Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A family of mesenchymal tumors composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. These cells do not have a normal anatomic homolog. (From Fletcher CDM, et. al., World Health Organization Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone, 2002).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (1/24454)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (2/24454)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (3/24454)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

The Gab1 PH domain is required for localization of Gab1 at sites of cell-cell contact and epithelial morphogenesis downstream from the met receptor tyrosine kinase. (4/24454)

Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces mitogenesis, motility, invasion, and branching tubulogenesis of epithelial and endothelial cell lines in culture. We have previously shown that Gab1 is the major phosphorylated protein following stimulation of the Met receptor in epithelial cells that undergo a morphogenic program in response to HGF. Gab1 is a member of the family of IRS-1-like multisubstrate docking proteins and, like IRS-1, contains an amino-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, in addition to multiple tyrosine residues that are potential binding sites for proteins that contain SH2 or PTB domains. Following stimulation of epithelial cells with HGF, Gab1 associates with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce branching tubulogenesis. Overexpression of Gab1 rescues the Met-dependent tubulogenic response in these cell lines. The ability of Gab1 to promote tubulogenesis is dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Whereas the wild-type Gab1 protein is localized to areas of cell-cell contact, a Gab1 protein lacking the pleckstrin homology domain is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. Localization of Gab1 to areas of cell-cell contact is inhibited by LY294002, demonstrating that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is required. These data show that Gab1 is an important mediator of branching tubulogenesis downstream from the Met receptor and identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain as crucial for subcellular localization of Gab1 and biological responses.  (+info)

Progesterone inhibits estrogen-induced cyclin D1 and cdk4 nuclear translocation, cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activation, and cell proliferation in uterine epithelial cells in mice. (5/24454)

The response of the uterine epithelium to female sex steroid hormones provides an excellent model to study cell proliferation in vivo since both stimulation and inhibition of cell proliferation can be studied. Thus, when administered to ovariectomized adult mice 17beta-estradiol (E2) stimulates a synchronized wave of DNA synthesis and cell division in the epithelial cells, while pretreatment with progesterone (P4) completely inhibits this E2-induced cell proliferation. Using a simple method to isolate the uterine epithelium with high purity, we have shown that E2 treatment induces a relocalization of cyclin D1 and, to a lesser extent, cdk4 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and results in the orderly activation of cyclin E- and cyclin A-cdk2 kinases and hyperphosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 pretreatment did not alter overall levels of cyclin D1, cdk4, or cdk6 nor their associated kinase activities but instead inhibited the E2-induced nuclear localization of cyclin D1 to below the control level and, to a lesser extent, nuclear cdk4 levels, with a consequent inhibition of pRb and p107 phosphorylation. In addition, it abrogated E2-induced cyclin E-cdk2 activation by dephosphorylation of cdk2, followed by inhibition of cyclin A expression and consequently of cyclin A-cdk2 kinase activity and further inhibition of phosphorylation of pRb and p107. P4 is used therapeutically to oppose the effect of E2 during hormone replacement therapy and in the treatment of uterine adenocarcinoma. This study showing a novel mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by P4 may provide the basis for the development of new antiestrogens.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (6/24454)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 8 in human breast cancer. (7/24454)

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is an important developmental protein which is oncogenic and able to cooperate with wnt-1 to produce mouse mammary carcinoma. The level of expression of FGF8 mRNA was measured in 68 breast cancers and 24 non-malignant breast tissues. Elevated levels of FGF8 mRNA were found in malignant compared to non-malignant breast tissues with significantly more malignant tissues expressing FGF8 (P=0.019) at significantly higher levels (P=0.031). In situ hybridization of breast cancer tissues and analysis of purified populations of normal epithelial cells and breast cancer cell lines showed that malignant epithelial cells expressed FGF8 mRNA at high levels compared to non-malignant epithelial and myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts. Although two of the receptors which FGF8 binds to (FGFR2-IIIc, FGFR3-IIIc) are not expressed in breast cancer cells, an autocrine activation loop is possible since expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 and FGFR1 are retained in malignant epithelial cells. This is the first member of the FGF family to have increased expression in breast cancer and a potential autocrine role in its progression.  (+info)

Role of retinoid receptors in the regulation of mucin gene expression by retinoic acid in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. (8/24454)

To investigate which retinoid receptors are critical in the regulation by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) of the mucin genes MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells, we used pan-RAR-, pan-RXR- and RAR- isotype (alpha, beta and gamma)-selective agonists and RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective antagonists (RAR is RA receptor and RXR is retinoid X receptor). RAR-, RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective agonists strongly induced mucin mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner, while the RARbeta-selective retinoid only weakly induced mucin gene expression at very high concentrations (1 microM). The pan-RXR-selective agonist by itself did not induce mucin gene expression, but acted synergistically with suboptimal concentrations of the pan-RAR agonist. A retinoid with selective anti-activator-protein-1 activity only marginally induced mucin gene expression. The RARalpha antagonist strongly inhibited mucin gene induction and mucous cell differentiation caused by RA and by the RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective retinoids. In contrast, the RARgamma antagonist only weakly inhibited RARalpha-selective-retinoid-induced mucin gene expression, but completely blocked mucin gene expression induced by the RARgamma-selective retinoid. Our studies indicate that RARalpha is the major retinoid receptor subtype mediating RA-dependent mucin gene expression and mucous cell differentiation, but that the RARgamma isotype can also induce mucin genes. Furthermore these studies suggest that RARbeta is probably not (directly) involved in RA-induced mucin gene expression.  (+info)

Renal Epithelial Cell Growth Kit (ATCC ® PCS-400-040) contains components that when added to Renal Epithelial Cell Basal Medium (ATCC ® PCS-400-030) create a complete ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ culture environment for renal epithelial cells derived from normal human kidney (e.g., Primary Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ® PCS-400-010; Primary Renal Cortical Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ® PCS-400-011; Primary Renal Mixed Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ® PCS-400-012). The low serum (0.5% FBS) medium formulation is designed to support normal renal cell morphology as well as promote rapid growth and proliferation. No feeder layers, extracellular matrix proteins or other substrates are required.
ATCC ® Normal Human Primary Small Airway Epithelial Cells, when grown in Airway Epithelial Cell Basal Media supplemented with Bronchial Epithelial Cell Growth Kit (ATCC PCS-300-040) components, provide an ideal cell system to propagate small airway epithelial cells in serum-free conditions. The cells are cryopreserved at the first passage to ensure the highest viability and plating efficiency. ATCC ® Primary Cell Solutions™ cells, media, supplements and reagents are quality tested together to guarantee optimum performance and reliability.
Bronchial Epithelial Cell Growth Kit (ATCC ®  PCS-300-040) contains components that when added to Airway Epithelial Cell Basal Medium (ATCC ®  PCS-300-030) create a complete ATCC ®  Primary Cell Solutions™ culture environment for bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells derived from normal human lung (e.g., Primary Bronchial/Trachel Epithelial Cells, Normal, Human, ATCC ®  PCS-300-010). The serum-free medium formulation is designed to support normal bronchial/epithelial cell morphology as well as promote rapid growth and proliferation. No feeder layers, extracellular matrix proteins or other substrates are required.
Understanding how insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling in mammary epithelial cells may be modified or interrupted by modifications in the cellular environment may lead to 1) methods to increase the growth and proliferation of normal mammary epithelial cells for an increase in the amount of milk produced on a per animal basis or to 2) the development of medical interventions to disrupt the growth and proliferation of cancerous mammary epithelial cells. IGF-I, a signaling protein provided by stromal cells and through the bloodstream, stimulates the proliferation of mammary epithelial cells and is crucial for mammary development. Collagen I is an extracellular matrix protein (ECM) found in skin and in other connective tissues throughout the body. The guiding question in this dissertation was how IGF-I signaling and how binding protein profile were influenced by autocrine IGF-I and by collagen I. The MAC-T cell line was chosen as the cell model utilized in these investigations because it ...
Definition of squamous epithelial cell in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is squamous epithelial cell? Meaning of squamous epithelial cell as a legal term. What does squamous epithelial cell mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of cytokines on ICAM-1 and ZO-1 expression on human airway epithelial cells. AU - Shahana, Shahida. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - The presence of adhesion molecules on airway epithelial cells may be important in recruiting leukocytes to the epithelium. The study aimed at investigating the effects of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-8, IL-13 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on cell viability and intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and zonula occludens protein (ZO)-1 expression on cultured human basal and columnar airway epithelial cells. Cycloheximide (CHX) induced cell death in both cell lines. The cytokines IL-4, IL-8, IL-13 and IFN-gamma had only minor effects on cell proliferation in the columnar 16HBE14o-cells, and inhibited the effects of CHX on cell death. IFN-gamma increased ICAM-1 expression in both cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that CHX inhibited both ICAM-1 and ZO-1 expression in the basal cell line. A combination of IL-4 and IFN-gamma appeared to break ...
Polarized epithelial cells play fundamental roles in the ontogeny and function of a variety of tissues and organs in mammals. The morphogenesis of a sheet of polarized epithelial cells (the trophectoderm) is the first overt sign of cellular differentiation in early embryonic development. In the adult, polarized epithelial cells line all body cavities and occur in tissues that carry out specialized vectorial transport functions of absorption and secretion. The generation of this phenotype is a multistage process requiring extracellular cues and the reorganization of proteins in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane; once established, the phenotype is maintained by the segregation and retention of specific proteins and lipids in distinct apical and basal-lateral plasma membrane domains. ...
Regulation of alveolar epithelial cell phenotypes in fetal sheep: roles of cortisol and lung expansion.: Our aim was to determine whether cortisols effect on a
Epithelial cells of different tissues or species diverge substantially in their culture requirements. Thus, in vivo-like culture of epithelial cells necessitates optimization of the entire culturing process including transport, isolation, medium composition and culture conditions. In the present study we established a new protocol for a differentiated cell culture system of the porcine cervical epithelium, based on easily accessible slaughterhouse material. The morphology and tested functional markers of our culture system are comparable to the native tissue as shown by histology, immunohistochemistry and alcian blue staining. The use of fibroblast-conditioned medium supported proliferation of cervical epithelial monolayers suggesting that stromal growth factors or cytokines released into the medium are required for cell growth in these epithelia. The supplementation of the conditioned medium with EGF further optimized proliferation and mitochondrial activity of the cervical epithelial cells. ...
We have studied the survival requirements of developing lens epithelial cells to test the hypothesis that most cells are programmed to kill themselves unless they are continuously signaled by other cells not to do so. The lens cells survived for weeks in both explant cultures and high-density dissociated cell cultures in the absence of other cells or added serum or protein, suggesting that they do not require signals from other cell types to survive. When cultured at low density, however, they died by apoptosis, suggesting that they depend on other lens epithelial cells for their survival. Lens epithelial cells cultured at high density in agarose gels also survived for weeks, even though they were not in direct contact with one another, suggesting that they can promote one anothers survival in the absence of cell-cell contact. Conditioned medium from high density cultures promoted the survival of cells cultured at low density, suggesting that lens epithelial cells support one anothers survival ...
Metzger TC, Khan IS, Gardner JM, Mouchess ML, Johannes KP, Krawisz AK, Skrzypczynska KM, Anderson MS. Lineage tracing and cell ablation identify a post-Aire-expressing thymic epithelial cell population. Cell Rep. 2013 Oct 17;5(1):166-79.. ...
This project addresses possible biological mechanisms underlying the adverse human health effects associated with exposure to the respirable fine particulate matter present in air pollution (PM2.5). Epidemiological studies suggest that humans, especially those with chronic pulmonary or cardiovascular disease, are adversely affected by exposure to PM2.5 and animal toxicological studies have shown that PM2.5 introduced into the respiratory tract cause adverse health effects such as inflammation. In order to bridge the gap between human epidemiological and animal toxicological studies, this research will investigate the effects of PM2.5 upon human respiratory tract epithelial cells. The underlying hypothesis of this research is that respirable particulates carry as yet unidentified toxic environmental chemicals into the respiratory tract where they are deposited onto the epithelial cell lining and act to disrupt normal epithelial cell functions, resulting in inflammation. ...
Epithelial cells isolated from fresh human breast surgically resected tumor and normal margin. Cryopreserved samples available in frozen aliquots. High quality human breast primary epithelial cell cultures available for research.
RT-PCR analysis of ABC, SLC and SLCO drug transporters in human lung epithelial cell models. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 61 (5) , pp. 583-591. 10.1211/jpp/61.05.0006 ...
Epithelial Cell Medium (EpiCM) is a complete medium designed for optimal growth of normal human epithelial cells in vitro. It is a sterile, liquid medium which contains essential and non-essential amino acids, vitamins, organic and inorganic compounds, hormones, growth factors, trace minerals and a low concentration of fetal bovine serum (2%). The medium is bicarbonate buffered and has a pH of 7.4 when equilibrated in an incubator with an atmosphere of 5% CO2/95% air. The medium is formulated (quantitatively and qualitatively) to provide a defined and optimally balanced nutritional environment that selectively promotes proliferation and growth of normal human epithelial cells in vitro ...
The thymus is a complex cellular structure made up of several interdependent cell types and is the primary site for T cell development. A population of fetal thymic epithelial cells (TEC), marked by MTS20 and MTS24, when grafted in vivo can generate a functional thymus containing all thymic epithelial cells and is capab,e of supporting T cell differentiation. Further analysis using in vivo grafting experiments have determined the endoderm as the sole origin for all major thymic epithelial subsets. These findings suggest the possibility that a bipotent thmic epithelial progenitor cell (TEPC) gives rise to both cortical and medullary epithelial compartments. The first ai of this study was to address whether bipotent mouse TEPC give rise to both medullary and cortical epithelial cell populations and to begin to establish a model of TEC differentiation through ontogeny. Its second aim was to start to define condidtions for maintaining functionally undifferentiated RTEPC in vitro. Finally, as little ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - miR-30 family controls proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cell models by directing a broad gene expression program that includes SOX9 and the ubiquitin ligase pathway. AU - Peck,Bailey C.E.. AU - Sincavage,John. AU - Feinstein,Sydney. AU - Mah,Amanda T.. AU - Simmons,James G.. AU - Lund,P. Kay. AU - Sethupathy,Praveen. PY - 2016/7/29. Y1 - 2016/7/29. N2 - Proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) occur in part through precise regulation of key transcription factors, such as SOX9. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as prominent fine-tuners of transcription factor expression and activity. We hypothesized that miRNAs, in part through the regulation of SOX9, may mediate IEC homeostasis. Bioinformatic analyses of the SOX9 3′-UTR revealed highly conserved target sites for nine different miRNAs. Of these, only the miR-30 family members were both robustly and variably expressed across functionally distinct cell types of the murine ...
Background MicroRNA (miR) expression is commonly dysregulated in many cancers, including breast. MiR-92 is one of six miRs encoded by the miR-17-92 cluster, one of the best-characterised oncogenic miR clusters. We examined expression of miR-92 in the breast epithelium and stroma during breast cancer progression. We also investigated the role of miR-92 in fibroblasts in vitro and showed that down-regulation in normal fibroblasts enhances the invasion of breast cancer epithelial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We used laser microdissection (LMD) to isolate epithelial cells from matched normal, DCIS and invasive tissue from 9 breast cancer patients and analysed miR-92 expression by qRT-PCR. Expression of ERβ1, a direct miR-92 target, was concurrently analysed for each case by immunohistochemistry. LMD was also used to isolate matched normal (NFs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from 14 further cases. Effects of miR-92 inhibition in fibroblasts on epithelial cell invasion in vitro was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of TLR2 expression and function in human airway epithelial cells. AU - Melkamu, Tamene. AU - Squillace, Diane. AU - Kita, Hirohito. AU - OGrady, Scott M.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Toll-like receptor (TLR1-6) mRNAs are expressed in normal human bronchial epithelial cells with higher basal levels of TLR3. TLR2 mRNA and plasma membrane protein expression was enhanced by pretreatment with Poly IC, a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) known to activate TLR3. Poly IC also enhanced mRNA expression of adaptor molecules (MyD88 and TIRAP) and coreceptors (Dectin-1 and CD14) involved in TLR2 signaling. Additionally, mRNA expression of TLR3 and dsRNA-sensing proteins MDA5 and RIG-I increased following Poly IC treatment. In contrast, basal mRNA expression of TLR5 and TLR2 coreceptor CD36 was reduced by 77% and 62%, respectively. ELISA of apical and basolateral solutions from Poly IC-stimulated monolayers revealed significantly higher levels of IL-6 and GM-CSF compared ...
We have established a spontaneously immortalised mammary epithelial cell line, BME65Cs. This cell line exhibits the majority of normal MECs features, whereas growth character, the ability to form colonies and expression of relevant breast tumor genes are significantly different from breast cancer cells (MCF-7). These data suggest that BME65Cs cells are not derived from malignant transformations. Whether or not in vitro spontaneous transformation is correlated with in vivo benign tumor transformation, the immortal BME65Cs cell line will be a useful tool for studying the molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis and cellular senescence. In contrast, TERT or SV40 gene mediated immortalization by the random integration of exogenous genes may bring an unforeseeable influence on natural gene expression and regulation.. There are three types of human mammary epithelial cell progenitors have been identified. The first is thought to be a luminal-restricted progenitor; the second type is a bipotent progenitor ...
Lin, H., Li, H., Cho, H.-J., Bian, S., Roh, H.-J., Lee, M.-K., Kim, J. S., Chung, S.-J., Shim, C.-K. and Kim, D.-D. (2007), Air-liquid interface (ALI) culture of human bronchial epithelial cell monolayers as an in vitro model for airway drug transport studies. J. Pharm. Sci., 96: 341-350. doi: 10.1002/jps.20803 ...
