen Expression ...
... epithelial cells play an active role in the generation and expression of protective immune responses ... inflammatory signals in epithelial cells, in turn responsible for further recruitment and local activation of immune cells, ... dendritic cells (DC) and T cells. In turn, the cytokines released at high levels by infiltrating T cells, mainly represented by ... including epidermal stem cells. Terminal differentiation begins when basal cells withdraw from the cell cycle and lose their ...
One possibility is that each stem cell is located adjacent to a Paneths cell, and this cell type contributes to stem-cell ... Stem cell biology * Gut instincts: thoughts on intestinal epithelial stem cells Catherine Booth et al. ... a stem cell may divide symmetrically to produce either two stem cells or two maturing cells. In the latter case, a stem cell is ... Grafting colonic stem cells onto regions of the small intestine that have been denuded of epithelial cells could be used to ...
Nat Cell Biol. 2015 Nov;17(11):1497-1503. doi: 10.1038/ncb3248. Epub 2015 Sep 28. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; ... Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells seems to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelial ... Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers. Nat Cell Biol. 2015 Nov;17(11):1497-1503. ... Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers. Nat Cell Biol. 2015 Nov;17(11):1497-1503. ...
E-cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells.. Miyashita L1, Suri R1, Dearing E2, Mudway I3,4 ... We determined the effect of vapour on oxidative stress-induced, PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion to airway epithelial cells ... Electronic cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells under abnormal conditions of exposure. [ ... Response to: Electronic cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells under abnormal conditions ...
This effect was not observed in primary cultures of porcine airway epithelial cells, suggesting that the directed evolution ... our studies indicate that serial passage of a GP64 mutant library yielded specific variants with improved HAE cell tropism, ... Novel GP64 envelope variants for improved delivery to human airway epithelial cells. *P L Sinn1. ,2. , ... Establishment of Primary Transgenic Human Airway Epithelial Cell Cultures to Study Respiratory Virus-Host Interactions *Hulda R ...
Fascinating biology occurs at epithelial interfaces, whether between organism and environment or within body compartments, and ... identification of somatic stem cells in key organs, to name a few. Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, Second Edition provides a ... Epithelial cell cultures have been an integral and crucial part of the biomedical research enterprise, adding unique ... Authoritative and easily accessible, Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, Second Edition will serve outstanding investigators ...
B cell-generated virus is more infectious for an epithelial cell and epithelial cell-derived virus is B cell-tropic (18). ... Fusion from without of ARPE-19 cells induced by epithelial cell-derived virus. (A) Cells were inoculated with epiBADrUL131 or ... BADrUL131 grown in ARPE-19 epithelial cells (epiBADrUL131) initiates its program of gene expression in epithelial cells more ... B) fibroBADrUL131 particles within epithelial cells. (C) fibroBFXwt particle within an epithelial cell. Representative images ...
A) PtK2 cells grown on coverslips. (B and D) MDCK cells polarized on filter supports for 3 days. (C) Caco-2 cells polarized on ... we chose to study the diffusion characteristics in the apical membrane of epithelial cells, namely MDCK or Caco-2 cells, which ... Phase coexistence and connectivity in the apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Doris Meder, Maria Joao Moreno, Paul ... A model for the domain organization of the apical membrane of epithelial cells compared with the plasma membrane of a ...
The vaginal epithelial (VE), vaginal CD1a+ cells (V CD1a), skin epithelial (SK), and skin Langerhans cells (SLC) were probed ... EM of vaginal tissue demonstrating epithelium (E) and a nucleated cell consistent with an epithelial-based dendritic cell (eDC ... Dendritic cells (DCs), present in mucosal epithelia, potentially facilitate HIV-1 acquisition. We show that vaginal epithelial ... Numbers in the quadrants show the percentage of positive cells. Due to limited cell quantities, the CD1a+ VEDCs in these plots ...
It is hoped that amniotic epithelial cells can be useful in cell-mediated gene therapy. We report here an experimental cell ... The cell yield was approximately 106 cells per pregnant female (105 cells per fetus), roughly in proportion to the age of fetus ... We established a method to isolate amniotic cells that are equivalent to human amniotic epithelial cells. An amniotic membrane ... Cytological Examination of Rat Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Cell Transplantation to the Liver ...
