A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An autosomal dominant inherited partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between age 3 and 13 years. Seizures are characterized by PARESTHESIA and tonic or clonic activity of the lower face associated with drooling and dysarthria. In most cases, affected children are neurologically and developmentally normal. (From Epilepsia 1998 39;Suppl 4:S32-S41)
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.
A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS (Group I); abnormal neuronal migration (Group II); and abnormal establishment of cortical organization (Group III). Many INBORN METABOLIC BRAIN DISORDERS affecting CNS formation are often associated with cortical malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
A condition marked by recurrent seizures that occur during the first 4-6 weeks of life despite an otherwise benign neonatal course. Autosomal dominant familial and sporadic forms have been identified. Seizures generally consist of brief episodes of tonic posturing and other movements, apnea, eye deviations, and blood pressure fluctuations. These tend to remit after the 6th week of life. The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder. (Neurologia 1996 Feb;11(2):51-5)
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
Registered nurses who hold Master's degrees in nursing with an emphasis in clinical nursing and who function independently in coordinating plans for patient care.
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
A variety of neuromuscular conditions resulting from MUTATIONS in ION CHANNELS manifesting as episodes of EPILEPSY; HEADACHE DISORDERS; and DYSKINESIAS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
A characteristic symptom complex.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
An act of employing sorcery (the use of power gained from the assistance or control of spirits), especially with malevolent intent, and the exercise of supernatural powers and alleged intercourse with the devil or a familiar. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Famous Persons" is not a term that has a medical definition. It refers to individuals who are widely known and recognized in various fields such as entertainment, politics, sports, science, and arts. If you have any medical or health-related terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Differential transcriptional control as the major molecular event in generating Otx1-/- and Otx2-/- divergent phenotypes. (1/4971)

Otx1 and Otx2, two murine homologs of the Drosophila orthodenticle (otd) gene, show a limited amino acid sequence divergence. Their embryonic expression patterns overlap in spatial and temporal profiles with two major exceptions: until 8 days post coitum (d.p.c. ) only Otx2 is expressed in gastrulating embryos, and from 11 d.p.c. onwards only Otx1 is transcribed within the dorsal telencephalon. Otx1 null mice exhibit spontaneous epileptic seizures and multiple abnormalities affecting primarily the dorsal telencephalic cortex and components of the acoustic and visual sense organs. Otx2 null mice show heavy gastrulation abnormalities and lack the rostral neuroectoderm corresponding to the forebrain, midbrain and rostral hindbrain. In order to define whether these contrasting phenotypes reflect differences in expression pattern or coding sequence of Otx1 and Otx2 genes, we replaced Otx1 with a human Otx2 (hOtx2) full-coding cDNA. Interestingly, homozygous mutant mice (hOtx2(1)/hOtx2(1)) fully rescued epilepsy and corticogenesis abnormalities and showed a significant improvement of mesencephalon, cerebellum, eye and lachrymal gland defects. In contrast, the lateral semicircular canal of the inner ear was never recovered, strongly supporting an Otx1-specific requirement for the specification of this structure. These data indicate an extended functional homology between OTX1 and OTX2 proteins and provide evidence that, with the exception of the inner ear, in Otx1 and Otx2 null mice contrasting phenotypes stem from differences in expression patterns rather than in amino acid sequences.  (+info)

Characterization of nodular neuronal heterotopia in children. (2/4971)

Neuronal heterotopia are seen in various pathologies and are associated with intractable epilepsy. We examined brain tissue from four children with subcortical or periventricular nodular heterotopia of different aetiologies: one with severe epilepsy following focal brain trauma at 17 weeks gestation, one with hemimegalencephaly and intractable epilepsy, one with focal cortical dysplasia and intractable epilepsy, and one dysmorphic term infant with associated hydrocephalus and polymicrogyria. The connectivity of nodules was investigated using histological and carbocyanine dye (DiI) tracing techniques. DiI crystal placement adjacent to heterotopic nodules revealed numerous DiI-labelled fibres within a 2-3 mm radius of the crystals. Although we observed labelled fibres closely surrounding nodules, the majority did not penetrate them. Placement of DiI crystals within nodules also identified a limited number of projections out of the nodules and in one case there was evidence for connectivity between adjacent nodules. The cellular and neurochemical composition of nodules was also examined using immunohistochemistry for calretinin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which are normally expressed in GABAergic cortical interneurons. Within heterotopic nodules from all cases, numerous calretinin-positive neurons were identified, along with a few cell bodies and many processes positive for NPY. Calretinin-positive neurons within nodules were less morphologically complex than those in the cortex, which may reflect incomplete differentiation into an inhibitory neuronal phenotype. There were also abnormal clusters of calretinin-positive cells in the overlying cortical plate, indicating that the migratory defect which produces heterotopic nodules also affects development of the cortex itself. Thus, heterotopic nodules consisting of multiple neuronal cell types are associated with malformation in the overlying cortical plate, and have limited connectivity with other brain regions. This abnormal development of connectivity may affect neuronal maturation and consequently the balance of excitation and inhibition in neuronal circuits, leading to their epileptogenic potential.  (+info)

Oligodendroglial vacuolar degeneration in the bilateral motor cortices and astrocytosis in epileptic beagle dogs. (3/4971)

We performed a pathologic examination of the brains of three dogs in an epileptic beagle colony. Histologically, all the cases had diffuse astrocytosis in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia as well as the hippocampus, whereas they showed acute nerve cell change in the hippocampus and some other areas of the cerebrum. One of these animals showed laminar myelin pallor associated with the presence of many vacuoles in the IV to VI layers of the bilateral motor cortices. Most of the vacuoles contained fine granules stained with luxol-fast-blue stain. Ultrastructural examination revealed that some oligodendrocytes and perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes in the bilateral cerebral motor cortices of the two affected dogs had many vacuoles surrounded by myelin-like lamellar structures. These findings suggest a possibility that astrocytosis in the cerebrum and vacuolar degeneration of oligodendrocytes in the cerebral motor cortex may be, at least in part, related to the occurrence or development of seizures.  (+info)

Onchocerciasis and epilepsy: a matched case-control study in the Central African Republic. (4/4971)

The occurrence of epileptic seizures during onchocercal infestation has been suspected. Epidemiologic studies are necessary to confirm the relation between onchocerciasis and epilepsy. A matched case-control study was conducted in dispensaries of three northwestern towns of the Central African Republic. Each epileptic case was matched against two nonepileptic controls on the six criteria of sex, age (+/-5 years), residence, treatment with ivermectin, date of last ivermectin dose, and the number of ivermectin doses. Onchocerciasis was defined as at least one microfilaria observed in iliac crest skin snip biopsy. A total of 561 subjects (187 cases and 374 controls) were included in the study. Of the epileptics, 39.6% had onchocerciasis, as did 35.8% of the controls. The mean dermal microfilarial load was 26 microfilariae per mg of skin (standard deviation, 42) in the epileptics and 24 microfilariae per mg of skin (standard deviation, 48) in the controls. This matched case-control study found some relation (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.80), although it was nonstatistically significant.  (+info)

Adjunctive therapy in epilepsy: a cost-effectiveness comparison of two AEDs. (5/4971)

The objective of this study was to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of two AEDs by a prospective clinical audit. Patients starting on the adjunctive therapies lamotrigine and topiramate were recruited from the out-patient epilepsy clinics at Queen Square. Three interview were scheduled: baseline; three months follow-up and six months from baseline. Of the 81 patients recruited, a total of 73 patients completed all three interviews. An intention to treat analysis was performed on the data. Seizure severity and frequency were assessed using the National Hospital Seizure Severity Scale. Side-effects, adverse events and reasons for stopping medication were also recorded. At the third interview, a total of 47/73 (64%) were still on the prescribed adjunctive drug. Outcome was assessed by two methods: the > 50% seizure reduction cited in the literature and a more stringent assessment of patient 'satisfaction' which we defined operationally on clinical criteria. Using this definition, a total of 10/73 (14%) patients were 'satisfied'. The relative costs of starting patients on each of the two AEDs were calculated, both drug costs and the costs of adverse events (the latter were defined as events requiring urgent medical attention). The costs of the two drugs were compared. A number of methodological issues relating to cost comparison are discussed. Outcome and pharmaco-economic studies need to assess more than reduction in number of seizures. They should take into account variables important for quality of life including side-effects and adverse events.  (+info)

Willingness to pay: a feasible method for assessing treatment benefits in epilepsy? (6/4971)

Contingent valuation using willingness to pay (WTP) is one of the methods available for assessing the value of a new technology or treatment for a disease in monetary terms. Experience with this method is lacking in epilepsy. The objectives of this study were to assess the acceptability of the WTP method in epilepsy, the level of the responses, and to investigate its validity by comparison with other non-monetary preference measures. Among 397 patients with epilepsy responding to a comprehensive questionnaire, 82 were randomly selected for an interview. They were asked about their WTP for an imaginary new technology which could permanently cure their epilepsy. Fifty-nine patients participated and 57 completed the interview (32 women; mean age 44 years), the majority with well-controlled epilepsy. The patients indicated a median WTP of Norwegian Kroner (NOK) 150,000 (USD 20,000; GBP 11,800), interquartile range NOK 50,000-350,000 (USD 6, 667-46, 667; GBP 3,937-27,559) for this cure. Non-response was low, indicating high acceptability of this method. There was little association between WTP and other preference measures; the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was -0.09 and -0.12 with time trade-off and standard gamble respectively, questioning the validity of this method.  (+info)

Outcome of pregnancies in epileptic women: a study in Saudi Arabia. (7/4971)

We studied the outcome of 79 pregnancies in 44 Saudi women who had epilepsy. Their mean age was 28+/-6.5 years and the number of pregnancies studied varied from one to six. Nineteen subjects had generalized seizures, 16 had partial seizures and nine were unclassified. The commonest drug prescribed was carbamazepine and the majority of the women (61%) were on monotherapy. The seizures were controlled in 53 pregnancies (67%). Spontaneous vertex deliveries were the commonest. The indications for intervention by lower segment Caesarean section, forceps or ventouse were foetal distress, pre-eclamptic toxaemia (PET), eclampsia, breech presentation and prolonged labour. The most frequent adverse outcome in the babies was low birth weight (<2.5 kg) in nine pregnancies. The frequency of congenital malformation was 2.5%. Low birth weight was associated with prematurity, PET, congenital malformation and polytherapy. Avoidance of polytherapy appears to be the most feasible intervention in reducing the frequency of low birth-weight children by epileptic mothers.  (+info)

Information exchange in an epilepsy forum on the World Wide Web. (8/4971)

The Partners Healthcare Epilepsy Service hosts an epilepsy 'Webforum'. In this paper, we describe our observations regarding who uses it, what kind of information is exchanged, how much misinformation is present and how we can better serve our patients. We examined a sample of 155 posts to the forum and 342 responses to those posts. The individual making the post and the type of questions were categorized. We also determined whether any information was objectively inaccurate. The principal users were care-givers (49%) and patients (34%). Eighty percent of the primary posts were questions. Answers were given largely by patients (38%) and care-givers (34%). The most commonly asked questions were about treatment options (31%) and the natural history of the illness (28%). In 20% of the questions, the user incidentally remarked that a health-care provider had not met their information needs. Six percent of the information was objectively inaccurate. The Web can serve as an effective means for the exchange of information between individuals with a common medical condition. We found that a small amount of misinformation is exchanged and that health-care providers are sometimes perceived as unable or unwilling to supply important health-related information.  (+info)

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

Generalized epilepsy is a type of epilepsy characterized by seizures that involve both halves of the brain (generalized onset) from the beginning of the seizure. These types of seizures include tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures, absence (petit mal) seizures, and myoclonic seizures. Generalized epilepsy can be caused by genetic factors or brain abnormalities, and it is typically treated with medication. People with generalized epilepsy may experience difficulties with learning, memory, and behavior, and they may have a higher risk of injury during a seizure. It's important for individuals with generalized epilepsy to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their condition and reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a type of focal (localized) epilepsy that originates from the temporal lobes of the brain. The temporal lobes are located on each side of the brain and are involved in processing sensory information, memory, and emotion. TLE is characterized by recurrent seizures that originate from one or both temporal lobes.

