The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
A racemic mixture of d-epinephrine and l-epinephrine.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
Glucose in blood.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A mixture of three different hydrogenated derivatives of ERGOTAMINE: DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. Dihydroergotoxine has been proposed to be a neuroprotective agent and a nootropic agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not clear, but it can act as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and a dopamine agonist. The methanesulfonate salts of this mixture of alkaloids are called ERGOLOID MESYLATES.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Technique for treating DEHYDRATION and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE by subcutaneous infusion of REHYDRATION SOLUTIONS.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.
A positive inotropic cardiotonic (CARDIOTONIC AGENTS) with vasodilator properties, phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitory activity, and the ability to stimulate calcium ion influx into the cardiac cell.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (1/4955)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (2/4955)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (3/4955)

Lipase [EC] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor. (4/4955)

The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes...  (+info)

Adrenoreceptors of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. (5/4955)

1 Adrenaline, noradrenaline and isoprenaline (5 mug/ml) did not affect the resting tone of the isolated urinary bladder of the guinea-pig. 2 The catecholamines (1-2 mug/ml) inhibited neuronally evoked contractions at various stimulation frequencies; the inhibition was maximum at 2 Hz and minimum at 50 Hz. Isoprenaline produced maximum inhibition. 3 Propranolol (0.5 mug/ml) completely blocked the catecholamine-induced inhibition at all the frequencies employed. The concentration-response curves of isoprenaline at 2, 10 and 50 Hz were characteristically shifted by propranolol (50 ng/ml). Phenoxybenzamine (0.2 mug/ml) was totally ineffective. 4 In some experiments adrenaline significantly raised the tone of the bladder exposed to propranolol; this effect could be blocked by phenoxybenzamine. 5 Acetylcholine-induced bladder contractions were inhibited by adrenaline (2 mug/ml); the inhibition was completely blocked by propranolol (0.5 mug/ml). 6 The results indicate the presence of an inhibitory beta-adrenoceptor and suggest the possibility of an excitatory alpha-adrenoceptor in guinea-pig urinary bladder.  (+info)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine in dogs. (6/4955)

A possible mode of cardiovascular actions of dopamine was studied using ephedrine. In the dog pretreated with repeated administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 40 or 80 mg/kg, i.v.) or with combined administrations of ephedrine (total dose, 90 mg/kg, s.c. and i.v.) and reserpine (2 mg/kg, s.c., 24 hr previously), pressor responses to dopamine were eliminated and reversed to depressor responses whereas depressor responses to dopamine were potentiated. Positive chronotropic effects of dopamine were almost eliminated. Pressor and positive chronotropic effects of tyramine were almost abolished. Sympathomimetic effect of noradrenaline and adrenaline were potentiated while those of isoprenaline were inhibited. In the heart-lung preparation of ephedrine-treated dogs (total dose, 40 mg/kg, i.v.), cardiac stimulating effects of dopamine and tyramine were strongly depressed, and those of noradrenaline, adrenaline and isoprenaline were reduced to some extent. In the open-chest dogs, after pretreatment of cocaine (4 mg/kg, i.v.), pressor, positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of noradrenaline were potentiated, whilst those of tyramine were inhibited. Those of dopamine were not visibly altered, but depressor, negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of dopamine appeared at small doses. In the ephedrine-pretreated dogs, these sympathomimetic effects of dopamine and tyramine after cocaine were strongly depressed and those of noradrenaline were inhibited to a certain degree. The results obtained with ephedrine suggest that dopamine differs from other catecholamines and tyramine in the mode of cardiovascular actions.  (+info)

alpha-adrenergic stimulation mediates glucose uptake through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in rat heart. (7/4955)

We examined whether insulin and catecholamines share common pathways for their stimulating effects on glucose uptake. We perfused isolated working rat hearts with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [2-3H]glucose (5 mmol/L, 0.05 microCi/mL) and sodium oleate (0.4 mmol/L). In the absence or presence of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin (3 micromol/L), we added insulin (1 mU/mL), epinephrine (1 micromol/L), phenylephrine (100 micromol/L) plus propranolol (10 micromol/L, selective alpha-adrenergic stimulation), or isoproterenol (1 micromol/L) plus phentolamine (10 micromol/L, selective beta-adrenergic stimulation) to the perfusate. Cardiac power was found to be stable in all groups (between 8.07+/-0.68 and 10.7+/-0. 88 mW) and increased (25% to 47%) with addition of epinephrine, but not with selective alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation. Insulin and epinephrine, as well as selective alpha- and beta-receptor stimulation, increased glucose uptake (the following values are in micromol/[min. g dry weight]: basal, 1.19+/-0.13; insulin, 3.89+/-0.36; epinephrine, 3.46+/-0.27; alpha-stimulation, 4.08+/-0.40; and beta-stimulation, 3.72+/-0.34). Wortmannin completely inhibited insulin-stimulated and selective alpha-stimulated glucose uptake, but it did not affect the epinephrine-stimulated or selective beta-stimulated glucose uptake. Sequential addition of insulin and epinephrine or insulin and alpha-selective stimulation showed additive effects on glucose uptake in both cases. Wortmannin further blocked the effects of insulin on glycogen synthesis. We conclude that alpha-adrenergic stimulation mediates glucose uptake in rat heart through a PI3-K-dependent pathway. However, the additive effects of alpha-adrenergic stimulation and insulin suggest 2 different isoforms of PI3-K, compartmentation of PI3-K, potentiation, or inhibition by wortmannin of another intermediate of the alpha-adrenergic signaling cascade. The stimulating effects of both the alpha- and the beta-adrenergic pathways on glucose uptake are independent of changes in cardiac performance.  (+info)