... epithelial cells) and "professional" (B cells, T cells, DCs, and macrophages) immune cells [4]. ... 4. Airway Epithelial Cells: The Connection of Innate and Adaptive Immunity. Airway epithelial cells have been recognized to ... Airway Epithelial Cell Produced Proinflammatory Factors. Functional PRRs expressed in epithelial cells at different airway ... cells that played a critical role in response to Mtb in these non-phagocytic cells [38-40]. A549 cells, an ATII cell line, ...
... which is expressed by a variety of cells, including endothelial cells, tubular epithelial cells, and other cell types (57,59,68 ... NF-κBp65 and IL-6 antigen in urinary excreted tubular epithelial cells. A and B: Cells were obtained from the urine of a type 2 ... Activation of Tubular Epithelial Cells in Diabetic Nephropathy. Michael Morcos, Ahmed A.R. Sayed, Angelika Bierhaus, Benito ... Activation of Tubular Epithelial Cells in Diabetic Nephropathy. Michael Morcos, Ahmed A.R. Sayed, Angelika Bierhaus, Benito ...
Excess cells may indicate a medical problem. Learn more. ... cells in urine test measures the amount of these cells in your ... What is an epithelial cells in urine test?. Epithelial cells are a type of cell that lines the surfaces of your body. They are ... They are called transitional cells, renal tubular cells, and squamous cells. If there are squamous epithelial cells in your ... An epithelial cells in urine test looks at urine under a microscope to see if the number of your epithelial cells is in the ...
... Nathália Villa dos Santos,1 ... "Copper Uptake in Mammary Epithelial Cells Activates Cyclins and Triggers Antioxidant Response," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular ...
Although this finding awaits confirmation, similar studies with bronchial epithelial cells in vitro would provide a useful tool ... The finding that human tracheal and nasal epithelial cells in culture are capable of synthesizing PGE2 could have important ... Our studies have demonstrated it is possible to culture both human nasal and bronchial epithelial cells to confluency under ... These cells are similar morphologically, histologically, and functionally and resemble the cells in vivo. Studies of ciliary ...
  • Unfortunately, the stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration cannot be identified morphologically or distinguished from other epithelial cells by any recognized set of markers. (jci.org)
  • Hence, most interpretations of stem-cell behavior are based upon monitoring cohorts of cells before and after perturbation of the tissue. (jci.org)
  • Live imaging reveals that these misplaced cells reintegrate into the tissue. (nih.gov)
  • We show that vaginal epithelial DCs, termed CD1a+ VEDCs, are unlike other blood- and tissue-derived DCs because they express langerin but not DC-SIGN, and unlike skin-based langerin+ DC subset Langerhans cells (LCs), they do not harbor Birbeck granules. (jci.org)
  • Due to limited cell quantities, the CD1a + VEDCs in these plots are not all from the same tissue. (jci.org)
  • L and M ) Two independent Western blots of cell pellets from different vaginal tissue and skin donors. (jci.org)
  • In this Review we focus on epithelial and innate immune cell interactions that mediate wound healing and restoration of tissue homeostasis in the skin and intestine. (jci.org)
  • The accessibility of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans to genetic and cell biological analyses, combined with the study of mammalian cells in culture, provides an ideal basis for understanding the mechanisms that control the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity and tissue integrity. (sciencemag.org)
  • To maintain tissue size, the number of cells lost must be compensated by cell divisions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tissue homeostasis and wound-repair are ensured by stem cells, located within specialized microenvironments, referred to as niches. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although interpretation of these experiments has been complicated by the lack of specificity of most stem cell markers, this method can be helpful in evaluating the contribution of stem cells to tissue homeostasis and wound-repair. (sciencemag.org)
  • Coordinating stem cell activity to match tissue output. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each stem cell niche must be responsive to the regenerative demands of tissue homeostasis and wound-repair and adjust niche activating and inhibitory signals as necessary. (sciencemag.org)
  • Additional new findings suggest that fates and multilineage potentials of epithelial stem cells can change, depending upon whether a stem cell exists within its resident niche and responds to normal tissue homeostasis, whether it is mobilized to repair a wound, or whether it is taken from its niche and challenged to de novo tissue morphogenesis after transplantation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Of the four major tissue types found in the human body (Figure 1), epithelial cells are by far the most prolific. (davidson.edu)
  • Epithelial cells are bound together in sheets of tissue called epithelia. (davidson.edu)
  • Microscopic features of pleomorphic adenoma: Wellencapsulated tumour tissue with heterogenous stromal elements consisting of chondromyxoid, fibrous and hyaline areas, and ducts and ductules of varying sizes lined by luminal cuboidal epithelial cells and outer layer epithelial cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biopsy of the mass revealed diffuse cysts consisting of well-differentiated, monolayer cuboidal epithelial cells surrounded by edematous connective tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This makes the possibility of rejection of the cells by the recipient tissue less likely. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditional tissue transplants, where the donor and recipient have to be in complete sync as far as blood type and overall compatibility and even still can show tissue rejection, amniotic epithelial cells can be used and show a higher likelihood of tissue acceptance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike embryonic stem cells, amniotic stem cells have not shown a propensity for developing into teratomas and other cancer-like tumors upon injection into living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression profiles of isolated cells and corresponding mucosal biopsies were evaluated and compared between healthy and inflamed colonic tissue. (dovepress.com)