Increased Growth of a Newly Established Mouse Epithelial Cell Line Transformed with HPV-16 E7 in Diabetic Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Nothing screws up a perfectly good theory faster than reality and the reality is that studies about the long-term results of Trans-Epithelial v PRK v LASEK v Epi-Lasik seem inconclusive. In the end, the patient gets about the same result. Surgeons who do Trans-Epithelial swear by it - and may be correct - but the studies have not shown it to be significantly better. Trans-Epithelial may not be better than the other surface ablation techniques, but it certainly does not appear to be any worse ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors Controlling Growth, Motility, and Morphogenesis of Normal and Malignant Epithelial Cells. AU - Birchmeier, Carmen. AU - Meyer, Dirk. AU - Riethmacher, Dieter. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Factors that control epithelial growth, motility, and morphogenesis play important roles in malignancy and in normal development. Here we discuss the molecular nature and the function of two types of molecules that control the development and maintenance of epithelia: Components that regulate epithelial cell adhesion; and soluble factors and their receptors that regulate growth, motility, differentiation, and morphogenesis. In development, the establishment of epithelial cell characteristics and organization is crucially dependent on cell adhesion and the formation of functional adherens junctions. The integrity of adherens junctions is frequently disturbed late in tumor progression, and the resulting loss of epithelial characteristics correlates with the metastatic potential of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endothelin-1 increases expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and production of interlukin-8 in hunan pulmonary epithelial cells. AU - Peng, Hong. AU - Chen, Ping. AU - Cai, Ying. AU - Chen, Yan. AU - Wu, Qing hua. AU - Li, Yun. AU - Zhou, Rui. AU - Fang, Xiang. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - Inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inflammatory cytokines play important roles in inflammatory processes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) might be also involved in the pathophysilogical processes in COPD. In the present study, we determined whether ET-1 could regulate the expression of COX-2 and alter the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549). Induced sputum samples were collected from 13 stable COPD patients and 14 healthy subjects. The COX-2 protein, ET-1, PGE2 and IL-8 in these sputum samples were analyzed. A549 cells were incubated with ET-1 in the presence or absence of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. The ...
HIV-1 infections of women are mainly acquired through female reproductive tract where cervical and vaginal epithelial cells are the first line of defense. Although HIV-1 does not directly infect epithelial cells, HIV-1 obligatorily interacts with and crosses over epithelial layer to infect susceptible target cells, mainly CD4+ T cells, in the lamina propria to initiate an infection. However, the mechanism and ramification of the interaction of HIV-1 and epithelial cells in vaginal transmission of HIV-1 remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that cervical epithelial cells are not a passive barrier, but actively respond to HIV-1 to change mucosal milieu and facilitate HIV-1 transmission. We tested this hypothesis by studying the responses of cervical epithelial cells to HIV-1 through profiling genome-wide transcription. We found 1) cervical epithelial cells actively respond to HIV-1. Five hundred forty-three transcripts/genes in cervical epithelial cells were significantly altered in expression ...
The secreted polypeptide transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) exerts its multiple activities through type I and II cell surface receptors. In epithelial cells, activation of the TGF-beta signal transduction pathways leads to inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in extracellular matrix production. TGF-beta is widely expressed during development and its biological activity has been implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, e.g., in branching morphogenesis of the lung, kidney, and mammary gland, and in inductive events between mammary epithelium and stroma. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-beta on mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro. TGF-beta reversibly induced an alteration in the differentiation of normal mammary epithelial NMuMG cells from epithelial to fibroblastic phenotype. The change in cell morphology correlated with (a) decreased expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin, ZO-1, and desmoplakin I and II; (b) increased expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognition of the neural chemoattractant netrin-1 by integrins α6β4 and α3β1 regulates epithelial cell adhesion and migration. AU - Yebra, Mayra. AU - Montgomery, Anthony M P. AU - Diaferia, Giuseppe R.. AU - Kaido, Thomas. AU - Silletti, Steve. AU - Perez, Brandon. AU - Just, Margaret L.. AU - Hildbrand, Simone. AU - Hurford, Rosemary. AU - Florkiewicz, Elin. AU - Tessier-Lavigne, Marc. AU - Cirulli, Vincenzo. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Netrins, axon guidance cues in the CNS, have also been detected in epithelial tissues. In this study, using the embryonic pancreas as a model system, we show that Netrin-1 is expressed in a discrete population of epithelial cells, localizes to basal membranes, and specifically associates with elements of the extracellular matrix. We demonstrate that α6β4 integrin mediates pancreatic epithelial cell adhesion to Netrin-1, whereas recruitment of α6β4 and α3β1 regulate the migration of CK19+/PDX1+ putative pancreatic progenitors on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - PRRX2 as a novel TGF-β-induced factor enhances invasion and migration in mammary epithelial cell and correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer. AU - Juang, Yu Lin. AU - Jeng, Yung Ming. AU - Chen, Chi Long. AU - Lien, Huang Chun. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - TGF-β and cancer progression share a multifaceted relationship. Despite the knowledge of TGF-β biology in the development of cancer, several factors that mediate the cancer-promoting role of TGF-β continue to be identified. This study aimed to identify and characterise novel factors potentially related to TGF-β-mediated tumour aggression in breast cells. We treated the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A with TGF-β and identified TGF-β-dependent upregulation of PRRX2, the gene encoding paired-related homeobox 2 transcription factor. Overexpression of PRRX2 enhanced migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth of MCF10A cells and induced partial epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), as determined by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - IL-17F-induced IL-11 release in bronchial epithelial cells via MSK1-CREB pathway. AU - Kawaguchi, Mio. AU - Fujita, Junichi. AU - Kokubu, Fumio. AU - Huang, Shau Ku. AU - Homma, Tetsuya. AU - Matsukura, Satoshi. AU - Adachi, Mitsuru. AU - Hizawa, Nobuyuki. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - IL-17F is involved in asthma, but its biological function and signaling pathway have not been fully elucidated. IL-11 is clearly expressed in the airway of patients with allergic airway diseases such as asthma and plays an important role in airway remodeling and inflammation. Therefore, we investigated the expression of IL-11 by IL-17F in bronchial epithelial cells. Bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of IL-17F and/or Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) or various kinase inhibitors to analyze the expression of IL-11. Next, activation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK) 1 by IL-17F was investigated. Moreover, the effect of short interfering RNAs ...
Mammary epithelial cells culture model systems have identified a number of genes whose alterations are involved in mammary carcinoma cell line development..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Morphogenetic clonal growth of kidney epithelial cell line MDCK. AU - McAteer, James A.. AU - Evan, Andrew P.. AU - Gardner, Kenneth D.. PY - 1987/3. Y1 - 1987/3. N2 - MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells were cultured either 1) dispersed within hydrated collagen gel (HCG) or 2) seeded atop a collagen substrate and then immediately overlaid with HCG. Individual cells exhibited clonal growth in three dimensions to form spherical cysts made up of a simple epithelium enclosing a fluid-filled lumen. The cells of MDCK cysts were polarized with the basolateral surface in contact with the collagen gel and the apical surface bordering the lumen. The ultrastructure of MDCK cysts showed similarities to distal nephron. The cells bore apical microvilli and solitary cilia and had occluding junctions and a simple basolateral surface. MDCK cysts increased in size (, 800 μm diameter) with continued culture. MDCK cysts grown between layers of HCG were stripped free of the overlying collagen to ...
The continued presence of bacterial and viral antigens in the lumen of the vagina coupled with the periodic presence of antigens in the lumena of the upper reproductive tract provide an ongoing challenge that can compromise female reproductive health and threaten life. Separating underlying tissues from luminal antigens, polarized epithelial cells of the cervix, uterus and Fallopian tubes have evolved to protect against potential pathogens. Once thought to function exclusively by providing a crucial barrier, mucosal epithelial cells are now known to function as sentinels that recognize antigens, respond in ways that lead to bacterial and viral killing, as well as signal to underlying immune cells when pathogenic challenge exceeds their protective capacity. Unique to epithelial cells of the female reproductive tract is the regulatory control of the female sex hormones. Acting both directly and indirectly through underlying stromal cells, estradiol and progesterone regulate epithelial cell innate ...
Diabetic Mouse Tracheal and Bronchial Epithelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the tracheal and bronchial tissues of Diabetic (db/db) mice. Diabetic Mouse Stomach Epithelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells at passage 3 are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 0.5x10^6cells per ml. The method we use to isolate primary epithelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. Cells are incubated with EpCAM-1 (CD326) antibody, following the application of magnetic beads pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Epithelial cells respond to growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin. Using high-content immunofluorescence microscopy, we quantitated differences in signaling networks downstream of EGF, which stimulated proliferation of mammary epithelial cells, and insulin or IGF-1, which enhanced the proliferative response to EGF but did not stimulate proliferation independently. We found that the abundance of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p57Kip2 increased in response to IGF-1 or insulin but decreased in response to EGF. Depletion of p57Kip2, but not p21Cip1, rendered IGF-1 or insulin sufficient to induce cellular proliferation in the absence of EGF. Signaling through the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)-Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway was necessary and sufficient for the increase in p57Kip2, whereas MEK [mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase]-ERK activity ...
Intestinal transplantation (IT) remains highly experimental compared to other solid organ transplants because of poorly defined mechanisms of graft rejection. In this project, the role of luminal bacteria-derived endotoxin and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-{dollar}\alpha){dollar} in intestinal epithelial damage during acute graft rejection was examined. In a novel mouse model of IT, the acute intestinal rejection was associated with elevated levels of endotoxin, IL-6, and TNF-{dollar}\alpha{dollar} in the peripheral blood. The progressive increase in endotoxin and TNF-{dollar}\alpha{dollar} levels correlated well with the histologic severity of epithelial damage. To further define the role of endotoxin and inflammatory cytokines on intestinal epithelial cells, several epithelial cell lines from the small intestine of BALB/c mice were established by transfection of primary cultured epithelial cells with pMK16 plasmid containing the origin-deficient simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA. One epithelial
Compromised epithelial cell integrity is a common feature associated with chronic lung inflammatory states such as asthma. While epithelial cell damage is largely due to sustained effects of inflammatory mediators localized to airways, the subsequent process of epithelial cell differentiation is attributed to members of the transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase family called the ErbBs. MUC4, a large molecular weight membrane-bound glycoprotein, has recently been identified as a potential ligand for the ErbB-2 receptor. In this study, we investigated the possible role of interleukin-9 (IL-9), a Th2 cytokine, on MUC4 expression using a lung cancer cell line, NCI-H650. We determined that IL-9 up-regulates MUC4 expression in a time and concentration-dependent fashion. Nuclear run-on assays indicated transcriptional regulation of MUC4 while no post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization was observed by actinomycin D chase experiments. IL-9 also increased MUC4 glycoprotein expression as determined by ...
According to the John Hopkins Lupus Center, the presence of squamous epithelial cells in a urine sample often indicates that the sample was contaminated. However, epithelial cells can also indicate...
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
Respiratory system epithelial cells and macrophages are the crucial natural resistant cells that play an essential function in the pathogenesis of influenza A pathogen infection. the lack of TNF- induction in L5D1 virus-challenged pigs, coincided with better cell loss of life and the decreased discharge of contagious pathogen from infected pig epithelial cells. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a protein suppressor of the JAK-STAT pathway, was constitutively highly expressed and transcriptionally upregulated in H5N1 virus-infected pig epithelial cells and macrophages, in contrast to the corresponding human cells. The overexpression of SOCS3 in infected human macrophages dampened TNF- induction. In summary, we found that the reported low susceptibility of pigs to contemporary Eurasian HPAI H5N1 computer virus infections coincides at the level of innate immunity of respiratory epithelial cells and macrophages with a reduced output of viable computer virus and an attenuated ...
Inactivation of the ARF-p53 tumor suppressor pathway leads to immortalization of murine fibroblasts. The role of this pathway in immortalization of human epithelial cells is not clear. We analyzed the functionality of the p14(ARF)-p53 pathway in human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) immortalized by human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6, the p53 degradation-defective E6 mutant Y54D, or hTERT. E6-MEC or E6Y54D-MEC maintains high-level expression of p14(ARF). Late-passage hTERT-immortalized MEC express p53 but down-regulate p14(ARF). Enforced expression of p14(ARF) induces p53-dependent senescence in hTERT-MEC, while both E6-MEC and E6Y54D-MEC are resistant. We show that E6Y54D inhibits p14(ARF)-induced activation of p53 without inactivation of the p53-dependent DNA damage response. Hence, p53 degradation and inhibition of p14(ARF) signaling to p53 are independent functions of HPV16 E6. Our observations imply that long-term proliferation of MEC requires inactivation of the p14(ARF)-p53 pathway.
Interferons play a critical role in regulating both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Previous reports have shown increased levels of IFN-γ, IFN-γ-inducing IL-12 and IFN-γ-inducible chemokine IP-10 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The present study focuses on the regulation of the IP-10 secretion in co-cultures of lung epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No IP-10 secretion was detected in cells cultured alone, whereas a significant increase in IP-10 levels was observed in epithelial cell/PBMC co-cultures. Furthermore, the results show that interactions between lung epithelial cells, lymphocytes and monocytes are needed for basal IP-10 secretion. Interestingly, we have also shown that incubation with IL-12 can induce an IFN-γ independent increase in IP-10 levels in co-cultures. Furthermore, inhibition studies supported the suggestion that different intracellular pathways are responsible of IFN-γ and IL-12 mediated IP-10 secretion.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vectorial secretion of interleukin-8 mediates autocrine signalling in intestinal epithelial cells via apically located CXCR1. AU - Rossi, O.. AU - Karczewski, J.. AU - Stolte, E.H.. AU - Brummer, R.J.. AU - van Nieuwenhoven, M.A.. AU - Meijerink, M.. AU - van Neerven, R.J.J.. AU - van Ijzendoorn, S.C.. AU - van Baarlen, P.. AU - Wells, J.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - BackgroundIn the intestinal mucosa, several adaptations of TLR signalling have evolved to avoid chronic inflammatory responses to the presence of commensal microbes. Here we investigated whether polarized monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells might regulate inflammatory responses by secreting IL-8 in a vectorial fashion (i.e. apical versus basolateral) depending on the location of the TLR stimulus.ResultsIn the Caco-2 BBE model of polarized villus-like epithelium, apical stimulation with TLR2 and TLR5 ligands resulted in the apical secretion of IL-8. The CXCR1 receptor for IL-8 was expressed only on the apical ...
Act1/CIKS is an intracellular protein that has been shown to play an important role in mediating IL-17A and IL-25 signaling effects. Recently, defects in Act1 function and/or expression has been implicated in inflammatory disease, such as psoriatic arthritis and atopic dermatitis. We have found that the modulation of Act1 expression levels in human airway epithelial cells changes the expression levels of some genes, in the absence of cytokine stimulation. RNAseq is a powerful new technique to quantitatively measure changes at the transcriptome level. Here we describe the use of RNAseq to globally analyze the effects of modulating Act1 expression in human airway epithelial cells. ...
The p53 tumor suppressor protein has been implicated as a mediator of programmed cell death (PCD). A series of nontransformed mammary epithelial cell (MEC) lines were used to correlate p53 function with activation of PCD. Treatment of MECs expressing mutant, inactive, or no p53 with DNA-damaging agents did not induce apoptosis. Upon introduction of temperature-sensitive p53 into HC11 cells, which lack wild-type (wt) p53, PCD was observed after mitomycin treatment at 32 degrees, when the ts p53 protein is in wt conformation. Thus, wt p53 mediates activation of PCD in response to mitomycin in HC11 cells. Treatment of the MCF10-A cells, which express wt p53, with various DNA-damaging agents led to nuclear accumulation of p53. Only mitomycin treatment led to an increase in the number of apoptotic nuclei. ErbB-2-transformed MCF10-A cells responded to mitomycin, cisplatin, and 5-Fl-uracil, suggesting that signaling from activated ErbB-2 enhances the cells ability to respond to DNA damage. A ...
The underlying mechanisms of protein sorting in polarized epithelial cells are poorly understood. Several studies have determined membrane targeting of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) using epithelial cells such as Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Polarized epithelial cells are composed of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains with specific protein compositions separated by tight junctions. Purinergic, muscarinic, and adrenergic receptors are a few examples of GPCRs that have been shown to localize to specific membranes in MDCK cells. The current work seeks to determine the differences in subcellular localization of the human prostaglandin E2 receptors. The EP receptors are all GPCRs, which differ in their second messenger pathways. The EP3 receptor is unique in that it has eight different isoforms that differ in the lengths of the carboxyl tail. The EP3 isoforms, as well as the EP2 and EP4 receptors, have distinct properties, including different agonist-induced ...
How is intestinal epithelial cells abbreviated? T84 stands for intestinal epithelial cells. T84 is defined as intestinal epithelial cells very rarely.
The kinetics of colorectal epithelial cell proliferation (CECP) have been found to be altered in patients at increased risk for colon cancer. Altered CECP kinetics include an increase within the colon crypts of the overall proportion of proliferating cells (labeling index; LI) and the proportion of proliferating cells that are in the upper 40% of the crypts (phi h). Use of CECP as a biomarker to measure effects of calcium interventions on the colon has been reported in five small uncontrolled clinical trials, nine small randomized placebo-controlled trials, and three full-scale randomized placebo-controlled trials. All five uncontrolled trials indicated substantial and significant decreases in proliferation. Of the nine small controlled trials, three found statistically significant decreases in the LI, and the remainder were inconclusive because of insufficient sample size. Of the three full-scale trials, one found a decrease in, or normalization of, the phi h but no effect on the LI; a second ...
Carriers of mutations in the cell cycle checkpoint protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which represent 1-2% of the general population, have an increased risk of breast cancer. However, experimental evidence that ATM deficiency contributes to human breast carcinogenesis is lacking. We report here that in MCF-10A and MCF-12A cells, which are well established normal human mammary gland epithelial cell models, partial or almost complete stable ATM silencing or pharmacological inhibition resulted in cellular transformation, genomic instability, and formation of dysplastic lesions in NOD/SCID mice. These effects did not require the activity of exogenous DNA-damaging agents and were preceded by an unsuspected and striking increase in cell proliferation also observed in primary human mammary gland epithelial cells. Increased proliferation correlated with a dramatic, transient, and proteasome-dependent reduction of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27(KIP1) protein levels, whereas little or n
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction through CD16 in human conjunctival epithelial cells. AU - Fujihara, T.. AU - Takeuchi, T.. AU - Saito, K.. AU - Tsubota, K.. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Purpose. Recently epithelial cells are considered to be involved in the regulation of immunological reactions. We examined whether three types of Fc gamma receptors including Fcg RI, II, III (CD64, CD32, CD16, respectively) were expressed in human conjunctival epithelial cells. Methods. Conjunctival epithelial cells were isolated from normal human volunteers by brush cytology. Human conjunctival epithelial cell line (ChWK) was also used for the following analysis. Expression of Fc gamma receptors on thses cells were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence using a flow cytometry. To characterize Fc gamma receptor, biotin-labeled cells were lysed and immunoprecipitated, followed by SDS-PAGE, and blotting onto PVDF membrane. The signals were detected by ECL chemiluminescent system. Furthermore, ...