The symptoms of TLE can vary depending on the specific area of the temporal lobe that is affected. However, common symptoms include auras (sensory or emotional experiences that occur before a seizure), strange smells or tastes, lip-smacking or chewing movements, and memory problems. Some people with TLE may also experience automatisms (involuntary movements such as picking at clothes or fumbling with objects) during their seizures.

Treatment for TLE typically involves medication to control seizures, although surgery may be recommended in some cases. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures and improve quality of life.

Myoclonic epilepsies are a group of epilepsy syndromes characterized by the presence of myoclonic seizures. A myoclonic seizure is a type of seizure that involves quick, involuntary muscle jerks or twitches. These seizures can affect one part of the body or multiple parts simultaneously and may vary in frequency and severity.

Myoclonic epilepsies can occur at any age but are more common in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. Some myoclonic epilepsy syndromes have a genetic basis, while others may be associated with brain injury, infection, or other medical conditions.

Some examples of myoclonic epilepsy syndromes include:

1. Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME): This is the most common type of myoclonic epilepsy and typically begins in adolescence. It is characterized by myoclonic jerks, often occurring upon awakening or after a period of relaxation, as well as generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
2. Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsies (PME): These are rare inherited disorders that typically begin in childhood or adolescence and involve both myoclonic seizures and other types of seizures. PMEs often progress to include cognitive decline, movement disorders, and other neurological symptoms.
3. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS): This is a severe form of epilepsy that typically begins in early childhood and involves multiple types of seizures, including myoclonic seizures. LGS can be difficult to treat and often results in cognitive impairment and developmental delays.
4. Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy (MAE): Also known as Doose syndrome, MAE is a childhood epilepsy syndrome characterized by myoclonic seizures, atonic seizures (brief periods of muscle weakness or loss of tone), and other types of seizures. It often responds well to treatment with antiepileptic drugs.

The management of myoclonic epilepsies typically involves a combination of medication, lifestyle changes, and, in some cases, dietary modifications. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type of myoclonic epilepsy and its underlying cause.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

Reflex epilepsy is a type of epilepsy in which seizures are consistently triggered by specific, recurring sensory stimuli. These triggers can vary widely and may include visual patterns, flashes of light, touch, sound, or even emotional experiences. When the brain receives input from these triggers, it responds with an abnormal electrical discharge that can lead to a seizure.

Reflex epilepsy is relatively rare, accounting for only about 5-10% of all epilepsy cases. It's important to note that not everyone who experiences seizures in response to these triggers has reflex epilepsy; the defining characteristic of this condition is the consistent and reproducible nature of the seizure response to a specific stimulus.

There are several different types of reflex epilepsy, each characterized by its own unique set of triggers. For example, some people with this condition may experience seizures in response to visual patterns or flashes of light (known as photosensitive epilepsy), while others may have seizures triggered by certain sounds or tactile sensations.

Treatment for reflex epilepsy typically involves identifying and avoiding triggers whenever possible, as well as using medication to control seizures. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the specific area of the brain that is responsible for the abnormal electrical activity. With proper treatment and management, many people with reflex epilepsy are able to lead full and active lives.

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) is a genetic condition that is characterized by the occurrence of myoclonic seizures, which are sudden, brief, shock-like jerks of muscles typically occurring in the arms and legs. These seizures usually begin in adolescence or early adulthood, between 12 to 18 years of age.

JME is a type of generalized epilepsy, meaning that it involves abnormal electrical activity throughout the brain rather than just one area. In addition to myoclonic seizures, individuals with JME may also experience absence seizures (brief periods of staring and unresponsiveness) and/or tonic-clonic seizures (generalized convulsions).

The condition is often inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation from a parent with JME. However, not all cases are familial, and some may result from new genetic changes (mutations) that occur spontaneously.

JME is typically treated with anticonvulsant medications such as valproate or lamotrigine to control seizures. Lifestyle modifications, including avoiding sleep deprivation, stress, and excessive alcohol consumption, may also help reduce the frequency of seizures. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with JME can lead normal or near-normal lives.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy, also known as grand mal epilepsy, is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain. This type of epilepsy is characterized by two distinct phases: the tonic phase and the clonic phase.

During the tonic phase, which usually lasts for about 10-20 seconds, the person loses consciousness and their muscles stiffen, causing them to fall to the ground. This can result in injuries if the person falls unexpectedly or hits an object on the way down.

The clonic phase follows immediately after the tonic phase and is characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of the limbs, face, and neck. These movements are caused by alternating contractions and relaxations of the muscles and can last for several minutes. The person may also lose bladder or bowel control during this phase.

After the seizure, the person may feel tired, confused, and disoriented. They may also have a headache, sore muscles, and difficulty remembering what happened during the seizure.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infection, or stroke. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as an electroencephalogram (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment may include medication, surgery, or dietary changes, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.

Complex partial epilepsy, also known as temporal lobe epilepsy or focal impaired awareness epilepsy, is a type of epilepsy characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures that originate in the temporal lobe or other localized areas of the brain. These seizures typically involve alterations in consciousness or awareness, and may include automatisms (involuntary, repetitive movements), such as lip smacking, fidgeting, or picking at clothes. Complex partial seizures can last from a few seconds to several minutes and may be followed by a post-ictal period of confusion or fatigue.

Complex partial epilepsy is often associated with structural abnormalities in the brain, such as hippocampal sclerosis, tumors, or malformations. It can also be caused by infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular disorders, or genetic factors. The diagnosis of complex partial epilepsy typically involves a thorough neurological evaluation, including a detailed history of seizure symptoms, neuroimaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain activity during and between seizures.

Treatment for complex partial epilepsy usually involves medication therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In some cases, surgery may be recommended if medications are not effective in controlling seizures or if there is a structural lesion that can be safely removed. Other treatment options may include dietary modifications, such as the ketogenic diet, or vagus nerve stimulation.

Frontal lobe epilepsy is a type of focal epilepsy, which means that the seizures originate from a specific area in the brain called the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe is located at the front part of the brain and is responsible for various functions such as motor function, problem-solving, decision making, emotional expression, and social behavior.

In frontal lobe epilepsy, seizures can be quite varied in their presentation, but they often occur during sleep or wakefulness and may include symptoms such as:

* Brief staring spells or automatisms (such as lip smacking, chewing, or fumbling movements)
* Sudden and frequent falls or drops
* Vocalizations or sounds
* Complex behaviors, such as agitation, aggression, or sexual arousal
* Auras or warning sensations before the seizure

Frontal lobe epilepsy can be difficult to diagnose due to the varied nature of the seizures and their occurrence during sleep. Diagnostic tests such as electroencephalogram (EEG) and imaging studies like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to help confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves medication, but in some cases, surgery may be recommended if medications are not effective or cause significant side effects.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

Rolandic epilepsy, also known as benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BFEC), is a type of epilepsy that primarily affects children. It is called "Rolandic" because the seizures often originate in or near the Rolandic area of the brain, which is involved in speech and motor function.

The hallmark feature of Rolandic epilepsy is focal seizures that typically involve tingling or numbness sensations on one side of the face, tongue, or mouth, followed by speech difficulties and sometimes weakness or jerking movements on one side of the body. These seizures usually occur during sleep or drowsiness and can cause awakening from sleep.

Rolandic epilepsy is typically outgrown by adolescence, and many children with this condition do not require long-term treatment. However, some children may experience cognitive or behavioral difficulties that warrant evaluation and management.

It's important to note that while Rolandic epilepsy is considered benign, it can still have a significant impact on a child's quality of life and daily functioning. Proper diagnosis and management are essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for children with this condition.

Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a type of epilepsy that is caused by brain injury or trauma. The head injury can be either traumatic (such as from a car accident, fall, or physical assault) or non-traumatic (such as stroke, infection, or brain tumor).

In PTE, the first seizure occurs within one week to one year after the initial injury. The seizures may be immediate (within the first 24 hours of the injury) or delayed (occurring more than one week after the injury).

PTE is characterized by recurrent seizures that are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. These seizures can vary in severity and frequency, and may cause a range of symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or emotions.

The diagnosis of PTE is typically made based on the patient's history of head trauma, along with the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuroimaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment for PTE may include medication to control seizures, as well as surgery or other interventions in some cases.

Sclerosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal hardening or scarring of body tissues, particularly in the context of various degenerative diseases affecting the nervous system. The term "sclerosis" comes from the Greek word "skleros," which means hard. In these conditions, the normally flexible and adaptable nerve cells or their protective coverings (myelin sheath) become rigid and inflexible due to the buildup of scar tissue or abnormal protein deposits.

There are several types of sclerosis, but one of the most well-known is multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, leading to scarring and damage that disrupts communication between the brain and the rest of the body. This results in a wide range of symptoms, such as muscle weakness, numbness, vision problems, balance issues, and cognitive impairment.

Other conditions that involve sclerosis include:

1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, stiffness, and atrophy.
2. Systemic sclerosis: A rare autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin and internal organs due to excessive collagen deposition.
3. Plaque psoriasis: A chronic inflammatory skin condition marked by red, scaly patches (plaques) resulting from rapid turnover and accumulation of skin cells.
4. Adhesive capsulitis: Also known as frozen shoulder, this condition involves stiffening and thickening of the shoulder joint's capsule due to scarring or inflammation, leading to limited mobility and pain.

Febrile seizures are a type of seizure that occurs in young children, typically between the ages of 6 months and 5 years, and is often associated with fever. A febrile seizure is defined as a convulsion or seizure that is brought on by a high fever, usually greater than 100.4°F (38°C), but can also occur in response to a rapid rise in body temperature. The seizures can vary in length and may involve shaking of the entire body, jerking of the arms and legs, or just twitching of one part of the body. They can be quite alarming to witness, but they are usually harmless and do not cause any long-term neurological problems.