  • SCs can renew throughout life and can differentiate into the different cell lineages of their tissue of origin. (rupress.org)
  • Dissemination is the process by which cells detach and migrate away from a multicellular tissue. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Bone marrow (BM) -derived stem cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages of tissue resident cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • If not untreated, the cancer cells can spread beyond the lung into nearby tissue and other parts of the body. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Although efficient intestinal immune responses protect the host from invading pathogens, the inappropriate activation of intestinal T cells may also result in chronic inflammatory reactions and tissue destruction, e.g., as observed in inflammatory bowel disease (for review see reference 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Thus, a tight regulation of intestinal immune cells and their activation is crucial to maintain tissue homeostasis and ensure protective host defense. (rupress.org)
  • To investigate the effect of using tissue cultured human amniotic epithelial cells to re-establish severely damaged ocular surfaces. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Specifically, to determine the efficacy of transplanted tissue cultured amniotic epithelial cells on persistent corneal epithelial defect, a potential visual threaten ocular disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These patients will have received traditional medical therapy, including correcting the underlying causes, suppressing inflammation, and augmenting the tissue healing processes, but the epithelial defects have persisted. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Limbal epithelial cells in clusters/sheets and limbal tissue explant culture are superior to single-cell culture for the expansion of LSCs. (ca.gov)
  • Opportunistic pathogens may have an array of virulence factors that facilitate their attachment to host cells and enable tissue invasion. (scielo.br)
  • an epithelial tissue with cells of many different. (openstudy.com)
  • Conclusions: These data suggests that the rapid response to hepcidin is cell type and tissue specific. (ebscohost.com)
  • Flow cytometry identified 97% of cells isolated as intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). (dovepress.com)
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), one of the most widely studied probiotic bacteria, is effective in preventing and treating diarrhoea in infancy and childhood (14), and has a cytoprotective effect on intestinal epithelial cells (15). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While dendritic cells (DCs) are likely to play a crucial role in this homeostasis through their linkage of innate with adaptive immunity, intestinal epithelial cells are currently attracting considerable attention for their expression of a range of factors that could influence the behaviour of DCs, thereby shaping the ensuing response. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In order to test possible treatment strategies, the scientists placed the affected cells into a three-dimensional cell culture and examined the drugs's effect ex vivo, so to speak. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2017): Senolytic drugs target alveolar epithelial cell function and attenuate experimental lung fibrosis ex vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hence, the properties, and probably the number, of stem cells in a crypt may change in response to circumstances, including the choice of experimental manipulations (which often fail to mimic the conditions that these cells normally encounter in vivo). (jci.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects multiple cell types in vivo ( 7 ), and it fuses with the plasma membranes of fibroblasts ( 8 ) but enters retinal pigmented epithelial cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells via endocytosis ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Indications for distinct lipid environments in living cells come from the measurements of different viscous drags for different bead-coupled proteins in the plasma membrane of fibroblasts ( 15 ) and from fluorescence anisotropy measurements of diphenyl chain-labeled phosphatidylcholine revealing liquid-ordered environments in the plasma membrane of mast cells ( 16 ) and in vivo images of liquid-ordered domains in macrophages labeled with 6-lauroyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • These cells are similar morphologically, histologically, and functionally and resemble the cells in vivo . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Studies of ciliary activity demonstrate that these cells react toward various agonist and antagonist agents in a similar manner as the cells reported in vivo and consequently will prove to be a valuable model for the evaluation of various therapeutic agents used in the management of infective lung diseases. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Similarly studies on the effect of histamine have demonstrated that histamine probably does lead to an increase in bronchial epithelial permeability in vivo and that this effect is likely to be mediated via stimulation of H-1 receptors. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To test directly for a requirement for endothelial cells in instructive epithelial patterning, we developed a novel ex vivo cell fractionation/reconstitution assay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the absence of intestinal GCs in vivo , activation by anti-CD3 injection resulted in reduced CD69 expression and interferon-γ production by intestinal T cells, whereas activation by viral infection led to increased T cell activation. (rupress.org)