Lactate kinetics at rest and during exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts. (8/4955)

In a previous study [G. C. M. Beaufort-Krol, J. Takens, M. C. Molenkamp, G. B. Smid, J. J. Meuzelaar, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. R. G. Kuipers. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 44): H1503-H1512, 1998], a lower systemic O2 supply was found in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. To determine whether the lower systemic O2 supply results in increased anaerobic metabolism, we used [1-13C]lactate to investigate lactate kinetics in eight 7-wk-old lambs with shunts and eight control lambs, at rest and during moderate exercise [treadmill; 50% of peak O2 consumption (VO2)]. The mean left-to-right shunt fraction in the shunt lambs was 55 +/- 3% of pulmonary blood flow. Arterial lactate concentrations and the rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) of lactate were similar in shunt and control lambs, both at rest (lactate: 1, 201 +/- 76 vs. 1,214 +/- 151 micromol/l; Ra = Rd: 12.97 +/- 1.71 vs. 12.55 +/- 1.25 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and during a similar relative workload. We found a positive correlation between Ra and systemic blood flow, O2 supply, and VO2 in both groups of lambs. In conclusion, shunt lambs have similar lactate kinetics as do control lambs, both at rest and during moderate exercise at a similar fraction of their peak VO2, despite a lower systemic O2 supply.  (+info)

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

1. Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, and throat
2. Difficulty breathing or swallowing
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Rapid heartbeat
6. Feeling of impending doom or loss of consciousness

Anaphylaxis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, medical history, and physical examination. Treatment for anaphylaxis typically involves administering epinephrine (adrenaline) via an auto-injector, such as an EpiPen or Auvi-Q. Additional treatments may include antihistamines, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy.

Prevention of anaphylaxis involves avoiding known allergens and being prepared to treat a reaction if it occurs. If you have a history of anaphylaxis, it is important to carry an EpiPen or other emergency medication with you at all times. Wearing a medical alert bracelet or necklace can also help to notify others of your allergy and the need for emergency treatment.

In severe cases, anaphylaxis can lead to unconsciousness, seizures, and even death. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

In extreme cases, hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, and even coma. It is important to recognize the symptoms of hypoglycemia early on and seek medical attention if they persist or worsen over time. Treatment typically involves raising blood sugar levels through the consumption of quick-acting carbohydrates such as glucose tablets, fruit juice, or hard candy.

If left untreated, hypoglycemia can have serious consequences, including long-term damage to the brain, heart, and other organs. It is important for individuals with diabetes to monitor their blood sugar levels regularly and work with their healthcare provider to manage their condition effectively.

There are two types of heart arrest:

1. Asystole - This is when the heart stops functioning completely and there is no electrical activity in the heart.
2. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation - This is when the heart is still functioning but there is no pulse and the rhythm is abnormal.

Heart arrest can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and echocardiography. Treatment options for heart arrest include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and medications to restore a normal heart rhythm.

In severe cases of heart arrest, the patient may require advanced life support measures such as mechanical ventilation and cardiac support devices. The prognosis for heart arrest is generally poor, especially if it is not treated promptly and effectively. However, with proper treatment and support, some patients can recover and regain normal heart function.

There are several types of asphyxia, including:

1. Respiratory asphyxia: This occurs when the individual's respiratory system is unable to provide enough oxygen to the body due to obstruction or paralysis of the respiratory muscles.
2. Cardiac asphyxia: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to the body, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients.
3. Cerebral asphyxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to impaired consciousness, confusion, seizures, and even death.
4. Hypoxic-ischemic asphyxia: This occurs when there is a lack of oxygen and blood flow to the body's tissues, leading to tissue damage and cell death.

Asphyxia can cause a range of symptoms depending on its severity and duration, including:

1. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
2. Confusion, disorientation, or loss of consciousness
3. Slurred speech or inability to speak
4. Seizures or convulsions
5. Pale or blue-tinged skin
6. Low blood pressure
7. Slow heart rate
8. Decreased level of consciousness

Treatment for asphyxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In mild cases, treatment may involve providing oxygen therapy, administering medications to stimulate breathing, or performing other respiratory support measures. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary, and treatment may involve mechanical ventilation or other life-saving interventions.

Prevention of asphyxia is essential, and it can be achieved by avoiding situations that can lead to respiratory distress, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to toxic substances. It is also important to ensure proper ventilation in enclosed spaces and to use appropriate safety equipment when working with hazardous materials or in confined areas.

In conclusion, asphyxia is a serious condition that can lead to tissue damage and cell death due to a lack of oxygen and blood flow. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential to prevent long-term brain damage and death. Prevention measures include avoiding situations that can lead to respiratory distress and ensuring proper ventilation in enclosed spaces.

Definition: Aphakia is a congenital or acquired condition characterized by the absence of the crystalline lens in one or both eyes. It can be classified into different types based on the severity and location of the defect.

Types of Aphakia:

1. Microphthalmia: This type of aphakia is characterized by a small eye that may or may not have a lens.
2. Anophthalmia: This is the most severe form of aphakia where one or both eyes are completely absent.
3. Coloboma: This type of aphakia is characterized by a hole in one of the structures of the eye, such as the iris or retina.

Causes: Aphakia can be caused by genetic mutations, acquired injuries, or infections during pregnancy or childhood. Some of the known causes of aphakia include:

1. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as Turner syndrome, can increase the risk of developing aphakia.
2. Infections: Infections such as rubella or toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can increase the risk of aphakia in the developing fetus.
3. Trauma: Injuries to the eye or head can cause aphakia, especially if they occur during childhood.
4. Tumors: Certain tumors, such as retinoblastoma, can cause aphakia if left untreated.

