Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Epilepsy, Generalized: Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Primidone: An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)Epilepsies, Myoclonic: A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Epilepsy, Reflex: A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Myoclonic Epilepsy, Juvenile: A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)Ethosuximide: An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Piracetam: A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Epilepsy, Rolandic: An autosomal dominant inherited partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between age 3 and 13 years. Seizures are characterized by PARESTHESIA and tonic or clonic activity of the lower face associated with drooling and dysarthria. In most cases, affected children are neurologically and developmentally normal. (From Epilepsia 1998 39;Suppl 4:S32-S41)Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic: Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)Water Intoxication: A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Dibenzazepines: Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.HLA-B15 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*15 allele family.Kindling, Neurologic: The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Phenylethylmalonamide: A metabolite of primidone.Pentylenetetrazole: A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.Convulsants: Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.Seizures, Febrile: Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
... has a potential for drug interactions; caution should be used in combining other medicines with it, including other antiepileptics and mood stabilizers.[12] Lower levels of carbamazepine are seen when administrated with phenobarbital, phenytoin, or primidone, which can result in breakthrough seizure activity. Carbamazepine, as a CYP450 inducer, may increase clearance of many drugs, decreasing their concentration in the blood to subtherapeutic levels and reducing their desired effects.[19] Drugs that are more rapidly metabolized with carbamazepine include warfarin, lamotrigine, phenytoin, theophylline, and valproic acid.[12] Drugs that decrease the metabolism of carbamazepine or otherwise increase its levels include erythromycin,[20] cimetidine, propoxyphene, and calcium channel blockers.[12] Carbamazepine also increases the metabolism of the hormones in birth control pills and can reduce their effectiveness, potentially ...
... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in ...
... (TEN) is a type of severe skin reaction. Together with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) it forms a spectrum of disease, with TEN being more severe. Early symptoms include fever and flu-like symptoms. A few days later the skin begins to blister and peel forming painful raw areas. Mucous membranes, such as the mouth, are also typically involved. Complications include dehydration, sepsis, pneumonia, and multiple organ failure. The most common cause is certain medications such as lamotrigine, carbamazepine, allopurinol, sulfonamide antibiotics, and nevirapine. Other causes can include infections such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus or the cause may remain unknown. Risk factors include HIV/AIDS and systemic lupus erythematosus. Diagnosis is based on a skin biopsy and involvement of more than 30% of the skin. It is called SJS when less than 10% of the skin is involved and an intermediate form with 10 to 30% involvement. Erythema multiforme (EM) is generally ...
... (trade names Aptiom in North America, Zebinix in Europe, Exalief in Russia), abbreviated as ESL, is an anticonvulsant medication approved for use in Europe and the United States as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy (additional therapy) for partial-onset seizures epilepsy. Similarly to oxcarbazepine, ESL behaves as a prodrug to (S)-(+)-licarbazepine. As such, their mechanisms of action are identical. Eslicarbazepine acetate is contraindicated in people with second- or third-degree atrioventricular block, a type of heart block, and in people who are hypersensitive to eslicarbazepine, oxcarbazepine or carbazepine. Adverse effects are similar to oxcarbazepine. The most common ones (more than 10% of patients) are tiredness and dizziness. Other fairly common side effects (1 to 10%) include impaired coordination, gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, rash (1.1%), and hyponatraemia (low sodium blood levels, 1.2%). There may also be an increased risk ...
Interactions with clofibrate, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, which are fibrates used in accessory therapy in many forms of hypercholesterolemia, usually in combination with statins, increase the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis.[39][46][47]. Co-administration of atorvastatin with one of CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole,[48] telithromycin, and voriconazole, may increase serum concentrations of atorvastatin, which may lead to adverse reactions. This is less likely to happen with other CYP3A4 inhibitors such as diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, clarithromycin, cyclosporine, protease inhibitors, or verapamil,[49] and only rarely with other CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as amiodarone and aprepitant.[35] Often, bosentan, fosphenytoin, and phenytoin, which are CYP3A4 inducers, can decrease the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Only rarely, though, barbiturates, carbamazepine, efavirenz, nevirapine, oxcarbazepine, rifampin, and rifamycin,[50] which are also CYP3A4 inducers, can ...
Interactions with clofibrate, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, which are fibrates used in accessory therapy in many forms of hypercholesterolemia, usually in combination with statins, increase the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis.[38][42][43] Co-administration of atorvastatin with one of CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole,[44] telithromycin, and voriconazole, may increase serum concentrations of atorvastatin, which may lead to adverse reactions. This is less likely to happen with other CYP3A4 inhibitors such as diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, clarithromycin, cyclosporine, protease inhibitors, or verapamil,[45] and only rarely with other CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as amiodarone and aprepitant.[32] Often, bosentan, fosphenytoin, and phenytoin, which are CYP3A4 inducers, can decrease the plasma concentrations of atorvastatin. Only rarely, though, barbiturates, carbamazepine, efavirenz, nevirapine, oxcarbazepine, rifampin, and rifamycin,[46] which are also CYP3A4 inducers, can ...