  • In response to physical, chemical or microbial perturbation of the epithelial barrier, these cells provide a valid defensive line by the expression of an array of soluble mediators with direct antimicrobial and/or chemotactic activities towards distinct immune cell populations and also towards cytokines and adhesion molecules that affect their functional activation. (els.net)
  • Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers. (nih.gov)
  • Reducing the levels of the lateral homophilic adhesion molecules Neuroglian or Fasciclin 2 disrupts reintegration, giving rise to extra-epithelial cells, whereas disruption of adherens junctions has no effect. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells seems to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelial layer back into it. (nih.gov)
  • Since oxidative stress in airway cells increases platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) expression, and PAFR is co-opted by pneumococci to adhere to host cells, we hypothesised that E-cigarette vapour increases pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells.Nasal epithelial PAFR was assessed in non-vaping controls, and in adults before and after 5 min of vaping. (nih.gov)
  • Various cell-cell contacts guarantee close adhesion between the cells and provide the barrier function characteristic of epithelia. (sciencemag.org)
  • These domains mediate cell-cell adhesion by forming elaborate junctions visible under the electron microscope. (sciencemag.org)
  • The CHI3L1 molecule was upregulated after pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulation and enhanced the adhesion and internalization of intracellular bacteria in epithelial cells. (massgeneral.org)
  • Extracellular matrix adhesion is required for normal epithelial cell survival, nutrient uptake and metabolism. (harvard.edu)
  • In conclusion, EPs[R] 7630 develops complementary anti-infective properties: Firstly, EPs[R] 7630 reduces bacterial adhesion to intact epithelial cells and thus protects the organism from bacterial colonization and infection/superinfection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Along the cell periphery, the filaments interact with cell matrix and cell-to-cell adhesion complexes. (fsu.edu)
  • Since oxidative stress in airway cells increases platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) expression, and PAFR is co-opted by pneumococci to adhere to host cells, we hypothesised that E-cigarette vapour increases pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells. (ersjournals.com)
  • The absence of the second gH/gL complex causes the loss of epithelial and endothelial cell tropism in HCMV laboratory strains ( 19 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • I did not expect that spindle orientation defects could be sufficient to cause loss of epithelial identity," explains Yu-ichiro Nakajima, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in the Gibson lab and the study's first author. (medindia.net)
  • Next, we will review and critically discuss how dys-regulation of cell volume or given ion transporters can lead to loss of epithelial architecture, altered cell survival, tumor progression, and drug resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are part of the frontline defense against infection of pathogens by providing both a physical barrier and immunological function. (hindawi.com)
  • Airway epithelial cells (AECs) create a physical barrier to inhaled particles and pathogens, regulate airway surface fluid, secrete mediators to recruit immune cells in response to injury, and help regulate smooth muscle cells to facilitate respiration 1 . (nature.com)
  • As the barrier between the outside world's contaminants and the body, these cells replicate often to replace damaged or dead cells. (davidson.edu)
  • Our primary study includes identifying key molecules which regulate CEC/microorganism interaction, CEC/lamina propria cell interaction and intestinal epithelial cell barrier function. (massgeneral.org)
  • The epithelial layer within the colon represents a physical barrier between the luminal contents and its underlying mucosa. (dovepress.com)
  • We are optimistic that the culturing processes covered by this new patent, which produce RPE cells with no contamination by hESCs, should establish a formidable barrier to entry for potential competitors. (pr.com)
  • Recently, the links between epithelial barrier loss and disease were extended to include initiation and propagation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Epithelial cells represent the first barrier of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and thus are logical targets for a comprehensive integrated therapeutic approach. (bmj.com)
  • Adaptive and innate immune systems play a major role in these functions, which are centrally orchestrated within the epithelial barrier. (bmj.com)
  • Once thought to function exclusively by providing a crucial barrier, mucosal epithelial cells are now known to function as sentinels that recognize antigens, respond in ways that lead to bacterial and viral killing, as well as signal to underlying immune cells when pathogenic challenge exceeds their protective capacity. (wiley.com)
  • To adequately defend against microbial colonisation and infection, epithelial cells are endowed with the complete armamentarium of innate immune defence. (els.net)
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor and its endogenous ligands provide a formidable mechanism to enhance innate immunity, while they oppose activation of adaptive immunity in epithelial cells. (els.net)
  • Patients with atopic dermatitis are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens because of an articulate defect in the innate immunity mechanisms of the epithelial cell. (els.net)