Symptoms: The symptoms of aphakia can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the age of onset. Some common symptoms include:

1. Blindness or vision loss in one or both eyes
2. Abnormal head positioning or posture
3. Difficulty with depth perception
4. Squinting or tilting the head to see objects clearly
5. Increased sensitivity to light
6. Lazy eye (amblyopia)
7. Poor pupillary reflex
8. Abnormal retinal development
9. Increased risk of other ocular abnormalities, such as cataracts or glaucoma

Diagnosis: Aphakia can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, refraction test, and ophthalmoscopy. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, may also be used to evaluate the structure of the eye and detect any underlying conditions.

Treatment: The treatment for aphakia depends on the severity of the condition and the age of onset. Some possible treatments include:

1. Glasses or contact lenses: To correct refractive errors and improve vision.
2. Patching: To strengthen the weaker eye and improve amblyopia.
3. Atropine therapy: To reduce the amount of accommodation and improve alignment of the eyes.
4. Orthoptic exercises: To improve eye movement and alignment.
5. Surgery: To correct refractive errors, align the eyes properly, or remove any cataracts or other ocular abnormalities.
6. Prosthetic implantation: In some cases, a prosthetic eye may be recommended to restore the natural appearance of the eye and improve vision.

Prognosis: The prognosis for aphakia varies depending on the severity of the condition and the age of onset. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of successful management and a good visual outcome. However, some individuals with aphakia may experience long-term vision loss or other complications, such as amblyopia or glaucoma. Regular follow-up with an eye care professional is important to monitor the condition and adjust treatment as needed.

A peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a serious complication that occurs when an ulcer in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) bleeds. The bleeding can be severe and life-threatening, and it requires immediate medical attention.


There are several factors that can contribute to the development of a peptic ulcer hemorrhage, including:

1. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria
2. Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen
3. Excessive alcohol consumption
4. Smoking
5. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce too much acid
6. Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder
7. Ulcers caused by other conditions such as cancer, trauma, or radiation therapy


The symptoms of a peptic ulcer hemorrhage can vary depending on the severity of the bleeding, but they may include:

1. Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material
2. Dark, tarry stools
3. Abdominal pain that worsens over time
4. Weakness and lightheadedness due to blood loss
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin


To diagnose a peptic ulcer hemorrhage, a healthcare provider may use one or more of the following tests:

1. Endoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the stomach and duodenum.
2. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding scale: This is a system used to assess the severity of bleeding based on symptoms and physical examination findings.
3. Blood tests: These may be used to check for signs of anemia, such as low red blood cell count or high levels of hemoglobin in the urine.
4. Upper GI series: This is a test that uses X-rays to visualize the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
5. CT scan: A computerized tomography (CT) scan may be used to rule out other causes of bleeding, such as a ruptured ulcer or tumor.


The goal of treatment for a peptic ulcer hemorrhage is to stop the bleeding and prevent further complications. Treatment options may include:

1. Medications: These may include antacids, H2 blockers, or proton pump inhibitors to reduce acid production and protect the ulcer from further irritation.
2. Endoscopy: A healthcare provider may use an endoscope to locate the source of bleeding and apply a topical treatment such as cautery, sclerotherapy, or argon plasma coagulation to stop the bleeding.
3. Interventional radiology: In some cases, a healthcare provider may use interventional radiology techniques to embolize (block) the blood vessel feeding the ulcer. This can help stop the bleeding and promote healing.
4. Surgery: In rare cases where other treatments have failed, surgery may be necessary to repair the ulcer or remove any damaged tissue.


To prevent peptic ulcer hemorrhage from recurring, it is important to take steps to prevent further irritation of the ulcer and promote healing. This may include:

1. Avoiding NSAIDs and aspirin: These medications can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of bleeding.
2. Avoiding alcohol and smoking: Both of these can irritate the stomach lining and impair healing.
3. Eating a healthy diet: Avoiding spicy or acidic foods and eating smaller, more frequent meals can help reduce symptoms and promote healing.
4. Managing stress: Stress can exacerbate peptic ulcer symptoms and impair healing.
5. Taking medications as directed: If your healthcare provider has prescribed medication to treat your peptic ulcer, it is important to take it as directed.
6. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider can help monitor your condition and ensure that any complications are addressed promptly.

