A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An autosomal dominant inherited partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between age 3 and 13 years. Seizures are characterized by PARESTHESIA and tonic or clonic activity of the lower face associated with drooling and dysarthria. In most cases, affected children are neurologically and developmentally normal. (From Epilepsia 1998 39;Suppl 4:S32-S41)
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.
A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS (Group I); abnormal neuronal migration (Group II); and abnormal establishment of cortical organization (Group III). Many INBORN METABOLIC BRAIN DISORDERS affecting CNS formation are often associated with cortical malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
A condition marked by recurrent seizures that occur during the first 4-6 weeks of life despite an otherwise benign neonatal course. Autosomal dominant familial and sporadic forms have been identified. Seizures generally consist of brief episodes of tonic posturing and other movements, apnea, eye deviations, and blood pressure fluctuations. These tend to remit after the 6th week of life. The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder. (Neurologia 1996 Feb;11(2):51-5)
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
Registered nurses who hold Master's degrees in nursing with an emphasis in clinical nursing and who function independently in coordinating plans for patient care.
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
A variety of neuromuscular conditions resulting from MUTATIONS in ION CHANNELS manifesting as episodes of EPILEPSY; HEADACHE DISORDERS; and DYSKINESIAS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
A characteristic symptom complex.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
An act of employing sorcery (the use of power gained from the assistance or control of spirits), especially with malevolent intent, and the exercise of supernatural powers and alleged intercourse with the devil or a familiar. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Famous Persons" is not a term that has a medical definition. It refers to individuals who are widely known and recognized in various fields such as entertainment, politics, sports, science, and arts. If you have any medical or health-related terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Differential spatial memory impairment after right temporal lobectomy demonstrated using temporal titration. (1/596)

In this study a temporal titration method to explore the extent to which spatial memory is differentially impaired following right temporal lobectomy was employed. The spatial and non-spatial memory of 19 left and 19 right temporal lobectomy (TL) patients was compared with that of 16 normal controls. The subjects studied an array of 16 toy objects and were subsequently tested for object recall, object recognition and memory for the location of the objects. By systematically varying the retention intervals for each group, it was possible to match all three groups on object recall at sub-ceiling levels. When memory for the position of the objects was assessed at equivalent delays, the right TL group revealed disrupted spatial memory, compared with both left TL and control groups (P < 0.05). MRI was used to quantify the extent of temporal lobe resection in the two groups and a significant correlation between hippocampal removal and both recall of spatial location and object name recall in the right TL group only was shown. These data support the notion of a selective (but not exclusive) spatial memory impairment associated with right temporal lobe damage that is related to the integrity of the hippocampal functioning.  (+info)

Comparative study of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO for peri-ictal SPECT: qualitative and quantitative analysis. (2/596)

OBJECTIVES: Most studies that clinically validated peri-ictal SPECT in intractable partial epilepsy had used technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO or 99mTc-exametazime) as the radiopharmaceutical. Because of some theoretical advantages, technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate diethylester (99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-bicisate) is increasingly being used instead. This study compares unstabilised 99Tc-HMPAO and 99mTc-ECD in the performance of peri-ictal SPECT in partial epilepsy. METHODS: The injection timing and localisation rates in 49 consecutive patients with partial epilepsy who had peri-ictal injections with unstabilised 99mTc-HMPAO were compared with 49 consecutive patients who had peri-ictal injections with 99mTc-ECD. Quantitative cortical/subcortical and cortical/extracerebral uptake ratios were also compared. Subtraction SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) was performed in patients whose interictal SPECTS were available. RESULTS: In the 99mTc-ECD patients, the latency from seizure commencement to injection was shorter (median 34 v 80 seconds, p<0.0001) and there was a lower rate of postictal injections (16.3% v 57.1%, p<0.0001). The cortical/extracerebral and cortical/subcortical uptake ratios were greater in the 99mTc-ECD images (median 5.0 v 3.6, and 2.5 v 2.2 respectively; both p<0.005), but the relative peri-ictal increase in uptake in the cortical focus did not differ significantly (median 37.0% v 37.0%; p>0.05). Blinded review of the SISCOM images were localising in a higher proportion of the 99mTc-ECD patients (40/45 (88.9%) v 25/37 (67.6%), p<0.05), and had a better concordance with EEG, MRI, and with the discharge diagnosis. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-ECD compares favourably with unstabilised 99mTc-HMPAO as a radiopharmaceutical for peri-ictal SPECT studies. Its use results in earlier injections and less frequent postictal injections than unstabilised 99mTc-HMPAO, thereby enhancing the sensitivity and the specificity of peri-ictal SPECT for the localisation of intractable partial epilepsy.  (+info)

Dual-isotope SPECT using simultaneous acquisition of 99mTc and 123I radioisotopes: a double-injection technique for peri-ictal functional neuroimaging. (3/596)

The acquisition of multiple radiotracer studies at different time points during a neurological event permits the study of different functional activation states in humans. Peri-ictal SPECT is a promising technique for localizing the epileptogenic zone and would be enhanced by the ability to acquire sequentially coregistered ictal and postictal SPECT images of a single seizure. This study was designed to develop and validate an accurate method for the simultaneous acquisition of 99mTc and 123I SPECT images of the brain. METHODS: A multicompartment, transaxial Hoffman brain-slice phantom was filled with 99mTc, 123I or a 3:1 mixture of the two isotopes. Planar and SPECT images were acquired by a dual-head gamma camera system equipped with parallel and fanbeam collimators, respectively. Thirty-two energy windows (2 keV width) were acquired over the energy range 120-184 keV. From the planar data, the signal-to-noise characteristics and crosstalk were measured for each energy window and used to devise an energy window acquisition strategy that was then applied to the SPECT data. Three summed energy windows were created: a primary 99mTc image (130-146 keV), a primary 123I image (152-168 keV) and a secondary 99mTc crosstalk image (134-140 keV). A fraction (0.041) of the 99mTc crosstalk image was subtracted from the 123I image. No crosstalk correction was performed on the primary 99mTc image. RESULTS: (a) Planar images: results showed 1.3% crosstalk in the 123I image compared with 19.7% for a 10% asymmetric energy window alone. 123I crosstalk into the 99mTc window was 2.79% and was relatively constant with changes in the location of the 99mTc energy window. (b) Tomographic images: results showed 1.51% 99mTc crosstalk in the 123I image compared with 12.44% for the uncorrected image and 3.70% 123I crosstalk in the 99mTc image. CONCLUSION: An effective technique for the simultaneous acquisition of 99mTc and 123I radiotracer distributions in the brain has been developed and validated in a phantom model and should have clinical application in peri-ictal functional activation studies of the brain.  (+info)

Auditory event-related potentials (P300) in partial and generalized epileptic patients. (4/596)

We evaluated the P300 components of event-related potentials (ERP) in 64 cryptogenic partial epilepsy (CPE) patients, and 52 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) patients as well as in their age-matched control groups. The P200, N200 and P300 latencies recorded from Cz were significantly longer in CPE patients compared with those of their control group (P = 0.0371, P = 0.0092 and P = 0.0405, respectively). The P200 and N200 latencies recorded from Fz were significantly longer than in their control group (P = 0.0448 and P = 0.0107) while the prolongation in the P300 latencies was not found to be statistically significant (P = 0.0733). All latencies were longer in IGE patients, and the amplitudes of the N200/P300 components of ERP were lower in both epileptic groups compared with their control groups, but these differences were not significant. The prolongation of the P300 latencies was not correlated with the type or serum level of antiepileptic drug or seizure control. Our findings suggest that the prolongation of the P300 latency of ERP is related to the type of epilepsy.  (+info)

Sensitivity and specificity of quantitative difference SPECT analysis in seizure localization. (5/596)

True ictal SPECT can accurately demonstrate perfusion increases in the epileptogenic area but often requires dedicated personnel waiting at the bedside to accomplish the injection. We investigated the value of perfusion changes as measured by ictal or immediate postictal SPECT in localizing the epileptogenic region in refractory partial epilepsy. METHODS: Quantitative perfusion difference images were calculated by registering, normalizing and subtracting ictal (or immediate postictal) from interictal SPECT for 53 patients with refractory epilepsy. Perfusion difference SPECT results were compared with visually interpreted SPECT, scalp electroencephalography (EEG), MRI, PET and intracranial EEG. RESULTS: In 43 patients (81%), discrete areas of increased perfusion (with ictal injections) or decreased perfusion (with postictal injections) were noted. Interictal scalp EEG was localizing in 28 patients (53%), ictal scalp EEG was localizing in 35 patients (66%) and intracranial EEG was localizing in 22 patients (85%) (of 26 patients who underwent invasive study). MRI was localizing in 34 patients (64%), PET was localizing in 32 of 45 patients (71%), interictal SPECT was localizing in 26 patients (49%) and peri-ictal SPECT (visual interpretation) was localizing in 30 patients (57%). By comparison with an intracranial EEG standard of localization, SPECT subtraction analysis had 86% sensitivity and 75% specificity. CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that SPECT perfusion difference analysis has higher sensitivity and specificity than any other noninvasive localizing criterion and can localize epileptogenic regions with accuracy comparable with that of intracranial EEG. To obtain these results, one must apply knowledge of the timing of the ictal injection relative to seizure occurrence.  (+info)