Febrile seizures are most commonly caused by viral infections, such as a cold or flu, but they can also occur with bacterial infections, such as a urinary tract infection or ear infection. In some cases, the fever and seizure may be the first signs that a child is ill.

While febrile seizures are generally harmless, it is important to seek medical attention if your child has a seizure. This is because a small percentage of children who have febrile seizures may go on to develop epilepsy, a condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Additionally, some serious underlying conditions, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can cause fever and seizures, so it is important to rule out these possibilities with a thorough medical evaluation.

If your child has a febrile seizure, the best course of action is to remain calm and make sure they are in a safe place where they cannot injure themselves. Do not try to restrain them or put anything in their mouth. Instead, gently turn them onto their side to prevent choking and call for medical help. Most febrile seizures last only a few minutes and resolve on their own without any treatment. After the seizure, your child may be sleepy or confused, but they should return to their normal state within a short period of time.

Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant medication that is primarily used to treat seizure disorders (epilepsy) and neuropathic pain. It works by decreasing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. Carbamazepine may also be used off-label for other conditions such as bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets, extended-release tablets, chewable tablets, and suspension. It is usually taken two to four times a day with food to reduce stomach upset. Common side effects of carbamazepine include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait.

It is important to note that carbamazepine can interact with other medications, including some antidepressants, antipsychotics, and birth control pills, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting carbamazepine. Additionally, carbamazepine levels in the blood may need to be monitored regularly to ensure that the medication is working effectively and not causing toxicity.

Status epilepticus is a serious and life-threatening medical condition characterized by an ongoing seizure activity or a series of seizures without full recovery of consciousness between them, lasting for 30 minutes or more. It is a neurological emergency that requires immediate medical attention to prevent potential complications such as brain damage, respiratory failure, or even death.

The condition can occur in people with a history of epilepsy or seizure disorders, as well as those without any prior history of seizures. The underlying causes of status epilepticus can vary and may include infection, trauma, stroke, metabolic imbalances, toxins, or other medical conditions that affect the brain's normal functioning. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term neurological damage and improve outcomes in patients with this condition.

Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by binding to muscarinic receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by radiation therapy or Sjögren's syndrome, as well as in the management of glaucoma due to its ability to construct the pupils and reduce intraocular pressure. Pilocarpine can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions and chronic bronchitis. It is available in various forms, including tablets, ophthalmic solutions, and topical gels.

Anterior Temporal Lobectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the anterior (front) part of the temporal lobe of the brain. This procedure is often performed to treat certain types of epilepsy that are resistant to medication, as well as other conditions such as tumors or degenerative diseases that affect this area of the brain.

The temporal lobe is located on each side of the brain and is involved in several important functions, including hearing, memory, emotion, and language comprehension. The anterior portion of the temporal lobe contains structures such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are critical for the formation and retrieval of memories.

During an anterior temporal lobectomy, a neurosurgeon will make an incision in the skull and remove a portion of the brain tissue that is causing seizures or other symptoms. The size and location of the resection will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's needs. After the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation to help them recover from any cognitive or physical deficits caused by the procedure.

Piracetam is a nootropic drug, which is primarily used in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It is a cyclic derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). Piracetam is believed to work by reducing the permeability of cell membranes in the brain, which may enhance communication between neurons and improve memory and learning.

Medically, piracetam is used off-label for a variety of conditions related to cognitive decline or impairment, such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and age-related cognitive decline. It has also been studied in the treatment of myoclonus (involuntary muscle jerks), dyslexia, and other neurological disorders.

It is important to note that while piracetam has shown some promise in improving cognitive function in certain populations, its effectiveness is still a subject of ongoing research and debate. Additionally, piracetam is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any medical use, although it is available as a dietary supplement in the United States.

As with any medication or supplement, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking piracetam to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your individual needs.

Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsies (PME) is a group of rare, genetic disorders characterized by myoclonus (rapid, involuntary muscle jerks), tonic-clonic seizures (also known as grand mal seizures), and progressive neurological deterioration. The term "progressive" refers to the worsening of symptoms over time.

The myoclonic epilepsies are classified as progressive due to the underlying neurodegenerative process that affects the brain, leading to a decline in cognitive abilities, motor skills, and overall functioning. These disorders usually begin in childhood or adolescence and tend to worsen with age.

Examples of PMEs include:

1. Lafora disease: A genetic disorder caused by mutations in the EPM2A or NHLRC1 genes, leading to the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates called Lafora bodies in neurons. Symptoms typically start between ages 6 and 16 and include myoclonus, seizures, and progressive neurological decline.
2. Unverricht-Lundborg disease: Also known as Baltic myoclonus, this is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CSTB gene. It is characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia (loss of coordination), and cognitive decline. Symptoms usually begin between ages 6 and 18.
3. Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs): A group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of lipopigments in neurons. Several types of NCLs can present with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, including CLN2 (late-infantile NCL), CLN3 (juvenile NCL), and CLN6 (early juvenile NCL).
4. Myoclonus Epilepsy Associated with Ragged Red Fibers (MERRF): A mitochondrial disorder caused by mutations in the MT-TK gene, leading to myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia, and ragged red fibers on muscle biopsy.
5. Dentatorubral-Pallidoluysian Atrophy (DRPLA): An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the ATN1 gene, characterized by myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia, chorea (involuntary movements), and dementia.

These are just a few examples of disorders that can present with progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It is essential to consult a neurologist or epileptologist for proper diagnosis and management.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Sudden death is a term used to describe a situation where a person dies abruptly and unexpectedly, often within minutes to hours of the onset of symptoms. It is typically caused by cardiac or respiratory arrest, which can be brought on by various medical conditions such as heart disease, stroke, severe infections, drug overdose, or trauma. In some cases, the exact cause of sudden death may remain unknown even after a thorough post-mortem examination.

It is important to note that sudden death should not be confused with "sudden cardiac death," which specifically refers to deaths caused by the abrupt loss of heart function (cardiac arrest). Sudden cardiac death is often related to underlying heart conditions such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, or electrical abnormalities in the heart.

Valproic acid is a medication that is primarily used as an anticonvulsant, which means it is used to treat seizure disorders. It works by increasing the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, a neurotransmitter that helps to reduce abnormal electrical activity in the brain. In addition to its use as an anticonvulsant, valproic acid may also be used to treat migraines and bipolar disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions, and is usually taken by mouth. As with any medication, valproic acid can have side effects, and it is important for patients to be aware of these and to discuss them with their healthcare provider.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Malformations of Cortical Development (MCDs) are a group of congenital brain abnormalities that occur during the development and organization of the cerebral cortex, which is the brain region responsible for higher cognitive functions. These malformations result from disruptions in neuronal migration, proliferation, or organization, leading to varying degrees of cortical thickness, folding, and structural integrity.

MCDs can be classified into several subtypes based on their distinct neuroimaging and histopathological features. Some common MCD subtypes include:

1. Lissencephaly (smooth brain): A severe malformation characterized by the absence of normal gyral and sulcal patterns, resulting in a smooth cortical surface. This is caused by defects in neuronal migration during early development.
2. Polymicrogyria (many small folds): A condition where the cortex has an excessive number of small, irregular gyri, leading to thickened and disorganized cortical layers. This can be focal or diffuse and is caused by abnormal neuronal migration or organization during mid to late development.
3. Schizencephaly (cleft brain): A malformation characterized by a linear cleft or gap in the cerebral cortex, extending from the pial surface to the ventricular system. This can be unilateral or bilateral and is caused by disruptions in neuronal migration and/or cortical organization during early development.
4. Heterotopias (misplaced cells): A condition where groups of neurons are abnormally located within the white matter or at the gray-white matter junction, instead of their normal position in the cerebral cortex. This can be focal or diffuse and is caused by defects in neuronal migration during early development.
5. Focal cortical dysplasia (abnormal localized tissue): A condition characterized by abnormal cortical architecture, including disorganized lamination, enlarged neurons, and heterotopic neurons. This can be focal or multifocal and is caused by defects in cortical organization during late development.

MCDs are often associated with neurological symptoms such as epilepsy, intellectual disability, motor deficits, and behavioral abnormalities. The severity of these symptoms depends on the type, location, and extent of the malformation.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Psychosurgery is a surgical intervention aimed at modifying or altering brain functions to treat severe and disabling mental disorders. It involves the deliberate destruction or disconnection of specific areas of the brain, typically through procedures such as lobotomy or stereotactic neurosurgery. These interventions are usually considered a last resort when other treatments have failed, and they are reserved for individuals with extreme cases of mental illness, such as intractable depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or severe anxiety disorders.

It's important to note that psychosurgery is a highly controversial and stigmatized field, and its use has declined significantly since the mid-20th century due to concerns about its effectiveness, ethics, and potential for harm. Today, psychosurgery is tightly regulated and subject to strict ethical guidelines in most countries.

Benign neonatal epilepsy is a rare and specific type of epilepsy that affects newborns within the first few days of life. The term "benign" in this context refers to the relatively favorable prognosis compared to other forms of neonatal epilepsy, rather than the severity of the seizures themselves.

The condition is typically characterized by the presence of brief, recurrent seizures that may appear as repetitive jerking movements, staring spells, or subtle changes in muscle tone or behavior. These seizures are often triggered by routine handling or stimulation and can be difficult to distinguish from normal newborn behaviors, making diagnosis challenging.

Benign neonatal epilepsy is typically associated with specific genetic mutations that affect the electrical activity of brain cells. The most common form of this condition, known as Benign Familial Neonatal Epilepsy (BFNE), is caused by mutations in genes such as KCNQ2 or KCNQ3, which encode potassium channels in neurons.

While the seizures associated with benign neonatal epilepsy can be alarming, they are generally not harmful to the developing brain and tend to resolve on their own within a few months. Treatment is often focused on managing the seizures with antiepileptic medications to reduce their frequency and severity, although some infants may require no treatment at all.

Overall, while benign neonatal epilepsy can be a concerning condition for parents and caregivers, its favorable prognosis and relatively mild impact on long-term neurological development make it one of the more manageable forms of neonatal epilepsy.

A ketogenic diet is a type of diet that is characterized by a significant reduction in carbohydrate intake and an increase in fat intake, with the goal of inducing a metabolic state called ketosis. In ketosis, the body shifts from using glucose (carbohydrates) as its primary source of energy to using ketones, which are produced by the liver from fatty acids.

The typical ketogenic diet consists of a daily intake of less than 50 grams of carbohydrates, with protein intake moderated and fat intake increased to make up the majority of calories. This can result in a rapid decrease in blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have various health benefits for some individuals, such as weight loss, improved blood sugar control, and reduced risk factors for heart disease.

However, it is important to note that a ketogenic diet may not be suitable for everyone, particularly those with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain medications. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new diet plan.