Epinephrine occurs in only a small number of central neurons, all located in the medulla. Epinephrine is involved in visceral ... The commonly used epinephrine autoinjector delivers a 0.3 mg epinephrine injection (0.3 mL, 1:1000). It is indicated in the ... When used intravenously, epinephrine is typically given every three to five minutes. Epinephrine infusions may also be used for ... Epinephrine is frequently combined with local anesthetic and can cause panic attacks. Epinephrine is mixed with cocaine to form ...
... s are hand-held devices carried by those who have severe allergies; the epinephrine delivered by the ... Another design of epinephrine autoinjectors was created by two brothers who were also users of epinephrine autoinjectors. They ... The epinephrine in autoinjectors expires after one year. A study in rabbits showed that intramuscular epinephrine has decreased ... As of 2005, epinephrine autoinjectors were not available in most of the developing world. As of May 2019[update], in Canada the ...
In the next decade, they established over a hundred new routes, many of which, such as Crimson Chrysalis, Epinephrine, Dream of ... "Epinephrine". Retrieved 2018-03-23. "Black Orpheus". Retrieved 2018-03-23. "Sour Mash ... Epinephrine (13 pitches 5.9) Black Orpheus (8 pitches 5.9+) Sour Mash (6 pitches 5.10a) Dream of Wild Turkeys (7 pitches 5.10a ...
"epinephrine (adrenaline)". 2006 Lippincott's Nursing Drug Guide. Retrieved 12 August 2016. "Vasovagal Syncope: What is it?". ... atropine or epinephrine (adrenaline). For people with the cardioinhibitory form of vasovagal syncope, implantation of a ...
Hess, Leo (1943). "Epinephrine Mydriasis". Arch. Ophthalmol. 30 (2): 194-195. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880200042003. Otto ... He also established their relative dependence on epinephrine for proper function. Consequently, he learnt how nerve impulses ...
John Jacob Abel (PHARM: Ph.D. 1883), North American "father of pharmacology"; discovered epinephrine; first crystallized ...
Epinephrine (Adrenaline; Adrenalin, EpiPen, Twinject, etc.) v t e (Articles without EBI source, Articles without KEGG source, ...
Epinephrine occurs in only a small number of central neurons, all located in the medulla. Epinephrine is involved in visceral ... Epinephrine can also be used to treat open-angle glaucoma, as it has been found to lower the outflow of aqueous humor in the ... "Adrenaline - Epinephrine". World of Molecules. Retrieved 7 March 2015. Oanca G, Stare J, Mavri J (December 2017). "How fast ... The history of adrenaline and epinephrine is reviewed by Rao. As a hormone, adrenaline acts on nearly all body tissues by ...
Epinephrine (adrenaline; Adrenalin, EpiPed, Twinject, etc.) "Methyldopa". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ...
"Epinephrine and Norepinephrine". Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016. " ...
Epinephrine is an α and β adrenergic agonist that has been used to treat other upper respiratory tract illnesses, such as croup ... A Cochrane meta-analysis in 2011 found no benefit to the use of epinephrine in the inpatient setting and suggested that there ... A 2017 review found inhaled epinephrine with corticosteroids did not change the need for hospitalization or the time spent in ... The current state of evidence suggests that nebulized epinephrine is not indicated for children with bronchiolitis except as a ...
... epinephrine 1:100,000 and Prilocaine HCl 4% + epinephrine 1:200,000. Bupivicaine HCl 0.5% + epinephrine 1:200,000 gives a long ... Epinephrine in high doses is harmful to a pregnant woman in that it affects uterine blood flow. However its use in low dose ... epinephrine 1:50,000, Lidocaine HCl 2% + epinephrine 1:80,000; Lidocaine HCl 2% + ... The epinephrine causes vasoconstriction which in turn reduces systemic distribution of the anesthetic as well as prolongs its ...
The adrenal medulla is the principal site of the conversion of the amino acid tyrosine into the catecholamines; epinephrine, ... The cells form clusters around fenestrated capillaries where they release norepinephrine and epinephrine into the blood. As a ... including epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine, in response to stimulation ... epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) include increased heart rate and blood pressure, blood vessel constriction in ...
He was given epinephrine. When his heart stopped, the medical staff was unable to get it started again. He is survived by his ...
... after first-line epinephrine. For ulcer treatment, a night-time dose is especially important, as the increase in gastric and ...
Taub calls for epinephrine. Nurse Anne tells him they already tried it, but Taub realizes that the blockage must be below the ...
The primary treatment is epinephrine. Interstitial lung disease presents with gradual onset of shortness of breath typically ...
Pohorecky LA, Wurtman RJ (March 1971). "Adrenocortical control of epinephrine synthesis". Pharmacological Reviews. 23 (1): 1-35 ...
In 2003, Radovic co-authored "Revisiting Epinephrine in Foot Surgery," a published study in the Journal of the American ... Radovic, Philip; Smith, Robert G.; Shumway, Don (1 March 2003). "Revisiting Epinephrine in Foot Surgery". Journal of the ... Podiatric Medical Association that discovered the benefits of using anesthetics containing epinephrine for foot surgery. In ...
As well ALS providers carry various medications such as Zofran, Albuterol, Nitroglycerin, Aspirin, Morphine, Epinephrine etc. ... epinephrine auto-injectors (Epi-Pen); oxygen administered via nasal cannulas; non rebreathing masks and bag valve masks; ...
"Auvi-Q® (epinephrine injection, USP)". "UPDATED: Sanofi US Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of All Auvi-Q Due to ... Auvi-Q (Epinephrine autoinjector), licensed from Intelliject and approved by the FDA in 2012, for emergency treatment of life- ... Product recall and effects: The Epinephrine auto-injection devices made by Sanofi SA currently on the market in the U.S. and ... "All Allerject epinephrine auto-injectors recalled". "Sanofi Canada Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Allerject Due ...
... and Epinephrine (e.g., EpiPen®), along with Bleeding Control Kits. Some privacy experts have expressed concern that the app may ...