Use of subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI for optimizing the localization of seizure foci in children. (6/596)

Ictal SPECT studies are increasingly used to localize seizure foci in children with refractory epilepsy, but few studies have reported on ictal-interictal subtraction images co-registered to MRI at this age. METHODS: Twenty-seven children with partial epilepsy (aged 3 mo-18 y) underwent ictal ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT (20 mCi/1.73 m2) combined with video-electroencephalography (EEG) and interictal ECD SPECT followed 2 d later by three-dimensional MRI. Ictal-interictal and interictal-ictal subtraction images were computed by registering and normalizing the ictal to the interictal SPECT scans for each child. The ictal, interictal SPECT and subtraction images were registered to each child's MRI. Difference images (ictal-interictal) were then superimposed on MRI for anatomic localization of the perfusion changes. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility and "facility of interpretation" of overlay images were compared with standard analysis of the non-coregistered ictal and interictal scans. RESULTS: Overlay images allowed the detection of at least one hyperperfused focus in 93% of the children, compared with 74% using ictal and interictal scans separately. Seizure onset was suspected clinically, on EEG or on MRI in 20 children. Overlay images were concordant (n = 11) or larger (n = 7) than the suspected focus in 18 of 20 (90%), whereas these images failed to show any abnormality in 1 child and were discordant with MRI in another patient. In the remaining 7, images showed cortical localization in 6 patients. Among the 5 patients who underwent electrocorticography, overlay images were concordant in 3, larger in 1 and absent in 1. The intra- and interobserver reproducibility and facility of interpretation were significantly higher using overlay images than standard analysis, even when ictal and interictal SPECT were co-registered. CONCLUSION: The co-registration of ictal-interictal subtraction SPECT images to MRI seems to be a helpful technique in localizing the onset of seizure and guiding the intracranial recording in childhood epilepsy. Moreover, this method improves sensitivity, enhances intra- and interobserver reproducibility and makes interpretation easier.  (+info)

A novel mutation in the human voltage-gated potassium channel gene (Kv1.1) associates with episodic ataxia type 1 and sometimes with partial epilepsy. (7/596)

Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by brief episodes of ataxia associated with continuous interattack myokymia. Point mutations in the human voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv1.1) gene on chromosome 12p13 have recently been shown to associate with EA1. A Scottish family with EA1 harbouring a novel mutation in this gene is reported. Of the five affected individuals over three generations, two had partial epilepsy in addition to EA1. The detailed clinical, electrophysiological and molecular genetic findings are presented. The heterozygous point mutation is located at nucleotide position 677 and results in a radical amino acid substitution at a highly conserved position in the second transmembrane domain of the potassium channel. Functional studies indicated that mutant subunits exhibited a dominant negative effect on potassium channel function and would be predicted to impair neuronal repolarization. Potassium channels determine the excitability of neurons and blocking drugs are proconvulsant. A critical review of previously reported EA1 families shows an over-representation of epilepsy in family members with EA1 compared with unaffected members. These observations indicate that this mutation is pathogenic and suggest that the epilepsy in EA1 may be caused by the dysfunctional potassium channel. It is possible that such dysfunction may be relevant to other epilepsies in man.  (+info)

Observations on the misdiagnosis of generalized epilepsy as partial epilepsy: causes and consequences. (8/596)

More therapeutic options (surgical and pharmacologic) are available for partial than for generalized epilepsies. This report describes and analyzes a possible bias to diagnose focal epilepsies. Data were prospectively collected on patients who underwent noninvasive prolonged EEG-video monitoring over a 2-year period at an epilepsy program. Cases where the diagnosis of 'partial seizures' (after monitoring) was questionable were identified and the data reviewed. Sixteen cases were identified. (a) Six had an idiopathic generalized epilepsy. All had generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures, two had myoclonic seizures, and three had typical absences. All patients had generalized spikes and spike-wave complexes. All had normal IQs and normal brain imaging. One patient underwent invasive EEG. (b) Ten patients had a symptomatic or cryptogenic generalized epilepsy. IQs ranged from 49 to 74 (mean: 63). All patients had diffuse EEG slowing, and generalized ictal EEG patterns. Interictal EEG showed generalized spike-wave complexes in nine, and multifocal spikes in five. Seizures included GTC in all, generalized tonic in four, and atypical absences in two. Two of the 10 patients underwent invasive EEG. The misdiagnosis of generalized epilepsy as partial epilepsy occurs for both idiopathic and cryptogenic or symptomatic generalized epilepsies, more often in the latter case. Risk factors may include: asymmetry in EEG or seizure semeiology, the eagerness to enroll in drug studies or surgical programs, and the lack of team thinking involving several epileptologists. This problem is almost certainly under-reported and may occasionally result in unwarranted invasive procedures.  (+info)

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

Generalized epilepsy is a type of epilepsy characterized by seizures that involve both halves of the brain (generalized onset) from the beginning of the seizure. These types of seizures include tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures, absence (petit mal) seizures, and myoclonic seizures. Generalized epilepsy can be caused by genetic factors or brain abnormalities, and it is typically treated with medication. People with generalized epilepsy may experience difficulties with learning, memory, and behavior, and they may have a higher risk of injury during a seizure. It's important for individuals with generalized epilepsy to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their condition and reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a type of focal (localized) epilepsy that originates from the temporal lobes of the brain. The temporal lobes are located on each side of the brain and are involved in processing sensory information, memory, and emotion. TLE is characterized by recurrent seizures that originate from one or both temporal lobes.

The symptoms of TLE can vary depending on the specific area of the temporal lobe that is affected. However, common symptoms include auras (sensory or emotional experiences that occur before a seizure), strange smells or tastes, lip-smacking or chewing movements, and memory problems. Some people with TLE may also experience automatisms (involuntary movements such as picking at clothes or fumbling with objects) during their seizures.

Treatment for TLE typically involves medication to control seizures, although surgery may be recommended in some cases. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures and improve quality of life.

Myoclonic epilepsies are a group of epilepsy syndromes characterized by the presence of myoclonic seizures. A myoclonic seizure is a type of seizure that involves quick, involuntary muscle jerks or twitches. These seizures can affect one part of the body or multiple parts simultaneously and may vary in frequency and severity.

Myoclonic epilepsies can occur at any age but are more common in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. Some myoclonic epilepsy syndromes have a genetic basis, while others may be associated with brain injury, infection, or other medical conditions.

Some examples of myoclonic epilepsy syndromes include:

1. Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME): This is the most common type of myoclonic epilepsy and typically begins in adolescence. It is characterized by myoclonic jerks, often occurring upon awakening or after a period of relaxation, as well as generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
2. Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsies (PME): These are rare inherited disorders that typically begin in childhood or adolescence and involve both myoclonic seizures and other types of seizures. PMEs often progress to include cognitive decline, movement disorders, and other neurological symptoms.
3. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS): This is a severe form of epilepsy that typically begins in early childhood and involves multiple types of seizures, including myoclonic seizures. LGS can be difficult to treat and often results in cognitive impairment and developmental delays.
4. Myoclonic Astatic Epilepsy (MAE): Also known as Doose syndrome, MAE is a childhood epilepsy syndrome characterized by myoclonic seizures, atonic seizures (brief periods of muscle weakness or loss of tone), and other types of seizures. It often responds well to treatment with antiepileptic drugs.

The management of myoclonic epilepsies typically involves a combination of medication, lifestyle changes, and, in some cases, dietary modifications. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type of myoclonic epilepsy and its underlying cause.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

Reflex epilepsy is a type of epilepsy in which seizures are consistently triggered by specific, recurring sensory stimuli. These triggers can vary widely and may include visual patterns, flashes of light, touch, sound, or even emotional experiences. When the brain receives input from these triggers, it responds with an abnormal electrical discharge that can lead to a seizure.

Reflex epilepsy is relatively rare, accounting for only about 5-10% of all epilepsy cases. It's important to note that not everyone who experiences seizures in response to these triggers has reflex epilepsy; the defining characteristic of this condition is the consistent and reproducible nature of the seizure response to a specific stimulus.

There are several different types of reflex epilepsy, each characterized by its own unique set of triggers. For example, some people with this condition may experience seizures in response to visual patterns or flashes of light (known as photosensitive epilepsy), while others may have seizures triggered by certain sounds or tactile sensations.

