Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Racepinephrine: A racemic mixture of d-epinephrine and l-epinephrine.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Carticaine: A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.Nordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Metanephrine: Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dihydroergotoxine: A mixture of three different hydrogenated derivatives of ERGOTAMINE: DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. Dihydroergotoxine has been proposed to be a neuroprotective agent and a nootropic agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not clear, but it can act as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and a dopamine agonist. The methanesulfonate salts of this mixture of alkaloids are called ERGOLOID MESYLATES.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Hypodermoclysis: Technique for treating DEHYDRATION and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE by subcutaneous infusion of REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.GlycogenClonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Alprenolol: One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.Amrinone: A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.Phenoxybenzamine: An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dopamine beta-HydroxylasePeptic Ulcer Hemorrhage: Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (1/4955)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (2/4955)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (3/4955)

Lipase [EC 3.1.1.3] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor. (4/4955)

The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes...  (+info)

Adrenoreceptors of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. (5/4955)

1 Adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline (5 mug/ml) did not affect the resting tone of the isolated urinary bladder of the guinea-pig. 2 The catecholamines (1-2 mug/ml) inhibited neuronally evoked contractions at various stimulation frequencies; the inhibition was maximum at 2 Hz and minimum at 50 Hz. Isoprenaline produced maximum inhibition. 3 Propranolol (0.5 mug/ml) completely blocked the catecholamine-induced inhibition at all the frequencies employed. The concentration-response curves of isoprenaline at 2, 10 and 50 Hz were characteristically shifted by propranolol (50 ng/ml). Phenoxybenzamine (0.2 mug/ml) was totally ineffective. 4 In some experiments adrenaline significantly raised the tone of the bladder exposed to propranolol; this effect could be blocked by phenoxybenzamine. 5 Acetylcholine-induced bladder contractions were inhibited by adrenaline (2 mug/ml); the inhibition was completely blocked by propranolol (0.5 mug/ml). 6 The results indicate the presence of an inhibitory beta-adrenoceptor and suggest the possibility of an excitatory alpha-adrenoceptor in guinea-pig urinary bladder.  (+info)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine in dogs. (6/4955)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine was studied using ephedrine. In the dog pretreated with repeated administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 40 or 80 mg/kg, i.v.) or with combined administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 90 mg/kg, s.c. and i.v.) and reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hr previously), pressor responses to dopamine were eliminated and reversed to depressor responses whereas depressor responses to dopamine were potentiated. Positive chronotropic effects of dopamine were almost eliminated. Pressor and positive chronotropic effects of tyramine were almost abolished. Sympathomimetic effect of noradrenaline and adrenaline were potentiated while those of isoprenaline were inhibited. In the heart-lung preparation of ephedrine-treated dogs (total dose, 40 mg/kg, i.v.), cardiac stimulating effects of dopamine and tyramine were strongly depressed, and those of noradrenaline, adrenaline and isoprenaline were reduced to some extent. In the open-chest dogs, after pretreatment of cocaine (4 mg/kg, i.v.), pressor, positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of noradrenaline were potentiated, whilst those of tyramine were inhibited. Those of dopamine were not visibly altered, but depressor, negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of dopamine appeared at small doses. In the ephedrine-pretreated dogs, these sympathomimetic effects of dopamine and tyramine after cocaine were strongly depressed and those of noradrenaline were inhibited to a certain degree. The results obtained with ephedrine suggest that dopamine differs from other catecholamines and tyramine in the mode of cardiovascular actions.  (+info)

alpha-adrenergic stimulation mediates glucose uptake through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in rat heart. (7/4955)