Multi-tilt EM tomogram of primary human small airway epithelial cell (SAEC) in interphase state. The tomogram refers to the SAEC in Figure 4 of the pu...
Small airway (airway diameter , 1-2 mm) inflammation is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma including airways hyper-responsiveness, spontaneous exacerbations of symptoms, and tissue remodeling [3]. Non-invasive markers of inflammation, such as NO gas in the exhaled breath, could assist in the management of airway inflammation, but the anatomical source remains unclear. Our study demonstrates that small airway epithelial cells can be differentiated at an air-liquid interface to express markers such as mucin and cilia. The differentiated epithelium produces a very small, but detectable, amount of NO gas at baseline. However, the production is significantly increased, due to the upregulation of iNOS, following exposure to soluble inflammatory mediators, most notably a combination of IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ. As such, iNOS in the small airway epithelium is a probable source of NO in the exhaled breath of asthma.. Bronchioles are generally , 1 mm in diameter, are devoid of ...
We previously developed a model in which rabbit gall bladder epithelial cells in collagen gels proliferated and formed multicellular spherical cysts after 2 to 4 days. In the present study, we examined in depth the dynamic processes of loss and reestablishment of cell polarity of rabbit gallbladder epithelial cells isolated and cultured in collagen gel. Six hours after being place in culture, the isolated epithelial cells had lost the morphologic features and phenotypic markers inherent in the in vivo gallbladder mucosa, and autophagic vacuoles appeared transiently, reflecting epithelial cell injury, or remodelling, or both. After 12 hours, mucin dots appeared in clumps of epithelial cells and gradually became larger, and the epithelial cell clumps were transformed into multicellular cysts after 1 to 2 days. The luminal surfaces of the mucin dots (intracytoplasmic inclusions or small lumens sealed by several epithelial cells) and multicellular cysts were covered by microvilli and presented profiles of
Primary airway epithelial cell culture provides a valuable tool for studying cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, and the role of immune system factors in asthma
The paired non-malignant and malignant African-American prostate epithelial cell lines RC-77 T/E and RC-77 N/E represent one of only a few cell lines derived from African-American prostate cancer patients [30]. E006AA, RC-165 N, and MDA-PCa 2a/2b are other African-American patient-derived cell lines. E006AA also has a highly tumorigenic derivative, E006AA-hT, and an associated stroma cell line, S006AA [27]. While the E006AA-hT model can be used to examine the differences between less and more highly tumorigenic cancers, it does not have a non-malignant paired epithelial cell line. The RC-165 N cell line is unique because it was derived from benign prostate tissue of an African-American male and was immortalized by telomerase [41]. This cell line is useful for understanding the functions of the androgen receptor in prostate epithelial cells. MDA-PCa 2a/2b cells are tumorigenic but differ in vivo and in vitro. These cell lines are a useful androgen sensitive model, but, unlike RC-77 cells, they do ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway epithelial cells modulate cholinergic neurotransmission in dog trachea. AU - Aizawa, H.. AU - Matsumoto, K.. AU - Shigyo, M.. AU - Inoue, H.. AU - Koto, H.. AU - Takata, S.. AU - Hara, N.. PY - 1994/7. Y1 - 1994/7. N2 - We investigated the effects of epithelial cells on excitatory cholinergic neurotransmission in dog trachea, to shed more light on the role of airway epithelial cells in regulating airway responsiveness. Airway epithelial cells were prepared by an enzymatic dissociation of the tracheal mucosa using protease-free collagenase. Tracheal smooth muscle contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) or acetylcholine (ACh) were measured before and after the application of epithelial cells. Isolated and dispersed epithelial cells (3 × 105 cells/ml) suppressed the amplitude of the twitch-like contractions evoked by EFS in the combined presence of guanethidine sulfate (10-6m) and indomethacin (10-5m). In contrast, epithelial cells did not affect the ...
We have assessed the ability of Wnt-1, Wnt-2, Wnt-3, Wnt-3A, Wnt-4, Wnt-5A, Wnt-5B, Wnt-6, Wnt-7A, and Wnt-7B to transform mammary epithelial cells and found that Wnt-1, Wnt-2, Wnt-3 and Wnt-3A proteins transform mammary epithelial cells Wnt-7A and Wnt-7B proteins partially transform and Wnt-4, Wnt-5A, Wnt-5B, and Wnt-6 proteins does not affect mammary epithelial cells. Transformation correlated with Wnt-mediated increases in the cytosolic pool of beta-catenin. By generating chimeric Wnt proteins and Wnt-1 deletions we have defined regions of Wnt-1 that are critical for transformation potential, signal transduction and frzb association. We have demonstrated that a secreted protein, frzb, blocks Wnt signaling and that a cytosolic protein, fused, is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling in mammalian cells. Wnt-1 acts as a mitogen in cultured Rat-1 fibroblasts, allowing growth of cells in serum-free medium. Using the TAC-2 mammary epithelial cell line, we found that Wnt-1 induces branching morphogenesis of
In this work, the interaction between a rat cortical thymic epithelial cell (TEC) line (R-TNC.1) with nursing activity and thymocytes as well as BWRT 8 thymocyte hybridoma (TH) cells has been studied. The R-TNC.1 cell line significantly bound thymocytes and TH. Binding was stronger during the first 30 min of cell incubation and was followed by a progressive deadhesion. Among adherent thymocytes the proportion of apoptotic cells increased with culture time which was a consequence of higher capacity of the line for binding of apoptotic than viable cells and induction of apoptosis in a subset of adherent thymocytes. Emperiopolesis activity of this thymic nurse cell (TNC) line was manifested by engulfment of thymocytes as well as TH cells. A subset of viable intra-TNC thymocytes has been triggered to die by apoptosis, whereas other internalized thymocytes have been stimulated to proliferate, as measured by an increase in the percentage of cells in mitosis and higher incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)
Influenza B viruses cause seasonal epidemics and are a considerable burden to public health. To understand their adaptation capability, we examined the genetic changes that occurred following 15 serial passages of two influenza B viruses, B/Brisbane/60/2008 and B/Victoria/504/2000, in human epithelial cells. Thirteen distinct amino acid mutations were found in the PB1, PA, hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and M proteins after serial passage in the human lung epithelial cell line, Calu-3, and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. These changes were associated with significantly decreased viral replication levels. Our results demonstrate that adaptation of influenza B viruses for growth in human airway epithelial cells is partially conferred by selection of HA1, NA, and polymerase mutations that regulate receptor specificity, functional compatibility with the HA protein, and polymerase activity, respectively ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine Relieves the Inflammatory Response and Enhances the Casein Expression in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells Induced by Lipopolysaccharide. AU - Wu, T.. AU - Wang, Chao. AU - Ding, L.. AU - Shen, Y.. AU - Cui, H.. AU - Wang, M.. AU - Wang, H.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - © 2016 Tianyou Wu et al.As one of functional active amino acids, L-arginine holds a key position in immunity. However, the mechanism that arginine modulates cow mammary inflammatory response in ruminant is unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of L-arginine on inflammatory response and casein expression after challenging the bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were divided into four groups, stimulated with or without LPS (10 µg/mL) and treated with or without arginine (100 µg/mL) for 12 h. The concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Toll-like ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for active acetylcholine metabolism in human amniotic epithelial cells. T2 - Applicable to intracerebral allografting for neurologic disease. AU - Sakuragawa, Norio. AU - Misawa, Hidemi. AU - Ohsugi, Keiko. AU - Kakishita, Kouji. AU - Ishii, Takashi. AU - Thangavel, Ramasamy. AU - Tohyama, Jun. AU - Elwan, Mohamed. AU - Yokoyama, Yasunobu. AU - Okuda, Osamu. AU - Arai, Hajime. AU - Ogino, Ikuko. AU - Sato, Kiyoshi. PY - 1997/8/22. Y1 - 1997/8/22. N2 - Human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells have been used for allotransplantation in patients with lysosomal storage disease due to lack of expression of HLA antigens. Previously, we have reported the expression of differentiation markers for both neural stem cells, and neuron and glial cells. In the present study, we investigated the presence of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) and acetylcholine (ACh) in HAE cells using different experimental approaches. Cultured HAE cells showed strong immunoreactivity against ChAT antibody. ...
Stem cells of somatic tissues are hypothesized to protect themselves from mutation and cancer risk through a process of selective segregation of their template DNA strands during asymmetric division. Mouse mammary epithelium contains label-retaining epithelial cells that divide asymmetrically and retain their template DNA. Immunohistochemistry was used in murine mammary glands that had been labeled with [3H]thymidine during allometric growth to investigate the co-expression of DNA label retention and estrogen receptor (ER)-α or progesterone receptor (PR). Using the same methods, we investigated the co-localization of [3H]thymidine and ER-α or PR in mammary tissue from mice that had received treatment with estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin subsequent to a long chase period to identify label-retaining cells. Label-retaining epithelial cells (LRECs) comprised approximately 2.0% of the entire mammary epithelium. ER-α-positive and PR-positive cells represented about 30-40% of the LREC subpopulation.
Human Amniotic Epithelial Cell Lysate https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-7116 https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Exocytosis of vacuolar apical compartment (VAC) in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells: CAMP is involved as second messenger. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Purpose: : Epithelial cells from several mucosal sites (including conjunctiva) have been shown to actively participate during inflammatory episodes by producing and secreting cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of cytokines/chemokine secretion from conjunctival epithelial cells under the effect of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines to further clarify the role of conjunctival epithelium in ocular surface inflammation. Methods: : IOBA-NHC (normal human conjunctival) epithelial cells were exposed to Th1- (IFN-γ and TNF-α) or Th2- (IL-4 and IL-13) derived cytokines for 48 h. Time dependency (30 min, 2 h and 24 h) of TNF-α induced cytokine/chemokine secretion was additionally studied. Cytokine/chemokine production was determined in supernatants by a 22-multiplex bead-based assay in a Luminex 100-IS. Additionally, eotaxin-2 and -3 production was analyzed with by ELISA. Results: : After 48 h of Th1 stimulation, cells produced high levels of IL-1α, IL-6, IL8, RANTES ...
Epithelial cells form sheets of cells, epithelia, that line the outer and inner surfaces of the body and constitute the building blocks for glandular tissues. Hence, epithelial cells are found in many parts of the body, including skin, airways, the digestive tract, glandular tissues and organs, as well as the urinary and reproductive systems. The wide range of functions of epithelial cells can be broadly divided into two main categories, being in charge of the transfer of compounds in or out of the body, as well as being a protective barrier against invading pathogens and physical, chemical or biological abrasion.. Transfer of compounds is a key process for glandular epithelial cells involved in absorption and secretion. The epithelial cells in the digestive system form vast surfaces to enable efficient absorption of the ingested food particles. The same food particles must be predigested into smaller constituents before they can be taken up by the absorptive epithelial cells, a process that is ...
The correct establishment and maintenance of cell polarity are crucial for normal cell physiology and tissue homeostasis. Conversely, loss of cell polarity, tissue disorganisation and excessive cell growth are hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we focus on identifying the stages of tumoural development that are affected by the loss or deregulation of epithelial cell polarity. Asymmetric division has recently emerged as a major regulatory mechanism that controls stem cell numbers and differentiation. Links between cell polarity and asymmetric cell division in the context of cancer will be examined. Apical-basal polarity and cell-cell adhesion are tightly interconnected. Hence, how loss of cell polarity in epithelial cells may promote epithelial mesenchymal transition and metastasis will also be discussed. Altogether, we present the argument that loss of epithelial cell polarity may have an important role in both the initiation of tumourigenesis and in later stages of tumour development, favouring the
Although approximately two-thirds of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, only a small proportion of epithelial cells in the mammary gland express the ER. The origin of the ER-positive breast cancers is unknown. Recently, we have developed a culture method to grow two morphologically and antigenically distinguishable types of normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) derived from reduction mammoplasty. In this report, we studied the expression of ER in these two types of cells and their transformed cell lines. The results indicate that Type I HBEC with luminal and stem cell characteristics expressed a variant ER (approximately 48 kd) by Western blot analysis. This variant ER contains a deletion in the DNA binding domain (exon 2) as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. The lack of the DNA-binding domain of the variant ER was also confirmed by the ER-estrogen responsive element binding assay, as well as by the immunofluorescence staining of the ER using anti-ER antibodies which recognize ...
MatTeks Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (NHBE) provide an ideal serum-free culture system to study cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, drug
Interferonε (IFNε) is a unique type I IFN that has distinct functions from IFNα/β. IFNε is constitutively expressed at mucosal tissues, including the female genital mucosa, and is reported to be modulated by estrogen and seminal plasma. However, its regulation by cytokines, including TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IL-22 and IFNα, which are commonly present in the female genital mucosa, is not well documented in freshly isolated primary cervical cells from tissues. We determined the effect of these cytokines on gene expression of type I IFNs in an immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line (A2EN) and in primary cervical epithelial cells. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to induce IFNε, and TNFα induced the strongest response in both cell types. Pretreatment of cells with the IκB inhibitor, which blocks the NF-κB pathway, suppressed TNFα-mediated IFNε gene induction and promoter activation. Expression of IFNα, IFNβ, and IFNε was differentially regulated in response to
ORCID: 0000-0001-7695-4538, Gong, Yiping, Liu, Xuefeng, Amersi, Farin et al (show 3 more authors) , Dang, Catherine, Giuliano, Armando E and Cui, Xiaojiang (2017) Characterization of primary human mammary epithelial cells isolated and propagated by conditional reprogrammed cell culture. Oncotarget, 9 (14). Access the full-text of this item by clicking on the Open Access link. ...
Cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) thymic epithelial cells establish key microenvironments for T-cell differentiation and arise from thymic epithelial cell progenitors (TEP). However, the nature of TEPs and the mechanism controlling their stemness in the postnatal thymus remain poorly defined. Using TEC clonogenic assays as a surrogate to survey TEP activity, we found that a fraction of cTECs generates specialized clonal-derived colonies, which contain cells with sustained colony-forming capacity (ClonoTECs). These ClonoTECs are EpCAM+MHCII-Foxn1lo cells that lack traits of mature cTECs or mTECs but co-express stem-cell markers, including CD24 and Sca-1. Supportive of their progenitor identity, ClonoTECs reintegrate within native thymic microenvironments and generate cTECs or mTECs in vivo. Strikingly, the frequency of cTECs with the potential to generate ClonoTECs wanes between the postnatal and young adult immunocompetent thymus, but it is sustained in alymphoid Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- counterparts. ...
Free Online Library: Phosphorylation of p53 protein in A549 human pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to asbestos fibers. (Research). by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Virulence factor-dependent basolateral invasion of choroid plexus epithelial cells by pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HorB (HP0127) is a Gastric Epithelial Cell Adhesin. AU - Snelling, William J. AU - Moran, Anthony AU - Ryan, Kieran. AU - Scully, Paul. AU - McGourty, Kieran AU - Cooney, Jakki AU - Annuk, Heidi AU - OToole, Paul. PY - 2007/5/4. Y1 - 2007/5/4. N2 - Background: The Helicobacter pylori protein HorB (encoded by HP0127) is a member of a paralogous family that includes the adhesins BabA, AlpA, AlpB, and HopZ, which contribute to adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. Of the verified H. pylori porins, the HorB sequence is most similar to that of HopE, but the function of HorB is unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of HorB in H. pylori gastric epithelial cell adhesion.Materials and methods: We disrupted the horB gene in H. pylori and measured the adhesion to gastric epithelial cells (AGS cells). We then assessed the effect that HorB disruption had on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O‐chain production and Lewis x and Lewis y antigen expression. A HorB mutant in the ...
Looking for online definition of Epithelioid cells in the Medical Dictionary? Epithelioid cells explanation free. What is Epithelioid cells? Meaning of Epithelioid cells medical term. What does Epithelioid cells mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclooxygenase-2-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid by rat intestinal epithelial cells. AU - Seon, Hwa Lee. AU - Rangiah, Kannan. AU - Williams, Michelle V.. AU - Wehr, Angela Y.. AU - DuBois, Raymond N.. AU - Blair, Ian A.. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - Rat intestinal epithelial cells mat permanently express the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene (RIES cells) were used to investigate COX-2-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. A targeted chiral lipidomics approach was employed to quantify AA metabolites that were secreted by the cells into the culture media. When intact RIES cells were treated with calcium ionophore A-23187 (1 μM) for 1 h, 11-(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) was the most abundant metabolite, followed by prostaglandin (PG) E2, 15-(S)-HETE, 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (ETE), and 15-(R)-HETE. Incubation for a further 23 h after the calcium ionophore was removed resulted in a substantial increase in PGE2 ...
The splicing-factor oncoprotein SRSF1 (also known as SF2/ASF or ASF/SF2) is upregulated in breast cancers. We investigated the ability of SRSF1 to transform human and mouse mammary epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. SRSF1-overexpressing COMMA-1D cells formed tumors, following orthotopic transplantation to reconstitute the mammary gland. In three-dimensional (3D) culture, SRSF1-overexpressing MCF-10A cells formed larger acini than control cells, reflecting increased proliferation and delayed apoptosis during acinar morphogenesis. These effects required the first RNA-recognition motif and nuclear functions of SRSF1. SRSF1 overexpression promoted alternative splicing of BIM (also known as BCL2L11) and BIN1 to produce isoforms that lack pro-apoptotic functions and contribute to the phenotype. Finally, SRSF1 cooperated specifically with MYC to transform mammary epithelial cells, in part by potentiating eIF4E activation, and these cooperating oncogenes are significantly coexpressed in human breast ...