... epinephrine expresses the higher affinity. The activation of β1, β2 and β3 activates the enzyme, adenylate cyclase. This, in ... Epinephrine (non-selective) Isoprenaline (INN), isoproterenol (USAN) (β1 and β2) Prenalterol Xamoterol β2 agonists stimulate ... Epinephrine (non-selective) Fenoterol Formoterol Isoetarine Isoprenaline (INN), isoproterenol (USAN) (β1 and β2) Levosalbutamol ... Although minor compared to those of epinephrine, beta agonists usually have mild to moderate adverse effects, which include ...
Certain medications, including epinephrine, may be used either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Others, such as insulin, are ... EpiPen/EpiPen Jr (epinephrine) [prescribing information]. Morgantown, WV: Mylan Specialty LP; August 2018. "Administer the ... but people who are not medical professionals can also be trained to administer medications like epinephrine using an ...
... this includes the excretion of large quantities of epinephrine from the medulla of the adrenal gland. Epinephrine is commonly ...
... s of the adrenal medulla are innervated by the splanchnic nerve and secrete adrenaline (epinephrine), ... This chronic increase of epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion causes desensitization of the chromaffin cells to ... The chromaffin cells release catecholamines: ~80% of adrenaline (epinephrine) and ~20% of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) into ... Pohorecky, LA; Wurtman, RJ (Mar 1971). "Adrenocortical control of epinephrine synthesis" (PDF). Pharmacological Reviews. 23 (1 ...
"The Sedative-like Effect of Epinephrine." Archives of General Psychiatry,12, 255-259, 1965. 4. Malev, J.S, Breggin, P.R., et al ...
Epinephrine is released into the blood. The HPA axis is activated. There is increased activity in the sympathetic nervous ...
Effects of epinephrine and phorbol esters". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. 1783 (5): 695-712. ...
Anaphylactic shock is treated with epinephrine. The use of vasopressin together with norepinephrine rather than norepinephrine ...
EPINEPHRINE (UNII: YKH834O4BH) (EPINEPHRINE - UNII:YKH834O4BH) EPINEPHRINE. 1 mg in 1 mL. ... EPINEPHRINE - epinephrine injection Sparhawk Laboratories, Inc.. Disclaimer: This drug has not been found by FDA to be safe and ...
Each Epinephrine Injection, USP Auto-Injector delivers one 0.3 mg intramuscular dose of epinephrine from epinephrine injection ... Each epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector, 0.3 mg delivers a single dose of 0.3 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection, ... Each epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector, 0.15 mg delivers a single dose of 0.15 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection ... EPINEPHRINE (UNII: YKH834O4BH) (EPINEPHRINE - UNII:YKH834O4BH) EPINEPHRINE. 0.3 mg in 0.3 mL. ...
EPINEPHRINE (UNII: YKH834O4BH) (EPINEPHRINE - UNII:YKH834O4BH) EPINEPHRINE. 0.15 mg in 0.3 mL. ... EPINEPHRINE (UNII: YKH834O4BH) (EPINEPHRINE - UNII:YKH834O4BH) EPINEPHRINE. 0.3 mg in 0.3 mL. ... NDA019430 0.3 ML epinephrine 0.5 MG/ML Auto-Injector. SCD. 3. 727316. epinephrine (generic for EpiPen Jr) 0.15 MG per 0.3 ML ... NDA019430 0.3 ML epinephrine 1 MG/ML Auto-Injector. SCD. 11. 1870207. epinephrine (generic for EpiPen) 0.3 MG per 0.3 ML Auto- ...
Testing Status of Epinephrine hydrochloride 10041-V. Testing Status of Epinephrine hydrochloride 10041-V. CASRN: 55-31-2. ... Related: EPINEPHRINE (CAS 51-31-2). Formula: C9-H13-N-O3.Cl-H. Synonyms/Common Names. *(R)-4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl) ... Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of l-Epinephrine Hydrochloride (CASRN 55-31-2) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation ...
Epinephrine Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using epinephrine injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to epinephrine, any other medications ... Epinephrine injection may cause side effects. When you get emergency medical treatment after you inject epinephrine, tell your ... sulfites, or any of the other ingredients in epinephrine injection. Your doctor may tell you to use epinephrine injection even ...
Epinephrine Oral Inhalation Epinephrine oral inhalation is used to relieve symptoms of asthma that occur from time to time, ... Epinephrine and exercise ... your brain signal the adrenal glands to produce epinephrine or "adrenaline". Adrenaline increases ... Epinephrine Injection Epinephrine injection is used along with emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic ... Making Sure Kids Are Prepared if They Need Epinephrine Treatments in School (Food and Drug Administration) ...
... epinephrine - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags allergies, anaphylactic, epinephrine, food allergy, Food Allergy Action Plan, Hurricane Sandy ...
Read on to learn when a doctor may recommend using epinephrine and how it works. ... Is epinephrine a suitable option for helping treat asthma? ... How to take epinephrine for asthma. Epinephrine comes in two ... Epinephrine comes in inhaled forms as well as the injectable form. Experts indicate that inhaled epinephrine from a nebulizer ... Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a type of hormone and medication that a person may use in emergencies, such as ...
Because of its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, any epinephrine in milk is unlikely to affect the infant. High ... intravenous doses of epinephrine might reduce milk production or milk letdown. Low-dose intramuscul … ... No information is available on the use of epinephrine during breastfeeding. ... Epinephrine No authors listed In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of ...
Because of its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, any epinephrine in milk is unlikely to affect the infant. High ... intravenous doses of epinephrine might reduce milk production or milk letdown. Low-dose intramuscul … ... No information is available on the use of epinephrine during breastfeeding. ... Epinephrine No authors listed In: Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed®) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institute of ...
An epinephrine shot can save you during a life-threatening reaction, like anaphylaxis. Heres what you need to know. ...
Epinephrine and norepinephrine sound alike, and they also share many of the same functions. Learn more about these two hormones ... Other uses of epinephrine include:. *Asthma attacks. An inhaled form of epinephrine can help treat or prevent severe asthma ... Epinephrine. (2022).. *. Norepinephrine. (2022).. pubchem.ncbi.nlm. ... Epinephrine. In addition to being a hormone and neurotransmitter, epinephrine is also used as a medical treatment in its ...