We examined whether insulin and catecholamines share common pathways for their stimulating effects on glucose uptake. We perfused isolated working rat hearts with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [2-3H]glucose (5 mmol/L, 0.05 microCi/mL) and sodium oleate (0.4 mmol/L). In the absence or presence of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin (3 micromol/L), we added insulin (1 mU/mL), epinephrine (1 micromol/L), phenylephrine (100 micromol/L) plus propranolol (10 micromol/L, selective alpha-adrenergic stimulation), or isoproterenol (1 micromol/L) plus phentolamine (10 micromol/L, selective beta-adrenergic stimulation) to the perfusate. Cardiac power was found to be stable in all groups (between 8.07+/-0.68 and 10.7+/-0. 88 mW) and increased (25% to 47%) with addition of epinephrine, but not with selective alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation. Insulin and epinephrine, as well as selective alpha- and beta-receptor stimulation, increased glucose uptake (the following values are in micromol/[min. g dry weight]: basal, 1.19+/-0.13; insulin, 3.89+/-0.36; epinephrine, 3.46+/-0.27; alpha-stimulation, 4.08+/-0.40; and beta-stimulation, 3.72+/-0.34). Wortmannin completely inhibited insulin-stimulated and selective alpha-stimulated glucose uptake, but it did not affect the epinephrine-stimulated or selective beta-stimulated glucose uptake. Sequential addition of insulin and epinephrine or insulin and alpha-selective stimulation showed additive effects on glucose uptake in both cases. Wortmannin further blocked the effects of insulin on glycogen synthesis. We conclude that alpha-adrenergic stimulation mediates glucose uptake in rat heart through a PI3-K-dependent pathway. However, the additive effects of alpha-adrenergic stimulation and insulin suggest 2 different isoforms of PI3-K, compartmentation of PI3-K, potentiation, or inhibition by wortmannin of another intermediate of the alpha-adrenergic signaling cascade. The stimulating effects of both the alpha- and the beta-adrenergic pathways on glucose uptake are independent of changes in cardiac performance.  (+info)

Lactate kinetics at rest and during exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts. (8/4955)

In a previous study [G. C. M. Beaufort-Krol, J. Takens, M. C. Molenkamp, G. B. Smid, J. J. Meuzelaar, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. R. G. Kuipers. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 44): H1503-H1512, 1998], a lower systemic O2 supply was found in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. To determine whether the lower systemic O2 supply results in increased anaerobic metabolism, we used [1-13C]lactate to investigate lactate kinetics in eight 7-wk-old lambs with shunts and eight control lambs, at rest and during moderate exercise [treadmill; 50% of peak O2 consumption (VO2)]. The mean left-to-right shunt fraction in the shunt lambs was 55 +/- 3% of pulmonary blood flow. Arterial lactate concentrations and the rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) of lactate were similar in shunt and control lambs, both at rest (lactate: 1, 201 +/- 76 vs. 1,214 +/- 151 micromol/l; Ra = Rd: 12.97 +/- 1.71 vs. 12.55 +/- 1.25 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and during a similar relative workload. We found a positive correlation between Ra and systemic blood flow, O2 supply, and VO2 in both groups of lambs. In conclusion, shunt lambs have similar lactate kinetics as do control lambs, both at rest and during moderate exercise at a similar fraction of their peak VO2, despite a lower systemic O2 supply.  (+info)

  • The pediatric epinephrine dose calculator allows you to estimate the amount of epinephrine required for a child, no matter the route of administration, be it Intravenous (IV), Intramuscular (IM), Subcutaneous (SC), Endotracheal (ET) or via a nebulizer. (omnicalculator.com)
  • The dose-response curves of epinephrine given either IV or endotracheally (ET) were compared during resuscitation from electromechanical dissociation (EMD). (purdue.edu)
  • In the US, Xylocaine with Epinephrine (epinephrine/lidocaine systemic) is a member of the drug class local injectable anesthetics and is used to treat Local Anesthesia . (drugs.com)
  • Endotracheal Versus Intravenous Epinephrine During Electromechanical D" by Sandra H. Ralston, Willis A. Tacker et al. (purdue.edu)
  • This is the author accepted manuscript of Ralston, S.H., Tacker W.A., Showen L., Carter A.B., Babbs C.F., Endotracheal versus intravenous epinephrine during electromechanical dissociation with CPR in dogs. (purdue.edu)
  • Ang masasamang mga reaksiyon sa epinephrine ay kinabibilangan ng mga palpitasyon ng puso (pagsikdo ng puso), tachycardia , pagkabalisa ( anxiety ), sakit ng ulo , tremor , altapresyon , at acute o malalang edemang pulmonaryo (manas ng baga). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each milliliter contains 1 mg Adrenalin (epinephrine) as the hydrochloride dissolved in Water for Injection, USP, with sodium chloride added for isotonicity. (rxlist.com)