Treatment for reflex epilepsy typically involves identifying and avoiding triggers whenever possible, as well as using medication to control seizures. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the specific area of the brain that is responsible for the abnormal electrical activity. With proper treatment and management, many people with reflex epilepsy are able to lead full and active lives.

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (JME) is a genetic condition that is characterized by the occurrence of myoclonic seizures, which are sudden, brief, shock-like jerks of muscles typically occurring in the arms and legs. These seizures usually begin in adolescence or early adulthood, between 12 to 18 years of age.

JME is a type of generalized epilepsy, meaning that it involves abnormal electrical activity throughout the brain rather than just one area. In addition to myoclonic seizures, individuals with JME may also experience absence seizures (brief periods of staring and unresponsiveness) and/or tonic-clonic seizures (generalized convulsions).

The condition is often inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation from a parent with JME. However, not all cases are familial, and some may result from new genetic changes (mutations) that occur spontaneously.

JME is typically treated with anticonvulsant medications such as valproate or lamotrigine to control seizures. Lifestyle modifications, including avoiding sleep deprivation, stress, and excessive alcohol consumption, may also help reduce the frequency of seizures. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with JME can lead normal or near-normal lives.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy, also known as grand mal epilepsy, is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain. This type of epilepsy is characterized by two distinct phases: the tonic phase and the clonic phase.

During the tonic phase, which usually lasts for about 10-20 seconds, the person loses consciousness and their muscles stiffen, causing them to fall to the ground. This can result in injuries if the person falls unexpectedly or hits an object on the way down.

The clonic phase follows immediately after the tonic phase and is characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of the limbs, face, and neck. These movements are caused by alternating contractions and relaxations of the muscles and can last for several minutes. The person may also lose bladder or bowel control during this phase.

After the seizure, the person may feel tired, confused, and disoriented. They may also have a headache, sore muscles, and difficulty remembering what happened during the seizure.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infection, or stroke. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as an electroencephalogram (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment may include medication, surgery, or dietary changes, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.

Complex partial epilepsy, also known as temporal lobe epilepsy or focal impaired awareness epilepsy, is a type of epilepsy characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures that originate in the temporal lobe or other localized areas of the brain. These seizures typically involve alterations in consciousness or awareness, and may include automatisms (involuntary, repetitive movements), such as lip smacking, fidgeting, or picking at clothes. Complex partial seizures can last from a few seconds to several minutes and may be followed by a post-ictal period of confusion or fatigue.

Complex partial epilepsy is often associated with structural abnormalities in the brain, such as hippocampal sclerosis, tumors, or malformations. It can also be caused by infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular disorders, or genetic factors. The diagnosis of complex partial epilepsy typically involves a thorough neurological evaluation, including a detailed history of seizure symptoms, neuroimaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and electroencephalography (EEG) to record brain activity during and between seizures.

Treatment for complex partial epilepsy usually involves medication therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In some cases, surgery may be recommended if medications are not effective in controlling seizures or if there is a structural lesion that can be safely removed. Other treatment options may include dietary modifications, such as the ketogenic diet, or vagus nerve stimulation.

Frontal lobe epilepsy is a type of focal epilepsy, which means that the seizures originate from a specific area in the brain called the frontal lobe. The frontal lobe is located at the front part of the brain and is responsible for various functions such as motor function, problem-solving, decision making, emotional expression, and social behavior.

In frontal lobe epilepsy, seizures can be quite varied in their presentation, but they often occur during sleep or wakefulness and may include symptoms such as:

* Brief staring spells or automatisms (such as lip smacking, chewing, or fumbling movements)
* Sudden and frequent falls or drops
* Vocalizations or sounds
* Complex behaviors, such as agitation, aggression, or sexual arousal
* Auras or warning sensations before the seizure

Frontal lobe epilepsy can be difficult to diagnose due to the varied nature of the seizures and their occurrence during sleep. Diagnostic tests such as electroencephalogram (EEG) and imaging studies like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to help confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves medication, but in some cases, surgery may be recommended if medications are not effective or cause significant side effects.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

Rolandic epilepsy, also known as benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BFEC), is a type of epilepsy that primarily affects children. It is called "Rolandic" because the seizures often originate in or near the Rolandic area of the brain, which is involved in speech and motor function.

The hallmark feature of Rolandic epilepsy is focal seizures that typically involve tingling or numbness sensations on one side of the face, tongue, or mouth, followed by speech difficulties and sometimes weakness or jerking movements on one side of the body. These seizures usually occur during sleep or drowsiness and can cause awakening from sleep.

Rolandic epilepsy is typically outgrown by adolescence, and many children with this condition do not require long-term treatment. However, some children may experience cognitive or behavioral difficulties that warrant evaluation and management.

It's important to note that while Rolandic epilepsy is considered benign, it can still have a significant impact on a child's quality of life and daily functioning. Proper diagnosis and management are essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for children with this condition.

Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a type of epilepsy that is caused by brain injury or trauma. The head injury can be either traumatic (such as from a car accident, fall, or physical assault) or non-traumatic (such as stroke, infection, or brain tumor).

In PTE, the first seizure occurs within one week to one year after the initial injury. The seizures may be immediate (within the first 24 hours of the injury) or delayed (occurring more than one week after the injury).

PTE is characterized by recurrent seizures that are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. These seizures can vary in severity and frequency, and may cause a range of symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or emotions.

The diagnosis of PTE is typically made based on the patient's history of head trauma, along with the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG) and neuroimaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment for PTE may include medication to control seizures, as well as surgery or other interventions in some cases.

Sclerosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal hardening or scarring of body tissues, particularly in the context of various degenerative diseases affecting the nervous system. The term "sclerosis" comes from the Greek word "skleros," which means hard. In these conditions, the normally flexible and adaptable nerve cells or their protective coverings (myelin sheath) become rigid and inflexible due to the buildup of scar tissue or abnormal protein deposits.

There are several types of sclerosis, but one of the most well-known is multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, leading to scarring and damage that disrupts communication between the brain and the rest of the body. This results in a wide range of symptoms, such as muscle weakness, numbness, vision problems, balance issues, and cognitive impairment.

Other conditions that involve sclerosis include:

1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, stiffness, and atrophy.
2. Systemic sclerosis: A rare autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin and internal organs due to excessive collagen deposition.
3. Plaque psoriasis: A chronic inflammatory skin condition marked by red, scaly patches (plaques) resulting from rapid turnover and accumulation of skin cells.
4. Adhesive capsulitis: Also known as frozen shoulder, this condition involves stiffening and thickening of the shoulder joint's capsule due to scarring or inflammation, leading to limited mobility and pain.

Febrile seizures are a type of seizure that occurs in young children, typically between the ages of 6 months and 5 years, and is often associated with fever. A febrile seizure is defined as a convulsion or seizure that is brought on by a high fever, usually greater than 100.4°F (38°C), but can also occur in response to a rapid rise in body temperature. The seizures can vary in length and may involve shaking of the entire body, jerking of the arms and legs, or just twitching of one part of the body. They can be quite alarming to witness, but they are usually harmless and do not cause any long-term neurological problems.

Febrile seizures are most commonly caused by viral infections, such as a cold or flu, but they can also occur with bacterial infections, such as a urinary tract infection or ear infection. In some cases, the fever and seizure may be the first signs that a child is ill.

While febrile seizures are generally harmless, it is important to seek medical attention if your child has a seizure. This is because a small percentage of children who have febrile seizures may go on to develop epilepsy, a condition characterized by recurrent seizures. Additionally, some serious underlying conditions, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can cause fever and seizures, so it is important to rule out these possibilities with a thorough medical evaluation.

If your child has a febrile seizure, the best course of action is to remain calm and make sure they are in a safe place where they cannot injure themselves. Do not try to restrain them or put anything in their mouth. Instead, gently turn them onto their side to prevent choking and call for medical help. Most febrile seizures last only a few minutes and resolve on their own without any treatment. After the seizure, your child may be sleepy or confused, but they should return to their normal state within a short period of time.

Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant medication that is primarily used to treat seizure disorders (epilepsy) and neuropathic pain. It works by decreasing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. Carbamazepine may also be used off-label for other conditions such as bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets, extended-release tablets, chewable tablets, and suspension. It is usually taken two to four times a day with food to reduce stomach upset. Common side effects of carbamazepine include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait.

It is important to note that carbamazepine can interact with other medications, including some antidepressants, antipsychotics, and birth control pills, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting carbamazepine. Additionally, carbamazepine levels in the blood may need to be monitored regularly to ensure that the medication is working effectively and not causing toxicity.