Purpose: Autologous serum (AS) eye drops offer a potential treatment alternative for non-healing corneal epithelial defects in clinical practice. In corneal epithelial cell cultures, fetal bovine serum (FBS) is often used to support the growth of the cells. The dose-dependent effect of AS and FBS on viability, migration and proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) have not been specified yet. The purpose of this study was to analyse the concentration-dependent effects of AS and FBS on HCEC viability, migration and proliferation, in vitro.. Methods: First, AS was prepared from 13 patients according to the regulations of the LIONS Cornea Bank Saar-Lor-Lux, Trier/Westpfalz. HCECs were firstly cultured in DMEM/F12 with 5% FBS, 0.5% DMSO, 10 ng/mL human epidermal growth factor, 1% insulin-transferrin-selenium, then were incubated in serum media which was consisting of DMEM/F12 supplemented by 5%, 10%, 15% or 30% AS or FBS for 24 hours. Thereafter, HCEC viability was analysed using Cell ...
Increasing expression of the normal human CMR cDNA in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells results in a progressive increase in the level of CFTR protein expression, but a limit on the level of cAMP-Stimulated chloride secretion Academic Article ...
Epithelial cells are uniquely positioned at the interface between inside and outside of the organism, which makes them perfect candidates for initiating and orchestrating local immune responses. In addition to establishing which TLR receptors are expressed in primary nasal epithelial cells from healthy individuals, our data furthermore suggest that nasal epithelium has developed a delicate response system towards microbial exposures. Firstly, despite the presence of TLR4 and its prime co-stimulatory molecules CD14 and MD-2, nasal epithelium from healthy individuals does not respond to LPS. As the nasal mucosa is constantly exposed to high concentrations of endotoxin, this unresponsiveness could provide a mechanism to dampen the inflammatory response in the nasal mucosa in order to avoid a chronic inflammatory response. Secondly, levels of TLR expression in individuals varies strongly, to the extent that some individuals not express TLRs that others do. Thirdly, not only are the expression levels ...
Kazantseva, M., Cooney, D., & Hickey, A. (2002). Development of a lung model utilizing human alveolar epithelial cells for evaluating aerosol drug delivery. In Respiratory Drug Delivery VIII (pp. 707 - 710). Raleigh, NC: Davis Horwood International Publishing, Ltd ...
HLA-DR+ gut epithelial cells may present antigen to intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). This study aimed to isolate an IEL population from the human colon to activate CD3 + IEL by a human colonic epithelial cell line (HT-29), bearing different concentrations of class II antigen (HLA-DR). IEL were isolated by a mechanical method from six patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and from 14 control patients. IEL were cocultured with HT-29 which had been induced to express class II molecules by gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) in a dose dependent manner. The phenotype and the subsequent expression of activation markers by the IEL were determined to two colour flow cytometry. The IEL population had a CD4/CD8 ratio similar to that seen in tissue sections. In the mixed cell culture, the degree of IEL activation showed a positive correlation with the degree of HLA-DR expression by the HT29 cells and the IEL secreted a IFN-gamma like factor that in turn stimulated the HT-29. Thus, depending on their expression of HLA
The thymus constitutes the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the generation of naive T cells. Its stromal compartment is largely composed of a scaffold of different subsets of epithelial cells that provide soluble and membrane-bound molecules essential for thymocyte maturation and selection. With senescence, a steady decline in the thymic output of T cells has been observed. Numeric and qualitative changes in the stromal compartment of the thymus resulting in reduced thymopoietic capacity have been suggested to account for this physiologic process. The precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying thymic senescence are, however, only incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that TGF-beta signaling in thymic epithelial cells exerts a direct influence on the cells capacity to support thymopoiesis in the aged mouse as the physiologic process of thymic senescence is mitigated in mice deficient for the expression of TGF-beta RII on thymic epithelial cells. Moreover, TGF-beta signaling in
The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Keratinocytes make up to 95% of the cells in the skin.[16] The epithelial cells on the external surface of the body typically ... Epithelial tissue is composed of closely packed cells, bound to each other by cell adhesion molecules, with little ... Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell wall nor chloroplasts. Vacuoles, when present, are more in number and much ...
This is particularly evident in epithelial and endothelial cells, but also describes other polarized cells, such as neurons. ... Hooke misled the cell membrane theory that all cells contained a hard cell wall since only plant cells could be observed at the ... The cell membrane, being exposed to the outside environment, is an important site of cell-cell communication. As such, a large ... Main article: History of cell membrane theory. While Robert Hooke's discovery of cells in 1665 led to the proposal of the Cell ...
For example, cancers of the liver parenchyma arising from malignant epithelial cells is called hepatocarcinoma, while a ... such as giant cell carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma.[citation needed] ... Germ cell tumor: Cancers derived from pluripotent cells, most often presenting in the testicle or the ovary (seminoma and ... Carcinoma: Cancers derived from epithelial cells. This group includes many of the most common cancers, particularly in older ...
Stimulate growth of mesenchymal cells, promotes wound healing 3 Transforming growth factor (Alpha) Epithelial cell Similar to ... Stimulate growth of epidermal and epithelial cell 2 Platelet derived growth factor Platelets ... cell membrane. Biological process. • negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • positive ... regulation of cell motility. • activation of MAPKK activity. • positive regulation of receptor internalization. • positive ...
Thorens B (1993). "Facilitated glucose transporters in epithelial cells". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 55: 591-608. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Oxygen binds with red blood cells in the blood stream. The oxygen affinity with hemoglobin on red blood cell surfaces enhances ... Just like prokaryotic cells, in eukaryotes, facilitated diffusion occurs in the nucleoplasm on chromatin filaments, accounted ... The in vitro model, which is a very well known method of facilitated diffusion, that takes place outside of a living cell, ...
The second cell type are the cells belonging to the spermatogenic cell lineage. These develop to eventually become sperm cells ... The cells in the epithelium are connected via tight junctions. One may observe two types of cell in the germinal epithelium: ... The large Sertoli cells (which are not dividing) function as supportive cells to the developing sperm. ... Spermatozoon). Typically the spermatogenic cells will make four to eight layers in the germinal epithelium.[1] ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ... The pancreas has many functions, served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells. ... "islet cell cancers",[28] even though it is now known that they do not actually arise from islet cells as previously thought.[27 ...
Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma *Papillary. *Follicular/Hurthle cell. *Parafollicular cell *Medullary ... cytologically benign cells (with nuclei of uniform size, regular nuclear membranes, and light chromatin) and, ... have the characteristic pineocytomatous/neurocytic rosettes, which is an irregular circular/flower-like arrangement of cells ...
... and both types of layering can be made up of any of the cell shapes. However, when taller simple columnar epithelial cells are ... squamous cells called endothelial cells. Endothelial cells in direct contact with blood are called vascular endothelial cells, ... Epithelial cells line body surfaces, and are described according to their shape, with three principal shapes: squamous, ... It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue. It is mostly of endodermal ...
The outer epithelial layer may include cells of several types including sensory cells, gland cells and stinging cells. There ... Metazoans do not include the sponges, which have undifferentiated cells. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have neither a cell ... Epithelial tissue is composed of closely packed cells, bound to each other by cell adhesion molecules, with little ... Keratinocytes make up to 95% of the cells in the skin. The epithelial cells on the external surface of the body typically ...
Vorobjev IA (June 1982). "Centrioles in the cell cycle. I. Epithelial cells". The Journal of Cell Biology. 93 (3): 938-49. doi: ... The centrosome cycle is important to ensure that daughter cells receive a centrosome after cell division. As the cell cycle ... Cell cycle regulation of centrosome duplication Centrosomes are only supposed to replicate once in each cell cycle and are ... Each daughter cell inherits two centrioles (one centrosome) surrounded by pericentriolar material as a result of cell division ...
Sato S, Lin LR, Reddy VN, Kador PF (August 1993). "Aldose reductase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells". Experimental ... mast cell granule. • Schwann cell microvillus. • Schmidt-Lanterman incisure. • nucleoplasm. • cell projection cytoplasm. • ... The involvement in oxidative stress diseases, cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process endows AKR1B1 the ... cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process including cardiovascular disorders, sepsis, and cancer.[13] ...
Kampf C; Roomans GM (May 2001). "Effects of hypochlorite on cultured respiratory epithelial cells". Free Radic. Res. 34 (5): ... Nitric oxide can diffuse through the plasma membrane into neighbouring cells, allowing cell signalling, so nitroindazole ...
The subsets of cytokeratins which an epithelial cell expresses depends mainly on the type of epithelium, the moment in the ... Cytokeratins interact with desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, thus collaborating to cell-cell adhesion and basal cell-underlying ... Thus a specific cytokeratin expression profile allows the identification of epithelial cells. Furthermore, this applies also to ... Cell Biol. 8 (7): 562-73. doi:10.1038/nrm2197. PMID 17551517.. *^ Franke WW, Schmid E, Osborn M, Weber K (June 1979). " ...
"Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 288 (1): 33-39. doi: ...
... and adherens junctions on the cell membranes of epithelial cells.[9] The surface molecules undergo endocytosis and the ... Mesenchymal cells can migrate easily, in contrast to epithelial cells, which lack mobility and are organized into closely ... Epithelial to mesenchymal transition[edit]. The first emergence of mesenchyme occurs during gastrulation from the epithelial- ... The first cells of the embryo to undergo EMT and form mesenchyme are the extra-embryonic cells of the trophectoderm. These ...
"Candida albicans interactions with epithelial cells and mucosal immunity". Microbes and Infection. 13 (12-13): 963-976. doi: ... Polymorphonuclear cells also infiltrate the epithelium, and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate the lamina propria. Atrophic ... Apart from true hyphae, Candida can also form pseudohyphae - elongated filamentous cells, lined end to end. As a general rule, ... Smears and biopsies are usually stained with periodic acid-Schiff, which stains carbohydrates in fungal cell walls in magenta. ...
These are epithelial cells that are coated with bacteria.. Two positive results in addition to the discharge itself are enough ... The presence of clue cells on wet mount. Similar to the whiff test, the test for clue cells is performed by placing a drop of ... If present, clue cells can be visualized under a microscope. They are so-named because they give a clue to the reason behind ... Micrograph of bacterial vaginosis - cells of the cervix covered with rod-shaped bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis (arrows).. ...
LPS is recognized by TRPV4 on epithelial cells. TRPV4 activation by LPS was necessary and sufficient to induce nitric oxide ... "Cell Stem Cell. 21 (2): 225-240.e5. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2017.06.013. ISSN 1875-9777. PMID 28736216.. ... the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall.[1]:84 Subsequent work showed that release of ... dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells, which promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and ...
1997). "Morphogenesis of epithelial cells". In Paul, Leendert C.; Issekutz, Thomas B. (eds.). Adhesion molecules in health and ... The cells on the outside and inside become differentially fated into trophoblast (outside) and inner cell mass (inside) ... The blastocyst's outer cells will become the first embryonic epithelium (the trophectoderm). Some cells, however, will remain ... Rise and fall of epithelial phenotype: concepts of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Springer. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-306-48239-7. ...
Junctional Complexes of Epithelial Cells. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 240-260. ISBN 9780470513415. Weinstein, Ronald S.; Waer, Amy L ... As an MGH pathology resident, he co-authored research papers on intercellular junctions, cancer cell, and red cell membranes. ... He continued his research on normal cell membranes and cancer cell membranes and initiated research on animal models for ... He studied cell membrane properties in normal epithelium, pre-cancers and cancers. Medical science education reform To ...
This parasite eats epithelial cells. Also, very often the canals are a place of inflammation, with accumulation of exudates in ...
For example, cell membrane integrins on circulating leukocytes are maintained in an inactive state to avoid epithelial cell ... Epithelial cells (which are non-circulating) normally have active integrins at their cell membrane, helping maintain their ... Important differences exist between integrin-signaling in circulating blood cells and non-circulating cells such as epithelial ... Integrins are produced by a wide variety of cells; they play a role in cell attachment to other cells and the extracellular ...
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as a sexually-transmitted animal virus, must first penetrate a barrier of epithelial cells ... T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is a molecule found on the surface of T lymphocytes (T cells). It is composed of αβ-heterodimers ... An alternative receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein on epithelial cells is glycosphingolipid galactosyl-ceramide (GalCer), ... Simons, Kai; Van Meer, Gerrit (1988). "Lipid sorting in epithelial cells". Biochemistry. 27 (17): 6197-202. doi:10.1021/ ...
... s were originally found in neutrophils, but have since been found in many other cells including epithelial cells ... "Epithelial cell-derived antibacterial peptides human beta-defensins and cathelicidin: multifunctional activities on mast cells ... and epithelial cell-derived cathelicidin, utilizes formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) as a receptor to chemoattract human ... "Interactions between neutrophil-derived antimicrobial peptides and airway epithelial cells". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 77 ( ...
"Possible novel receptor for PGD2 on human bronchial epithelial cells". International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 143 ... an increase in the expression of DP2 by these cells, an enhanced rate of differentiation of precursor cells to Th2 cells in ... DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model ... a subpopulation of cytotoxic T cells (i.e. CD8+ T cells), thalamus, ovary, and spleen, and, in the central nervous system, by ...
Characteristic hyphae can be seen interspersed among the epithelial cells. Trichophyton tonsurans, the causative agent of tinea ... The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated ... with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent ...
... specifically interacts with Exo84 and Sec5 to regulate transport of membrane proteins in polarized epithelial cells and ... "Comparative analysis of the role of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death: cytoprotective and promigratory effects ... RalA functions as a molecular switch to activate a number of biological processes, majorly cell division and transport, via ... Due to its exocytotic role in platelets, immune cells, neurons, and insulin regulation, downregulation of Ral may lead to ...
The Caco-2 cell line is a continuous line of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, developed by the ... Caco-2 cells are most commonly used not as individual cells, but as a confluent monolayer on a cell culture insert filter (e.g ... 2005). "The Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal barrier: influence of cell and culture-related factors on Caco-2 cell ... the cells differentiate to form a polarized epithelial cell monolayer that provides a physical and biochemical barrier to the ...
"Inflammatory cytokines induce apoptotic and necrotic cell shedding from human proximal tubular epithelial cell monolayers". ... Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules ... Racusen LC (1998). "Epithelial cell shedding in acute renal injury". Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. 25 (3 ... Racusen LC, Fivush BA, Li YL, Slatnik I, Solez K (April 1991). "Dissociation of tubular cell detachment and tubular cell death ...
Autonomous role of medullary thymic epithelial cells in central CD4(+) T cell tolerance. Nature Immunology. 2010-06, 11 (6): ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表
Wice BM, Gordon JI (1992). "A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell ... Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ... "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells with N-myristoyl glycinal ...
M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... 上皮角蛋白(英语:Epithelial keratin). (软α-角蛋白). *type I/chromosome 17 *10 ... Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... J. Cell. Sci. October 2000, 113 (19): 3473-84. PMID 10984438.. *^ Dreuillet C, Tillit J, Kress M, Ernoult-Lange M. In vivo and ...
... low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal epithelial morphology and increased E- ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... providing the cell with a means of stable cell adhesion. However, decreases in this adhesion ability of the cell has been ... "Knockdown of Sec6 improves cell-cell adhesion by increasing α-E-catenin in oral cancer cells". FEBS Lett. 586 (6): 924-33. doi: ...
Bertram C, Hass R (2009). «Cellular senescence of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) is associated with an altered MMP-7/HB- ... cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament polymerization. • ... Bax DV, Rodgers UR, Bilek MM, Weiss AS (2009). «Cell adhesion to tropoelastin is mediated via the C-terminal GRKRK motif and ...
Salicylic acid opens obstructed skin pores and promotes the shedding of epithelial skin cells.[145] Dry skin is the most ... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to the surface ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
Reid TW, Murphy CJ, Iwahashi CK, Foster BA, Mannis MJ (Aug 1993). "Stimulation of epithelial cell growth by the neuropeptide ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and metastasis.[41] It has been suggested that cancer ... stem cells, white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ...
Their distance in relation to the nearest epithelial surface will determine the cell lineage. For example osteoblastic ... Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... Sox9 blocked osteochondroprogenitor cells were found to express osteoblast marker genes, reprogramming the cells into the ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ...
regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... epithelial cells of the endocervix, endometrium, ovary, Fallopian tube, seminal vesicle, epididymis, pancreatic islet cells and ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... cell-cycle processes). PAX8 is shown to be involved in tumor cell proliferation and differentiation, signal transduction, ...
The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... At about week 6, epithelial sex cords develop within the forming testes and incorporate the germ cells as they migrate into the ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ... The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ... Cells are spread through an extracellular fluid.. *Ground substance - A clear, colorless, and viscous fluid containing ...
... and the dead epithelial cells from the lining of the gut.[1] ... which comes from dead red blood cells, gives feces the typical ... and the body starts expelling bilirubin from dead red blood cells, its matter acquires the familiar brown color.[2] ...
... trans-retinyl palmitate by homogenates of human retinal epithelial cells". J. Biol. Chem. 262: 53-58. PMID 3793734. ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ...
epithelial cell maturation. • mammary gland development. • paracrine signaling. • lung alveolus development. • regulation of ... cell nucleus. • cytosol. Biological process. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative ... epithelial cell proliferation both in response to estrogen alone and in the presence of progesterone and estrogen. These ... epithelial cell proliferation. • progesterone receptor signaling pathway. • tertiary branching involved in mammary gland duct ...
Tirosit (bahasa Inggris: thyrocyte, thyroid epithelial cell, follicular cell, principal cell) adalah sel epitelial pada ...
Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then ... "Aberrant Overexpression of Satellite Repeats in Pancreatic and Other Epithelial Cancers". Science. 331 (6017): 593-6. Bibcode ... FISH can also be used to detect diseased cells more easily than standard Cytogenetic methods, which require dividing cells and ... "Defining the sister rat mammary tumor cell lines HH-16 cl.2/1 and HH-16.cl.4 as an in vitro cell model for Erbb2". PLOS ONE. 7 ...