In Practice talks about the importance of epinephrine, not steroids, in pre-hospital management of anaphylaxis. ... Pre-hospital treatment with epinephrine and antihistamines decreased the likelihood of receiving multiple doses of epinephrine ... The importance of epinephrine, not steroids, in pre-hospital management of anaphylaxis. Share this page:. * ... Although prompt use of epinephrine has been well supported, studies so far have not established the role of antihistamines and ...
Learn about drug interactions between epinephrine inj and indapamide and use the RxList drug interaction checker to check drug ... Drug interactions with epinephrine inj and indapamide. home drug interactions checker , epinephrine inj and indapamide ... epinephrine inj and indapamide. epinephrine inj and indapamide both increase causing a dangerous abnormal heart rhythm. ... epinephrine inj and indapamide. epinephrine inj and indapamide both increase QTc interval. ...
St. Joseph Communications uses cookies for personalization, to customize its online advertisements, and for other purposes. Learn more or change your cookie preferences. By continuing to use our service, you agree to our use of cookies ...
Epinephrine. Nebulized racemic epinephrine is a 1:1 mixture of dextro (D) isomers and levo (L) isomers of epinephrine with the ... Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16. CD006619. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Nebulized epinephrine for croup in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16. CD006619. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... 23] Epinephrines beta2-adrenergic activity leads to bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. Its effectiveness ...
Epinephrine is the first line-medication of choice for treatment of anaphylaxis; it should be used in the same manner in ... Because of its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, any epinephrine in milk is unlikely to affect the infant. High ... Low-dose intramuscular (such as Epi-Pen), epidural, topical, inhaled or ophthalmic epinephrine are unlikely to interfere with ... intravenous doses of epinephrine might reduce milk production or milk letdown. ...
EPINEPHRINE (UNII: YKH834O4BH) (EPINEPHRINE - UNII:YKH834O4BH) EPINEPHRINE. 1 mg in 1 mL. ... Epinephrine and other catecholamines have been shown to have mutagenic potential in vitro. Epinephrine was positive in the ... Adrenalin ® (epinephrine injection, USP) is a clear, colorless, sterile solution containing 1 mg/mL epinephrine, packaged as 1 ... The potential for epinephrine to impair reproductive performance has not been evaluated, but epinephrine has been shown to ...
Read more about the prescription drug EPINEPHRINE SOLUTION - INHALATION. ... Consumer information about the medication EPINEPHRINE SOLUTION - INHALATION (Adrenalin, Isuprel), includes side effects, drug ... epinephrine solution-inhalation, Adrenalin, Isuprel. The display and use of drug information on this site is subject to express ... GENERIC NAME: EPINEPHRINE SOLUTION - INHALATION (ep-in-EFF-rin). BRAND NAME(S): Adrenalin, Isuprel. Medication Uses , How To ...
Learn about Epinephrine Injection 1 mg/mL for Animal Use including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and ... Epinephrine Injection 1 mg/mL. This page contains information on Epinephrine Injection 1 mg/mL for veterinary use.. The ... Epinephrine Injection 1 mg/mL Caution. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. ... Epinephrine Injection 1 mg/mL Indications. For emergency use only in treating anaphylactoid shock in sheep, swine, cattle, ...
The law was inspired by Dillon Mueller of Mishicot, who died at age 18 in 2014 after an allergic reaction to a bee sting.
Home » Sandoz launches PFS alternative to epinephrine auto-injector. Sandoz launches PFS alternative to epinephrine auto- ... Novartis (NYSE:NVS) division Sandoz said today that it launched its Symjepi epinephrine pre-filled syringe in the U.S. ... The companys product is designed as an alternative to epinephrine auto-injectors to treat emergency allergic reactions. ...
Epinephrine Level 1: Free Once you have viewed our free video course on this subject, you can further your knowledge and verify ... Anaphylaxis & Epinephrine Student Information:. [ PDF Version ] [ DOC version ]. Anaphylaxis & Epinephrine Contract & Release: ...
... subsequently the same patients were randomized to receive either nebulized racemic epinephrine or saline by intermittent … ... Nebulized racemic epinephrine given with an appropriate device is also effective, but the effect of epinephrine is less ... A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dexamethasone and racemic epinephrine in the treatment of croup Acta ... Dexamethasone and nebulized epinephrine reduced the symptoms and hastened recovery, but dexamethasone was more effective by ...
The medicine in an epinephrine auto-injector is the hormone epinephrine, which is also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine works ... How Does an Epinephrine Auto-Injector Work?. Previous wonder Next wonder Listen Immersive Reader ... Different versions of epinephrine auto-injectors work in slightly different ways, but the basic premise is the same. After ... Epinephrine also increases heart rate, which helps to improve blood flow.. In an emergency, every second counts. In the case of ...
The Epinephrine Injection, USP Auto-Injector by Lineage Therapeutics is for subcutaneous or intramuscular use only. Order the ... Epinephrine Auto-Injector, 2-pack, Adult (66lb+), 0.3mg. Epinephrine Auto-Injector, 2-pack, Child (33-66lb), 0.15mg. ... Epinephrine Auto-Injector, 2-pack, Adult (66lb +), 0.3mg. Epinephrine Auto-Injector, 2-pack, Child (33-66lb), 0.15mg ... Epinephrine Auto-Injector, 2-pack. By Other Manufacturer 1649-49. Adult (66lb +), 0.3mg. In Stock Available and ready to ship. ...
... grad Samuel Graska and his colleagues are working to launch a smartphone case that will dispense an epinephrine shot. ... Student Inventors Create Smartphone Case That Administers Epinephrine. By: Mariam Matti in College Corner, Features, Food ... Heat degradation is a concern in a smartphone context, since epinephrine is meant to be kept at room temperature. "When it ... Case.MDs Epi-Case (right) holds two vials of epinephrine, and Alula, a smartphone birth control case and dispenser. ...