Status epilepticus is a serious and life-threatening medical condition characterized by an ongoing seizure activity or a series of seizures without full recovery of consciousness between them, lasting for 30 minutes or more. It is a neurological emergency that requires immediate medical attention to prevent potential complications such as brain damage, respiratory failure, or even death.

The condition can occur in people with a history of epilepsy or seizure disorders, as well as those without any prior history of seizures. The underlying causes of status epilepticus can vary and may include infection, trauma, stroke, metabolic imbalances, toxins, or other medical conditions that affect the brain's normal functioning. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term neurological damage and improve outcomes in patients with this condition.

Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by binding to muscarinic receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by radiation therapy or Sjögren's syndrome, as well as in the management of glaucoma due to its ability to construct the pupils and reduce intraocular pressure. Pilocarpine can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions and chronic bronchitis. It is available in various forms, including tablets, ophthalmic solutions, and topical gels.

Anterior Temporal Lobectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the anterior (front) part of the temporal lobe of the brain. This procedure is often performed to treat certain types of epilepsy that are resistant to medication, as well as other conditions such as tumors or degenerative diseases that affect this area of the brain.

The temporal lobe is located on each side of the brain and is involved in several important functions, including hearing, memory, emotion, and language comprehension. The anterior portion of the temporal lobe contains structures such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are critical for the formation and retrieval of memories.

During an anterior temporal lobectomy, a neurosurgeon will make an incision in the skull and remove a portion of the brain tissue that is causing seizures or other symptoms. The size and location of the resection will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's needs. After the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation to help them recover from any cognitive or physical deficits caused by the procedure.

Piracetam is a nootropic drug, which is primarily used in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It is a cyclic derivative of the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). Piracetam is believed to work by reducing the permeability of cell membranes in the brain, which may enhance communication between neurons and improve memory and learning.

Medically, piracetam is used off-label for a variety of conditions related to cognitive decline or impairment, such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and age-related cognitive decline. It has also been studied in the treatment of myoclonus (involuntary muscle jerks), dyslexia, and other neurological disorders.

It is important to note that while piracetam has shown some promise in improving cognitive function in certain populations, its effectiveness is still a subject of ongoing research and debate. Additionally, piracetam is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any medical use, although it is available as a dietary supplement in the United States.

As with any medication or supplement, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking piracetam to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for your individual needs.

Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsies (PME) is a group of rare, genetic disorders characterized by myoclonus (rapid, involuntary muscle jerks), tonic-clonic seizures (also known as grand mal seizures), and progressive neurological deterioration. The term "progressive" refers to the worsening of symptoms over time.

The myoclonic epilepsies are classified as progressive due to the underlying neurodegenerative process that affects the brain, leading to a decline in cognitive abilities, motor skills, and overall functioning. These disorders usually begin in childhood or adolescence and tend to worsen with age.

Examples of PMEs include:

1. Lafora disease: A genetic disorder caused by mutations in the EPM2A or NHLRC1 genes, leading to the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates called Lafora bodies in neurons. Symptoms typically start between ages 6 and 16 and include myoclonus, seizures, and progressive neurological decline.
2. Unverricht-Lundborg disease: Also known as Baltic myoclonus, this is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CSTB gene. It is characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia (loss of coordination), and cognitive decline. Symptoms usually begin between ages 6 and 18.
3. Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs): A group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of lipopigments in neurons. Several types of NCLs can present with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, including CLN2 (late-infantile NCL), CLN3 (juvenile NCL), and CLN6 (early juvenile NCL).
4. Myoclonus Epilepsy Associated with Ragged Red Fibers (MERRF): A mitochondrial disorder caused by mutations in the MT-TK gene, leading to myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia, and ragged red fibers on muscle biopsy.
5. Dentatorubral-Pallidoluysian Atrophy (DRPLA): An autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the ATN1 gene, characterized by myoclonic epilepsy, ataxia, chorea (involuntary movements), and dementia.

These are just a few examples of disorders that can present with progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It is essential to consult a neurologist or epileptologist for proper diagnosis and management.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Sudden death is a term used to describe a situation where a person dies abruptly and unexpectedly, often within minutes to hours of the onset of symptoms. It is typically caused by cardiac or respiratory arrest, which can be brought on by various medical conditions such as heart disease, stroke, severe infections, drug overdose, or trauma. In some cases, the exact cause of sudden death may remain unknown even after a thorough post-mortem examination.

It is important to note that sudden death should not be confused with "sudden cardiac death," which specifically refers to deaths caused by the abrupt loss of heart function (cardiac arrest). Sudden cardiac death is often related to underlying heart conditions such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, or electrical abnormalities in the heart.

Valproic acid is a medication that is primarily used as an anticonvulsant, which means it is used to treat seizure disorders. It works by increasing the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, a neurotransmitter that helps to reduce abnormal electrical activity in the brain. In addition to its use as an anticonvulsant, valproic acid may also be used to treat migraines and bipolar disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions, and is usually taken by mouth. As with any medication, valproic acid can have side effects, and it is important for patients to be aware of these and to discuss them with their healthcare provider.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Malformations of Cortical Development (MCDs) are a group of congenital brain abnormalities that occur during the development and organization of the cerebral cortex, which is the brain region responsible for higher cognitive functions. These malformations result from disruptions in neuronal migration, proliferation, or organization, leading to varying degrees of cortical thickness, folding, and structural integrity.

MCDs can be classified into several subtypes based on their distinct neuroimaging and histopathological features. Some common MCD subtypes include:

1. Lissencephaly (smooth brain): A severe malformation characterized by the absence of normal gyral and sulcal patterns, resulting in a smooth cortical surface. This is caused by defects in neuronal migration during early development.
2. Polymicrogyria (many small folds): A condition where the cortex has an excessive number of small, irregular gyri, leading to thickened and disorganized cortical layers. This can be focal or diffuse and is caused by abnormal neuronal migration or organization during mid to late development.
3. Schizencephaly (cleft brain): A malformation characterized by a linear cleft or gap in the cerebral cortex, extending from the pial surface to the ventricular system. This can be unilateral or bilateral and is caused by disruptions in neuronal migration and/or cortical organization during early development.
4. Heterotopias (misplaced cells): A condition where groups of neurons are abnormally located within the white matter or at the gray-white matter junction, instead of their normal position in the cerebral cortex. This can be focal or diffuse and is caused by defects in neuronal migration during early development.
5. Focal cortical dysplasia (abnormal localized tissue): A condition characterized by abnormal cortical architecture, including disorganized lamination, enlarged neurons, and heterotopic neurons. This can be focal or multifocal and is caused by defects in cortical organization during late development.

MCDs are often associated with neurological symptoms such as epilepsy, intellectual disability, motor deficits, and behavioral abnormalities. The severity of these symptoms depends on the type, location, and extent of the malformation.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Psychosurgery is a surgical intervention aimed at modifying or altering brain functions to treat severe and disabling mental disorders. It involves the deliberate destruction or disconnection of specific areas of the brain, typically through procedures such as lobotomy or stereotactic neurosurgery. These interventions are usually considered a last resort when other treatments have failed, and they are reserved for individuals with extreme cases of mental illness, such as intractable depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or severe anxiety disorders.

It's important to note that psychosurgery is a highly controversial and stigmatized field, and its use has declined significantly since the mid-20th century due to concerns about its effectiveness, ethics, and potential for harm. Today, psychosurgery is tightly regulated and subject to strict ethical guidelines in most countries.

Benign neonatal epilepsy is a rare and specific type of epilepsy that affects newborns within the first few days of life. The term "benign" in this context refers to the relatively favorable prognosis compared to other forms of neonatal epilepsy, rather than the severity of the seizures themselves.

The condition is typically characterized by the presence of brief, recurrent seizures that may appear as repetitive jerking movements, staring spells, or subtle changes in muscle tone or behavior. These seizures are often triggered by routine handling or stimulation and can be difficult to distinguish from normal newborn behaviors, making diagnosis challenging.

Benign neonatal epilepsy is typically associated with specific genetic mutations that affect the electrical activity of brain cells. The most common form of this condition, known as Benign Familial Neonatal Epilepsy (BFNE), is caused by mutations in genes such as KCNQ2 or KCNQ3, which encode potassium channels in neurons.

While the seizures associated with benign neonatal epilepsy can be alarming, they are generally not harmful to the developing brain and tend to resolve on their own within a few months. Treatment is often focused on managing the seizures with antiepileptic medications to reduce their frequency and severity, although some infants may require no treatment at all.

Overall, while benign neonatal epilepsy can be a concerning condition for parents and caregivers, its favorable prognosis and relatively mild impact on long-term neurological development make it one of the more manageable forms of neonatal epilepsy.