Kindling, in the context of neurology, refers to a process of neural sensitization where repeated exposure to sub-convulsive stimuli below the threshold for triggering a seizure can eventually lower this threshold, leading to an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. This concept is often applied in the study of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

The term "kindling" was first introduced by Racine in 1972 to describe the progressive increase in the severity and duration of behavioral responses following repeated electrical stimulation of the brain in animal models. The kindling process can occur in response to various types of stimuli, including electrical, chemical, or even environmental stimuli, leading to changes in neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in certain brain regions, particularly the limbic system.

Over time, repeated stimulation results in a permanent increase in neural hypersensitivity, making it easier to induce seizures with weaker stimuli. This phenomenon has been implicated in the development and progression of some forms of epilepsy, as well as in the underlying mechanisms of certain mood disorders and other neurological conditions.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a medical treatment that involves the use of a device to send electrical signals to the vagus nerve, which is a key part of the body's autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls various automatic functions of the body, such as heart rate and digestion.

In VNS, a small generator is implanted in the chest, and thin wires are routed under the skin to the vagus nerve in the neck. The generator is programmed to send electrical signals to the vagus nerve at regular intervals. These signals can help regulate certain body functions and have been found to be effective in treating a number of conditions, including epilepsy and depression.

The exact mechanism by which VNS works is not fully understood, but it is thought to affect the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that transmit signals in the brain. This can help reduce seizure activity in people with epilepsy and improve mood and other symptoms in people with depression.

VNS is typically used as a last resort for people who have not responded to other treatments. It is generally considered safe, but like any medical procedure, it does carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and damage to the vagus nerve or surrounding tissues.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant drug, primarily used in the treatment of seizures and prevention of seizure recurrence. It works by reducing the spread of seizure activity in the brain and stabilizing the electrical activity of neurons. Phenytoin is also known to have anti-arrhythmic properties and is occasionally used in the management of certain cardiac arrhythmias.

The drug is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and a liquid formulation. Common side effects of phenytoin include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure that the drug remains within the therapeutic range, as both low and high levels can lead to adverse effects.

It's important to note that phenytoin has several potential drug-drug interactions, particularly with other anticonvulsant medications, certain antibiotics, and oral contraceptives. Therefore, it is crucial to inform healthcare providers about all the medications being taken to minimize the risk of interactions and optimize treatment outcomes.

Vigabatrin is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat certain types of seizures in adults and children. It works by reducing the abnormal excitement in the brain. The medical definition of Vigabatrin is: a irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase, which results in increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the central nervous system. This medication is used as an adjunctive treatment for complex partial seizures and is available in oral form for administration.

It's important to note that Vigabatrin can cause serious side effects, including permanent vision loss, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional. It is also classified as a pregnancy category C medication, which means it may harm an unborn baby and should only be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Infantile spasms, also known as West syndrome, is a rare but serious type of epilepsy that affects infants typically between 4-8 months of age. The spasms are characterized by sudden, brief, and frequent muscle jerks or contractions, often involving the neck, trunk, and arms. These spasms usually occur in clusters and may cause the infant to bend forward or stretch out. Infantile spasms can be a symptom of various underlying neurological conditions and are often associated with developmental delays and regression. Early recognition and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes.

Neurosurgery, also known as neurological surgery, is a medical specialty that involves the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders of the nervous system. This includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Neurosurgeons use both traditional open and minimally invasive techniques to treat various conditions such as tumors, trauma, vascular disorders, infections, stroke, epilepsy, pain, and congenital anomalies. They work closely with other healthcare professionals including neurologists, radiologists, oncologists, and critical care specialists to provide comprehensive patient care.

Convulsants are substances or agents that can cause seizures or convulsions. These can be medications, toxins, or illnesses that lower the seizure threshold and lead to abnormal electrical activity in the brain, resulting in uncontrolled muscle contractions and relaxation. Examples of convulsants include bromides, strychnine, organophosphate pesticides, certain antibiotics (such as penicillin or cephalosporins), and alcohol withdrawal. It is important to note that some medications used to treat seizures can also have convulsant properties at higher doses or in overdose situations.

Triazines are not a medical term, but a class of chemical compounds. They have a six-membered ring containing three nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. Some triazine derivatives are used in medicine as herbicides, antimicrobials, and antitumor agents.

Epilepsy, partial, motor is a type of focal epilepsy, which means that the seizures originate from a specific area in one hemisphere of the brain. In this case, the area affected is the motor cortex, which is responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movements. As a result, partial motor seizures typically cause abnormal movements or altered sensations on one side of the body.

There are two types of partial motor seizures: simple and complex. Simple partial motor seizures involve involuntary contractions or twitching of specific muscles, while complex partial motor seizures may also include impaired consciousness or awareness, along with involuntary movements. The symptoms of a partial motor seizure can vary depending on the location and extent of the brain tissue involved.

It's important to note that partial motor seizures are just one type of epilepsy, and there are many other forms of the condition that can affect different areas of the brain and cause varying symptoms. If you or someone else is experiencing symptoms that may be related to epilepsy, it's important to seek medical attention from a qualified healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

Implanted electrodes are medical devices that are surgically placed inside the body to interface directly with nerves, neurons, or other electrically excitable tissue for various therapeutic purposes. These electrodes can be used to stimulate or record electrical activity from specific areas of the body, depending on their design and application.

There are several types of implanted electrodes, including:

1. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes: These are placed deep within the brain to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. DBS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that modulate abnormal neural activity in targeted brain regions.
2. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) electrodes: These are implanted along the spinal cord to treat chronic pain syndromes. SCS electrodes emit low-level electrical pulses that interfere with pain signals traveling to the brain, providing relief for patients.
3. Cochlear Implant electrodes: These are surgically inserted into the cochlea of the inner ear to restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve directly, bypassing damaged hair cells within the cochlea.
4. Retinal Implant electrodes: These are implanted in the retina to treat certain forms of blindness caused by degenerative eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa. The electrodes convert visual information from a camera into electrical signals, which stimulate remaining retinal cells and transmit the information to the brain via the optic nerve.
5. Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) electrodes: These are placed near the sacral nerves in the lower back to treat urinary or fecal incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. SNS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that regulate the function of the affected muscles and nerves.
6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) electrodes: These are wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck to treat epilepsy and depression. VNS electrodes provide intermittent electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve, which has connections to various regions of the brain involved in these conditions.

Overall, implanted electrodes serve as a crucial component in many neuromodulation therapies, offering an effective treatment option for numerous neurological and sensory disorders.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Neurocysticercosis is a neurological disorder caused by the infection of the brain's tissue with larval stages of the parasitic tapeworm, Taenia solium. The larvae, called cysticerci, can invade various parts of the body including the brain and the central nervous system, leading to a range of symptoms such as seizures, headaches, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disorders.

The infection typically occurs when a person ingests tapeworm eggs through contaminated food or water, and the larvae hatch and migrate to various tissues in the body. In neurocysticercosis, the cysticerci can cause inflammation, swelling, and damage to brain tissue, leading to neurological symptoms that can vary depending on the location and number of cysts in the brain.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis typically involves a combination of imaging techniques such as MRI or CT scans, blood tests, and sometimes lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to examine cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment may involve anti-parasitic medications to eliminate the cysts, anti-inflammatory drugs to manage swelling and inflammation, and symptomatic treatment for seizures or other neurological symptoms.

A Nurse Clinician, also known as Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), is an advanced practice registered nurse who has completed a master's or doctoral degree in nursing with a focus on clinical expertise. They are experts in their specific clinical specialty area, such as pediatrics, gerontology, critical care, or oncology.

Nurse Clinicians demonstrate advanced levels of knowledge and skills in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients' health conditions. They provide direct patient care, consult with other healthcare professionals, coordinate care, and often serve in leadership and education roles within their healthcare organizations. Their work includes developing and implementing evidence-based practice guidelines, participating in quality improvement initiatives, and mentoring staff nurses.

Nurse Clinicians play a critical role in improving patient outcomes, enhancing the quality of care, and promoting cost-effective care delivery. They are licensed and regulated by their state's Board of Nursing and may hold national certification in their clinical specialty area.

Ethosuximide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants or anti-seizure medications. It is primarily used to treat absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, which are a type of seizure characterized by brief, sudden lapses in consciousness.

Ethosuximide works by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. It does this by inhibiting the formation of sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize the electrical impulses and reduce the likelihood of seizure activity.

Like all medications, ethosuximide can have side effects, including stomach upset, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any bothersome or persistent side effects promptly. Ethosuximide may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting ethosuximide therapy.

The dentate gyrus is a region of the brain that is located in the hippocampal formation, which is a part of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. It is characterized by the presence of densely packed granule cells, which are a type of neuron. The dentate gyrus is involved in the formation of new memories and the integration of information from different brain regions. It is also one of the few areas of the adult brain where new neurons can be generated throughout life, a process known as neurogenesis. Damage to the dentate gyrus has been linked to memory impairments, cognitive decline, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy.

Kainic acid is not a medical term per se, but it is a compound that has been widely used in scientific research, particularly in neuroscience. It is a type of excitatory amino acid that acts as an agonist at certain types of receptors in the brain, specifically the AMPA and kainate receptors.

Kainic acid is often used in research to study the effects of excitotoxicity, which is a process that occurs when nerve cells are exposed to excessive amounts of glutamate or other excitatory neurotransmitters, leading to cell damage or death. Kainic acid can induce seizures and other neurological symptoms in animals, making it a valuable tool for studying epilepsy and related disorders.

While kainic acid itself is not a medical treatment or diagnosis, understanding its effects on the brain has contributed to our knowledge of neurological diseases and potential targets for therapy.

Channelopathies are genetic disorders that are caused by mutations in the genes that encode for ion channels. Ion channels are specialized proteins that regulate the flow of ions, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, across cell membranes. These ion channels play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the body.

Channelopathies can affect various organs and systems in the body, depending on the type of ion channel that is affected. For example, mutations in sodium channel genes can cause neuromuscular disorders such as epilepsy, migraine, and periodic paralysis. Mutations in potassium channel genes can cause cardiac arrhythmias, while mutations in calcium channel genes can cause neurological disorders such as episodic ataxia and hemiplegic migraine.

The symptoms of channelopathies can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the mutation. Treatment typically involves managing the symptoms and may include medications, lifestyle modifications, or in some cases, surgery.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Neurology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of diseases and disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system. Neurologists are medical doctors who specialize in this field, diagnosing and treating conditions such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various types of headaches and pain disorders. They use a variety of diagnostic tests, including imaging studies like MRI and CT scans, electrophysiological tests like EEG and EMG, and laboratory tests to evaluate nerve function and identify any underlying conditions or abnormalities. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, rehabilitation, or lifestyle modifications.

Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is not primarily considered a medical treatment, but rather a research compound used in neuroscience and neurology to study seizure activity and chemically induce seizures in animals for experimental purposes. It is classified as a proconvulsant agent. Medically, it has been used in the past as a medication to treat epilepsy, but its use is now largely historical due to the availability of safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs.