  • Furthermore, these epithelial cells are capable of not only regulating innate immunity but also producing functional molecules that physically interacted with immunocytes to activate adaptive immunity [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These epithelial cell-derived antimicrobial molecules and/or peptides were multifunctional agents capable of linking the innate and adaptive immune responses [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an extremely dangerous pathogen that primarily infects the lung and is known for its capability to escape innate immune effector cells (such as macrophages and airway epithelial cells) causing tuberculosis in humans and animals [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The AECs are one of the first host cells encountering invaded mycobacterial pathogens, despite increasing evidence, which demonstrates the potential roles of these cells in the tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis, as well as the innate and adaptive immune responses against the infection [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • An emphasis was placed on the recently recognized functions of epithelial cells in innate and adaptive immunity against mycobacteria, particularly the pathogen recognition and host defense of AECs to Mtb. (hindawi.com)
  • Acting both directly and indirectly through underlying stromal cells, estradiol and progesterone regulate epithelial cell innate and adaptive immune functions to protect against potential pathogens while providing an environment that supports an allogeneic fetus. (wiley.com)
  • In particular, Ashwell and colleagues found that thymic epithelial cells express the entire enzyme cascade required for GC synthesis, enabling the release of bioactive GCs ( 12 - 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • their morphology and nuclear deformation were characteristic of amoeboid cells, whereas their dynamic protrusive activity, pericellular proteolysis and migration speeds were more typical of mesenchymal cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Transitioning epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells enhances cardiac pr. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Epithelial cells are joined together by junctions, of which there are four types: Tight junctions or zona occludens are where the membranes of the adjacent cells become fused together. (google.com)
  • For example, although epithelial cells in Drosophila do not develop TJs, a distinct region apical to the ZA, the subapical region (SAR), harbors protein complexes that colocalize with tight junctions in vertebrate cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tight junctions act as the delineation between the apical (upper) and basal (lower) regions of an epithelial cell in conjunction with polarization between the two regions. (davidson.edu)
  • Physiologically functional and morphologically recognizable tight junctions can thus be established within 30 min, demonstrating a mechanism for the rapid restoration of epithelial integrity after cell loss. (caltech.edu)
  • In Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, a team of well-versed experimenters and clinical researchers share their best methods for establishing and maintaining epithelial cell cultures, for analyzing and studying their characteristics, and for using them to set up models of critical biological systems. (springer.com)
  • This effect was not observed in primary cultures of porcine airway epithelial cells, suggesting that the directed evolution protocol was species specific. (nature.com)
  • Epithelial cell cultures have been an integral and crucial part of the biomedical research enterprise, adding unique capabilities and enabling mechanistic approaches. (springer.com)
  • Participants will learn to expand primary human airway epithelial cells in PneumaCult™-Ex and PneumaCult™-Ex Plus Media, prepare cultureware for ALI culture, establish ALI cultures of human airway epithelial cells with PneumaCult™-ALI Medium, and perform downstream assays for airway epithelial cells at the ALI. (stemcell.com)
  • All of the 3T3 feeder-free cultures contain more than 3% of p63bright cells. (ca.gov)
  • We show here for the first time that reduction in miR-30 family microRNAs, is responsible for mesenchymal transition of primary cultures of human pancreatic epithelial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cytological Examination of Rat Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Cell. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • It is hoped that amniotic epithelial cells can be useful in cell-mediated gene therapy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We established a method to isolate amniotic cells that are equivalent to human amniotic epithelial cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Gene transduction with adenovirus vector was highly effective for rat amniotic cells. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Amniotic epithelial cells are a form of stem cells extracted from the lining of the inner membrane of the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniotic epithelial cells start to develop around 8 days post fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniotic epithelial cells have the ability to develop into any of the three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial heart valves and working tracheas, as well as muscle, fat, bone, heart, neural and liver cells have all been engineered using amniotic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniotic epithelial cells have shown to be safe and successfully transplanted into hosts that are not related to the donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible reason for this is that amniotic epithelial cells have low antigen levels that inhibit compatibility from a donor to the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, amniotic epithelial cells are known to promote natural wound healing as well as the inhibition of angiogenesis, which is the basic conversion of a tumor into malignant cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniotic epithelial cells are harvested from the placenta, which is commonly discarded after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also large amounts of amniotic epithelial cells found in the placenta and can be found in upwards of 50-100 million cells from one extraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amniotic epithelial cells have not been known to produce cancerous tumors in the host despite the fact that these cells do express genes found in embryonic stem cells that are known to promote tumor formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have found that freezing amniotic epithelial cells causes them to not function as they normally would, which have scientists thinking that the extracellular matrix is the part of the cell that controls its functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been several studies conducted on the potential benefits of using Amniotic epithelial cells in various parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, amniotic epithelial cells have been used in the past to treat genetic liver diseases such as ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, familial hypercholesterolemia, and Crigler-Najjar Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histologically and somehow functionally, human amniotic cells are similar to ocular surface cells, and these cells have been shown to be safe to be transplanted to another subject and will not be rejected by the recipient. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In animal studies, amniotic cells demonstrated that they can re-establish the integrity of ocular surface in more than 30% of recipients without apparent toxic side effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • identifies a potential source of stemlike cells, the human amnion (a membrane that surrounds a fetus and contains the amniotic fluid) for the potential treatment of interstitial lung disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our hypothesis was that EMT would improve cardiac regeneration capacity of amniotic epithelial cells by increasing their mobility and extracellular matrix modulating capacity," said study corresponding author Dr. Christof Stamm of the Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin, Germany. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These are required for the normal processes of cell physiology There may also be some specialised structures, as described for endothelial cells below. (google.com)
  • Fascinating biology occurs at epithelial interfaces, whether between organism and environment or within body compartments, and many diseases inflicting huge personal and societal burdens result from dysfunction of epithelial systems, e.g., carcinomas. (springer.com)
  • In other words, if you pointed a tiny camera in your gut toward dividing epithelial cells of its lining, you would "see" the mitotic spindle looking like a symmetrical web, exactly like it did in your high school biology textbook. (medindia.net)
  • The findings derived from epithelial biology often lead to a better understanding of cancer development," says Nakajima. (medindia.net)
  • Despite recent advances in stem cell biology, it is not yet possible to identify individual stem cells in the ocular surface in situ. (arvojournals.org)
  • Overexpression of CDH26 in cells with a fibroblastoid phenotype increases contact inhibition and promotes monolayer formation and cortical actin structures. (nature.com)
  • Two particular features allow epithelial cells to fulfill their specialized functions during morphogenesis and in the differentiated state, where they may be subjected to mechanical stresses or strong pressures, e.g., in the intestine or the bladder: (i) they have a polarized phenotype and (ii) they form highly elaborate cell-cell junctions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Also, these lab grown cells have shown altered gene expression causing a differing phenotype as well as differing antigen levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells undergoing these transitions often attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) or partial EMT phenotype that allows collective cell migration and presumably is responsible for observed clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). (utoronto.ca)
  • The miR-30 family microRNAs confer epithelial phenotype to human pancreatic cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Forced depletion using miR-30 family specific anti-miRs leads to mesenchymal transition while ectopic overexpression maintains the epithelial phenotype. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A ciliated, mucus-producing phenotype can be achieved when growing and differentiating the cells at the air-liquid interphase. (promocell.com)
  • Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main cell phenotype involved in liver fibrogenesis, display molecular markers of neuronal cells and respond to neurotransmitters. (ebscohost.com)
  • RESULTS: WPE-stem cells rapidly acquired a malignant CSC-like phenotype by 18 weeks of exposure, becoming highly invasive, losing contact inhibition, and hypersecreting matrix metalloproteinase-9. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Far from simply representing passive targets of environmental or immunological attack, epithelial cells play an active role in the generation and expression of protective immune responses. (els.net)
  • The exact mechanism of epithelial mediated host defense and the clinical relevance of the epithelial cell-mediated immune responses remain poorly understood. (hindawi.com)
  • Identifying signals of inflammation initiation and responses to stimuli from within the epithelial layer is critical to understanding the molecular pathways underlying disease pathology. (dovepress.com)
  • Responses of isolated type II alveolar cells to fibroblast growth factors (FGF) have been shown to be sensitive to the level of sulfation in extracellular matrix (ECM) substrata. (psu.edu)