... the virions can infect epithelial cells and replicate there. From there, they reach the haemocoel (the blood system of ... The viruses infect, amongst others, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They attach to the cell surfaces via specific ... After entering the host cell, the viral genome is replicated in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the so-called ... After transmission from a mosquito, the viruses replicate in the lymph nodes and infect dendritic cells in particular. From ...
The cytotoxicity of Natural Killer (NK) cells and the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells is known to diminish with ... This age-associated decrease of thymic epithelial volume results in a reduction/exhaustion on the number of thymocytes (i.e. ... Mocchegiani, E; M. Malavolta (2004). "NK and NKT cell functions in immunosenescence". Aging Cell. 3 (4): 177-184. doi:10.1111/j ... "B cell diversity decreases in old age and is correlated with poor health status". Ageing Cell. 8: 18-25. doi:10.1111/j.1474- ...
epithelial cell proliferation. • neuron migration. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • negative regulation of ... cell nucleus. • kinetochore. • centrosome. • rough endoplasmic reticulum. • dendritic shaft. • aggresome. • cell surface. • ... cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule membrane. • Z disc. • neuronal cell body. • perinuclear ... cell-cell adhesion. • cellular response to amyloid-beta. • negative regulation of core promoter binding. • negative regulation ...
Most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial carcinomas (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) or ... cancer that begins in egg cells).. *Mucinous appendiceal carcinoma: A type of cancer that begins in cells that line the ... The chemotherapy bathes the inside of the chest in concentrations that are very effective against the cancer cells but without ... The mucus may come from ruptured ovarian cysts, the appendix, or from other abdominal tissues, and mucus-secreting cells may ...
Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ... Under-expression of miR-506 is associated with early time to recurrence (and reduced survival) for epithelial ovarian cancer ... "Association of BRCA1 with Rad51 in mitotic and meiotic cells". Cell. 88 (2): 265-75. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81847-4. PMID ... Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over-expression. 29%. Immunohistochemistry. [22]. Soft tissue sarcoma. Over-expression. 95%. ...
"Role of the glycocalyx in regulating access of microparticles to apical plasma membranes of intestinal epithelial cells: ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... One of the most common sources of β(1,3)D-glucan for supplement use is derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast ( ... β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals such as oat and barley. Each type ...
cell junction. • dendrite. • sarcolemma. • cell projection. • perikaryon. • synapse. • postsynaptic membrane. Biological ... membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential. • cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in ... "Cell and Tissue Research. 357 (2): 463-76. doi:10.1007/s00441-014-1936-3. PMID 24996399.. ... cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction. • regulation of ion transmembrane transport. • ion ...
... of the total DNA in cells. ... EMP2: Epithelial membrane protein 2. *ENKD1: Enkurin domain- ...
... on the glomerular epithelial cells. This, in turn, stimulates release of proteases and oxidants by the mesangial and epithelial ... cells, damaging the capillary walls and causing them to become "leaky". In addition, the epithelial cells also seem to secrete ...
The growth of cervical loop cells into the deeper tissues forms Hertwig's Epithelial Root Sheath, which determines the root ... The dental papilla contains cells that develop into odontoblasts, which are dentin-forming cells.[3] Additionally, the junction ... The gingival fibers (H) run from the cementum (B) into the gingiva immediately apical to the junctional epithelial attachment ... Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth. Although ...
"The Rho Target PRK2 Regulates Apical Junction Formation in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells". Molecular and Cellular Biology. ... DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... which regulate the formation of apical junctions in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE ... made seminal contributions to our understanding of cell signalling in animal cells, in particular the role of Rho and Ras small ...
This protein is associated with the primary cilia of the retinal pigment epithelial cells, fibroblasts and kidney tubular cells ... This suggests that this syndrome is due to dysfunction of the cilia in these cells. About 120 mutations are associated with ...
... and can also infect the tubular epithelial cells in the kidneys,[7] where it continues to reproduce, shedding virus particles ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... For example, JCV has been found to infect the granule cell layer of the cerebellum, while sparing purkinje fibers, ultimately ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ...
Excess cells may indicate a medical problem. Learn more. ... cells in urine test measures the amount of these cells in your ... What is an epithelial cells in urine test?. Epithelial cells are a type of cell that lines the surfaces of your body. They are ... They are called transitional cells, renal tubular cells, and squamous cells. If there are squamous epithelial cells in your ... An epithelial cells in urine test looks at urine under a microscope to see if the number of your epithelial cells is in the ...
Please note that the pictures do not represent a squamous cell as such, but just a typical epithelial cell. A squamous cell is ... Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Indiana Medical School) Here is a diagram of typical epithelial cell structure, showing ... on this picture you can see the single row of epithelial cells, with the nuclei forming bumps that rise out of the flat cells) ... Endothelial cells also have a specific organelle not found in other epithelial cells: Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are regulated ...
In Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, a team of well-versed experimenters and cli ... Many powerful new techniques for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells have been developed in the past decade. ... and the interaction of epithelial cells with bacteria. Several protocols cover the culturing of epithelial cells and their use ... Applications of Epithelial Cell Culture in Studies of Drug Transport Staffan Tavelin, Johan Gråsjö, Jan Taipalensuu, Göran ...
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As they report in the European Respiratory Journal, they have already successfully counteracted this mechanism in the cell ... Cell aging in lung epithelial cells. Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health ... IMAGE: Green cells show markers of the lung epithelium, red cells are undergoing senescence. The nuclei are stained in blue. ... 2017): Senolytic drugs target alveolar epithelial cell function and attenuate experimental lung fibrosis ex vivo. European ...
... have a stable karyotype and are phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. ... ATCC hTERT immortalized bronchial epithelial cells have an extended lifespan, consistently form an electrically tight ... Bronchial Epithelial Cells * HBEC3-KT (ATCC® CRL-4051™) ATCC® Number: CRL-4051™ Organism: Homo sapiens, human ... Authentication of cell lines via STR profile analysis is becoming a requirement of ... ...
... have a stable karyotype and are phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. ... ATCC hTERT immortalized bronchial epithelial cells have an extended lifespan, consistently form an electrically tight ... Cell Origin. * Human (1) Bronchial Epithelial Cells * CuFi-4 (ATCC® CRL-4015™) ATCC® Number: CRL-4015™ Organism: Homo sapiens, ... Epithelial Cells Immortalized E6/ E7 And Htert Expression (1) * Epithelial Cells Immortalized With Htert, Hpv- 16 E6/ E7- Lx... ...
... and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells. ... ATCC hTERT immortalized renal epithelial cells have an extended ... Cell Origin. * Human (1) Renal Epithelial Cells * RPTEC/TERT1 OAT1 (ATCC® CRL-4031-OAT1™) ATCC® Number: CRL-4031-OAT1™ Organism ... Cell Type: Epithelial Cells Immortalized With Plxsn-Htert Retroviral Transfection Tissue: Renal Cortex; Proximal Tubules, ... Cell Type: Epithelial Cells Immortalized With Htert And Sv40 Large T Antigen Expression ...
Tests with various epithelial cells, including NuLi-1 airway, Caco2, HT29 and T84 colorectal cells, gave similar results, with ... The viabilities of the NuLi-1 and Caco-2 cells were slightly reduced (8%) when exposed to the predators, while T84 viability ... Consequently, in this study, the responses from four cell lines (three human and one mouse) were characterized during an ... These results clearly demonstrate the gentle natures of predatory bacteria and their impacts on human cells. ...
One possibility is that each stem cell is located adjacent to a Paneths cell, and this cell type contributes to stem-cell ... Stem cell biology * Gut instincts: thoughts on intestinal epithelial stem cells Catherine Booth et al. ... a stem cell may divide symmetrically to produce either two stem cells or two maturing cells. In the latter case, a stem cell is ... Grafting colonic stem cells onto regions of the small intestine that have been denuded of epithelial cells could be used to ...
Nat Cell Biol. 2015 Nov;17(11):1497-1503. doi: 10.1038/ncb3248. Epub 2015 Sep 28. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; ... Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells seems to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelial ... Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers. Nat Cell Biol. 2015 Nov;17(11):1497-1503. ... Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers. Nat Cell Biol. 2015 Nov;17(11):1497-1503. ...
E-cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells.. Miyashita L1, Suri R1, Dearing E2, Mudway I3,4 ... We determined the effect of vapour on oxidative stress-induced, PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion to airway epithelial cells ... Electronic cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells under abnormal conditions of exposure. [ ... Response to: Electronic cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cells under abnormal conditions ...
... may function to delete infected and damaged epithelial cells and restore epithelial cell growth regulation and epithelial ... Epithelial cells that line the human intestinal mucosa are the initial site of host invasion by bacterial pathogens. The ... Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as ... The delay in onset of epithelial cell apoptosis after bacterial infection may be important both to the host and the invading ...
Fascinating biology occurs at epithelial interfaces, whether between organism and environment or within body compartments, and ... identification of somatic stem cells in key organs, to name a few. Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, Second Edition provides a ... Epithelial cell cultures have been an integral and crucial part of the biomedical research enterprise, adding unique ... Authoritative and easily accessible, Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, Second Edition will serve outstanding investigators ...
B cell-generated virus is more infectious for an epithelial cell and epithelial cell-derived virus is B cell-tropic (18). ... Fusion from without of ARPE-19 cells induced by epithelial cell-derived virus. (A) Cells were inoculated with epiBADrUL131 or ... BADrUL131 grown in ARPE-19 epithelial cells (epiBADrUL131) initiates its program of gene expression in epithelial cells more ... B) fibroBADrUL131 particles within epithelial cells. (C) fibroBFXwt particle within an epithelial cell. Representative images ...
... epithelial cells) and "professional" (B cells, T cells, DCs, and macrophages) immune cells [4]. ... 4. Airway Epithelial Cells: The Connection of Innate and Adaptive Immunity. Airway epithelial cells have been recognized to ... Airway Epithelial Cell Produced Proinflammatory Factors. Functional PRRs expressed in epithelial cells at different airway ... cells that played a critical role in response to Mtb in these non-phagocytic cells [38-40]. A549 cells, an ATII cell line, ...
... these results uncover a network of crosstalk between eosinophils and esophageal epithelial cells involving epithelial mediated ... Analysis of epithelial cell transcripts indicated that exposure to eosinophils induced differential expression of a subset of ... In the presence of IL-13 and epithelial cells, eosinophils had greater survival (68 ± 1%) at 14 days compared with cocultures ... Herein, we investigated the crosstalk between human eosinophils and esophageal epithelial cells. We report that blood-derived ...
epithelial cell synonyms, epithelial cell pronunciation, epithelial cell translation, English dictionary definition of ... epithelial cell. Noun 1. epithelial cell - one of the closely packed cells forming the epithelium epithelial tissue, epithelium ... columnar cell, columnar epithelial cell - an epithelial cell that is shaped like a column; some have cilia ... somatic cell, vegetative cell - any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells; a cell that does not ...
... which is expressed by a variety of cells, including endothelial cells, tubular epithelial cells, and other cell types (57,59,68 ... NF-κBp65 and IL-6 antigen in urinary excreted tubular epithelial cells. A and B: Cells were obtained from the urine of a type 2 ... Activation of Tubular Epithelial Cells in Diabetic Nephropathy. Michael Morcos, Ahmed A.R. Sayed, Angelika Bierhaus, Benito ... Activation of Tubular Epithelial Cells in Diabetic Nephropathy. Michael Morcos, Ahmed A.R. Sayed, Angelika Bierhaus, Benito ...
Typhi-stimulated HT-29 cells and prevented the adhesion of pathogens to these epithelial cells. The probiotic strain was able ... inhibit inflammatory stimulation in epithelial cells and macrophages and activated a tolerogenic profile in mononuclear cells ... They have been shown to inhibit inflammation in experiments with animal models, cell culture, and clinical trials. The ... Probiotics also induced increased IL-10 secretion by mononuclear cells.,i, L. plantarum,/i, Lp62 was able to ...
Although this finding awaits confirmation, similar studies with bronchial epithelial cells in vitro would provide a useful tool ... The finding that human tracheal and nasal epithelial cells in culture are capable of synthesizing PGE2 could have important ... Our studies have demonstrated it is possible to culture both human nasal and bronchial epithelial cells to confluency under ... These cells are similar morphologically, histologically, and functionally and resemble the cells in vivo. Studies of ciliary ...
Innate immune cell-epithelial crosstalk during wound repair. Jennifer C. Brazil, Miguel Quiros, Asma Nusrat, and Charles A. ... In this Review we focus on epithelial and innate immune cell interactions that mediate wound healing and restoration of tissue ... Improved understanding of crosstalk between epithelial and immune cells during wound repair is necessary for development of ... In response to damage, epithelial wounds repair by a series of events that integrate epithelial responses with those of ...
... are associated with a variety of shape changes in epithelial cells. Two particular features allow epithelial cells to fulfill ... The polarized nature of epithelial cells is manifested by the nonrandom partitioning of organelles within the cells, the ... Various cell-cell contacts guarantee close adhesion between the cells and provide the barrier function characteristic of ... In Drosophila epithelial cells, the septate junction (SJ) lies basal to the ZA and forms a region of close membrane contacts ...
The versatility of epithelial stem cells. Stem cells are very important in the maintenance of our bodies tissues and organs. ... Plasticity of epithelial stem cells in tissue regeneration Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... the number of cells lost must be compensated by cell divisions. Tissue homeostasis and wound-repair are ensured by stem cells, ... Recent studies show that the fate and multilineage potential of epithelial stem cells can change depending on whether a stem ...
A STUDY OF RESULTS WILL BE CONDUCTED THAT WILL CHARACTERIZE THE KINETICS AND REGENERATION RATES OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE AS ... THIS PROJECT WILL DEVELOP A COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE IN THE GASTROINTESTINAL (GI)TRACT. ... THE COMPUTER PROGRAM RELATING IMAGE ANALYSIS TO EPITHELIAL TISSUE KINETICS AND REGENERATION WILL BE IMPLEMENTED ON THE EXISTING ...
Female reproductive organs are lined with ciliated epithelial cells. *The skin is made of epithelial cells. Its striated layers ... In the trachea, goblet epithelial cells secrete mucous which provides the lubrication to aid ciliated epithelial cells in ... Introduction to Epithelial Cells Epithelia are formed of cells that line the cavities in the body and also cover flat surfaces ... Structure of Epithelial Tissue. Epithelial cells are bound together in sheets of tissue called epithelia. These sheets are held ...
... especially in inflammatory diseases characterised by T-cell migration to the lung. This suggests that CXCR6 is a candidate lung ... The chemokine receptor CXCR6 is highly expressed on lung-derived T cells compared to blood T cells, ... Concentrated supernatants from a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) were chemotactic for CXCR6 expressing T cells from ... The chemokine CXCL16 is highly and constitutively expressed by human bronchial epithelial cells Exp Lung Res. 2009 May;35(4): ...
... ... "Use of Swabs for Sampling Epithelial Cells for Molecular Genetics Analyses in Enteroctopus," American Malacological Bulletin 35 ... "Use of Swabs for Sampling Epithelial Cells for Molecular Genetics Analyses in Enteroctopus," American Malacological Bulletin, ... Epithelial swabs yielded, on average, lower quantities of DNA (170.32 ± 74.72 (SD) ng/μL) relative to DNA obtained from tissues ...
Noun 1. cuboidal epithelial cell - an epithelial cell that shaped like a cube cuboidal cell epithelial cell - one of the ... cuboidal epithelial cell synonyms, cuboidal epithelial cell pronunciation, cuboidal epithelial cell translation, English ... an epithelial cell that shaped like a cube. cuboidal cell. epithelial cell - one of the closely packed cells forming the ... and ducts and ductules of varying sizes lined by luminal cuboidal epithelial cells and outer layer epithelial cell.. FNAC (fine ...
... cells and a list of genes that are specific for various lineages of white blood cells and distal alveolar epithelial cells (see ... epithelial cells, as determined by cytokeratin staining, with the majority being ciliated cells. Samples taken from the right ... studies investigating the effects of tobacco on airway epithelial cells have been in cultured cells, in human alveolar lavage ... Effects of cigarette smoke on the human airway epithelial cell transcriptome. Avrum Spira, Jennifer Beane, Vishal Shah, Gang ...