... is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[60] This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS.[61] It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs,[62] but it could have additional actions, since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties.[63]. It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and ...
... s are chemical compounds that contain three interconnected rings of atoms. Many compounds have a tricyclic structure, but in pharmacology, the term has traditionally been reserved to describe heterocyclic drugs. Among these are antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and antihistamines (as antiallergens, anti-motion sickness drugs, antipruritics, and hypnotics/sedatives) of the dibenzazepine, dibenzocycloheptene, dibenzothiazepine, dibenzothiepin, phenothiazine, and thioxanthene chemical classes, and others. Promethazine and other first generation antihistamines with a tricyclic structure were discovered in the 1940s. Chlorpromazine, derived from promethazine originally as a sedative, was found to have neuroleptic properties in the early 1950s, and was the first typical antipsychotic. Imipramine, originally investigated as an antipsychotic, was discovered in the early 1950s, and was the first tricyclic antidepressant. Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953, and was subsequently ...
... is a medication of the calcium channel blocker type which is used to treat high blood pressure. Felodipine is used to treat high blood pressure and stable angina. It should not be used for people who are pregnant, have acute heart failure, are having a heart attack, have an obstructed heart valve, or have obstructions that block bloodflow out of the heart. For people with liver failure the dose needs to be lowered, because felodipine is cleared by the liver. Felodipine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4, so substances that inhibit or activate CYP3A4 can strongly effect how much felodipine is present. CYP3A4 inhibitors, which increase the amount of felodipine available per dose, include cimetidine, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, HIV protease inhibitors, and grapefruit juice. CYP3A4 activators, which decrease the amount of felodipine available per dose, include phenytoin, carbamazepine, rifampicin, barbiturates, efavirenz, nevirapine, and Saint John's wort. The only very ...
Տոքսիկ էպիդերմալ նեկրոլիզ (ՏԷՆ) (անգլ.՝ Toxic epidermal necrolysis) (TEN)), մաշկի ծանր պատասխանի տեսակ[3]: Ստիվենս-Ջոնսոնի համախտանիշի հետ (ՍՋՀ) կազմում է հիվանդությունների միջակայք, որում ՏԷՆ-ն առավել ծանրն է[3]: Վաղ ախտանիշները ներառում են տենդը և գրիպանման ախտանիշները[3]: Մի քանի օր հետո մաշկը սկսում է բշտիկավորվել և թեփոտվել ձևավորելով ցավոտ մաշկազուրկ տարածքներ[3]: Լորձային թաղանթները, ինչպիսիք են բերանը, նույնպես բնորոշ է ներգրավվումը[3]: Բարդությունները ներառում են ջրազրկում, սեպսիս, թոքաբորբ և բազմաօրգանային անբավարարություն[3]: Ամենահաճախ հանդիպող պատճառը ...
The oldest medical records show that epilepsy has been affecting people at least since the beginning of recorded history.[134] Throughout ancient history, the disease was thought to be a spiritual condition.[134] The world's oldest description of an epileptic seizure comes from a text in Akkadian (a language used in ancient Mesopotamia) and was written around 2000 BC.[22] The person described in the text was diagnosed as being under the influence of a moon god, and underwent an exorcism.[22] Epileptic seizures are listed in the Code of Hammurabi (c. 1790 BC) as reason for which a purchased slave may be returned for a refund,[22] and the Edwin Smith Papyrus (c. 1700 BC) describes cases of individuals with epileptic convulsions.[22] The oldest known detailed record of the disease itself is in the Sakikku, a Babylonian cuneiform medical text from 1067-1046 BC.[134] This text gives signs and symptoms, details treatment and likely outcomes,[22] and describes many features of the different seizure ...
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Catamenial epilepsy is a subset of epilepsy, which includes women whose seizures are exacerbated by their menstrual cycle. Women with catamenial epilepsy are unusually sensitive to endogenous hormonal changes. This seizure exacerbation has a statistically significant positive correlation to serum estradiol/estrogen levels and ratios. Since at least the Greek times, there has been documented study of women with epilepsy and its correlation to the menstrual cycle. These patterns can easily be seen by charting out menses against seizure occurrence and type. Our understanding of the major gonadal hormones, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, has significantly increased in the last century. These hormones are synthesized in various locations in the body, including the ovaries, adrenal gland, liver, subcutaneous fat, and brain. There is ...
... was founded through a grassroots effort by parents who were frustrated by their helplessness in protecting their children from the devastating effects of epilepsy and seizures and by the limited treatment options available for those suffering from the disease. In 1998, President Susan Axelrod established the organization with the mission of finding a cure and raising public awareness. Since its inception, CURE has helped to increase federal attention and funding for epilepsy research. Additionally, CURE has raised $20 million to fund research and other initiatives that will lead the way to a cure. CURE funds seed grants to young and established investigators to explore new areas of research and collect the data necessary to apply for further funding by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and has provided seed grants to 134 innovative studies.. Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy has also worked to establish epilepsy as a ...

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