  • NDC 61570-418-81 (Amp 88) Sterile solution containing 1 mg Adrenalin (epinephrine) as the hydrochloride in each 1-mL ampoule (1:1000). (rxlist.com)
  • NDC 61570-401-11 (S.V. 11) Sterile solution containing 1 mg Adrenalin (epinephrine) as the hydrochloride (1:1000). (rxlist.com)
  • It is the object of my invention to obtain a more effective stabilization than has heretofore been obtained of epinephrine (adrenalin), and of other epinephrine-type compounds which like epinephrine have a substituted-amino group, or an amino group (NH2), connected to a mono- or poly-hydroxy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • For example, in Illinois, Maine, Michigan and New Hampshire, children who attend a camp may self-administer epinephrine in the event of an allergic reaction. (ncsl.org)
  • For example, Alaska enacted a 2015 bill allowing pharmacists to administer epinephrine should a patient who received a pharmacist-administered vaccine suffer an allergic reaction. (ncsl.org)
  • Epinephrine is also used to treat anaphylaxis (acute systemic allergic reaction), which can occur in response to exposure to certain drugs, insect venoms, and foods (e.g., nuts and shellfish). (britannica.com)
  • You should inject epinephrine injection as soon as you suspect that you may be experiencing a serious allergic reaction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Talk to your doctor about these symptoms and be sure you understand how to tell when you are having a serious allergic reaction and should inject epinephrine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Keep your automatic injection device with you or available at all times so that you will be able to inject epinephrine quickly when an allergic reaction begins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you're at risk for a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction (your doctor will call it anaphylaxis), you'll need an epinephrine auto-injector in your kit. (webmd.com)
  • Seek emergency medical attention after any use of epinephrine to treat a severe allergic reaction. (cigna.com)
  • Before using epinephrine, tell your doctor if any past use of this medicine caused an allergic reaction to get worse. (cigna.com)
  • Epinephrine is the best medicine to treat anaphylaxis , which is a very bad allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is almost surely not a true allergic reaction, but rather an "adverse effect" which can occur with epinephrine. (netwellness.org)
  • Also, I.V. kits in case a doctor or nurse needs to start an I.V. And also, several drugs including epinephrine , which is used if someone has a severe allergic reaction, it has other uses too, and nitroglycerin for chest pain. (wordnik.com)
  • Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic reaction that has many possible triggers, occurs quickly, without warning, and must be treated immediately with epinephrine. (biospace.com)
  • New guidelines state that medical professionals need to be able to identify anaphylaxis and understand that a person suffering from a severe allergic reaction requires immediate treatment with epinephrine. (health24.com)
  • People having a severe allergic reaction need immediate treatment with the medication epinephrine, newly released guidelines say. (health24.com)
  • Epinephrine can halt that severe allergic reaction. (health24.com)
  • There is virtually no reason not to use epinephrine on people believed to be suffering a severe allergic reaction, according to the guidelines from the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI). (health24.com)
  • One study released at that meeting found that not all doctors know that epinephrine needs to be used first when treating an allergic reaction, while another found that having emergency supplies of epinephrine in schools saves lives. (health24.com)
  • When an insurer does not provide affordable access to epinephrine - either by refusing to cover the medication or only covering a small amount of the cost - you can initiate an appeals process through your insurance carrier. (foodallergy.org)
  • The EpiPen4Schools program is designed to help schools have improved access to epinephrine in the event a person experiences an anaphylactic reaction at school. (biospace.com)
  • The plan also should include awareness of the risks, preparedness for an emergency and access to epinephrine and immediate medical care. (biospace.com)
  • Epinephrine is used to treat a number of conditions including: cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis, and superficial bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • While epinephrine is often used to treat cardiac arrest, it has not been shown to improve long-term survival or mental function after recovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epinephrine is used medicinally as a stimulant in cardiac arrest, as a vasoconstrictor in shock, as a bronchodilator and antispasmodic in bronchial asthma, and to lower intra-ocular pressure in the treatment of glaucoma. (infoplease.com)