  • Thus, as discussed below, the changes in stem-cell number can alter stem-cell cycle time, the number of divisions before differentiation, the number of lineages each stem cell normally generates or is capable of generating, and the number of cells capable of tissue regeneration after damage. (jci.org)
  • In the past decade there have been many research advances, such as directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, robotic high throughput screening, whole genome siRNA and shRNA libraries, massively parallel sequencing at low cost, identification of somatic stem cells in key organs, to name a few. (springer.com)
  • This hormone regulates epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, which are processes intimately linked to the female reproductive cycle such as lactation or ovulation [11-13]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. (hindawi.com)
  • With characteristics of stem/progenitor cells, this subpopulation of cells possesses a capacity of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation both in a steady state and in response to injury in the physiologic domain of which they reside. (hindawi.com)
  • The cell lines maintain the differentiation characteristics of their tissues of origin: the endocervical cell line expresses characteristics of simple columnar epithelium, whereas the ectocervical and vaginal cell lines express characteristics of stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelia. (nih.gov)
  • This system promotes extensive mucociliary differentiation of human airway epithelial cells to form a pseudostratified epithelium with morphological characteristics similar to those observed in the human airway in vivo. (stemcell.com)
  • Various protocols have been developed to induce differentiation of the stem cells into corneal epithelial cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, in this review, only the investigations of corneal epithelial differentiation of human stem cells are taken into account. (mdpi.com)
  • The available protocols for inducing the differentiation of human stem cells into corneal epithelial cells are gathered and compared. (mdpi.com)
  • This technique has been instrumental in characterizing the origin and heterogeneity of epithelial SCs, their tissue location, and their differentiation potential under physiological conditions and during tissue regeneration. (rupress.org)
  • This project will specifically focus a novel miRNA, and their role in skin and hair follicle development by regulating potentially skin stem cells and skin keratinocytes proliferation and differentiation. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Cell Death and Differentiation (2010) 17, 229-235. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Further aims were to characterize both the graft and the epithelial surface of the mouse and rat cornea using putative stem cell markers (P63 and Telomerase) and marker of cell differentiation (14-3-3 sigma). (ebscohost.com)
  • TEC development require activity of other molecules and transcriptional regulators, such as protein 63 (p63) that is involved in homeostasis of various epithelial lineages, chromobox homolog 4 (Cbx4) which regulates cell proliferation and differentiation, fibroblast growth factors Fgf7 and Fgf10 that initiate TEC expansion, TNFT, CD40, lymfotoxin β receptor (LTβR) and Hedgehog signaling pathway, which could reduce TEC cells in fetal and postnatal thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the essential role of thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in T cell development, the signals regulating TEC differentiation and homeostasis remain incompletely understood. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the absence of RA signaling in TEC, cortical TEC (cTEC) and CD80 lo MHC class II lo medullary TEC displayed subset-specific alterations in gene expression, which in cTEC included genes involved in epithelial proliferation, development, and differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Results: The limbal epithelial cells cultured over intact HAM expressed the stem cell associated markers (ABCG2, p63) and showed reduced expression of the differentiation markers (Cnx43 and K3/K12) when compared to limbal epithelial cells cultured over denuded HAM, which expressed more differentiation markers at the end of three weeks. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The achievement of proliferation and differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells in addition to the ensure of the repair and integrity of pulmonary epithelium have been suggested to be an effective approach in improving the pathogenesis of emphysema (26). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because ductal epithelial cells were earlier demonstrated to differentiate into pancreatic endocrine mass, we evaluated their proliferation and differentiation in chronic pancreatitis. (scirp.org)
  • The expression of proteins involved in cell-cell connection and the differentiation markers were maintained. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We also show that miR-30 family microRNAs increase in abundance during differentiation of pancreatic islet-derived mesenchymal cells into hormone-producing islet-like cell aggregates. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was first recognized as a central differentiation process in early embryogenic morphogenesis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent data suggest that EpCAM is also involved in cell signaling, migration, proliferation and differentiation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Hello dormouse, Cells of the squamous epithelium contain the same basic set of organelles that are common to all cells. (google.com)
  • http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm (Web site of John Jay College of Criminal Justice, text by Anthony Carpi, cell diagram by Dr. G. Weaver, Colorado University at Denver) Simple squamous epithelium that lines blood vessels is called endothelium. (google.com)
  • Simple squamous epithelium consists of a single layer of cells. (google.com)
  • Sometimes, however, the junctions are restricted to one part of the cell boundary and so form an incomplete seal which is called a fascia occludens , eg in the epithelium of blood vessels. (google.com)
  • Green cells show markers of the lung epithelium, red cells are undergoing senescence. (eurekalert.org)
  • In both the experimental model and in the lungs of IPF patients, we were able to show that some cells in the alveolar epithelium have markers for senescence*," explains study leader Königshoff. (eurekalert.org)
  • Altogether, the study shows that senescence in the cells of the alveolar epithelium can contribute to the development and worsening of IPF. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells in simple epithelia orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelium so that both daughter cells are born within the epithelial sheet. (nih.gov)
  • This is assumed to be important to maintain epithelial integrity and prevent hyperplasia, because misaligned divisions give rise to cells outside the epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Reintegration is a feature of wild type cell division in the follicle epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • Pulmonary epithelial cell loss, failure to achieve pulmonary epithelium integrity, chronic inflammation, and deterioration of repair mechanisms following pulmonary epithelial injury can result in emphysema (3,5,6). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. (hindawi.com)
  • The finding that human tracheal and nasal epithelial cells in culture are capable of synthesizing PGE 2 could have important clinical implications because this compound is thought to be a putative epithelium-derived relaxing factor. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Although this finding awaits confirmation, similar studies with bronchial epithelial cells in vitro would provide a useful tool for study of the function of the bronchial epithelium and its role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Some tissues-for instance, skin epithelium-harbor multiple stem cell niches, each with their own responsibility for maintaining cellular balance within their particular domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • In conclusion, these results suggest that the bronchial epithelium is an important source of constitutively expressed CXCL16, which may be involved in T-cell recruitment to the lung in health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • The feasibility and efficacy of both human stem cells and animal stem cells have been investigated for corneal epithelium regeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • One of the closely packed cells forming the epithelium. (primidi.com)
  • An epithelium can be composed of one (simple epithelium) or multiple layers of cells (stratified epithelium), and forms the majority of the glands. (rupress.org)
  • Conclusions Together, our data indicate that budesonide suppresses epithelial proinflammatory responses and barrier dysfunction and that oxidative stress reduces these effects in airway epithelium from asthma and COPD patients. (bmj.com)
  • The main question is whether oxidative stress can reduce corticosteroid responsiveness in airway epithelium and how this affects the regulation of epithelial barrier function and cytokine production. (bmj.com)
  • Despite the significant regenerative capacity of proximal tubular epithelium cells (PTCs), repair frequently fails, leading to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). (mdpi.com)
  • Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are specialized cells with high degree of anatomic, phenotypic and functional heterogeneity that are located in the outer layer (epithelium) of the thymic stroma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The starting point for this work was the lab's 2011 Current Biology paper showing that when columnar cells packed in an epithelium divided, their upper (apical) end briefly ballooned out to allow the cell's nucleus to move into that region. (medindia.net)
  • As division began, the mitotic spindle (which faithfully distributes chromosomes into each daughter cell) invariably oriented itself parallel to the apical surface of the epithelium. (medindia.net)
  • Next, by directly perturbing the spindle, the researchers video-captured the process by which cells with misoriented spindles began to peel away, or delaminate, from the epithelium. (medindia.net)
  • Initially, the group did not observe such dire consequences: Gibson says that delaminating cells generally "fall out of the epithelium" and are killed off by apoptosis, a mechanism healthy tissues use to eradicate damaged cells. (medindia.net)
  • Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. (psu.edu)
  • When single cells are experimentally removed from the Necturus gallbladder epithelium, contiguous cells migrate to fill the defect within 30 min. (caltech.edu)
  • To determine the cell density profile of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in the central retina and relate it to the distribution of photoreceptors. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • I have searched for images of endothelial cells showing the various organelles that they contain in order to confirm the above statement: Although endothelial cells contain all the basic cell machinery, there tend to be fewer of each type of organelle than in some other tissues, because they have relatively small amounts of cytoplasm. (google.com)
  • This is a mechanism for passing materials, especially fluid, across the cells from the blood stream to the underlying tissues. (google.com)
  • Ectopic expression of Inscuteable in these tissues reorients mitotic spindles, resulting in one daughter cell being born outside the epithelial layer. (nih.gov)
  • Skin and intestinal epithelial barriers play a pivotal role in protecting underlying tissues from harsh external environments. (jci.org)
  • Similar to other adult tissues and organs, epithelial stem/progenitor cells in adult lung are a subset of undifferentiated cells that undergo asymmetric cell division during normal lung morphogenesis and possibly regeneration [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Epithelial tissues are present in most metazoa and perform two closely related functions: They delimit compartments within tissues and participate in the controlled exchange of molecules and ions between them, thus regulating homeostasis. (sciencemag.org)
  • At the surface of body organs, epithelial tissues must withstand harsh external environments. (sciencemag.org)
  • Epithelial swabs yielded, on average, lower quantities of DNA (170.32 ± 74.72 (SD) ng/μL) relative to DNA obtained from tissues collected using invasive or destructive techniques (310.95 ± 147.37 (SD) ng/μL. (bioone.org)
  • Stem cells (SCs) located in the various epithelia ensure the homeostasis and repair of these tissues throughout the lifetime of the animal. (rupress.org)
  • Stem cells (SCs) located in these different adult tissues are essential to sustain tissue turnover and repair these different epithelia upon injuries. (rupress.org)
  • Our work is addressing how epithelial tissues maintain structural integrity, even during the extreme events of cell division. (medindia.net)
  • It is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung, especially lung epithelial cells. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Washington, June 17 (ANI): A study of how microbes weaken the host cell's defenses to enter tissues has revealed that they open and get through the initial cellular barrier- the epithelial cells that line the airway in a programmed and efficient manner. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Keratins are a family of water-insoluble proteins that form monofilaments, which together comprise one of the primary classes of intermediate filaments in the epidermis and various other epithelial tissues. (fsu.edu)
  • Separating underlying tissues from luminal antigens, polarized epithelial cells of the cervix, uterus and Fallopian tubes have evolved to protect against potential pathogens. (wiley.com)
  • The ultimate success of global efforts to exploit adult stem cells for regenerative medicine will depend heavily on the availability of robust, highly selective stem cell surface markers that facilitate the isolation of stem cells from human tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we discuss the major impact that their discovery has had on our understanding of adult stem cell biology in various self-renewing tissues and in accelerating progress towards the development of effective stem cell therapies. (biologists.org)
  • Abstract As a result of the challenge of recent dust storms to public health, we tested the postulate that desert dust collected in the southwestern United States could impact a biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells and an animal model. (epa.gov)
  • Popular Abstract in Swedish Inflammatoriska luftvägssjukdomar såsom astma och rinit är några av de folksjukdomar som trots den moderna läkarvetenskapen uppvisat en ökad prevalens de senaste decennierna. (dissertations.se)
  • There are three types of epithelial cells that line the urinary tract. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The lung is an organ lined by numerous distinct types of epithelial cells in different anatomical regions. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to meet the need of regional functionalities of the lung, the epithelia within each domain of the conducting airway are properly composed with distinct types of epithelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The following provides a general overview of of the six types of epithelial cells, how structure relates to function, and why research in this field is important and relevant. (davidson.edu)
  • This review serves to integrate the three main tenets of extracellular ATP signaling: ATP release from cells, ATP receptors on cells, and ATP receptor-driven signaling within cells to affect cell or tissue physiology. (nih.gov)
  • Unfortunately, the stem cells responsible for tissue homeostasis and regeneration cannot be identified morphologically or distinguished from other epithelial cells by any recognized set of markers. (jci.org)
  • Hence, most interpretations of stem-cell behavior are based upon monitoring cohorts of cells before and after perturbation of the tissue. (jci.org)
  • Live imaging reveals that these misplaced cells reintegrate into the tissue. (nih.gov)
  • In this Review we focus on epithelial and innate immune cell interactions that mediate wound healing and restoration of tissue homeostasis in the skin and intestine. (jci.org)
  • In terms of the potential stem cell niches in lung, studies using murine models have revealed several unique regional niches for distinct epithelial stem/progenitor cell populations along the proximal-distal axis of airway, along which the epithelial stem cells reside in their specific local niches in order to maintain tissue homeostasis during injury repair and normal turnover. (hindawi.com)
  • The accessibility of Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans to genetic and cell biological analyses, combined with the study of mammalian cells in culture, provides an ideal basis for understanding the mechanisms that control the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity and tissue integrity. (sciencemag.org)
  • To maintain tissue size, the number of cells lost must be compensated by cell divisions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tissue homeostasis and wound-repair are ensured by stem cells, located within specialized microenvironments, referred to as niches. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although interpretation of these experiments has been complicated by the lack of specificity of most stem cell markers, this method can be helpful in evaluating the contribution of stem cells to tissue homeostasis and wound-repair. (sciencemag.org)
  • Coordinating stem cell activity to match tissue output. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each stem cell niche must be responsive to the regenerative demands of tissue homeostasis and wound-repair and adjust niche activating and inhibitory signals as necessary. (sciencemag.org)
  • Additional new findings suggest that fates and multilineage potentials of epithelial stem cells can change, depending upon whether a stem cell exists within its resident niche and responds to normal tissue homeostasis, whether it is mobilized to repair a wound, or whether it is taken from its niche and challenged to de novo tissue morphogenesis after transplantation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Microscopic features of pleomorphic adenoma: Wellencapsulated tumour tissue with heterogenous stromal elements consisting of chondromyxoid, fibrous and hyaline areas, and ducts and ductules of varying sizes lined by luminal cuboidal epithelial cells and outer layer epithelial cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Biopsy of the mass revealed diffuse cysts consisting of well-differentiated, monolayer cuboidal epithelial cells surrounded by edematous connective tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of the four major tissue types found in the human body (Figure 1), epithelial cells are by far the most prolific. (davidson.edu)
  • Epithelial cells are bound together in sheets of tissue called epithelia. (davidson.edu)
  • Transplantation of corneal epithelial cells is an effective treatment but the availability of the tissue source for those cells is inadequate. (mdpi.com)
  • The LLC-MK2 cell line was established from a pooled cell suspension prepared from the kidney tissue of six adult rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatto ) in the mid-1950s. (microscopyu.com)
  • The expression profiles of isolated cells and corresponding mucosal biopsies were evaluated and compared between healthy and inflamed colonic tissue. (dovepress.com)
  • SCs can renew throughout life and can differentiate into the different cell lineages of their tissue of origin. (rupress.org)
  • Bone marrow (BM) -derived stem cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages of tissue resident cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Here we show that inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) tumor suppressor causes defects in tissue closure that reflect the inability of Rb null epithelial cells to efficiently migrate and polarize. (mit.edu)
  • If not untreated, the cancer cells can spread beyond the lung into nearby tissue and other parts of the body. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Although efficient intestinal immune responses protect the host from invading pathogens, the inappropriate activation of intestinal T cells may also result in chronic inflammatory reactions and tissue destruction, e.g., as observed in inflammatory bowel disease (for review see reference 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Thus, a tight regulation of intestinal immune cells and their activation is crucial to maintain tissue homeostasis and ensure protective host defense. (rupress.org)
  • Limbal epithelial cells in clusters/sheets and limbal tissue explant culture are superior to single-cell culture for the expansion of LSCs. (ca.gov)
  • Using human cervical tissue explants and epithelial cell lines, my thesis research reveals that GC interactions with polarized epithelial cells induce EGFR-dependent Ca2+ flux, which activates and mobilizes the actin motor protein non-muscle myosin II (NMII). (umd.edu)
  • To understand how GC establishes infection in the female reproductive track, I examined GC infection in human cervical tissue explants as well as non- polarized and polarized epithelial cells in culture to mimic the non-polarized squamous ectocervical epithelial cells and the polarized columnar endocervical epithelial cells. (umd.edu)
  • My results show that GC interaction induces differential remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in non-polarized and polarized epithelial cells of human ecto- and endo-cervical tissue explants and in culture. (umd.edu)
  • There are several lines of evidence suggesting that many invasive and metastatic carcinomas have not undergone a complete transition to a mesenchymal phenotype or even lack signs of EMT, and that invasive carcinomas do not invade adjacent connective tissue as individual mesenchymal-like cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Testing for EpCAM is based on morphology and phenotypical staining and can be performed with primary carcinoma tissue and cells harvested from malignant effusions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Also described in step-by-step detail are co-culture techniques valuable in developing models for investigating many different in vitro systems, including the blood-brain barrier, drug uptake, and the interaction of epithelial cells with bacteria. (springer.com)
  • The air-blood barrier is mainly formed by two epithelial cell types: alveolar type I (ATI) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are part of the frontline defense against infection of pathogens by providing both a physical barrier and immunological function. (hindawi.com)
  • Various cell-cell contacts guarantee close adhesion between the cells and provide the barrier function characteristic of epithelia. (sciencemag.org)
  • As the barrier between the outside world's contaminants and the body, these cells replicate often to replace damaged or dead cells. (davidson.edu)
  • Our primary study includes identifying key molecules which regulate CEC/microorganism interaction, CEC/lamina propria cell interaction and intestinal epithelial cell barrier function. (massgeneral.org)
  • The epithelial layer within the colon represents a physical barrier between the luminal contents and its underlying mucosa. (dovepress.com)
  • Background We hypothesised that increased oxidative stress, as present in the airways of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, induces epithelial damage and reduces epithelial responsiveness to suppressive effects of corticosteroids on proinflammatory cytokine production and barrier function. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, restoration of corticosteroid responsiveness in asthma and COPD may act to improve the airway epithelial barrier. (bmj.com)
  • We show for the first time that budesonide protects against oxidative stress-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction, and that oxidative stress decreases epithelial responsiveness to budesonide. (bmj.com)
  • The cytokine IL-6 (interleukin-6), which has both pro- and antiinflammatory properties, helps to maintain epithelial barrier function in the intestine. (sciencemag.org)
  • By monitoring the permeability of Caco2-BBE epithelia to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, the authors showed that IL-6 treatment resulted in decreased permeability of the epithelial barrier. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recently, the links between epithelial barrier loss and disease were extended to include initiation and propagation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus, GC causes disruption of the epithelial barrier by inducing Ca2+-dependent activation of NMII, and Opa phase variation modifies infection mechanisms by regulating perijunctional actomyosin remodeling. (umd.edu)
  • Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. (rsc.org)
  • Epithelial cells represent the first barrier of the upper and lower respiratory tracts and thus are logical targets for a comprehensive integrated therapeutic approach. (bmj.com)
  • Adaptive and innate immune systems play a major role in these functions, which are centrally orchestrated within the epithelial barrier. (bmj.com)