A ketogenic diet is a type of diet that is characterized by a significant reduction in carbohydrate intake and an increase in fat intake, with the goal of inducing a metabolic state called ketosis. In ketosis, the body shifts from using glucose (carbohydrates) as its primary source of energy to using ketones, which are produced by the liver from fatty acids.

The typical ketogenic diet consists of a daily intake of less than 50 grams of carbohydrates, with protein intake moderated and fat intake increased to make up the majority of calories. This can result in a rapid decrease in blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have various health benefits for some individuals, such as weight loss, improved blood sugar control, and reduced risk factors for heart disease.

However, it is important to note that a ketogenic diet may not be suitable for everyone, particularly those with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain medications. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new diet plan.

Kindling, in the context of neurology, refers to a process of neural sensitization where repeated exposure to sub-convulsive stimuli below the threshold for triggering a seizure can eventually lower this threshold, leading to an increased susceptibility to develop seizures. This concept is often applied in the study of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

The term "kindling" was first introduced by Racine in 1972 to describe the progressive increase in the severity and duration of behavioral responses following repeated electrical stimulation of the brain in animal models. The kindling process can occur in response to various types of stimuli, including electrical, chemical, or even environmental stimuli, leading to changes in neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in certain brain regions, particularly the limbic system.

Over time, repeated stimulation results in a permanent increase in neural hypersensitivity, making it easier to induce seizures with weaker stimuli. This phenomenon has been implicated in the development and progression of some forms of epilepsy, as well as in the underlying mechanisms of certain mood disorders and other neurological conditions.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a medical treatment that involves the use of a device to send electrical signals to the vagus nerve, which is a key part of the body's autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls various automatic functions of the body, such as heart rate and digestion.

In VNS, a small generator is implanted in the chest, and thin wires are routed under the skin to the vagus nerve in the neck. The generator is programmed to send electrical signals to the vagus nerve at regular intervals. These signals can help regulate certain body functions and have been found to be effective in treating a number of conditions, including epilepsy and depression.

The exact mechanism by which VNS works is not fully understood, but it is thought to affect the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that transmit signals in the brain. This can help reduce seizure activity in people with epilepsy and improve mood and other symptoms in people with depression.

VNS is typically used as a last resort for people who have not responded to other treatments. It is generally considered safe, but like any medical procedure, it does carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and damage to the vagus nerve or surrounding tissues.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

Phenytoin is an anticonvulsant drug, primarily used in the treatment of seizures and prevention of seizure recurrence. It works by reducing the spread of seizure activity in the brain and stabilizing the electrical activity of neurons. Phenytoin is also known to have anti-arrhythmic properties and is occasionally used in the management of certain cardiac arrhythmias.

The drug is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and a liquid formulation. Common side effects of phenytoin include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait. Regular monitoring of blood levels is necessary to ensure that the drug remains within the therapeutic range, as both low and high levels can lead to adverse effects.

It's important to note that phenytoin has several potential drug-drug interactions, particularly with other anticonvulsant medications, certain antibiotics, and oral contraceptives. Therefore, it is crucial to inform healthcare providers about all the medications being taken to minimize the risk of interactions and optimize treatment outcomes.

Vigabatrin is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat certain types of seizures in adults and children. It works by reducing the abnormal excitement in the brain. The medical definition of Vigabatrin is: a irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase, which results in increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the central nervous system. This medication is used as an adjunctive treatment for complex partial seizures and is available in oral form for administration.

It's important to note that Vigabatrin can cause serious side effects, including permanent vision loss, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional. It is also classified as a pregnancy category C medication, which means it may harm an unborn baby and should only be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Infantile spasms, also known as West syndrome, is a rare but serious type of epilepsy that affects infants typically between 4-8 months of age. The spasms are characterized by sudden, brief, and frequent muscle jerks or contractions, often involving the neck, trunk, and arms. These spasms usually occur in clusters and may cause the infant to bend forward or stretch out. Infantile spasms can be a symptom of various underlying neurological conditions and are often associated with developmental delays and regression. Early recognition and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes.

Neurosurgery, also known as neurological surgery, is a medical specialty that involves the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders of the nervous system. This includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Neurosurgeons use both traditional open and minimally invasive techniques to treat various conditions such as tumors, trauma, vascular disorders, infections, stroke, epilepsy, pain, and congenital anomalies. They work closely with other healthcare professionals including neurologists, radiologists, oncologists, and critical care specialists to provide comprehensive patient care.

Convulsants are substances or agents that can cause seizures or convulsions. These can be medications, toxins, or illnesses that lower the seizure threshold and lead to abnormal electrical activity in the brain, resulting in uncontrolled muscle contractions and relaxation. Examples of convulsants include bromides, strychnine, organophosphate pesticides, certain antibiotics (such as penicillin or cephalosporins), and alcohol withdrawal. It is important to note that some medications used to treat seizures can also have convulsant properties at higher doses or in overdose situations.

Triazines are not a medical term, but a class of chemical compounds. They have a six-membered ring containing three nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. Some triazine derivatives are used in medicine as herbicides, antimicrobials, and antitumor agents.

Epilepsy, partial, motor is a type of focal epilepsy, which means that the seizures originate from a specific area in one hemisphere of the brain. In this case, the area affected is the motor cortex, which is responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movements. As a result, partial motor seizures typically cause abnormal movements or altered sensations on one side of the body.

There are two types of partial motor seizures: simple and complex. Simple partial motor seizures involve involuntary contractions or twitching of specific muscles, while complex partial motor seizures may also include impaired consciousness or awareness, along with involuntary movements. The symptoms of a partial motor seizure can vary depending on the location and extent of the brain tissue involved.

It's important to note that partial motor seizures are just one type of epilepsy, and there are many other forms of the condition that can affect different areas of the brain and cause varying symptoms. If you or someone else is experiencing symptoms that may be related to epilepsy, it's important to seek medical attention from a qualified healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Intellectual disability (ID) is a term used when there are significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.

Intellectual functioning, also known as intelligence, refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive skills. Adaptive behavior includes skills needed for day-to-day life, such as communication, self-care, social skills, safety judgement, and basic academic skills.

Intellectual disability is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. It can be mild, moderate, severe, or profound, depending on the degree of limitation in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior.

It's important to note that people with intellectual disabilities have unique strengths and limitations, just like everyone else. With appropriate support and education, they can lead fulfilling lives and contribute to their communities in many ways.

Implanted electrodes are medical devices that are surgically placed inside the body to interface directly with nerves, neurons, or other electrically excitable tissue for various therapeutic purposes. These electrodes can be used to stimulate or record electrical activity from specific areas of the body, depending on their design and application.

There are several types of implanted electrodes, including:

1. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes: These are placed deep within the brain to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. DBS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that modulate abnormal neural activity in targeted brain regions.
2. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) electrodes: These are implanted along the spinal cord to treat chronic pain syndromes. SCS electrodes emit low-level electrical pulses that interfere with pain signals traveling to the brain, providing relief for patients.
3. Cochlear Implant electrodes: These are surgically inserted into the cochlea of the inner ear to restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve directly, bypassing damaged hair cells within the cochlea.
4. Retinal Implant electrodes: These are implanted in the retina to treat certain forms of blindness caused by degenerative eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa. The electrodes convert visual information from a camera into electrical signals, which stimulate remaining retinal cells and transmit the information to the brain via the optic nerve.
5. Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) electrodes: These are placed near the sacral nerves in the lower back to treat urinary or fecal incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. SNS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that regulate the function of the affected muscles and nerves.
6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) electrodes: These are wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck to treat epilepsy and depression. VNS electrodes provide intermittent electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve, which has connections to various regions of the brain involved in these conditions.

Overall, implanted electrodes serve as a crucial component in many neuromodulation therapies, offering an effective treatment option for numerous neurological and sensory disorders.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Neurocysticercosis is a neurological disorder caused by the infection of the brain's tissue with larval stages of the parasitic tapeworm, Taenia solium. The larvae, called cysticerci, can invade various parts of the body including the brain and the central nervous system, leading to a range of symptoms such as seizures, headaches, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disorders.

The infection typically occurs when a person ingests tapeworm eggs through contaminated food or water, and the larvae hatch and migrate to various tissues in the body. In neurocysticercosis, the cysticerci can cause inflammation, swelling, and damage to brain tissue, leading to neurological symptoms that can vary depending on the location and number of cysts in the brain.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis typically involves a combination of imaging techniques such as MRI or CT scans, blood tests, and sometimes lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to examine cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment may involve anti-parasitic medications to eliminate the cysts, anti-inflammatory drugs to manage swelling and inflammation, and symptomatic treatment for seizures or other neurological symptoms.