  • Conclusion: These results represent some of the first data documenting alterations in profiles of oral epithelial cell responses to multispecies biofilms. (umich.edu)
  • Basal keratinocytes are columnar in shape and consist primarily of mitotically active cells, including epidermal stem cells. (els.net)
  • The spinous cells are polyhedral, larger and more flattened than basal cells. (els.net)
  • Basal cells exhibit a pattern of polarity in their organization of proteins such as KRT14 and KRT5 4 suggesting that formation of apicobasal domains happens early in formation of AEC sheets. (nature.com)
  • and the basolateral domain, which is in contact with neighboring cells or a basal substratum. (sciencemag.org)
  • In Drosophila epithelial cells, the septate junction (SJ) lies basal to the ZA and forms a region of close membrane contacts that extends over large parts of the lateral plasma membrane domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, the nucleus in the epithelial cell is usually found closer to the basal surface than the apical surface. (davidson.edu)
  • Nuclear heterochromatin foci were characterized and fluorescence emission spectra were obtained from individual basal epithelial cells of the cornea, limbus and conjunctiva under a fluorescence microscope fitted with a liquid crystal tunable filter. (arvojournals.org)
  • Limbal basal epithelial cells above the limbal capillary arcade contained heterochromatin foci that could be clearly distinguished from those of the cornea or the conjunctiva. (arvojournals.org)
  • Purpose To investigate the possibility of using cultivated oral epithelial cells in ocular surface reconstruction. (ovid.com)
  • At 3-4 weeks after the ocular surface injury, the rabbit conjunctivalized corneal surfaces were surgically reconstructed by transplanting both the rabbit and human cultivated oral epithelial cells on the AM carrier. (ovid.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the keratin pair 4 and 13 and keratin 3 in the cultivated oral epithelial cells. (ovid.com)
  • Corneas that were grafted with rabbit and human cultivated oral epithelial cells on an AM carrier were clear and were epithelialized 10 and 2 days after surgery, respectively. (ovid.com)
  • Objective: This study used a novel model of multispecies bacterial biofilms to stimulate oral epithelial cells and profile select cytokines and chemokines that contribute to the local inflammatory environment in the periodontium. (umich.edu)
  • OKF4 oral epithelial cells were cultured in 48 well plates at 10 5 cells/well, which were challenged with the biofilms for 24 hrs. (umich.edu)
  • The culture of pig kidney epithelial cells featured in the digital image above was immunofluorescently labeled with anti-cytokeratin (pan) mouse monoclonal primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Pacific Blue. (fsu.edu)
  • Ocular surface damage caused by severe ocular surface diseases, particularly thermal and chemical burn or Stevens-Johnson syndrome result in corneal epithelial defect, corneal vascularization, corneal conjunctivalization and loss of transparency. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here, we provide evidence for a coexistence of at least two different lipid bilayer phases in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • We first have demonstrated that we are able to grow the human limbal stem cells under the standard method using mouse 3T3 cells as feeder at the same efficiency level as the leading group in the world. (ca.gov)
  • We then proceeded with the initial testing of all the proposed human feeder candidates for their ability to support the growth of human limbal stem cells. (ca.gov)
  • We then investigated four new culture methods to maximize the growth of limbal epithelial cells on human feeder candidates. (ca.gov)
  • We are very excited to find that two of the human feeder cell types could support the growth of limbal epithelial cells with a significantly higher efficiency than the 3T3 cells using our two new culture methods. (ca.gov)
  • We are in the process of further refining the culture methods and characterize the expanded limbal epithelial cells. (ca.gov)
  • Three types of human feeder cells- limbal fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells-support the growth of LSCs. (ca.gov)
  • In our laboratory, we have developed a limbal stem cell deficient (LSCD) rabbit model. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this trials investigates the therapeutic effects of application autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Combined with heterochromatin foci, telomere length, and the location, each limbal epithelial cell could be uniquely identified. (arvojournals.org)
  • This spectral property allows discrimination of: 1) corneal cells, limbal cells, and conjunctival cells, 2) individual cells within the cornea, the limbus or the conjunctiva. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cells line most organs, such as the stomach and small intestine, kidney, and pancreas. (davidson.edu)
  • Female reproductive organs are lined with ciliated epithelial cells. (davidson.edu)
  • Estimates of stem-cell number vary widely, from 0.4% to 60% of the crypt cells, with the smallest value implying that a single stem cell occurs in each crypt. (jci.org)
  • This discrepancy arises largely because of differences in the operational definition of the stem cell. (jci.org)
  • This degree of plasticity is unexpected based on the traditional understanding of stem-cell function. (jci.org)
  • Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. (nature.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy with a lentiviral vector in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (nature.com)
  • Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy benefits metachromatic leukodystrophy. (nature.com)