In a medical or scientific context, Pentylenetetrazole can be defined as:

A chemical compound with the formula C6H5N5O2, which is used in research to investigate seizure activity and induce convulsions in animals. It acts as a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist and can lower the seizure threshold. Historically, it has been used as a medication to treat epilepsy, but its use for this purpose is now limited due to the development of safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

Amobarbital is a barbiturate drug that is primarily used as a sedative and sleep aid. It works by depressing the central nervous system, which can lead to relaxation, drowsiness, and reduced anxiety. Amobarbital is also sometimes used as an anticonvulsant to help control seizures.

Like other barbiturates, amobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and it can be dangerous or even fatal when taken in large doses or mixed with alcohol or other drugs. It is typically prescribed only for short-term use due to the risk of tolerance and dependence.

It's important to note that the use of barbiturates like amobarbital has declined in recent years due to the development of safer and more effective alternatives, such as benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine sleep aids.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive functional neuroimaging technique used to measure the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain. These magnetic fields are detected by very sensitive devices called superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), which are cooled to extremely low temperatures to enhance their sensitivity. MEG provides direct and real-time measurement of neural electrical activity with high temporal resolution, typically on the order of milliseconds, allowing for the investigation of brain function during various cognitive, sensory, and motor tasks. It is often used in conjunction with other neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, to provide complementary information about brain structure and function.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Primidone is an anticonvulsant medication primarily used in the treatment of seizure disorders. It is a barbiturate derivative that has sedative and muscle relaxant properties. Primidone is metabolized in the body into two other anticonvulsants, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA). Together, these active metabolites help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.

Primidone is used primarily for generalized tonic-clonic seizures and complex partial seizures. It may also be considered for use in absence seizures, although other medications are typically preferred for this type of seizure. The medication works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to prevent or reduce the occurrence of seizures.

Like all anticonvulsant medications, primidone carries a risk of side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and unsteady gait. It may also cause rash, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite in some individuals. In rare cases, primidone can cause more serious side effects such as blood disorders, liver damage, or suicidal thoughts.

It is important for patients taking primidone to be closely monitored by their healthcare provider to ensure that the medication is working effectively and to monitor for any potential side effects. Dosages of primidone may need to be adjusted over time based on the patient's response to treatment and any adverse reactions that occur.

GABA-A receptors are ligand-gated ion channels in the membrane of neuronal cells. They are the primary mediators of fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. When the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binds to these receptors, it opens an ion channel that allows chloride ions to flow into the neuron, resulting in hyperpolarization of the membrane and decreased excitability of the neuron. This inhibitory effect helps to regulate neural activity and maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. GABA-A receptors are composed of multiple subunits, and the specific combination of subunits can determine the receptor's properties, such as its sensitivity to different drugs or neurotransmitters.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for "witchcraft" as it is generally considered to be a cultural or religious practice, not a medical condition. Witchcraft often refers to the practice of magical skills, spells, and the ability to communicate with spirits, which are beliefs that are deeply rooted in various cultures and religions around the world.

However, in some historical contexts, particularly during the early modern period in Europe, accusations of witchcraft were used as a pretext for persecuting and punishing individuals who were perceived as social or religious outsiders. These witch trials often resulted in severe physical and psychological harm, including executions, and can be considered a medical and human rights issue due to the trauma and violence inflicted upon those accused.

It's important to note that modern medicine recognizes the importance of cultural competence and sensitivity in providing care to patients from diverse backgrounds, including those who may practice witchcraft or other forms of traditional healing.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Mossy fibers in the hippocampus are a type of axon that originates from granule cells located in the dentate gyrus, which is the first part of the hippocampus. These fibers have a distinctive appearance and earn their name from the numerous small branches or "spines" that cover their surface, giving them a bushy or "mossy" appearance.

Mossy fibers form excitatory synapses with pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, which is involved in memory and spatial navigation. These synapses are unique because they have a high degree of plasticity, meaning that they can change their strength in response to experience or learning. This plasticity is thought to be important for the formation and storage of memories.

Mossy fibers also release neurotransmitters such as glutamate and contribute to the regulation of hippocampal excitability. Dysfunction in mossy fiber function has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder that causes non-cancerous (benign) tumors to grow in many parts of the body. These tumors can affect the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, eyes, and lungs. The signs and symptoms of TSC can vary widely, depending on where the tumors develop and how severely a person is affected.

The condition is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, which regulate a protein that helps control cell growth and division. When these genes are mutated, the protein is not produced correctly, leading to excessive cell growth and the development of tumors.

TSC is typically diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, medical imaging, and genetic testing. Treatment for TSC often involves a multidisciplinary approach, with specialists in neurology, dermatology, cardiology, nephrology, pulmonology, and ophthalmology working together to manage the various symptoms of the condition. Medications, surgery, and other therapies may be used to help control seizures, developmental delays, skin abnormalities, and other complications of TSC.

The neocortex, also known as the isocortex, is the most recently evolved and outermost layer of the cerebral cortex in mammalian brains. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as sensory perception, spatial reasoning, conscious thought, language, and memory. The neocortex is characterized by its six-layered structure and is divided into several functional regions, including the primary motor, somatosensory, and visual cortices. It is highly expanded in humans and other primates, reflecting our advanced cognitive abilities compared to other animals.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Famous Persons" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to individuals who are widely known and recognized in the public sphere due to their achievements, contributions, or notoriety in various fields such as entertainment, politics, science, sports, and arts. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

No data available that match "epilepsy"