A Nurse Clinician, also known as Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), is an advanced practice registered nurse who has completed a master's or doctoral degree in nursing with a focus on clinical expertise. They are experts in their specific clinical specialty area, such as pediatrics, gerontology, critical care, or oncology.

Nurse Clinicians demonstrate advanced levels of knowledge and skills in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of patients' health conditions. They provide direct patient care, consult with other healthcare professionals, coordinate care, and often serve in leadership and education roles within their healthcare organizations. Their work includes developing and implementing evidence-based practice guidelines, participating in quality improvement initiatives, and mentoring staff nurses.

Nurse Clinicians play a critical role in improving patient outcomes, enhancing the quality of care, and promoting cost-effective care delivery. They are licensed and regulated by their state's Board of Nursing and may hold national certification in their clinical specialty area.

Ethosuximide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants or anti-seizure medications. It is primarily used to treat absence seizures, also known as petit mal seizures, which are a type of seizure characterized by brief, sudden lapses in consciousness.

Ethosuximide works by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. It does this by inhibiting the formation of sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize the electrical impulses and reduce the likelihood of seizure activity.

Like all medications, ethosuximide can have side effects, including stomach upset, dizziness, headache, and sleepiness. It is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully when taking this medication and to report any bothersome or persistent side effects promptly. Ethosuximide may also interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting ethosuximide therapy.

The dentate gyrus is a region of the brain that is located in the hippocampal formation, which is a part of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. It is characterized by the presence of densely packed granule cells, which are a type of neuron. The dentate gyrus is involved in the formation of new memories and the integration of information from different brain regions. It is also one of the few areas of the adult brain where new neurons can be generated throughout life, a process known as neurogenesis. Damage to the dentate gyrus has been linked to memory impairments, cognitive decline, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy.

Kainic acid is not a medical term per se, but it is a compound that has been widely used in scientific research, particularly in neuroscience. It is a type of excitatory amino acid that acts as an agonist at certain types of receptors in the brain, specifically the AMPA and kainate receptors.

Kainic acid is often used in research to study the effects of excitotoxicity, which is a process that occurs when nerve cells are exposed to excessive amounts of glutamate or other excitatory neurotransmitters, leading to cell damage or death. Kainic acid can induce seizures and other neurological symptoms in animals, making it a valuable tool for studying epilepsy and related disorders.

While kainic acid itself is not a medical treatment or diagnosis, understanding its effects on the brain has contributed to our knowledge of neurological diseases and potential targets for therapy.

Channelopathies are genetic disorders that are caused by mutations in the genes that encode for ion channels. Ion channels are specialized proteins that regulate the flow of ions, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium, across cell membranes. These ion channels play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the body.

Channelopathies can affect various organs and systems in the body, depending on the type of ion channel that is affected. For example, mutations in sodium channel genes can cause neuromuscular disorders such as epilepsy, migraine, and periodic paralysis. Mutations in potassium channel genes can cause cardiac arrhythmias, while mutations in calcium channel genes can cause neurological disorders such as episodic ataxia and hemiplegic migraine.

The symptoms of channelopathies can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the mutation. Treatment typically involves managing the symptoms and may include medications, lifestyle modifications, or in some cases, surgery.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Neurology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of diseases and disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system. Neurologists are medical doctors who specialize in this field, diagnosing and treating conditions such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and various types of headaches and pain disorders. They use a variety of diagnostic tests, including imaging studies like MRI and CT scans, electrophysiological tests like EEG and EMG, and laboratory tests to evaluate nerve function and identify any underlying conditions or abnormalities. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, rehabilitation, or lifestyle modifications.

Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is not primarily considered a medical treatment, but rather a research compound used in neuroscience and neurology to study seizure activity and chemically induce seizures in animals for experimental purposes. It is classified as a proconvulsant agent. Medically, it has been used in the past as a medication to treat epilepsy, but its use is now largely historical due to the availability of safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs.

In a medical or scientific context, Pentylenetetrazole can be defined as:

A chemical compound with the formula C6H5N5O2, which is used in research to investigate seizure activity and induce convulsions in animals. It acts as a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist and can lower the seizure threshold. Historically, it has been used as a medication to treat epilepsy, but its use for this purpose is now limited due to the development of safer and more effective anticonvulsant drugs.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

Amobarbital is a barbiturate drug that is primarily used as a sedative and sleep aid. It works by depressing the central nervous system, which can lead to relaxation, drowsiness, and reduced anxiety. Amobarbital is also sometimes used as an anticonvulsant to help control seizures.

Like other barbiturates, amobarbital has a high potential for abuse and addiction, and it can be dangerous or even fatal when taken in large doses or mixed with alcohol or other drugs. It is typically prescribed only for short-term use due to the risk of tolerance and dependence.

It's important to note that the use of barbiturates like amobarbital has declined in recent years due to the development of safer and more effective alternatives, such as benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine sleep aids.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive functional neuroimaging technique used to measure the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain. These magnetic fields are detected by very sensitive devices called superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), which are cooled to extremely low temperatures to enhance their sensitivity. MEG provides direct and real-time measurement of neural electrical activity with high temporal resolution, typically on the order of milliseconds, allowing for the investigation of brain function during various cognitive, sensory, and motor tasks. It is often used in conjunction with other neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, to provide complementary information about brain structure and function.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Primidone is an anticonvulsant medication primarily used in the treatment of seizure disorders. It is a barbiturate derivative that has sedative and muscle relaxant properties. Primidone is metabolized in the body into two other anticonvulsants, phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA). Together, these active metabolites help to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures.

Primidone is used primarily for generalized tonic-clonic seizures and complex partial seizures. It may also be considered for use in absence seizures, although other medications are typically preferred for this type of seizure. The medication works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to prevent or reduce the occurrence of seizures.

Like all anticonvulsant medications, primidone carries a risk of side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and unsteady gait. It may also cause rash, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite in some individuals. In rare cases, primidone can cause more serious side effects such as blood disorders, liver damage, or suicidal thoughts.

It is important for patients taking primidone to be closely monitored by their healthcare provider to ensure that the medication is working effectively and to monitor for any potential side effects. Dosages of primidone may need to be adjusted over time based on the patient's response to treatment and any adverse reactions that occur.

GABA-A receptors are ligand-gated ion channels in the membrane of neuronal cells. They are the primary mediators of fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. When the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binds to these receptors, it opens an ion channel that allows chloride ions to flow into the neuron, resulting in hyperpolarization of the membrane and decreased excitability of the neuron. This inhibitory effect helps to regulate neural activity and maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. GABA-A receptors are composed of multiple subunits, and the specific combination of subunits can determine the receptor's properties, such as its sensitivity to different drugs or neurotransmitters.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for "witchcraft" as it is generally considered to be a cultural or religious practice, not a medical condition. Witchcraft often refers to the practice of magical skills, spells, and the ability to communicate with spirits, which are beliefs that are deeply rooted in various cultures and religions around the world.

However, in some historical contexts, particularly during the early modern period in Europe, accusations of witchcraft were used as a pretext for persecuting and punishing individuals who were perceived as social or religious outsiders. These witch trials often resulted in severe physical and psychological harm, including executions, and can be considered a medical and human rights issue due to the trauma and violence inflicted upon those accused.

It's important to note that modern medicine recognizes the importance of cultural competence and sensitivity in providing care to patients from diverse backgrounds, including those who may practice witchcraft or other forms of traditional healing.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Mossy fibers in the hippocampus are a type of axon that originates from granule cells located in the dentate gyrus, which is the first part of the hippocampus. These fibers have a distinctive appearance and earn their name from the numerous small branches or "spines" that cover their surface, giving them a bushy or "mossy" appearance.

Mossy fibers form excitatory synapses with pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, which is involved in memory and spatial navigation. These synapses are unique because they have a high degree of plasticity, meaning that they can change their strength in response to experience or learning. This plasticity is thought to be important for the formation and storage of memories.

Mossy fibers also release neurotransmitters such as glutamate and contribute to the regulation of hippocampal excitability. Dysfunction in mossy fiber function has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder that causes non-cancerous (benign) tumors to grow in many parts of the body. These tumors can affect the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, eyes, and lungs. The signs and symptoms of TSC can vary widely, depending on where the tumors develop and how severely a person is affected.

The condition is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene, which regulate a protein that helps control cell growth and division. When these genes are mutated, the protein is not produced correctly, leading to excessive cell growth and the development of tumors.

TSC is typically diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, medical imaging, and genetic testing. Treatment for TSC often involves a multidisciplinary approach, with specialists in neurology, dermatology, cardiology, nephrology, pulmonology, and ophthalmology working together to manage the various symptoms of the condition. Medications, surgery, and other therapies may be used to help control seizures, developmental delays, skin abnormalities, and other complications of TSC.