  • Epinephrine may be injected into the heart during cardiac arrest to stimulate heart activity. (britannica.com)
  • R.S.H. Pumphrey reported, [ 2 ] in a study, that epinephrine was administered in just 62% of the fatal anaphylactic reactions that he reviewed, with only a small minority (14%) receiving the drug before cardiac arrest. (medscape.com)
  • Because the extent to which delays in initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) versus the time from CPR to defibrillation or epinephrine treatment affects survival remains unknown, it was hypothesized that all three independently decrease survival in in-hospital cardiac arrest. (medscape.com)
  • Others have documented the importance of prompt treatment with defibrillation for patients with shockable in-hospital cardiac arrest [ 3 ] and with epinephrine for those with nonshockable in-hospital cardiac arrest. (medscape.com)
  • Accordingly, we examined the association between time to initiation of CPR and time from CPR to either defibrillation or epinephrine treatment on in-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes using data from Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation, a large prospective, hospital-based, multicenter clinical registry that uses standardized definitions to assess both care processes and outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] We hypothesized that delays in the initiation of CPR and from time of CPR to defibrillation or epinephrine treatment are each associated with lower in-hospital cardiac arrest survival. (medscape.com)
  • Epinephrine is an injected medicine used to treat severe allergic reactions, breathing problems, and cardiac arrest. (healthwise.net)
  • Epinephrine can re-start a person's heart when they are in cardiac arrest (their heart has stopped beating). (wikipedia.org)
  • Epinephrine is generally used for the treatment of Anaphylaxis, hypotension associated with septic shock, cardiac arrest, respiratory diseases and many more. (openpr.com)
  • The increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, cardiac arrest etc. can boost the growth of the epinephrine market. (openpr.com)
  • The epinephrine market has also been segmented based on the applications, and Anaphylaxis & Cardiac arrest is expected to hold a large revenue share in the overall epinephrine market. (openpr.com)
  • WASHINGTON (Dec. 1 2014) -- For patients in cardiac arrest, administering epinephrine helps to restart the heart but may increase the overall likelihood of death or debilitating brain damage, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology . (eurekalert.org)
  • The study offers new data in an ongoing debate over the risks and benefits of using epinephrine to treat cardiac arrest, an often-fatal condition in which the heart stops beating. (eurekalert.org)
  • The role of epinephrine is more and more questionable in cardiac arrest," said the study's lead author Florence Dumas, M.D., Ph.D., of the Parisian Cardiovascular Research Center in France. (eurekalert.org)
  • Administering epinephrine to patients in cardiac arrest has been shown to improve the chance of restarting the heart, known as return of spontaneous circulation or ROSC. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition to further research on epinephrine, Dumas said the study reinforces the need to continue investigating other drugs and drug combinations that might offer safer alternatives to epinephrine during cardiac arrest. (eurekalert.org)
  • Vasopressin, steroids, and epinephrine and neurologically favorable survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Kapadia VS and Wyckoff MH (2018) Corrigendum: Epinephrine Use During Newborn Resuscitation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Seattle, Jan. 18, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- According to Coherent Market Insights, the global epinephrine market is estimated to be valued at US$ 2,040 million in 2017, and is projected to exhibit a CAGR of 11.0% over the forecast period (2018 - 2026). (globenewswire.com)
  • At-rest plasma epinephrine levels are 0.035 ng/mL. [ 3 ] Levels over 10 times that amount have been measured in persons exercising, [ 4 ] and even higher than that in people under mental stress. (medscape.com)
  • Blood pressure, plasma epinephrine levels, and P-selectin expression (as a marker for platelet activation) were measured in every patient at 9 PM and 6 AM (before and after the polysomnogram). (nih.gov)