... including prevalence of active epilepsy in adults and children. ... Managing Epilepsyplus icon *Managing Epilepsy Well Checklist. * ... What Is Active Epilepsy?. An adult aged 18 or older has active epilepsy if they report they have a history of doctor-diagnosed ... Epilepsy Prevalence in the United States. In 2015, 1.2% of the US population had active epilepsy (95% CI* = 1.1-1.4). This is ... Learn more about epilepsy and public health in your state by visiting the Resources for States at the bottom of the page. ...
A new study found that depression and anxiety improve significantly after epilepsy surgery. The study, which is published in ... Depression and anxiety are common problems for people whose epilepsy cannot be controlled by medication. ... epilepsy centers who were undergoing epilepsy surgery to remove the area of the brain producing the seizures. Epilepsy surgery ... Depression And Anxiety Improve After Epilepsy Surgery. Date:. December 12, 2005. Source:. New York University Medical Center ...
Home , EndNote downloads , Output styles , Epilepsy & Behavior. Output Styles. EndNote offers more than 6,000 bibliographic ... URL: http://www.elsevier.com/journals/epilepsy-and-behavior-case-reports/2213-3232/guide-for-authors#68000 ...
Management and treatment for epilepsy may change as a woman ages ... She had epilepsy. No one in Gosselins family had epilepsy, as ... Women and epilepsy Epilepsy, as a whole, affects males and females equally, but there are some specific epilepsy syndromes that ... Menopause and epilepsy Many, but not all, women with epilepsy experience changes in their seizures when they enter menopause. ... Pregnancy and epilepsy Most women with epilepsy havesuccessful pregnancies, particularly if they are planned. Up to three in 10 ...
Epilepsy Society and any third party cannot be held responsible for any actions taken as a result of using this service. Any ... Developing epilepsy as a child, adolescent or later in life can leave a person experiencing feelings of uncertainty and can ... However, Epilepsy Society is unable to provide a medical opinion on specific cases. Responses to enquiries contain information ... We send monthly e-newsletters to keep you informed with tips for managing epilepsy, the latest news, inspirational stories, ...
The 2014 Gordon Research Conference on Mechanisms of Epilepsy and Neuronal Synchronization will be held in West Dover, Vermont ... Ion Channel Defects in Intractable Epilepsies. 9:00 am - 9:10 am. Discussion Leader: Miriam Meisler (University of Michigan) " ... Co-Morbidities of Network Dysfunction in Epilepsies and Related Disorders. 7:30 pm - 7:40 pm. Discussion Leader: Amy Brooks- ... Bring in the Genes: Identification and Characterization of Epilepsy Mutations. 7:30 pm - 7:40 pm. Discussion Leader: Annapurna ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to Epilepsy. "Epilepsy Basics: An Overview for Behavioral Health Providers". YouTube. Epilepsy ... Bromfield EB (2006). "Basic Mechanisms Underlying Seizures and Epilepsy". An Introduction to Epilepsy. American Epilepsy ... Global Campaign against Epilepsy; International League against Epilepsy (2005). Atlas, epilepsy care in the world, 2005 (PDF). ... epilepsy in centres that are familiar and have expertise in epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgery may be an option for people with ...
Potassium Channels in Epilepsy. Rüdiger Köhling and Jakob Wolfart. The Role of Calcium Channels in Epilepsy. Sanjeev ... Epilepsy: A Spectrum Disorder. Joseph I. Sirven. Seizures and Epilepsy: An Overview for Neuroscientists. Carl E. Stafstrom and ... mTOR Signaling in Epilepsy: Insights from Malformations of Cortical Development. Peter B. Crino. Role of Astrocytes in Epilepsy ... The Diathesis-Epilepsy Model: How Past Events Impact the Development of Epilepsy and Comorbidities. Christophe Bernard. Single- ...
... focusing on Resumes for job seakers who are living with epilepsy. ... About Epilepsy *Column1 *Learn About Epilepsy. *What is ... Epilepsy Toronto offers services on the traditional territory of many nations including the Mississaugas of the Credit, the ... The Job Search Workshop - Resumes will be presented by Carter Hammett, Manager of Epilepsy Torontos Employment Services ... Our Agency Our Policies Contact Us What is Epilepsy? Seizure First Aid ...
Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have seizures. The seizures may be mild or severe. Learn about causes, ... Epilepsy in children (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Epilepsy in children - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Epilepsy and Pregnancy (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish * Epilepsy and Pregnancy: What You Need to Know ... Epilepsy Data and Statistics (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Epilepsy Fast Facts (Centers for Disease Control ...
Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain. People are diagnosed with epilepsy when they have had two or more seizures. ... Complex focal seizures can make a person with epilepsy confused or dazed. The person will be unable to respond to questions or ... A person with epilepsy can have more than one type of seizure. ... Managing Epilepsyplus icon *Managing Epilepsy Well Checklist. * ...
Epilepsy 5. The practice can produce a register of patients aged 18 and over receiving drug treatment for epilepsy. ... EPILEPSY 5. 2012. 415442. 65336771. 0.6%. EPILEPSY 5. 2013. 422432. 66226198. 0.6%. EP001. 2014. 427600. 66469382. 0.6%. EP001 ... EPILEPSY 1. 2005. 378299. 61960413. 0.6%. EPILEPSY 1. 2006. 396114. 63105517. 0.6%. Epilepsy 5. 2007. 395928. 63953623. 0.6%. ... Epilepsy 5. 2008. 398148. 64297205. 0.6%. Epilepsy 5. 2009. 400464. 64395906. 0.6%. Epilepsy 5. 2010. 399823. 63959696. 0.6%. ...
Epilepsy after a stroke is more common in children than adults, a new study shows; those with seizures at stroke onset are at ... They used International League Against Epilepsy proposed guidelines which define epilepsy as a confirmed unprovoked seizure ... Predictors of epilepsy included neurologic deficit at hospital discharge and seizure at stroke ictus, but not gender or stroke ... The rates of epilepsy are also significantly higher than seen in adults after a stroke, the researchers report. ...
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a recurrent seizure disorder that apparently results from injury to the brain. This injury may ... encoded search term (Posttraumatic Epilepsy) and Posttraumatic Epilepsy What to Read Next on Medscape ... Posttraumatic Epilepsy Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Dec 31, 2022 * Author: David Y Ko, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, ... Test Your Expertise in the Diagnosis and Management of Rare Pediatric Epilepsies 1.0 CME / ABIM MOC Credits Clinical Case ...
... is increased by seizures and by inducing epilepsy in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Several studies have ... More Research in the Area of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Robert Withrow Wier Grant Tribute ... CURE Epilepsy is a qualified 501(c)3 tax-exempt organization. (EIN: 36-4253176) ... Postnatal Neurogenesis As A Therapeutic Target For Epilepsy. Jenny Hsieh, PhD - Helen Scharfman, PhD ...
There will be conventional didactic lectures on critical clinical epilepsy related topics aligned with the IGAP in addition to ... Students will also benefit from exposure to focused teaching via a Paediatric Epilepsy Training (PET) course. Participants will ... The day will complete with students listening and engaging in the regular epilepsy surgery case discussion meeting. ... On Thursday, students will complete a Paediatric Epilepsy Training course. This is an internationally accredited teaching ...
... the methods and the specificity of data interpretation in the context of epilepsy are exposed in the present paper. A special ...
OUR VISION: To empower people impacted by epilepsy to Seize Hope every day. ... Copyright ©2024 Epilepsy Alliance Ohio , All Rights Reserved. .contr{ float: left; } .ctr-cpr { display: none;} .copyr{ float: ...
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criterion was the basic guideline of the clinician for epilepsy diagnoses and ... Impaired language function in generalized epilepsy: inadequate suppression of the default mode network. Epilepsy Behav. (2013) ... Voxel-based morphometry evaluation of patients with photosensitive juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. (2009) 86:138-45 ... previous functional MRI studies on epilepsy have found that adults with idiopathic generalized epilepsy showed decreased ...
Learn more about how medical marijuana can help treat Epilepsy at Marijuana Doctors. Find treatment options and reviews on ... Learn more about how medical marijuana can help treat Epilepsy at Marijuana Doctors. Find treatment options and reviews on ... Epilepsy Video Transcript:. Epilepsy is a seizure disorder in which there is a sudden temporary change in how the brain ... Additional Epilepsy & Cannabis Resources. For more information about how cannabis can be used to treat Epilepsy, check out our ...
... especially for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Drug resistance must be diagnosed as early as possible, because the ensuing ... In the treatment of epilepsy, encouraging results have been achieved with surgical treatment, ... In the treatment of epilepsy, encouraging results have been achieved with surgical treatment, especially for temporal lobe ... "Surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy: experience of a single institution," Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences: Vol. ...
... epilepsy - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags epilepsy, preparedness Loving Someone With Epilepsy. When Zayan first told me that he has epilepsy, I didnt believe him ... Epilepsy and Emergency Preparedness. November is National Epilepsy Awareness Month Epilepsy is common. In 2015, about 3.4 ... Epilepsy is a broad term used for a brain disorder that causes repeated seizures. There are many different types of epilepsy. A ...
The new study, from the lab of Jeff Noebels, aimed to test these models in the context of epilepsy. Epilepsy is caused by an ... The interpretation has been that common variants do not play a major role in the etiology of idiopathic epilepsy (epilepsy ... Many familial cases of epilepsy have been found to be caused by mutations in ion channel genes. However, most epilepsy patients ... 78% of patients vs 30% of controls had two or more mutations in known familial epilepsy genes. A similar trend was observed ...
Bono, Antonino ; Sørensen, Andreas Toft and Ledri, Marco LU (2023) In Epilepsy Research 194. ... Mark Shaping the future of European epilepsy research : Final meeting report from EPICLUSTER Henshall, David C. ; Arzimanoglou ... Mark Reduced epilepsy development in synapsin 2 knockout mice with autistic behavior following early systemic treatment with ...
About Epilepsy. About EpilepsyWhat is a Seizure?For Parents & CaregiversFor Newly DiagnosedFor EducatorsTreatment Options ... The Epilepsy Foundation is proud to offer no-cost trainings for any school, workplace, community group, or organization. Based ...
... for adult patients and caregivers of children following a medical ketogenic diet for the management of intractable epilepsy. - ... chef rachel finnketo diet for epilepsyketo for epilepsyketo recipesKetoCalKetoCal recipeketogenic diet for epilepsymedical keto ... intractable epilepsyketogenic diet for epilepsyketogenic diet for seizuresmedical ketomedical keto dietmedical ketogenic diet ... How is the Medical Ketogenic Diet for Epilepsy Different from the Keto Diet for Weight Loss?. April 27, 2020. KetoCal Leave a ...
Epilepsy is the most common chronic disease in pediatric neurology, with about 0.5-1 percent of children developing epilepsy ... A further 30-40 percent of epileptic children develop refractory epilepsy, a particular type of epilepsy that cannot be managed ... Spotting Refractory Epilepsy Early With Scalp EEG. Scientists have developed an automated and quantitative method of diagnosing ... 16, 2014) - It is now easier to detect and diagnose epilepsy in children, thanks to a study by medical doctors and scientists ...
Epilepsy. Epilepsy describes a set of conditions associated with paroxysmal neurologic function observed as seizures that ... Oral health and dental status in people with epilepsy in rural China. Seizure. 2019 Feb. 65:42-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Reid AY, Metcalfe A, Patten SB, Wiebe S, Macrodimitris S, Jetté N. Epilepsy is associated with unmet health care needs compared ... About 10% of the population is estimated to have epilepsy. The clinical signs associated with tonic-clonic convulsions are ...
No.The FMCSA and the State of New Mexico do not issue waivers for drivers with epilepsy, a history of epilepsy, or who are ... Am I able to receive a Medical Waiver (medical exemption) if I have epilepsy?. by [email protected] , Aug 6, 2013 , Resources & ...
  • The occurrence of just one seizure may warrant the definition (set out by the International League Against Epilepsy) in a more clinical usage where recurrence may be able to be prejudged. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used International League Against Epilepsy proposed guidelines which define epilepsy as a confirmed unprovoked seizure more than 30 days after a stroke. (medscape.com)
  • Accordingly, epilepsy in mitochondrial disease straddles the genetic and structural/metabolic categories in the 2010 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification of the epilepsies outlined in Table 1 . (medscape.com)
  • According to Alison M. Pack, M.D. , a professor of neurology at Columbia University Irving Medical Center, an epilepsy diagnosis can be made after someone has two unprovoked seizures. (healthywomen.org)
  • (https://www.who.int/mental_health/neurology/epilepsy/report_2019/en/, accessed 12 October 2019). (who.int)
  • Epilepsy is the most common chronic disease in pediatric neurology, with about 0.5-1 percent of children developing epilepsy during their lifetime. (asianscientist.com)
  • Standard 12-lead ECGs were recorded from 70 consecutive epilepsy patients from the neurology clinic of HUKM and 70 age, race and gender matched controls. (nih.gov)
  • Traumatic brain injury and epilepsy: Underlying mechanisms leading to seizure. (medscape.com)
  • Wilson CD, Burks JD, Rodgers RB, Evans RM, Bakare AA, Safavi-Abbasi S. Early and Late Post-Traumatic Epilepsy in the Setting of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Anti-Epileptic Management. (medscape.com)
  • Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a risk factor for epilepsy. (who.int)
  • Not all cases of epilepsy are lifelong, and many people improve to the point that treatment is no longer needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases of epilepsy, no definitive cause can be identified, while in other cases brain damage, brain tumors, genetic factors, infections, trauma, metabolic disorders or certain neurological diseases can cause epilepsy. (doktornow.com)
  • CURE Epilepsy is a qualified 501(c)3 tax-exempt organization. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • Epilepsy medication does not cure epilepsy, but aims to try and stop seizures happening. (yhano.org.uk)
  • They don't cure epilepsy, but they help control seizures in most people. (bramleyonline.co.uk)