The neocortex, also known as the isocortex, is the most recently evolved and outermost layer of the cerebral cortex in mammalian brains. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as sensory perception, spatial reasoning, conscious thought, language, and memory. The neocortex is characterized by its six-layered structure and is divided into several functional regions, including the primary motor, somatosensory, and visual cortices. It is highly expanded in humans and other primates, reflecting our advanced cognitive abilities compared to other animals.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Famous Persons" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to individuals who are widely known and recognized in the public sphere due to their achievements, contributions, or notoriety in various fields such as entertainment, politics, science, sports, and arts. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

... syndrome is a rare, relatively benign, hereditary epileptic disorder ... "Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2022-05 ... "Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features: MedlinePlus Genetics". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-14. ... "Idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF): a clinical and genetic study of 53 sporadic cases". Brain. 127 (6 ...
Vertiginous epilepsies are included in the category of the partial epilepsy in which abnormal electrical activity in the brain ... There are a range of ways to manage vertiginous epilepsy depending on the severity of the seizures. For simple partial seizures ... Autosomal Dominant Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features. Seattle: University of Washington, 2007. Web. "Dizziness: ... Jackson H., Diagnosis of epilepsy. Medical Times and Gazette 1879; 1:29. Gowers WR., The borderlands of epilepsy. London: ...
Williamson, P. D.; Spencer, D. D.; Spencer, S. S.; Novelly, R. A.; Mattson, R. H. (1985-10-01). "Complex partial seizures of ... Sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE), previously known as nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, is a form of focal epilepsy ... Epilepsy surgery can be efficacious in refractory patients. In addition, there have been reports of successfully treating SHE ... Thomas, R. H.; King, W. H.; Johnston, J. A.; Smith, P. E. M. (2010-02-01). "Awake seizures after pure sleep-related epilepsy: a ...
Bouma PA, Bovenkerk AC, Westendorp RG, Brouwer OF (1997). "The course of benign partial epilepsy of childhood with ... Benign Rolandic epilepsy or self-limited epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (formerly benign childhood epilepsy with ... Benign Rolandic epilepsy. Retrieved August 8, 2008. Beaussart, Marc (December 1972). "Benign epilepsy of children with Rolandic ... Learning can remain unimpaired while a child is afflicted with Rolandic epilepsy. Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes is ...
"Long-term efficacy and safety of thalamic stimulation for drug-resistant partial epilepsy". Neurology. 84 (10): 1017-1025. doi: ... Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), also known as refractory epilepsy, intractable epilepsy, or pharmacoresistant epilepsy, is ... Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in which the epileptic focus is in the temporal lobe, is one of the most common types of epilepsy ... For patients who are confirmed to have epilepsy, this testing helps confirm the type of epilepsy- generalized vs focal. In case ...
Mitchell, Wendy G. (1983-04-01). "Abdominal Epilepsy: Cyclic Vomiting as the Major Symptom of Simple Partial Seizures". ... Like other forms of epilepsy, abdominal epilepsy is treated with anticonvulsant drugs, such as phenytoin. Based on the clinical ... ISBN 978-1-78923-866-2. "Abdominal Epilepsy in Children and Adults". Epilepsy Health Center. WebMD. 18 March 2013. Retrieved 13 ... Abdominal epilepsy is marked by GI symptoms such as abdominal pain followed by uncontrollable vomiting, usually preceded by ...
... (INN) is an investigational drug for the treatment of epilepsy. It has been studied as an add-on treatment for ... Baulac M, Klement S (August 2003). "Efficacy and safety of Losigamone in partial seizures: a randomized double-blind study". ... Epilepsy Research. 55 (3): 177-89. doi:10.1016/S0920-1211(03)00108-6. PMID 12972172. S2CID 25270336. Willmore LJ (December 2001 ... partial seizures. Phase III clinical trials were conducted around the year 2000. The mechanism of action is not known. Data ...
The person may also have atypical absences and atonic and complex partial seizures. In Myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red ... Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Berg AT, Berkovic SF, Brodie MJ, et al ... Therefore, in the early stages of PME the symptoms and EEG may appear like Generalized epilepsy, Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, ... Several conditions can cause progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Unverricht-Lundborg disease (Baltic myoclonus) Myoclonus epilepsy ...
ADNFLE is a partial epilepsy disorder characterized by brief violent seizures during sleep. Seizures are complex, consisting of ... "An amino acid exchange in the second transmembrane segment of a neuronal nicotinic receptor causes partial epilepsy by altering ... These drugs are discussed in the main epilepsy article.[citation needed] El Helou J, Navarro V, Depienne C, Fedirko E, LeGuern ... It is thought that epilepsy is caused because these receptor subunits are expressed presynaptically by neurons that release the ...
"partial seizure" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary [1] Archived 2013-08-09 at the Wayback Machine, Epilepsy Society - Are all ... "2017 Revised Classification of Seizures". Epilepsy Foundation. "Types of Seizures". Epilepsy Foundation. Steven C. Schachter, ... Complex partial seizures are often preceded by an aura. The seizure aura is a focal aware seizure. The aura may manifest itself ... Complex partial seizures might arise from any lobe of the brain. They most commonly arise from the mesial temporal lobe, ...
March 1995). "Efficacy of Felbamate Monotherapy in Patients Undergoing Presurgical Evaluation of Partial Seizures". Epilepsy ... It is used to treat partial seizures (with and without generalization) in adults and partial and generalized seizures ... It was recommended that the drug remain available only for patients with severe epilepsy for whom the benefits outweigh the ... Therefore, the importance of the effects of felbamate on NMDA receptors to its therapeutic action in epilepsy is uncertain. ...
... (INN) or ezogabine (USAN) is an anticonvulsant used as an adjunctive treatment for partial epilepsies in treatment- ... Ben-Menachem E (2007). "Retigabine: has the orphan found a home?". Epilepsy Currents. 7 (6): 153-154. doi:10.1111/j.1535- ... Lowry F (2010-08-12). "Epilepsy drug exogabine gets green light from FDA Advisory Panel". Medscape. Retrieved 2010-08-13. [No ... Plosker GL, Scott LJ (2006). "Retigabine: in partial seizures". CNS Drugs. 20 (7): 601-8, discussion 609-10. doi:10.2165/ ...
2008). "Alterations in the contents of consciousness in partial epileptic seizures". Epilepsy & Behavior. 13 (2): 366-371. doi: ... Research conducted on the effects of partial epileptic seizures on consciousness found that patients who have partial epileptic ... In partial epileptic seizures, consciousness is impaired or lost while some aspects of consciousness, often automated behaviors ... Studies found that when measuring the qualitative features during partial epileptic seizures, patients exhibited an increase in ...
"Ellen G. White and the Seventh-day Adventist Church: Visions or Partial-Complex Seizures?". Abstract of presentation at the ... Epilepsy 2007: From Cell to Community, A Practical Guide to Epilepsy. 11th ed (2007). International League Against Epilepsy (UK ... "Epilepsy Foundation Salutes Steelers' Alan Faneca on Super Bowl Sunday". Epilepsy Foundation. Retrieved 23 August 2009. Adam ... "Shedding Light On Epilepsy". Epilepsy Foundation. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2013. John Adams (7 July 2012). "More ...
Level and contents of consciousness in connection with partial epileptic seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior, 4(3), 279-285. Edelman ... One study analyzed 40 patients with complex partial seizures to determine their level of consciousness during seizures. The ... Studies show that it is possible to retain primary consciousness and even secondary consciousness during complex partial ...
Retrieved 2013-07-19.[unreliable medical source?] Complex Partial Seizures at eMedicine "epilepsy.dk". epilepsy.dk. Archived ... This type of automatic behavior often occurs in certain types of epilepsy, such as complex partial seizures in those with ... "Automatism - Definition of Automatism". Epilepsy.about.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13. ... temporal lobe epilepsy, or as a side effect of particular medications such as zolpidem. Varying degrees of automatism may ...
All anti-epileptic drugs (including the above) can be used in cases of partial seizures. "Comprehensive Epilepsy Center , NYU ... childhood absence epilepsy, absence epilepsy, infantile spasms (West's syndrome), Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut ... Generalized epilepsy is a form of epilepsy characterised by generalised seizures with no apparent cause. Generalized seizures, ... Most generalized epilepsy starts during childhood. While some patients outgrow their epilepsy during adolescence and no longer ...