  • Once thought to function exclusively by providing a crucial barrier, mucosal epithelial cells are now known to function as sentinels that recognize antigens, respond in ways that lead to bacterial and viral killing, as well as signal to underlying immune cells when pathogenic challenge exceeds their protective capacity. (wiley.com)
  • Cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs) are presented in the outer thymic cortex region, in comparison with medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) located in the inner thymic medulla. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are also called thymic epithelial progenitors cells (TEPCs) and they provide that cortical and medullary epithelial thymocytes share an origin in the postnatal thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epithelial reticular cells, or epithelioreticular cells (ERC), some called thymic epithelial cell (TEC), are a structure in both the cortex and medulla of the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, Ashwell and colleagues found that thymic epithelial cells express the entire enzyme cascade required for GC synthesis, enabling the release of bioactive GCs ( 12 - 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • Human Nasal and Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Culture: An Overvie. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Our studies have demonstrated it is possible to culture both human nasal and bronchial epithelial cells to confluency under similar conditions in vitro . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Similarly studies on the effect of histamine have demonstrated that histamine probably does lead to an increase in bronchial epithelial permeability in vivo and that this effect is likely to be mediated via stimulation of H-1 receptors. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Concentrated supernatants from a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) were chemotactic for CXCR6 expressing T cells from blood. (nih.gov)
  • Methods We induced oxidative stress by H 2 O 2 and/or cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) derived by brushings from asthma patients, COPD patients, and smoking and non-smoking control individuals. (bmj.com)
  • Raw single-walled carbon nanotube-induced cytotoxic effects in human bronchial epithelial cells: comparison to asbestos. (cdc.gov)
  • The present investigations were focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by raw SWCNT (SWCNT) in human bronchial-epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). (cdc.gov)
  • Integrin matrix receptors on glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) may play an important role in adhesion of GEC to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and in the maintenance of normal glomerular permeability. (nih.gov)
  • Glomerular epithelial cell adhesion to types I and IV collagen was slightly greater than to laminin and fibronectin. (nih.gov)
  • Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers. (nih.gov)
  • Reducing the levels of the lateral homophilic adhesion molecules Neuroglian or Fasciclin 2 disrupts reintegration, giving rise to extra-epithelial cells, whereas disruption of adherens junctions has no effect. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells seems to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelial layer back into it. (nih.gov)
  • These domains mediate cell-cell adhesion by forming elaborate junctions visible under the electron microscope. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL-6, IL-8, RANTES, and M-CSF), as well as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, and membrane expression and shedding of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in all three cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • The CHI3L1 molecule was upregulated after pro-inflammatory cytokine stimulation and enhanced the adhesion and internalization of intracellular bacteria in epithelial cells. (massgeneral.org)
  • Extracellular matrix adhesion is required for normal epithelial cell survival, nutrient uptake and metabolism. (harvard.edu)
  • In conclusion, EPs[R] 7630 develops complementary anti-infective properties: Firstly, EPs[R] 7630 reduces bacterial adhesion to intact epithelial cells and thus protects the organism from bacterial colonization and infection/superinfection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Along the cell periphery, the filaments interact with cell matrix and cell-to-cell adhesion complexes. (fsu.edu)
  • It is a coordinated molecular and cellular change defined as a reduction in cell-cell adhesion, apical-basolateral polarity, and epithelial markers, as well as an acquisition of motility, spindle-cell shape, and mesenchymal markers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Since oxidative stress in airway cells increases platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) expression, and PAFR is co-opted by pneumococci to adhere to host cells, we hypothesised that E-cigarette vapour increases pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells. (ersjournals.com)
  • We determined the effect of vapour on oxidative stress-induced, PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion to airway epithelial cells in vitro , and on pneumococcal colonisation in the mouse nasopharynx. (ersjournals.com)
  • Nicotine-containing and nicotine-free E-cigarette vapour increased pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells in vitro . (ersjournals.com)
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule expression (CD326) in cancer: a short review. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is a pleiotropic molecule that potentially offers therapeutic applications in cancer treatment. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Initially described as a dominant surface antigen on human colon carcinoma, it is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating epithelial-specific intercellular cell-adhesion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The emphasis is on the analysis and assessment of epithelial cells, for example, by looking at apoptosis and integrins or by measuring membrane capacitance and confluence. (springer.com)
  • Apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells after bacterial invasion. (jci.org)
  • The studies herein define apoptosis as a new category of intestinal epithelial cell response to bacterial infection. (jci.org)
  • Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. (jci.org)
  • In contrast to the rapid onset of apoptosis seen after bacterial infection of mouse monocyte-macrophage cell lines, the commitment of human intestinal epithelial cell lines to undergo apoptosis is delayed for at least 6 h after bacterial infection, requires bacterial entry and replication, and the ensuing phenotypic expression of apoptosis is delayed for 12-18 h after bacterial entry. (jci.org)
  • Apoptosis in response to bacterial infection may function to delete infected and damaged epithelial cells and restore epithelial cell growth regulation and epithelial integrity that are altered during the course of enteric infection. (jci.org)
  • The delay in onset of epithelial cell apoptosis after bacterial infection may be important both to the host and the invading pathogen since it provides sufficient time for epithelial cells to generate signals important for the activation of mucosal inflammation and concurrently allows invading bacteria time to adapt to the intracellular environment before invading deeper mucosal layers. (jci.org)
  • In addition, they are sites of intensive intercellular signaling, and defects in their organization may result in apoptosis or uncontrolled cell division. (sciencemag.org)
  • Interestingly, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR leads to apoptosis of matrix-detached, but not matrix-attached cancer cells, suggesting that matrix-attached cells use alternate mechanisms to maintain nutrient supplies. (harvard.edu)
  • But when the team experimentally inhibited apoptosis, tumor-like growths emerged at the base of the cell layer. (medindia.net)
  • Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to SWCNT induced apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a disease characterized by oxidative stress and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells driven by hyperglycemia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, apoptosis and oxidative stress were evaluated. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Apoptosis was investigated by measuring caspase-3 activity and by evaluating nuclear morphology of cells stained with Hoechst 33342. (molvis.org)
  • Effects on proliferation and/or dysregulation of apoptosis in lens epithelial cells may be an important factor in human steroid-induced posterior subcapsular cataract. (molvis.org)
  • They are called transitional cells, renal tubular cells, and squamous cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If there are squamous epithelial cells in your urine, it may mean your sample was contaminated. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What organelles does a simple squamous epithelial cell contain? (google.com)
  • The term squamous is used to describe a cell that is wider than it is high. (google.com)
  • In the JBC report, the investigators used metabolomics to gain an initial understanding of the global biochemical alterations in CF primary lung epithelial cells. (news-medical.net)
  • In order to test possible treatment strategies, the scientists placed the affected cells into a three-dimensional cell culture and examined the drugs's effect ex vivo, so to speak. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2017): Senolytic drugs target alveolar epithelial cell function and attenuate experimental lung fibrosis ex vivo. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hence, the properties, and probably the number, of stem cells in a crypt may change in response to circumstances, including the choice of experimental manipulations (which often fail to mimic the conditions that these cells normally encounter in vivo). (jci.org)
  • Beta 1 integrin matrix receptors were detected on all three glomerular cell types in rat kidney in vivo and at areas of cell-cell contact on cultured GEC. (nih.gov)
  • Lanzini M, Curcio C, Colabelli-Gisoldi RA, Mastropasqua A, Calienno R, Agnifili L, et al.In Vivo and Impression Cytology Study on the Effect of Compatible Solutes Eye Drops on the Ocular Surface Epithelial Cell Quality in Dry Eye Patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects multiple cell types in vivo ( 7 ), and it fuses with the plasma membranes of fibroblasts ( 8 ) but enters retinal pigmented epithelial cells and umbilical vein endothelial cells via endocytosis ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Indications for distinct lipid environments in living cells come from the measurements of different viscous drags for different bead-coupled proteins in the plasma membrane of fibroblasts ( 15 ) and from fluorescence anisotropy measurements of diphenyl chain-labeled phosphatidylcholine revealing liquid-ordered environments in the plasma membrane of mast cells ( 16 ) and in vivo images of liquid-ordered domains in macrophages labeled with 6-lauroyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • AGE-albumin) and in particular carboxymethyllysine (CML) are known to play a central role in diabetic nephropathy, we studied the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in tubular epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro by AGE-albumin and CML. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These cells are similar morphologically, histologically, and functionally and resemble the cells in vivo . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Studies of ciliary activity demonstrate that these cells react toward various agonist and antagonist agents in a similar manner as the cells reported in vivo and consequently will prove to be a valuable model for the evaluation of various therapeutic agents used in the management of infective lung diseases. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To test directly for a requirement for endothelial cells in instructive epithelial patterning, we developed a novel ex vivo cell fractionation/reconstitution assay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the absence of intestinal GCs in vivo , activation by anti-CD3 injection resulted in reduced CD69 expression and interferon-γ production by intestinal T cells, whereas activation by viral infection led to increased T cell activation. (rupress.org)
  • Zulewski, H., Abraham, E.J. and Gerlach, M.J. (2001) Multipotential Nestinpositive Stem Cells Isolated from Adult Pancreatic Islets Differentiate ex Vivo into Pancreatic Endocrine, Exocrine, and Hepatic Phenotypes. (scirp.org)
  • Rosenberg, L. (2001) In Vivo Cell Transformation: Neogenesis of Beta Cells from Pancreatic Ductal Cells. (scirp.org)
  • Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. (rsc.org)
  • Are mouse lens epithelial cells more sensitive to γ-irradiation than lymphocytes? (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this pilot study we compared for the first time the radiation sensitivity of mouse lens epithelial cells (LECs) and mouse lymphocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids in cultured human lens epithelial cells. (molvis.org)
  • Human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) were exposed to dexamethasone for 24 h. (molvis.org)
  • Injury to lens epithelial cells (LECs) leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with resultant fibrosis. (wiley.com)
  • To investigate if NGF can alter epithelial ion transport, we established human primary cultured epithelial cells in air-interface that demonstrates desirable in situ morphology and ion transport function. (cdc.gov)
  • The cells exhibit epithelial morphology and produce the protease plasminogen activator that typically initiates the process of fibrinolysis by converting plasminogen to plasmin. (microscopyu.com)
  • Cells were staining according to Feulgen method and nuclear morphology was analyzed to detect possible damage. (isciii.es)
  • This differential actin remodeling is dependent on the activation and redistribution of NMII and leads to different changes in the morphology and functionality of epithelial cells. (umd.edu)
  • The absence of the second gH/gL complex causes the loss of epithelial and endothelial cell tropism in HCMV laboratory strains ( 19 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Next, we will review and critically discuss how dys-regulation of cell volume or given ion transporters can lead to loss of epithelial architecture, altered cell survival, tumor progression, and drug resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • I did not expect that spindle orientation defects could be sufficient to cause loss of epithelial identity," explains Yu-ichiro Nakajima, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in the Gibson lab and the study's first author. (medindia.net)
  • Because our laboratory has been primarily interested in epithelial cell physiology and pathophysiology for several years, the role of extracellular ATP in regulation of epithelial cell function will be the focus of this review. (nih.gov)
  • Perfusion-independent regulation of epithelial pattern formation by the vasculature during organ development and regeneration is of considerable interest for application in restoring organ function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, we examined the role of alterations in p16 and pRb during growth, senescence, and immortalization in vitro of human prostate epithelial cells (HPECs). (psu.edu)
  • Arsenic can cause malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells in vitro, and these CAsE-PE (chronic-arsenic-exposed prostate epithelial) cells produce aggressive, carcinoma-like rumors when inoculated into nude mice (Achanzar et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS Human renal epithelial cell HK-2 were incubated to D-glucose to establish in vitro DN model. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Therefore, this study was undertaken as follows: 1) to determine S. aureus supernatant modulation of cytokine generation and cytokine signaling in an in vitro cell culture system of primary nasal epithelial cells, and 2) to elucidate the role of S. aureus -derived serine proteases in initiating and maintaining inflammatory mechanisms in nasal epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Epithelial cells infected with various H . pylori clinical isolates resulted in generation of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins ranging from 130 to 145 kD in size that were also induced in vitro by mixing host cell lysate with bacterial lysate. (rupress.org)
  • The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. (hindawi.com)
  • This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • In this regard, a variety of stem/progenitor cells with functional specificity are responsible for both of the injury repair and the normal turnover at steady state throughout the airway tree [ 1 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • According to the position within the airway tree, several epithelial cell types in the adult lung have been suggested to act as stem/progenitor cells in response to injury and exert the role in the local injury repair [ 1 , 4 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A GFP reporter system to assess gene transfer and expression in human hematopoietic progenitor cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Human neural progenitor cells: better blue than green? (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents a comment on the purification of progenitor cells from heterogeneous cultures published in an article in the March 2000 issue of 'Nature Medicine. (ebscohost.com)
  • Quantitative Clonal Analysis and Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveal Division Kinetics, Hierarchy, and Fate of Oral Epithelial Progenitor Cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We also show that EphA2 overexpression is sufficient to confer malignant transformation and tumorigenic potential on nontransformed (MCF-10A) mammary epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that under conditions of dietary restriction or growth factor starvation, where PI3K/mTOR signalling is decreased, matrix-attached human mammary epithelial cells upregulate and internalize β4-integrin along with its matrix substrate, laminin. (harvard.edu)
  • Moreover, we show that starved human fibroblasts secrete matrix proteins that maintain the growth of starved mammary epithelial cells contingent upon epithelial cell β4-integrin expression. (harvard.edu)
  • Its expression in mouse mammary epithelial cell cultures was previously found to require the formation of an extracellular matrix (ECM)-induced three-dimensional alveolar structure. (psu.edu)
  • 1994-=-), it is not surprising that the two factors have distinct functions and are regulated differently in mammary epithelial cells. (psu.edu)
  • Epithelial cells are joined together by junctions, of which there are four types: Tight junctions or zona occludens are where the membranes of the adjacent cells become fused together. (google.com)
  • For example, although epithelial cells in Drosophila do not develop TJs, a distinct region apical to the ZA, the subapical region (SAR), harbors protein complexes that colocalize with tight junctions in vertebrate cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tight junctions act as the delineation between the apical (upper) and basal (lower) regions of an epithelial cell in conjunction with polarization between the two regions. (davidson.edu)
  • Physiologically functional and morphologically recognizable tight junctions can thus be established within 30 min, demonstrating a mechanism for the rapid restoration of epithelial integrity after cell loss. (caltech.edu)
  • Resolvins decrease oxidative stress mediated macrophage and epithelial cell interaction through decreased cytokine secretion," PLoS One, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Apigenin protects renal tubular epithelial cells against high glucose-induced injury through suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Apigenin Protects Against Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Injury and Oxidative Stress by High Glucose via Regulation of NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) Pathway. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Similarly, changes in RNA for superoxide dismutase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 were also greatest after silica and the desert dusts supporting an oxidative stress after cell exposure. (epa.gov)
  • We conclude that, comparable to other particles, desert dusts have a capacity to 1) influence oxidative stress and release of pro-inflammatory mediators in respiratory epithelial cells and 2) provoke an inflammatory injury in the lower respiratory tract of an animal model. (epa.gov)
  • Responses of isolated type II alveolar cells to fibroblast growth factors (FGF) have been shown to be sensitive to the level of sulfation in extracellular matrix (ECM) substrata. (psu.edu)
  • A549, a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line/type II alveolar epithelial cell , was obtained from American Type Culture Collection and cultured in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% FBS, 1% penicillin/ streptomycin, and 1% L-glutamine in a 37[degrees]C humidified incubator supplied with 5% C[O. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we focus on some of the best-studied junctions and membrane-associated protein complexes and their relation to cell polarity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Altered cell polarity and migration are hallmarks of cancer and metastases. (mit.edu)
  • In healthy epithelia, specific ion channels/transporters localize to the luminal and basolateral membranes, contributing to functional epithelial polarity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human epithelial cells do express mammalian Scribble and Discs Large proteins, and both play key roles in maintaining epithelial cell polarity, or shap a property lost in metastatic cancer cells. (medindia.net)
  • These results suggest that the polarity of epithelial cells at different anatomic locations of the female reproductive tract alters the mechanisms by which GC establishes the infection. (umd.edu)
  • Hence, the differentiated, functional cells are found mainly on the villi (small intestine) or toward the top of the colonic crypt - the intercrypt table - in the large intestine. (jci.org)
  • We investigate the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the functional modulation of colonic epithelial cells (CEC) during the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (massgeneral.org)
  • This demonstrates the importance of sample choice when investigating functions directly affecting the colonic epithelial layer. (dovepress.com)
  • uncovered a connection between IL-6 and keratins, particularly keratin-8, in studies performed using a human colonic epithelial cell line and IL-6 knockout mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. (rsc.org)
  • the injury repair of re-epitheliumis thus required for the preservation of epithelial integrity. (hindawi.com)
  • New findings from his lab published in the July 21 advance online issue of Nature demonstrate that the way the mitotic spindle the machinery that separates chromosomes into daughter cells during cell division aligns relative to the surface of the cell layer is essential for the maintenance of epithelial integrity. (medindia.net)
  • Together, these data implicate keratin-8 in mediating the protective effects of IL-6 on the integrity of the intestinal epithelial layer. (sciencemag.org)
  • The abundance of keratin-8 is increased by IL-6 and helps to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial layer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Aberrant expression of Tpms leads to abnormal morphological changes with disintegration of epithelial integrity. (wiley.com)
  • 2017. "Starved epithelial cells uptake extracellular matrix for survival. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, a better understanding of the role and mechanism of AECs in response to mycobacteria will provide insight into the relationship of epithelial cells and lung immunocytes against TB, which may facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis and immunological mechanism of pulmonary tuberculosis disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Human lung epithelial cancer cells (pulmonary mucoepidermal carcinoma), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Kern, "Role of Smad2/3 and p38 MAP kinase in TGF-[beta]1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pulmonary epithelial cells ," Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • O.sub.3] causes injury to pulmonary epithelial cells (Pino et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is obvious the disease is not due to microparticles or vapours, because the pulmonary epithelial cells are full of nanoparticles," said lead author Yuguo Song, a clinical toxicologist at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These are required for the normal processes of cell physiology There may also be some specialised structures, as described for endothelial cells below. (google.com)
  • In Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols, a team of well-versed experimenters and clinical researchers share their best methods for establishing and maintaining epithelial cell cultures, for analyzing and studying their characteristics, and for using them to set up models of critical biological systems. (springer.com)
  • This effect was not observed in primary cultures of porcine airway epithelial cells, suggesting that the directed evolution protocol was species specific. (nature.com)
  • Epithelial cell cultures have been an integral and crucial part of the biomedical research enterprise, adding unique capabilities and enabling mechanistic approaches. (springer.com)