  • Hypertensive subjects may respond to environmental stimuli with larger sympathoadrenal responses than normotensive subjects, 12 and elevated plasma epinephrine levels in hypertension may be a marker for increased arousal with enhanced neurogenic activity of the type associated with the defense reaction. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13 However, even transiently and certainly chronically elevated plasma epinephrine levels deserve consideration as a pathophysiological feature of essential hypertension, because epinephrine has cardiovascular and metabolic (hormonal) effects at concentrations slightly above the normally low resting levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Get emergency medical treatment immediately after you inject epinephrine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not inject epinephrine into the buttocks or any other part of your body such as fingers, hands, or feet or into a vein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Inject Epinephrine Injection, 0.3 mg and Epinephrine Injection, 0.15 mg intramuscularly or subcutaneously into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, through clothing if necessary. (nih.gov)
  • Go to the emergency room right away if you accidently inject epinephrine into any part of your body other than your thigh. (umm.edu)
  • People with a severe allergy should know how to inject epinephrine, as should their family members and people they spend time with regularly. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Ask your allergist or immunologist to show you and your loved ones how to inject epinephrine. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In the 1970s, Sheldon Kaplan, a biomechanical engineer, unknowingly invented the ultimate way to self-inject epinephrine. (businessinsider.com)
  • Mylan Inc. ( MYL ) said Meridian Medical Technologies, a Pfizer ( PFE ) subsidiary, has entered into a settlement agreement with Teva ( TEVA ) that will resolve pending patent litigation related to its abbreviated new drug application for a generic epinephrine auto-injector. (rttnews.com)
  • According to the settlement terms, Teva may launch a generic epinephrine auto-injector covered by its ANDA on June 22, 2015 or earlier under certain circumstances, subject to receipt of approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (rttnews.com)
  • Epinephrine, a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal gland, is an important CNS neurotransmitter and has a central role in autonomic regulation including intestinal and bronchial smooth muscle tone, vascular tone, glucose metabolism, and cardiac rate and contractility. (medscape.com)
  • Epinephrine testing should not be performed in patients in withdrawal from any drugs (legal or illegal) associated with known rebound plasma catecholamine release during the withdrawal period. (medscape.com)
  • Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine . (rxlist.com)
  • Increasing pipeline epinephrine products, is one of the major factors, increasing the growth of the epinephrine market. (openpr.com)
  • Increasing air pollution, leading to an increased occurrence of respiratory diseases, can increase the growth of the epinephrine market. (openpr.com)
  • Increasing healthcare awareness is also expected to increase the growth of the epinephrine market. (openpr.com)
  • Increased number of research and developmental activities and clinical trials, is one of the important factors, increasing the growth of the epinephrine market. (openpr.com)
  • Epinephrine has some side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, headache etc., can hinder the growth of the epinephrine market. (openpr.com)
  • Bill would make it possible for anyone trained in recognizing anaphylaxis and administering epinephrine to obtain a prescription for an auto-injector. (htrnews.com)
  • Mishicot family's epinephrine push to honor son with Dillon's Law passes Wisconsin Senate Bill would make it possible for anyone trained in recognizing anaphylaxis and administering epinephrine to obtain a prescription for an auto-injector. (htrnews.com)
  • This reaction, which is one of oxidation by oxygen, is usually markedly accelerated by heating the epinephrine hydrochloride solution to 100° C., whereupon within 15 to 30 minutes a heavy black precipitate usually forms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Adamis said the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the trade name Symjepi for the epinephrine prefilled syringe treatment, which the company expects to launch in the second half of this year. (wsj.com)
  • Syringe and vial of epinephrine as a method of emergency treatment. (foodallergy.org)
  • If the 1 mg/mL 1 mL ampules or vials need to be used in place of the 0.1 mg/mL emergency syringes, include the diluent and syringe along with instructions for dilution of the 1 mg/mL epinephrine vial or ampule. (ashp.org)
  • EPINEPHrine pre-filled syringe shortage. (ashp.org)
  • Using an ampule or multidose vial of epinephrine and a syringe is less expensive. (ubc.ca)
  • Based on geography, the global Epinephrine market has been divided into a few key regions such as North America, Latin America, Europe, South Asia, East Asia, Oceania, and Middle East & Africa. (openpr.com)