  • Identifying stem cells and tracking their progeny is accelerated by lineage tracing, a technique in which a stem cell is genetically marked in its niche and in a way such that their subsequent progeny retain marker expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • Accumulating evidence on bone marrow, intestinal stem cell crypts, and hair follicles suggests that stem cells often exist in two distinct states based upon their relative activity and/or their ease of activation during homeostasis and/or wound-induced regeneration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent studies on the hair follicle reveal that signals emanating from both heterologous niche cells and from lineage progeny influence the timing and length of stem cell activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stem cell ablation studies on both intestinal and hair follicle stem cell niches further show that the two states are interconvertible, perhaps best exemplified by the ability of a single intestinal stem cell to eventually outcompete its siblings during rounds of turnover within an intestinal villus. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have demonstrated that our stem cell-derived RPE cells can rescue visual function in animals that otherwise would have gone blind. (pr.com)
  • Stem Cell Line. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article offers information on the new MilliTrace stem cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Millipore Corp. (ebscohost.com)
  • Stem cell-based therapy seems promising, but the studies are still limited to animal models. (sciencemag.org)
  • A subclass of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor (Lgr) proteins has recently gained prominence as adult stem cell markers with crucial roles in maintaining stem cell functions. (biologists.org)
  • However, proof of emergence of CSCs induced by arsenic in a stem cell population is not available. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • New findings from his lab published in the July 21 advance online issue of Nature demonstrate that the way the mitotic spindle the machinery that separates chromosomes into daughter cells during cell division aligns relative to the surface of the cell layer is essential for the maintenance of epithelial integrity. (medindia.net)
  • Treatment of epithelial cells with agents that block endosome acidification inhibited infection by virus produced in fibroblasts but had only a modest effect on infection by virus from epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • The gO-containing complex is sufficient for fibroblast infection, whereas the pUL128/pUL130/pUL131-containing complex is required to infect endothelial and epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • BAD r UL131 grown in ARPE-19 epithelial cells ( epi BAD r UL131) initiates its program of gene expression in epithelial cells more rapidly than virus grown in HFF fibroblasts ( fibro BAD r UL131) ( Fig. 1 A ). When ARPE-19 cells were infected with epi BAD r UL131 (0.1 pfu per cell), ≈17% of the cells expressed detectable IE1 protein at 6 h after infection (hpi). (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, infection with fibro BAD r UL131 led to IE1 expression in only 2.8% of cells at 6 hpi. (pnas.org)
  • In response to mycobacteria infection, epithelial expression of Toll-like receptors and surfactant proteins plays the most prominent roles in the recognition and binding of the pathogen, as well as the initiation of the immune response. (hindawi.com)
  • These cells also produce proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines that recruit and activate phagocytes to the site of infection eliminating pathogens by phagocytosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. (harvard.edu)
  • The differences in the ability of these microorganisms to invade and survive within HEp-2 cells and replicate in the extracellular environment up to 24 h post infection were evaluated. (scielo.br)
  • Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a phenomenon necessary for embryonic development and also seen during certain pathological conditions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • After transplanting the transitioned cells into mice modelling a myocardial infarction, the researchers found that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was beneficial to cardiac regeneration by lowering infarct size. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Hence, the differentiated, functional cells are found mainly on the villi (small intestine) or toward the top of the colonic crypt - the intercrypt table - in the large intestine. (jci.org)
  • This demonstrates the importance of sample choice when investigating functions directly affecting the colonic epithelial layer. (dovepress.com)
  • Fibroblast-Derived Virions Activate Immediate-Early Gene Expression in ARPE-19 Cells with Slower Kinetics than Epithelial Cell-Derived Virions. (pnas.org)
  • The calcium chelation isolation method provided a reliable method for the isolation of a pure population of cells with preservation of epithelial cell-specific gene expression. (dovepress.com)
  • Recent reports have demonstrate that activity of many signalling pathways implicated in the control of SC activity are regulated by small none-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs), which represent a newly recognized and important level of regulation of cell fate during execution of the lineage-specific gene expression programmes. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • It also hints at a surprising way that cells initiate a gene expression program seen in invasive cancers when that process goes awry. (medindia.net)
  • The goal of this study was to determine if the model sulfated ECM heparin modified DNA synthesis and gene expression by type II cells in a concentration dependent-manner. (psu.edu)
  • The effects of heparin were examined by [ 3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, total cell protein, cell number, and selected gene expression. (psu.edu)
  • Focuses on a study which transformed embryonic cells of several cultivars of Manihot esculenta Crantz with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) transformation vector of mgfp5-ER. (ebscohost.com)