Epinephrine-D6 Solution, 100 μg/mL in Methanol with 5% 1 M HCl, Sold by MilliporeSigma™ ... CERILLIANT™ (+/-)-Epinephrine-D6 Solution, 100 μg/mL in Methanol with 5% 1 M HCl, Sold by MilliporeSigma™ Supelco™ ... This internal standard is suitable for LC-MS/MS monitoring of epinephrine levels in urine or plasma for diagnostic testing or ... Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a marker for catecholamine-secreting cancers such as pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma ...
  • The company's product is designed as an alternative to epinephrine auto-injectors to treat emergency allergic reactions. (
  • Why do people need epinephrine auto-injectors? (
  • Different versions of epinephrine auto-injectors work in slightly different ways, but the basic premise is the same. (
  • In recent years, the cost of epinephrine auto-injectors has risen considerably. (
  • Businesses and other organizations may obtain a prescription and stock epinephrine auto-injectors if they employ or utilize a volunteer that is an EMSA-certified lay rescuer. (
  • A business that stocks epinephrine auto-injectors is required to keep records, create and maintain an operations plan, and report to EMSA when an epinephrine auto-injector is used. (
  • It is common advice for individuals who are prescribed epinephrine auto-injectors to carry two with them at all times. (
  • Epinephrine works quickly to reverse the effects of anaphylaxis. (
  • In the case of anaphylaxis, an epinephrine auto-injector should be used as quickly as possible. (
  • WMTC is recognized by Washington State Department of Health as an authorized Epinephrine Auto-injector & Anaphylaxis Training Provider. (
  • Epinephrine can help prevent severe reactions ( anaphylaxis ) and death in children with severe food allergies. (
  • An epinephrine autoinjector is a medical device used to deliver a single dose of epinephrine or adrenaline for the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. (
  • Authorized entities that choose to acquire these devices must have people connected with the entity, such as employees, who have completed an anaphylaxis and epinephrine autoinjector training. (
  • They may administer or provide an epinephrine autoinjector to people who are experiencing anaphylaxis. (
  • Only a healthcare provider should give additional doses of epinephrine if you need more than 2 injections for a single anaphylaxis episode. (
  • Epinephrine is the only drug that can halt and reverse the progression of anaphylaxis, a severe, life-threatening reaction to a food, insect venom, or substance. (
  • The study authors concluded that about 10% of anaphylaxis reactions were treated with more than one dose of epinephrine, including when a healthcare professional decided to administer a subsequent dose. (
  • Overall, at least 3 doses were administered in 2.2% of anaphylaxis reactions or in 3.4% of reactions treated with epinephrine. (
  • Early recognition of anaphylaxis and prompt self-administration of epinephrine and other medications can be lifesaving. (
  • Epinephrine, also called adrenaline, has powerful effects on the body. (
  • The medicine in an epinephrine auto-injector is the hormone epinephrine, which is also known as adrenaline . (
  • The body naturally creates epinephrine, also known as adrenaline. (
  • Therefore, epinephrine is just adrenaline in a bottle. (
  • You should always keep 2 automatic injection devices with you or available at all times because one dose of epinephrine may not be enough to treat a serious allergic reaction. (
  • Most automatic injection devices contain enough solution for one dose of epinephrine. (
  • If your symptoms continue or return after the first injection, your doctor may tell you to use a second dose of epinephrine injection with a new injection device. (
  • After you inject a dose of epinephrine injection, some solution will remain in the injection device. (
  • What's the Difference Between Epinephrine and Norepinephrine? (
  • Epinephrine more affects your heart, while norepinephrine more impacts blood vessels. (
  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine are two neurotransmitters that also serve as hormones, and they belong to a class of compounds known as catecholamines. (
  • Chemically, epinephrine and norepinephrine are very similar. (
  • Both epinephrine and norepinephrine work on alpha and beta receptors. (
  • However, epinephrine has a greater effect on beta receptors compared with norepinephrine. (
  • It's this distinction that causes epinephrine and norepinephrine to have slightly different functions. (
  • Both epinephrine and norepinephrine can affect your heart, blood sugar levels, and blood vessels. (
  • Although epinephrine can also be used for this purpose, norepinephrine is preferred due to its pure alpha receptor action. (
  • These factors can also cause your body to start producing less epinephrine and norepinephrine. (
  • Some medical conditions cause people to have too much epinephrine, norepinephrine, or both. (
  • The physiologic "fear" response is associated with the signaling activity of adrenergic receptors stimulated by epinephrine/norepinephrine. (
  • The role of the sympathetic nervous system, epinephrine, norepinephrine, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in the control of blood pressure was discussed. (
  • Such medications include corticosteroids and nebulized epinephrine. (
  • Although many people refer to any epinephrine auto-injector as an EpiPen, these tools don't actually look like pens you write with. (
  • Only four states - Maryland, Nebraska, Nevada, and Virginia - currently require schools to stock epinephrine, according to the Food Allergy Research & Education organization. (
  • An injection of epinephrine can help open up your airway so you can breathe. (
  • An epinephrine injection may restart your heart if your heart has stopped pumping ( cardiac arrest ). (
  • Epinephrine injection is used along with emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, latex, and other causes. (
  • Epinephrine injection is also used to treat life-threatening low blood pressure associated with septic shock (a serious condition caused by a body-wide infection that can lead to dangerously low blood pressure and organ failure) in hospitalized adults. (