  • North America, specifically, U.S. is expected to register large revenue shares in global Epinephrine market because of the advanced healthcare facilities and treatment procedures followed by Europe and Asia-Pacific. (openpr.com)
  • In July, the U.S. House passed legislation that would give states that come up with policies to make epinephrine available in schools special preference when they apply for asthma-related grants. (washingtonexaminer.com)
  • In 2005, the Washington Legislature passed a law revising the previous language to: RCW 18.73.250 "(1) All of the State's ambulance and aid services shall make epinephrine available to their Emergency Medical Technicians in their emergency care supplies. (latexallergyresources.org)
  • Fresenius Kabi has 0.25% Sensorcaine-MPF with epinephrine 10 mL vials on back order and the company estimates a release date of early- to mid-November 2020. (ashp.org)
  • The 0.25% Sensorcaine-MPF with epinephrine 30 mL vials are on back order and the company estimates a release date of mid-November 2020. (ashp.org)
  • Because of the high intrinsic efficacy (receptor binding ability) of epinephrine, high concentrations of the drug cause negative side effects when treating asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the first report of raised plasma epinephrine concentrations in essential hypertension, 11 the role of epinephrine in the pathogenesis of hypertension has been discussed but still has not been clarified. (ahajournals.org)
  • 24 25 However, in these studies and a large number of later ones, micromolar concentrations of epinephrine were used in vitro, whereas in vivo only nanomolar concentrations are present. (ahajournals.org)
  • Five subsets, namely, CCR7 − CD45RA + CD8 + effector T cells, CD4 − CD8 − γ/δ T cells, CD3 + CD56 + NKT-like cells, CD16 + CD56 dim cytotoxic NK cells, and CD14 dim CD16 + proinflammatory monocytes showed a rapid and transient increase after infusion of epinephrine at physiological concentrations. (jimmunol.org)
  • To identify such a profile in a comprehensive study, we examined in humans the effects of i.v. epinephrine infusion at concentrations within the physiological normal range on 14 different T cell, NK cell, and monocyte subsets. (jimmunol.org)
  • Emotions such as fear, stress, or anger can trigger the release of epinephrine. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Consider conserving current supplies of epinephrine emergency syringes for code boxes or code situations. (ashp.org)
  • To determine whether epinephrine facilitates neurogenic vasoconstriction in humans, we contrasted forearm vasoconstrictor responses to a reflex stimulus (lower body negative pressure [LBNP]) and to intraarterial NE before, during, and 30 min after infusion of epinephrine (50 ng/min) or isoproterenol (10 or 25 ng/min) into a brachial artery. (jci.org)
  • Epinephrine is generally found in the form of pre-filled syringes. (openpr.com)
  • Pfizer has epinephrine 0.1 mg/mL 10 mL LifeShield syringes available in limited supply. (ashp.org)
  • Epinephrine 0.1 mg/mL emergency syringes are unapproved products. (ashp.org)
  • Epinephrine emergency syringes are commonly used for treatment of ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia unresponsive to initial defibrillatory shocks, pulseless electrical activity, and asystole. (ashp.org)
  • FDA has extended the expiration dating for certain lots of epinephrine 0.1 mg/mL 10 mL Abboject syringes. (ashp.org)
  • In June 2017, another alternative entered the market called Symjepi, consisting of pre-filled syringes of epinephrine. (businessinsider.com)
  • All 50 states allow epinephrine use in schools. (ncsl.org)
  • Only 27 states require or allow epinephrine, a drug used to treat anaphylactic shock, to be available in schools. (washingtonexaminer.com)
  • Does Your State Stock Epinephrine in Schools? (aafa.org)
  • Racemic epinephrine has historically been used for the treatment of croup. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence does not favor racemic epinephrine or L-epinephrine, or IPPB over simple nebulization. (cochrane.org)
  • Comparisons were: nebulized epinephrine versus placebo , racemic nebulized epinephrine versus L-epinephrine (an isomer) and nebulized epinephrine delivered by intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) versus nebulized epinephrine without IPPB. (cochrane.org)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before using epinephrine injection? (cigna.com)
  • The Asia Pacific can also show a large revenue share in the epinephrine market because of the increasing healthcare awareness and increasing research and developmental activities. (openpr.com)
  • Hospitals, retail pharmacies, clinics, physician offices, and other healthcare facilities and providers are advised against using the recalled American Regent Epinephrine Injection for patient care and should immediately quarantine any product for return. (newsinferno.com)