  • for those with epileptic seizures, it may allow further workup for epilepsy surgery or vagus nerve stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • Doctors use brain scans and other tests to diagnose epilepsy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is now easier to detect and diagnose epilepsy in children, thanks to a study by medical doctors and scientists in Taiwan. (asianscientist.com)
  • Doctors usually diagnose epilepsy using a description of the seizures, the patient's medical history, a neurological examination, tests such as an electroencephalogram (EEG) and sometimes imaging tests. (doktornow.com)
  • Therefore, in intractable epilepsy patients, the diagnosis should be verified by video-EEG monitoring , which shows that the nature of the seizures is psychogenic rather than epileptic. (medscape.com)
  • A support blog for parents of children on the medical ketogenic diet for intractable epilepsy. (myketocal.com)
  • KetoCal® is a medical food for the dietary management of intractable epilepsy and is intended for use under medical supervision. (myketocal.com)
  • The classical medical ketogenic diet for the management of intractable epilepsy was created in the 1920s at the Mayo Clinic. (myketocal.com)
  • With the recent popularity of the keto diet for weight loss purposes, many people may wonder how it is different from the medical ketogenic diet that is used to manage intractable epilepsy . (myketocal.com)
  • If a case of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) demonstrates atypical features and the seizures continue despite treatment, consider the possibility of pseudoseizures. (medscape.com)
  • Epidemiology of posttraumatic epilepsy: a critical review. (medscape.com)
  • Posttraumatic epilepsy risk factors: one-year prospective study after head injury. (medscape.com)
  • Raymont V, Salazar AM, Lipsky R, Goldman D, Tasick G, Grafman J. Correlates of posttraumatic epilepsy 35 years following combat brain injury. (medscape.com)
  • Results of phase II levetiracetam trial following acute head injury in children at risk for posttraumatic epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • However, AEDs are effective in patients who develop posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). (medscape.com)
  • Epilepsy is usually treated with antiepileptic drugs. (doktornow.com)
  • Most childhood epilepsy patients are treated with antiepileptic drugs that tend to control seizures in a majority of children. (wisegeek.net)
  • Source: Zack MM, Kobau R. National and state estimates of the numbers of adults and children with active epilepsy - United States, 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • Epilepsy is one of the most common serious chronic neurological conditions affecting people of all ages globally, with peaks in incidence rates in children and in adults over the age of 60. (who.int)
  • In some settings, children with epilepsy may not be allowed to attend school, while adults with the condition may not be able to find suitable employment or to marry. (who.int)
  • The rates of epilepsy are also significantly higher than seen in adults after a stroke, the researchers report. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, adults with epilepsy have many social concerns (2-4), like restrictions in driving and professional constraints (5-7). (who.int)
  • He'll be discussing VNS Therapy - the first and only FDA-approved device for drug-resistant epilepsy that is clinically proven safe and effective for adults and children as young as four years of age. (podbean.com)
  • A further 30-40 percent of epileptic children develop refractory epilepsy, a particular type of epilepsy that cannot be managed by antiepileptic drugs (AED). (asianscientist.com)
  • Aims: To study the incidence of epilepsy and cognitive impairment following TBI and correlate the findings with radiological abnormalities. (who.int)
  • Method: The study was conducted on 50 consecutive patients with TBI based on the assessment of clinical history for epilepsy and MMSE for cognitive impairment. (who.int)
  • This is an internationally accredited teaching course accessible for all clinically applied practitioners who would benefit from entry level knowledge in the care of children with seizures and epilepsy. (ibro.org)
  • People with epilepsy may be treated differently in various areas of the world and experience varying degrees of social stigma due to the alarming nature of their symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, recent research shows the use of the drug to treat epilepsy symptoms has promise. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • The symptoms of epilepsy are epileptic seizures. (yhano.org.uk)
  • There are a wide range of symptoms associated with epilepsy because of the many ways seizure activity can affect the brain. (healthprep.com)
  • Read about the symptoms linked to epilepsy now. (healthprep.com)
  • Keep reading to learn more about symptoms linked to epilepsy now. (healthprep.com)
  • Learn more about symptoms seen in epilepsy now. (healthprep.com)
  • Although ADHD is present in focal and generalized epilepsies, some epileptic types or disorders, such as rolandic epilepsy and frontal epilepsy, were strongly associated with ADHD symptoms, especially in those individuals with newly diagnosed epilepsy, poorly controlled seizures, and abnormal electroencephalogram. (bvsalud.org)
  • The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder. (musc.edu)
  • There is a distinct structural or metabolic condition or disease that has a substantially increased risk of developing epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • Of the roughly 3 million people with epilepsy in the U.S., about 30% still have seizures despite being on medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine includes contributions covering all aspects of epilepsy, its causes, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and treatment. (cshlpress.com)
  • People with epilepsy often suffer from comorbidities such as depression and anxiety, associated intellectual disabilities (especially in children) and physical injuries (for instance, fractures and burns). (who.int)
  • Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) represents one of the most prevailing comorbidities of epilepsy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Their child currently has epilepsy or seizure disorder (from the National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012). (cdc.gov)
  • Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes seizures. (healthywomen.org)
  • Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain. (cdc.gov)
  • Understanding the disorder and how medical cannabis for epilepsy works helps you determine if it is a suitable treatment option for you or a loved one. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • Epilepsy is a seizure disorder in which there is a sudden temporary change in how the brain functions. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • Epilepsy is a broad term used for a brain disorder that causes repeated seizures. (cdc.gov)
  • Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain that triggers recurrent seizures. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the medical care of people with epilepsy should not be limited to stopping or reducing seizures, but should also focus on QOL, as the disorder can have a major impact on that. (who.int)
  • Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes recurrent seizures. (doktornow.com)
  • Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects people of all ages. (bramleyonline.co.uk)
  • Epilepsy is a chronic disorder marked by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. (bramleyonline.co.uk)
  • Individuals with childhood epilepsy may develop the disorder from a variety of causes, although not all are known. (wisegeek.net)
  • Childhood epilepsy may be caused by insufficient oxygen during or immediately following birth, a brain development disorder before birth or a head injury. (wisegeek.net)
  • The causes of childhood epilepsy vary from individual to individual and may include a lack of sufficient oxygen during or immediately following birth, a brain development disorder before birth or a head injury. (wisegeek.net)
  • Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system. (healthprep.com)
  • Children with epilepsy sometimes outgrow the disorder as they age, while some require treatment for their entire lives. (healthprep.com)
  • The epilepsy is a direct result of a known or presumed genetic defect(s) in which seizures are the core symptom of the disorder. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast to genetic epilepsies, here there is a separate disorder interposed between the genetic defect and the epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • We send monthly e-newsletters to keep you informed with tips for managing epilepsy, the latest news, inspirational stories, fundraising opportunities and further information from Epilepsy Society. (epilepsysociety.org.uk)
  • [ 15 ] As a combined consequence of the phenotypic diversity, the increasing genetic complexity and a historical paucity of detailed seizure semiology, the clinician is faced with a considerable challenge in identifying, classifying, and treating epilepsy arising due to mitochondrial disease. (medscape.com)
  • Although there is currently no evidence to support it, one suggestion is that the treatment the children received at the time of the stroke could influence later development of epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • For example, if a child had a seizure at the stroke presentation, are they more likely to be treated with an anticonvulsant medication and could this be influencing the development of epilepsy? (medscape.com)
  • A 25-year-old man presented to Cleveland Clinic's Epilepsy Center in 2002 with epileptic seizures occurring as frequently as once a day and convulsions occurring about once a week. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers used clinical databases to identify seizures and record review to confirm a diagnosis of epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • This school will equip and inspire early career neuroscientists and clinicians from Africa in translational elements of basic science study for epilepsy and the implications for clinical practice, with a special focus on the content of the Intersectional Global Action Plan on Epilepsy and Other Neurological Disorders (IGAP). (ibro.org)
  • Participants will receive direct clinical exposure by observing an electroencephalograpy (EEG) unit in practice, attending a dedicated epilepsy clinic and contributing to further discussions. (ibro.org)
  • There will be conventional didactic lectures on critical clinical epilepsy related topics aligned with the IGAP in addition to current updates on ILAE terminology and management and how this is relevant to clinical practice. (ibro.org)
  • Students will spend the day at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital where they will take part in a grand round with interesting clinical cases presented (with consenting children / caregivers), followed by an afternoon rotating through the EEG service and epilepsy clinic. (ibro.org)
  • Investigators used survival analysis to determine rates and predictors of epilepsy after stroke and adjusted for gender, age (neonatal versus later childhood, up to age 19 years), stroke subtype (ischemic versus hemorrhagic), outcome at hospital discharge, and acute seizures at the time of stroke. (medscape.com)
  • In univariate analysis, children who had a stroke in the neonatal period, within the first 28 days of life, appeared to have an increased risk on the order of 70% developing epilepsy compared with those who had a stroke later in childhood, she said. (medscape.com)
  • But after adjusting for various demographic factors, "children who had a neonatal stroke were no more likely to develop epilepsy," she noted. (medscape.com)
  • Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (musc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Epilepsy, Benign Neonatal" by people in Profiles. (musc.edu)
  • To learn more about the methods used to calculate epilepsy prevalence, please read the full study . (cdc.gov)
  • There are almost no studies on epilepsy incidence and prevalence in Morocco. (who.int)
  • There are many different types of epilepsy. (cdc.gov)
  • In June 2018, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the prescription use of Epidiolex, a purified form of CBD oil, for treating two types of epilepsy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A person with epilepsy can have more than one type of seizure. (cdc.gov)
  • Complex focal seizures can make a person with epilepsy confused or dazed. (cdc.gov)
  • A person with epilepsy may also be advised to make some lifestyle changes. (doktornow.com)
  • Epilepsy is a manageable condition with appropriate treatment and support. (doktornow.com)
  • Remember, epilepsy is a manageable condition, and many people with epilepsy lead full and active lives. (bramleyonline.co.uk)
  • If you exclude these children, the annual average incidence of epilepsy was now 4.5%, with a 5-year cumulative risk of 17% and a 10-year cumulative risk of 34% - so still relatively high," she said. (medscape.com)
  • Several studies have been conducted to estimate the incidence of epilepsy after TBI. (who.int)
  • Results: The incidence of epilepsy after TBI was found to be 40% in our study. (who.int)
  • Although their definition of epilepsy included those with only a single seizure after a remote stroke, they analyzed the cohort again after excluding children who had been seizure free without medication for 6 months after that first episode. (medscape.com)
  • It is important to follow up regularly with a neurologist or epilepsy specialist, take medication regularly and avoid triggers. (doktornow.com)
  • The most common way epilepsy is treated is with medication. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Epilepsy medication is taken at regular times every day. (yhano.org.uk)
  • For people whose epilepsy doesn't respond to medication, there may be other treatment options. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Some people no longer have seizures because of their medication, so their epilepsy has little impact on their life. (yhano.org.uk)
  • By the end of the course, students will have developed an understanding of how to work in a laboratory based setting and be provided with key updates in epilepsy terminology, in-line with recent ILAE updates from the nosology commission. (ibro.org)
  • Epilepsy is a group of non-communicable neurological disorders characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epilepsy is characterized by a long-term risk of recurrent epileptic seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Childhood epilepsy is a common form of the disease of the brain that makes a patient experience seizures, which cause a disruption in the brain's normal functioning and typically affect movement, sensations and consciousness. (wisegeek.net)
  • Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of mortality for these patients. (nih.gov)
  • Using a new electroencephalography (EEG) analytical method, researchers from Kaoshiung Medical University have successfully developed a tool to detect certain EEG features often present in children with idiopathic epilepsy. (asianscientist.com)