  • Epinephrine injection comes as a prefilled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) and in vials to inject subcutaneously (under the skin) or intramuscularly (into the muscle) to treat life-threatening allergic reactions. (
  • If epinephrine injection is used to treat life-threatening low blood pressure associated with septic shock, it is usually injected intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse in a medical facility. (
  • Before you use epinephrine injection for the first time, read the patient information that comes with it. (
  • You should inject epinephrine injection as soon as you suspect that you may be experiencing a serious allergic reaction. (
  • Keep your automatic injection devices with you or available at all times so that you will be able to inject epinephrine quickly when an allergic reaction begins. (
  • Epinephrine injection helps to treat serious allergic reactions but does not take the place of medical treatment. (
  • If you are injecting epinephrine to a young child who may move during the injection, hold their leg firmly in place and limit the child's movement before and during the injection. (
  • You may need to use a second SYMJEPI (epinephrine) injection if symptoms continue or recur. (
  • The needle cap on the SYMJEPI prefilled syringe helps to prevent needle sticks and accidental injection of epinephrine. (
  • Pediatrics Central , (
  • Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Xylocaine with Epinephrine Injection 0.5/0.0005. (
  • Tell the healthcare professional that you have given yourself an injection of epinephrine. (
  • The law provides a financial incentive to states to maintain a supply of epinephrine in their schools and to permit trained school staff to administer it, the Wall Street Journal reported. (
  • If you have a severe infection and aren't producing enough catecholamines, you may need to be given epinephrine through an intravenous line (IV). (
  • a hormone that is produced before epinephrine (adrenalin) and results in a similar reaction in the body. (
  • NVS ) division Sandoz said today that it launched its Symjepi epinephrine pre-filled syringe in the U.S. (
  • Among these three kinds, epinephrine is the most common medication used in any healthcare setting, especially in emergency cases. (
  • In addition to being a hormone and neurotransmitter, epinephrine is also used as a medical treatment in its synthetic form. (
  • Epinephrine potentially has negative interactions with analgesics, antidepressants, and antibiotics. (
  • Talk to your doctor about these symptoms and be sure you understand how to tell when you are having a serious allergic reaction and should inject epinephrine. (
  • When delivered by air or oxygen-powered devices, epinephrine is directly delivered to respiratory mucosal surfaces and smooth muscle. (
  • An inhaled form of epinephrine can help treat or prevent severe asthma attacks . (
  • Alejandro didn't have a prescription for medicine (epinephrine auto-injector) that would treat severe allergic reactions. (
  • or who have needed epinephrine or another emergency medical intervention, also can get any licensed and recommended flu vaccine that is otherwise appropriate for their age and health, but the vaccine should be given in a medical setting and be supervised by a health care provider who is able to recognize and manage severe allergic conditions. (
  • WMTC students issued a WMTC Epinephrine card after April 29, 2019, may apply for a California epinephrine auto-injector certification card and should visit for information and an application form. (
  • Workers who are allergic to insect stings or bites should visit a health care professional to get a prescription for an epinephrine auto-injector and carry it with them at all times. (
  • When injected, epinephrine causes the body's blood vessels to constrict. (
  • Epinephrine is what's given first during a cardiac arrest to jumpstart the heart that stopped beating. (
  • It mimics the effect of epinephrine and is also for cardiac failure, shock , COPD, and glaucoma. (
  • An authorized entity is required to report to the Department of Health each incident of use of an obtained epinephrine autoinjector that was provided or administered to a person. (
  • To report an incident of use of an epinephrine autoinjector please submit this form . (
  • Agricul tural employers should train workers in insect sting incident response and first aid, including how to use an epinephrine auto-injector. (
  • Epinephrine also increases heart rate, which helps to improve blood flow. (
  • When you're very stressed or afraid, your body releases a flood of epinephrine. (
  • Do not inject epinephrine into the buttocks or any other part of your body such as fingers, hands, or feet or into a vein. (
  • Epinephrine or sympathomimetic drugs have several effects on the body, to quickly recall what these drugs do to the body, remember the acronym NASCAR . (
  • Adding epinephrine to local anesthetics can make them last longer. (
  • Potentiation of local anesthetic activity of neosaxitoxin with bupivacaine or epinephrine: development of a long-acting pain blocker. (
  • In conclusion, bupivacaine and epinephrine potentiate the local anesthetic effect of neosaxitoxin in humans when co-injected subcutaneously. (
  • Epinephrine and local anesthesia revisited. (
  • Get emergency medical treatment immediately after you inject epinephrine. (
  • If epinephrine is accidently injected into these areas, get emergency medical treatment immediately. (
  • To receive the epinephrine auto-injector(s), the business must take the EMSA certification card to a physician to receive a prescription. (
  • Read the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you have to use epinephrine and each time you get a refill. (
  • How Does an Epinephrine Auto-Injector Work? (
  • Remember to replace epinephrine before it expires, or it may not work properly. (
  • Carry an epinephrine auto-injector with you at all times (if prescribed). (
  • It's found in a plant called ephedra , which mimics the effect of epinephrine. (
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the potentiation of the anesthetic effect of neosaxitoxin, with bupivacaine or epinephrine in a randomized double-blind clinical trial . (
  • In concentrations of 1:1000, L-epinephrine may be used in place of racemic epinephrine for nebulized administration. (

No images available that match "epinephrine"