  • As a first step in elucidating the role of these cells in immune defense, we have studied the expression of immunological mediators in nonstimulated and stimulated cultures. (nih.gov)
  • Participants will learn to expand primary human airway epithelial cells in PneumaCult™-Ex and PneumaCult™-Ex Plus Media, prepare cultureware for ALI culture, establish ALI cultures of human airway epithelial cells with PneumaCult™-ALI Medium, and perform downstream assays for airway epithelial cells at the ALI. (stemcell.com)
  • Based on data generated in this study, we can now focus on a number of relevant issues, namely, the effects of estrogen on levels of CD117 in primary human endometrial epithelial cell cultures, a mutational analysis of c-kit in endometrial carcinomas, and the functionality of this tyrosine kinase receptor in human endometrial carcinoma cell lines. (acronymfinder.com)
  • All of the 3T3 feeder-free cultures contain more than 3% of p63bright cells. (ca.gov)
  • We show here for the first time that reduction in miR-30 family microRNAs, is responsible for mesenchymal transition of primary cultures of human pancreatic epithelial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated primary human nasal epithelial cell cultures for their ability to produce IL-8, growth-related oncogene-α, and IL-6 via stimulation with trypsin and culture supernatants of different S. aureus strains and phenotypes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Human cytomegalovirus infects multiple cell types, including fibroblasts and epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • Our study identifies a crosstalk between stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells under starvation that could be exploited therapeutically to target tumours resistant to PI3K/mTOR inhibition. (harvard.edu)
  • Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells for acute lymphoid leukemia. (nature.com)
  • Five of eight NF-κBp65 antigen-positive cells stained positive for interleukin-6 (IL-6) antigen (62%), while only one of the NF-κB-negative cells showed IL-6 positivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We focused on one particular antigen that was functionally altered in oncogene-transformed epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EpCAM may thus be an ideal tumor antigen candidate to detect circulating and metastasizing cancer cells by microchip technologies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Phase connectivity was assessed by measuring long-range diffusion of several membrane proteins by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in two polarized epithelial cell lines and one fibroblast cell line. (pnas.org)
  • Consequently, in this study, the responses from four cell lines (three human and one mouse) were characterized during an exposure to different predatory bacteria, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, Bacteriovorus BY1 and Bacteriovorax stolpii EB1. (nature.com)
  • Epithelial cell-generated virions had higher intrinsic "fusion-from-without" activity than fibroblast-generated particles, and the two virus preparations triggered different cellular signaling responses, as evidenced by markedly different transcriptional profiles. (pnas.org)
  • These epithelial cell-derived antimicrobial molecules and/or peptides were multifunctional agents capable of linking the innate and adaptive immune responses [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The AECs are one of the first host cells encountering invaded mycobacterial pathogens, despite increasing evidence, which demonstrates the potential roles of these cells in the tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis, as well as the innate and adaptive immune responses against the infection [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The exact mechanism of epithelial mediated host defense and the clinical relevance of the epithelial cell-mediated immune responses remain poorly understood. (hindawi.com)
  • In response to damage, epithelial wounds repair by a series of events that integrate epithelial responses with those of resident and infiltrating immune cells including neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. (jci.org)
  • These cells were placed in an Ussing chamber to obtain transepithelial voltage (Vt), short-circuit current (Isc), transepithelial resistance (Rt), and to measure responses to known ion transport inhibitors. (cdc.gov)
  • Identifying signals of inflammation initiation and responses to stimuli from within the epithelial layer is critical to understanding the molecular pathways underlying disease pathology. (dovepress.com)
  • Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells induces various cellular responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of an unknown 145-kD protein and interleukin 8 production. (rupress.org)
  • Fascinating biology occurs at epithelial interfaces, whether between organism and environment or within body compartments, and many diseases inflicting huge personal and societal burdens result from dysfunction of epithelial systems, e.g., carcinomas. (springer.com)
  • Basic research using cell culture models has markedly contributed to our understanding of airway epithelial cell biology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other words, if you pointed a tiny camera in your gut toward dividing epithelial cells of its lining, you would "see" the mitotic spindle looking like a symmetrical web, exactly like it did in your high school biology textbook. (medindia.net)
  • The findings derived from epithelial biology often lead to a better understanding of cancer development," says Nakajima. (medindia.net)
  • We aimed to investigate whether exposure to this compound was correlated with the appearance of cytotoxic and genotoxic features in the nasal epithelial cells of students enrolled in a human anatomy course. (isciii.es)
  • This prospective study collected periodically nasal cells from mucosa of 17 volunteers from two different undergraduate programs with different workloads of practical lessons in an anatomy laboratory, 30 and 90 hours per semester. (isciii.es)
  • S. aureus serine proteases were identified to modulate chemokine synthesis and activate NF-κB in nasal epithelial cells, and may therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Consistent with this, stimulation of cultured nasal epithelial cells with either PAR2-activating peptide or trypsin induced G i protein- and NF-κB-dependent expression of the neutrophil chemoattractants IL-8/CXCL8 and growth-related oncogene (GRO)-αCXCL1, but not the eosinophil and T cell chemoattractants eotaxin/CCL11, CCL5, or CCL17 ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cytokine signaling pathways (p38, the ERK 1/2, and the PI3K) as well as the involvement of NF-κB during cytokine synthesis were examined in nasal epithelial cells by means of NF-κB-DNA-binding assays and quantifying phosphorylation of different kinases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nasal epithelial PAFR was assessed in non-vaping controls, and in adults before and after 5 min of vaping. (ersjournals.com)
  • There was no difference in baseline nasal epithelial PAFR expression between vapers (n=11) and controls (n=6). (ersjournals.com)
  • The corneal basal epithelial cell layers from the center (1), paracentral (2), and peripheral (3) cornea (circles) are shown. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and the basolateral domain, which is in contact with neighboring cells or a basal substratum. (sciencemag.org)
  • In Drosophila epithelial cells, the septate junction (SJ) lies basal to the ZA and forms a region of close membrane contacts that extends over large parts of the lateral plasma membrane domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, the nucleus in the epithelial cell is usually found closer to the basal surface than the apical surface. (davidson.edu)
  • In addition, as a general finding in all species tested, there was an apparent increase noted in P63 expression in basal corneal epithelial cells in regions that had increased cellular layers (limbus in humans and rats and the paracentral corneal region in the mouse). (ebscohost.com)
  • The infectious agents are inhaled conidia whose first point of contact is most likely to be an airway epithelial cell (AEC). (frontiersin.org)
  • The MUC1 core was weakly positive in the apical membrane of the predominant cuboidal epithelial cell component, and negative in the columnar mucinous cell component. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cells line most organs, such as the stomach and small intestine, kidney, and pancreas. (davidson.edu)
  • Female reproductive organs are lined with ciliated epithelial cells. (davidson.edu)
  • The culture of pig kidney epithelial cells featured in the digital image above was immunofluorescently labeled with anti-cytokeratin (pan) mouse monoclonal primary antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Pacific Blue. (fsu.edu)
  • For instance, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) enters primary B cells via endocytosis ( 1 , 2 ), yet it infects epithelial cells or transformed B cells by fusion of its envelope with the plasma membrane ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) infects epithelial cells lining the female reproductive tract. (umd.edu)
  • Stem cells can be induced to differentiate to corneal epithelial cells and used in the treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • Using the respiratory epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, the two desert dusts increased oxidant generation, measured by Amplex Red fluorescence, along with carbon black (a control particle), silica, and NIST 1649 (an ambient air pollution particle). (epa.gov)
  • We plan to set up model to compare the pH, chloride and glutathione concentrations in real-time, using wild type and delta508 CFTR expressing polarized human respiratory epithelial cell on filter support under physiological conditions. (mcgill.ca)
  • A and B) During division cells usually move apically relative to the epithelial layer, often appearing to detach detaching from the basement membrane (Viking-GFP). (nih.gov)
  • Virus produced in epithelial cells preferentially fuses with the plasma membrane, whereas fibroblast-derived virus mostly enters by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • The entry of herpesviruses into cells is a complex process initiated by adsorption and receptor binding and followed by fusion of the virus envelope with a cell membrane. (pnas.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus fuses with the plasma membrane of some cell types, but enters others by endocytosis ( 3 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Fusion with the plasma membrane of B cells is mediated by gH/gL/gp42 ( 14 - 16 ), but epithelial cell entry is triggered by gH/gL ( 11 , 12 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Virions generated in epithelial cells preferentially enter via fusion at the plasma membrane, whereas virions from fibroblasts enter by endocytosis. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we provide evidence for a coexistence of at least two different lipid bilayer phases in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to the fibroblast plasma membrane, in which all of the proteins diffused with similar characteristics, in the apical membrane of epithelial cells the proteins could be divided into two groups according to their diffusion characteristics. (pnas.org)
  • More importantly, giant unilamellar vesicles prepared from cell membrane lipid extracts ( 9 ) also show visible fluid-fluid phase coexistence. (pnas.org)
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins in the exoplasmic leaflet ( 10 , 11 ) and lipid-anchored proteins in the cytoplasmic leaflet ( 12 - 14 ) of cell membranes were shown to be distributed nonrandomly in the plasma membrane with cluster sizes of 4-200 nm, but whether these correlate with lipid domains in a phase-separating system is not known. (pnas.org)
  • Our data are consistent with the coexistence of lipid bilayer phases, a raft and a nonraft phase, in the apical membrane of epithelial cells. (pnas.org)
  • The polarized nature of epithelial cells is manifested by the nonrandom partitioning of organelles within the cells, the concentration of intercellular junctions at one pole, and the asymmetric distribution of proteins and lipids within the plasma membrane. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vertebrate epithelial cells develop a tight junction (TJ), a specialized plasma membrane microdomain apical to the ZA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Histopathological evaluation of the cyst showed the wall formed by only a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells over a basement membrane formed by loose stroma and collagen fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human epithelial cells, which are animal cells, and elodea cells, which are plant cells, share many structures because both are eukaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus. (reference.com)
  • The animal cell has a cell membrane to contain the material of the cell, rather than a cell wall, though the plant cell has both. (reference.com)
  • Animal and plant cells' common structures include a nucleus containing DNA bound by a membrane, along with many other structures. (reference.com)
  • Why is the cell membrane important? (reference.com)
  • It does this by expressing a very large proportion of its genome, and expressing as many 'self' proteins on its cell membrane as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate here that (a) TGF-c ~ production and secretion by mammary cells is downregulated by the basement membrane-dependent alveolar structure, and (b) compared with/3-casein, WAP expression is preferentially inhibited both in culture and in transgenic mice when TGF-ot is added or overexpressed. (psu.edu)
  • The Application of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Sheets Cultivated on Amino Membrane in Patients Suffering From Corneal Stem Cell Insufficiency or Symblepharon. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. (rsc.org)
  • Accumulating evidence on bone marrow, intestinal stem cell crypts, and hair follicles suggests that stem cells often exist in two distinct states based upon their relative activity and/or their ease of activation during homeostasis and/or wound-induced regeneration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Wide-ranging and highly practical, Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols offers both novices and expert investigators alike a step-by-step guide toward a deeper understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms in general, as well as a set of robust techniques for specifically evaluating the nature and behavior of epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Cellular senescence describes a type of arrested growth during which the cells no longer divide. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this context, the coordination of local molecular and cellular events in the microenvironment of niches play pivotal roles in maintaining the balance of stem and differentiated cells for injury repair and regeneration in lung (Figure 1 ) [ 4 , 9 , 29 - 31 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Animal cells contain several structures not common to plants as well, including lysosomes, or sacs of enzymes that digest cellular material. (reference.com)
  • Epithelial cell transforming 2 (Ect2) protein activates Rho GTPases and controls cytokinesis and many other cellular processes. (rcsb.org)
  • Together, our data confirm that miR-30 family microRNAs form a part of the regulatory signaling events involved in cellular response of pancreatic epithelial cells during mesenchymal transition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The definition of EMT in embryo development, which includes an ordered series of transcriptional events and a switch in cell fate, has not been strictly followed in cancer research, in which this term has been more liberally referred to as a recognizable change in cellular phenotype characterized as loss of cell junctions and gain of migratory behaviors ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Asthma is defined as a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role-in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T cells, macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • Estimates of stem-cell number vary widely, from 0.4% to 60% of the crypt cells, with the smallest value implying that a single stem cell occurs in each crypt. (jci.org)
  • This discrepancy arises largely because of differences in the operational definition of the stem cell. (jci.org)
  • Nevertheless, these manipulations have brought to light some interesting properties of this system, including the possible ability of partially differentiated cells to dedifferentiate and replenish the supply of true stem cells. (jci.org)
  • This degree of plasticity is unexpected based on the traditional understanding of stem-cell function. (jci.org)
  • Various experiments suggest that the number of stem cells per crypt is tightly regulated, implying that stem cells can somehow detect each other's presence and respond appropriately. (jci.org)
  • The number of functioning stem cells per crypt greatly influences numerous aspects of crypt organization and control. (jci.org)
  • Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. (nature.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy with a lentiviral vector in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (nature.com)
  • Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy benefits metachromatic leukodystrophy. (nature.com)
  • To do so, they rely heavily upon stem cells to replenish and repair wounds and replace the many cells that die from this wear and tear. (sciencemag.org)
  • Identifying stem cells and tracking their progeny is accelerated by lineage tracing, a technique in which a stem cell is genetically marked in its niche and in a way such that their subsequent progeny retain marker expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • Additional tools include live imaging of marked stem cells and ablating stem cells in situ either by laser or by targeted expression of diphtheria toxin/receptor in stem cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stem cells (purple) often exist in two states, one more quiescent than the other. (sciencemag.org)
  • Primed stem cells are closer to activating niche signals (green). (sciencemag.org)
  • Recent studies on the hair follicle reveal that signals emanating from both heterologous niche cells and from lineage progeny influence the timing and length of stem cell activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Stem cell ablation studies on both intestinal and hair follicle stem cell niches further show that the two states are interconvertible, perhaps best exemplified by the ability of a single intestinal stem cell to eventually outcompete its siblings during rounds of turnover within an intestinal villus. (sciencemag.org)
  • Multipotent stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells) and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) are promising cells to address the problem. (mdpi.com)
  • However, some physiological aspects of animal stem cells are different from those of human stem cells, the protocols suited for animal stem cells might not be suitable for human stem cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Skin serves as an important source of adult stem cells (SCs) required for formation and regeneration of the skin and HF during post-natal life has the remarkable regenerative capacity apparent during successive rounds of HF cycles. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Its expression, however, was not confined to stem cells alone. (ebscohost.com)
  • Stem Cell Line. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article offers information on the new MilliTrace stem cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Millipore Corp. (ebscohost.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells are widely recognized as attractive targets for gene therapy but current protocols to transduce these cells using recombinant retroviral vectors are inefficient. (ebscohost.com)
  • To evaluate optimization of retroviral transduction of hematopoietic stem cells and stability of gene. (ebscohost.com)
  • Mice whose TEC were unable to respond to RA showed increased cTEC proliferation, an accumulation of stem cell Ag-1 hi cTEC, and, in early life, a decrease in medullary TEC numbers. (jimmunol.org)
  • Stem Cell, 25, 1940-1953. (scirp.org)
  • Yang, L.J. (2006) Liver Stem Cell-Derived β-Cell Surrogates for Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. (scirp.org)
  • In our laboratory, we have developed a limbal stem cell deficient (LSCD) rabbit model. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this trials investigates the therapeutic effects of application autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The goal of the project is to establish a xenobiotic-free culture system that can efficiently expand human limbal stem cells (LSCs) for transplantation. (ca.gov)
  • We first have demonstrated that we are able to grow the human limbal stem cells under the standard method using mouse 3T3 cells as feeder at the same efficiency level as the leading group in the world. (ca.gov)
  • We then proceeded with the initial testing of all the proposed human feeder candidates for their ability to support the growth of human limbal stem cells. (ca.gov)
  • We also have included a new human feeder cell candidate, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. (ca.gov)
  • We believe that we are able to establish a xenobiotic free culture system to efficiently expand limbal stem cells for transplantation. (ca.gov)
  • Three types of human feeder cells- limbal fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells-support the growth of LSCs. (ca.gov)
  • cancer stem cells (CSCs) that drives tumor development and potentially recurrence or metastasis of the disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • On the other hand, tumors are made up of a highly diverse population of cells that exhibit a wide range of phenotypes from stem cell-like cells to well-differentiated cells ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Any subsequent expansion or manipulation of isolated stem cells will also require an intimate knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate these cells, to ensure maintenance of their regenerative capacities and to minimize the risk of introducing undesirable growth traits that could pose health risks for patients. (biologists.org)
  • A subclass of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor (Lgr) proteins has recently gained prominence as adult stem cell markers with crucial roles in maintaining stem cell functions. (biologists.org)
  • Read this Primer by Salvador Herrera and Erika Bach to get an overview of the role of JAK/STAT signaling in stem cells and regeneration in Drosophila testis, intestine and appendages and see the similarities between Drosophila and vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • Stable or highly expressed EpCAM has been detected in most adenocarcinomas and has also been found in metastases, malignant effusions, and cancer stem cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The senescent cells survived for 2 months without apparent morphological changes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We report here an experimental cell transplantation model of amniotic cells in rats. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Transplantation of lacZ transfected amniotic cells into syngeneic rat liver resulted in the integration of the transplanted cells in the liver structure and the cells survived for at least 30 days. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Cell Transplantation is now being published by SAGE. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Migrating cells from transplanted keratoepithelial grafts retained P63 expression at least in the early stages post-transplantation. (ebscohost.com)
  • 2) We have established two cell carrier systems for transplantation. (ca.gov)
  • Skin morphogenesis occurs under stringent control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and result in a formation of the epidermis and a number of different skin appendages (including, the hair follicle, HF). (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Metastasis involves cycles of forward and backward transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes (EMT and MET). (utoronto.ca)
  • Cells undergoing these transitions often attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) or partial EMT phenotype that allows collective cell migration and presumably is responsible for observed clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). (utoronto.ca)
  • Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a phenomenon necessary for embryonic development and also seen during certain pathological conditions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Forced depletion using miR-30 family specific anti-miRs leads to mesenchymal transition while ectopic overexpression maintains the epithelial phenotype. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in metastasis remains controversial. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Three different models including incomplete EMT, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), and collective migration have been proposed for the role of EMT in cancer invasion and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To resolve this apparent contradiction, a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) process in the metastatic sites has been postulated as part of the process of metastatic tumor formation ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)