  • Based on their EEG method, the researchers were able to develop a diagnostic tool, using a support vector machine classification model to discriminate between well-controlled idiopathic epilepsy and refractory idiopathic epilepsy. (asianscientist.com)
  • How is the Medical Ketogenic Diet for Epilepsy Different from the Keto Diet for Weight Loss? (myketocal.com)
  • In today's post, we'll describe the key ways that the medical ketogenic diet for the management of epilepsy is different from the mainstream keto diet that is used for weight loss. (myketocal.com)
  • One major difference between the medical ketogenic diet and the keto diet for weight loss is that the medical ketogenic diet must be designed and monitored by a medical team, usually a neurologist and a ketogenic dietitian (a registered dietitian who is trained to manage medical ketogenic diets for epilepsy). (myketocal.com)
  • One of the key differences between the medical ketogenic diet for epilepsy and the keto diet for weight loss is the way the diets are designed. (myketocal.com)
  • Unlike the keto diet for weight loss, the medical ketogenic diet for epilepsy is generally initiated in the hospital under close medical supervision. (myketocal.com)
  • Some people with epilepsy may benefit from dietary approaches, such as the ketogenic diet or the modified Atkins diet. (bramleyonline.co.uk)
  • In 2015, 1.2% of the US population had active epilepsy (95% CI* = 1.1-1.4). (cdc.gov)
  • What Is Active Epilepsy? (cdc.gov)
  • In 2015, about 3.4 million people reported having active epilepsy in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The magazine reported that University of Colorado researchers were involved in studying the genetic makeup of people suffering from a form of epilepsy known as Dravet Syndrome. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • March 8, 2012 (New Orleans, Louisiana) - It is not uncommon for children who suffer a stroke to develop epilepsy, and those who have seizures at the onset of the stroke are at particularly high risk, new research suggests. (medscape.com)
  • Anyone can develop epilepsy at any time and although it can start at any age, it is more common in children and young people under 20 and people over 65. (yhano.org.uk)
  • If you have epilepsy it means you have had more than one epileptic seizure and could have more in the future. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Up to 70% of people with epilepsy could live seizure-free, if treated with antiseizure medicines. (who.int)
  • Up to seven out of every ten people with epilepsy have their seizures fully controlled (are 'seizure free') with the right epilepsy medicines. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Patients with cryptogenic epilepsy had a mean QTc of 0.392 +/- 0.029s, which was significantly shorter than patients with symptomatic epilepsy (QTc = 0.410 +/- 0.027s, p = 0.015). (nih.gov)
  • This study, for the first time, demonstrates that epilepsy patients have a significantly shorter QTc than controls, particularly in the subgroup of patients with cryptogenic epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • Most adult epilepsy patients develop the condition in their childhood years. (wisegeek.net)
  • There is no cure for epilepsy, but medicines can control seizures for most people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Around 50 million people worldwide have epilepsy, of whom nearly 80% live in low- and middle-income countries. (who.int)
  • The risk of premature death in people with epilepsy is up to three times higher than in the general population. (who.int)
  • In many parts of the world, people with epilepsy and their families are subjected to stigmatization and discrimination as a result of the misconceptions and negative attitudes that surround epilepsy, including the belief that epilepsy is the result of possession by evil spirits or that it is contagious. (who.int)
  • The treatment gap (percentage of people with epilepsy whose seizures are not being appropriately treated at a given point in time) is, however, estimated at 75% in low-income countries and is substantially higher in rural than in urban areas. (who.int)
  • These mean that people with epilepsy may not present to health care facilities, instead seeking help from other sources that may be ineffective. (who.int)
  • People are diagnosed with epilepsy when they have had two or more seizures. (cdc.gov)
  • As of 2020[update], about 50 million people have epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epilepsy is more common in older people. (wikipedia.org)
  • OUR VISION: To empower people impacted by epilepsy to Seize Hope every day. (epilepsy-ohio.org)
  • There is currently a growing concern to conduct health-related quality of life (HRQOL) studies among people with epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries, as most data have been derived from high-income countries in North America and Europe. (who.int)
  • There is currently a growing concern to conduct health-related quality of life (HRQOL) studies among people with epilepsy in low- and middle-income countries. (who.int)
  • People with epilepsy often have a concern about seizure recurrence, even in those with few or no current seizures. (who.int)
  • There is poor knowledge about epilepsy among teachers in Morocco, and this unawareness negatively affects teachers' attitudes towards people with epilepsy (8). (who.int)
  • The availability of such an inventory in the Arabic language, according to the cultural specificities of Morocco, is essential for conducting future studies about QOL in people with epilepsy. (who.int)
  • In around six out of ten people, doctors don't know the cause of their epilepsy. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Some people do have a cause for their epilepsy. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Approximately 600,000 people in the UK have epilepsy. (yhano.org.uk)
  • About one in every 220 children and young people aged under 18 has epilepsy, around 64,000 people in this age group. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Around 87 people are diagnosed with epilepsy every day in the UK. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Epilepsy affects people in different ways. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Some people with epilepsy and associated or co-existing conditions or disabilities may need some level of supported or residential care. (yhano.org.uk)
  • It is a unique treatment approach developed specifically for people with drug-resistant epilepsy - a condition that affects one in three people with epilepsy. (podbean.com)
  • Epilepsy is due to abnormal signaling of neurons in the brain that can cause seizures. (cshlpress.com)
  • Epilepsy is caused by abnormal electrical activity of the brain. (doktornow.com)
  • In some instances, epilepsy drugs are not effective enough for some childhood epilepsy seizures, and some doctors may recommend delicate surgery in a child's brain. (wisegeek.net)
  • Many neurodevelopmental disorders are therefore associated with epilepsy as a symptom (usually one of many). (wiringthebrain.com)
  • Seizures are a specific symptom of epilepsy. (doktornow.com)
  • Epilepsy is a group of conditions that have epileptic seizures as a symptom. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Epilepsy is one of most common chronic neurological disorders , and the antiseizure medications developed by targeting neurocentric mechanisms have not effectively reduced the proportion of patients with drug -resistant epilepsy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Sometimes epilepsy activity starts as a focal seizure, spreads to the rest of the brain and becomes a generalised seizure. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Epilepsy, as a whole, affects males and females equally, but there are some specific epilepsy syndromes that more commonly occur in females. (healthywomen.org)
  • The day will complete with students listening and engaging in the regular epilepsy surgery case discussion meeting. (ibro.org)
  • Neurologic conditions facing the dentist include abnormalities associated with the cranial nerves, facial sensory loss, facial paralysis, and conditions such as epilepsy, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and myasthenia gravis. (medscape.com)
  • The study helps to pinpoint important risk factors for epilepsy after a stroke in children, said Dr. Fox, adding that current incidence estimates are from tertiary referral centers and vary widely. (medscape.com)
  • Special diets can help some children with epilepsy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Several possible scenarios may explain the increased poststroke epilepsy risk in children, Dr. Fox said. (medscape.com)
  • Scientists have developed an automated and quantitative method of diagnosing epilepsy in children based on scalp EEG. (asianscientist.com)
  • Regardless of etiology, children with refractory epilepsy are invariably exposed to a variety of physical, psychological and social morbidities. (asianscientist.com)
  • Some cases of childhood epilepsy may be genetically related, and the risk of this disease can be higher in children who have a family history of the disease. (wisegeek.net)
  • Predictors of epilepsy included neurologic deficit at hospital discharge and seizure at stroke ictus, but not gender or stroke subtype. (medscape.com)
  • Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) is a subtype of epilepsy characterized by generalized spike-wave discharge involving the bilateral hemispheres during seizure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent advances in drug development and surgical techniques aimed at reducing the morbidity and mortality of patients with epilepsy are also described. (cshlpress.com)
  • The behavioral abnormalities in epilepsy patients were suggested to be induced by the widespread neurobiological abnormalities in brains with GTCS in neuroimaging studies ( 2 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the epilepsy-related brain activity and anatomy changes in patients with GTCS were discovered in the neuroimaging studies, the whole-brain GM structural topology remains poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many patients suffering from epilepsy and other seizure disorders have found great relief from medical marijuana, either taken on its own or in conjunction with other epilepsy medications. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • The researchers were specifically looking for patients who had used Charlotte's Web, a strain of weed known to have particularly substantial benefits for those suffering from epilepsy. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • A new study looking at the profile of mutations in hundreds of genes in patients with epilepsy dramatically illustrates this complexity. (wiringthebrain.com)
  • In the study, a set of artifact-free EEG segments was acquired from the EEG recordings of patients belonging to two classes of epilepsy: well-controlled and refractory. (asianscientist.com)
  • Epilepsy patients have a higher mortality rate than the general population. (nih.gov)
  • This study compared the QT interval in epilepsy patients and normal controls, and identified the factors that affected the QT interval. (nih.gov)
  • The mean QTc among the epilepsy patients was 0.401 +/- 0.027s. (nih.gov)
  • Thirty five epilepsy patients (50%) and 17 matched controls (24.3%) had a mean QTc shorter than 0.40s (p=0.001). (nih.gov)
  • Among the epilepsy patients, the mean QTc did not significantly differ between patients in the duration (F=0.836, p=0.438) of the epilepsy, frequency (F=0.273, p=0.845) and types of seizures (p=0.633). (nih.gov)
  • There was no significant difference in the mean QTc between the epilepsy patients on different number of antiepileptic agents (F=0.444, p=0.643). (nih.gov)
  • Adaptation and validation of QOLIE-31 were performed in July 2018 among 118 patients with epilepsy in the Fez-Meknes region. (who.int)
  • The global score of QOL in Moroccan patients with epilepsy is similar to that in patients in low and middle-income countries. (who.int)
  • Epilepsy Services of Southwest Florida is a volunteer nonprofit organization serving patients within our demographic area. (epilepsy-services.org)
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the dentists' knowledge in the treatment of patients with epilepsy. (bvsalud.org)
  • A large driver for the restructuring of this classification is the ongoing advance in genetic medicine and diagnostic technologies, [ 13 ] exemplified by increasing descriptions of epilepsy causing gene variations [ 14 ] and mirrored in the field of mitochondrial disease. (medscape.com)
  • To translate, adapt and validate the Moroccan Arabic version of the QOL Inventory in Epilepsy-31 (MA-QOLIE-31) to evaluate HRQOL predictors in the Moroccan population with epilepsy. (who.int)
  • November is National Epilepsy Awareness Month Epilepsy is common. (cdc.gov)
  • Temporary confusion is one of the common signs of epilepsy, and it may occur before, during, or following a seizure. (healthprep.com)
  • Neural circuit mechanisms of post-traumatic epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • The relevance of such evaluations, the timing, the methods and the specificity of data interpretation in the context of epilepsy are exposed in the present paper. (jle.com)
  • The new study, from the lab of Jeff Noebels, aimed to test these models in the context of epilepsy. (wiringthebrain.com)
  • As the resident immune cells of the central nervous system , microglia have highly plastic transcription, morphology and functional characteristics, which can change dynamically in a context-dependent manner during the progression of epilepsy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Wide treatment gaps may result from a combination of lack of capacity in health care systems, inequitable distribution of resources and low priority accorded to epilepsy care. (who.int)
  • Medical marijuana for epilepsy has shown promise as a safe, effective treatment that doesn't produce the often-severe side effects of traditional medications. (marijuanadoctors.com)
  • There may be other specialists involved in treatment, such as epilepsy specialist nurses, psychologists or psychiatrists. (yhano.org.uk)
  • Further exploration of the cellular or molecular mechanism of epilepsy is expected to provide new options for treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • Epilepsy is caused by an imbalance in excitation and inhibition within brain circuits. (wiringthebrain.com)
  • Severe infections of the brain such as encephalitis or meningitis can also result in epilepsy in some instances. (wisegeek.net)
  • Epilepsy can affect anything an individual's brain typically has control over. (healthprep.com)
  • In the pathogenesis of epilepsy , highly reactive microglia interact with other components in the epileptogenic network by performing crucial functions such as secretion of soluble factors and phagocytosis , thus continuously reshaping the landscape of the epileptic brain microenvironment. (bvsalud.org)
  • This comprehensive review critically summarizes the pathophysiological role of microglia in epileptic brain homeostasis alterations and explores potential therapeutic or modulatory targets for epilepsy targeting microglia . (bvsalud.org)
  • The new findings should encourage physicians to counsel families with a child who has had a stroke about the possibility of developing epilepsy, said lead researcher Christine Fox, MD, from the University of California, San Francisco. (medscape.com)