In Japan, clobazam is approved for adjunctive therapy in treatment-resistant epilepsy featuring complex partial seizures. In ... "Clobazam". Epilepsy Ontario. 2020. Retrieved 2020-08-21. Larrieu JL, Lagueny A, Ferrer X, Julien J (December 1986). "[Epilepsy ... Clobazam is used for its anxiolytic effect, and as an adjunctive therapy in epilepsy. As an adjunctive therapy in epilepsy, it ... Clobazam is sometimes used for refractory epilepsies. However, long-term prophylactic treatment of epilepsy may have ...
... the first partial benzodiazepine receptor agonist developed for the treatment of epilepsy". CNS Drugs. 28 (1): 29-43. doi: ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Epilepsy. "Epilepsy Basics: An Overview for Behavioral Health Providers". YouTube. Epilepsy ... Bromfield EB (2006). "Basic Mechanisms Underlying Seizures and Epilepsy". An Introduction to Epilepsy. American Epilepsy ... Global Campaign against Epilepsy; International League against Epilepsy (2005). Atlas, epilepsy care in the world, 2005 (PDF). ...
Seizures start as separate focal seizures and may progress to epilepsia partialis continua (simple partial status epilepticus ... Catamenial epilepsy is the term denoting seizures linked to the menstrual cycle. Primary reading epilepsy is a reflex epilepsy ... Some examples of epilepsy syndromes include benign rolandic epilepsy (2.8 per 100,000), childhood absence epilepsy (0.8 per ... Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Progressive myoclonic epilepsies define a group of symptomatic generalized epilepsies ...
CHRNA2 Epilepsy, partial, with auditory features; 600512; LGI1 Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 1; 254800; CSTB Epilepsy, ... KRT9 Epilepsy, benign neonatal, type 2; 121201; KCNQ3 Epilepsy, benign, neonatal, type 1; 121200; KCNQ2 Epilepsy, female- ... KCTD7 Epilepsy, pyridoxine-dependent; 266100; ALDH7A1 Epilepsy, severe myoclonic, of infancy; 607208; SCN1A Epilepsy, X-linked ... GABRD Epilepsy, myoclonic, Lafora type; 254780; EPM2A Epilepsy, myoclonic, Lafora type; 254780; NHLRC1 Epilepsy, myoclonic, ...
... became established as a second-line drug for treatment of partial epilepsy in the 1960s and 1970s and was often used ... Doose H, Baier WK, Ernst JP, Tuxhorn I, Völzke E (October 1988). "Benign partial epilepsy--treatment with sulthiame". ... Today, sulthiame is the drug of choice for benign focal epilepsies of childhood (such as benign rolandic epilepsy) in the ... Koepp MJ, Patsalos PN, Sander JW (August 2002). "Sulthiame in adults with refractory epilepsy and learning disability: an open ...
... , sold under the brand name Keppra among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy. It is used for partial- ... Levetiracetam has been approved in the European Union as a monotherapy treatment for epilepsy in the case of partial seizures ... Gambardella A, Labate A, Colosimo E, Ambrosio R, Quattrone A (February 2008). "Monotherapy for partial epilepsy: focus on ... Levetiracetam is effective as add-on treatment for partial (focal) epilepsy. Levetiracetam is effective for treatment of ...
Gabapentin was first approved for epilepsy, mainly as an add-on treatment to partial seizures. Gabapentinoids are GABA ... Pregabalin and gabapentin are used in epilepsy, mainly partial seizures (focal). Gabapentinoids are not effective for ... Ryvlin, Philippe; Perucca, Emilio; Rheims, Sylvain (December 2008). "Pregabalin for the management of partial epilepsy". ... Elaine Wyllie; Gregory D. Cascino; Barry E. Gidal; Howard P. Goodkin (17 February 2012). Wyllie's Treatment of Epilepsy: ...
Seizures and epilepsy are the strongest ties to dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumours. The most common symptom of DNTs are ... complex partial seizures. Simple DNTs more frequently manifest generalized seizures. In children, DNTs are considered to be the ... Furthermore, a longer period of epilepsy, and patients older in age are less likely to have a full recovery and remain seizure ... The tumours were encountered when the patient required surgery to help with the epilepsy to help with the seizures. The term ...
Lowenstein DH (2011). "Seizures and Epilepsy". In Loscalzo J, Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL (eds.). Harrison's ... 2002). "So-called 'cryptogenic' partial seizures resulting from a subtle cortical dysgenesis due to a doublecortin gene ... "Epilepsy in Dcx knockout mice associated with discrete lamination defects and enhanced excitability in the hippocampus". PLOS ... mutation". Seizure: The Journal of the British Epilepsy Association. 11 (4): 273-7. doi:10.1053/seiz.2001.0607. PMID 12027577. ...
This option is viable for children, over 12 years of age, with partial seizures that are not controllable via medicinal means. ... Epilepsy is classified according to seizure types, epilepsy types, and epilepsy syndromes. The seizure types include focal ... As for the third condition that is a diagnosed epilepsy syndrome. Epilepsy syndromes are notably different than epilepsy types ... "Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues ...
Some patients showed a partial response to treatment, but very few were able to stop their epilepsy through treatment. One case ... The third child's epilepsy was responsive to treatment and was ambulant, but she had an intellectual disability and only slight ... The severity of these symptoms is correlated with the intensity, frequency, and age of onset of the patient's epilepsy as well ... Kohlschütter A, Chappuis D, Meier C, Tönz O, Vassella F, Herschkowitz N (October 1974). "Familial epilepsy and yellow teeth--a ...
GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Autosomal Dominant Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features (Articles with short description, ... Following genetic linkage studies placing the hereditary form of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features ( ... "A de novo LGI1 mutation in sporadic partial epilepsy with auditory features". Annals of Neurology. 56 (3): 455-6. doi:10.1002/ ... "Localization of a gene for partial epilepsy to chromosome 10q". Nature Genetics. 10 (1): 56-60. doi:10.1038/ng0595-56. PMC ...
... and is usually a last resort to treat refractory epilepsy. Initially, partial callosotomies are performed; if this operation ... It is typically used as a last resort measure in treatment of intractable epilepsy. The modern procedure typically involves ... 2021), the first surgical cuts to the corpus callosum, partial corpus callosotomy, were made by neurosurgeon Walter Dandy in ... Corballis, M. C.; Corballis, P. M.; Fabri, M. (2003). "Redundancy gain in simple reaction time following partial and complete ...
Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features syndrome is a rare, relatively benign, hereditary epileptic disorder ... "Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2022-05 ... "Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features: MedlinePlus Genetics". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-14. ... "Idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF): a clinical and genetic study of 53 sporadic cases". Brain. 127 (6 ...
Partial epilepsies are epileptic disorders in which seizure semiology or findings on investigation disclose localized origin of ... encoded search term (Focal (Partial) Epilepsy) and Focal (Partial) Epilepsy What to Read Next on Medscape ... Focal epilepsies, also termed partial or localization-related epilepsies, are seizure disorders that originate within a ... Autosomal-dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy, familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, familial focal epilepsy with ...
... is an uncommon form of epilepsy that runs in families. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this condition. ... Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF) ... Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF) is an uncommon form of epilepsy that runs in families. This ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/autosomal-dominant-partial-epilepsy-with-auditory-features/ Autosomal dominant partial ...
Pazzaglia P, DAlessandro R, Lozito A, Lugaresi E. Classification of partial epilepsies according to the symptomatology of ... Surgical Treatment of Epilepsy. Epilepsy surgery is indicated for patients who have frequent, disabling seizures despite ... The epidemiology of epilepsy. Wyllie E, ed. The Treatment of Epilepsy: Principles and Practice. Baltimore, Md: Williams & ... Loddenkemper T, Kotagal P. Lateralizing sings during seizures in focal epilepsy. Epilepsy and Behavior. 2005. 7:1-17. [QxMD ...
European Medicines Agency recommends restricting Trobalt to last-line therapy in partial epilepsy ... European Medicines Agency recommends restricting Trobalt to last-line therapy in partial epilepsy (PDF/78.7 KB) First published ... European Medicines Agency recommends restricting Trobalt to last-line therapy in partial epilepsy. ... Epilepsy is caused by excessive electrical activity in the nerve cells of the brain. Trobalt has an effect on the potassium ...
An interictal study of partial epilepsy using positron emission tomography and the oxygen - 15 inhalation technique. ... An interictal study of partial epilepsy using positron emission tomography and the oxygen - 15 inhalation technique. ... Data from ten patients with complex partial seizures who underwent positron emission tomography using the 15-0 inhalation ...
... is an essential component in the evaluation of epilepsy. The EEG provides important information about background EEG and ... Benign Partial Epilepsies. Two benign partial epilepsy syndromes of childhood have been well defined: (1) benign rolandic ... Benign partial epilepsy of childhood with occipital paroxysms. Gastaut described a partial epilepsy that was analogous to ... Epilepsy syndromes. Epilepsy syndromes include symptomatic, cryogenic, and idiopathic epilepsy. Symptomatic epilepsy is defined ...
Clinical comparability of the new antiepileptic drugs in refractory partial epilepsy: reply to Costa et al ...
Update on treatment of partial onset epilepsy: role of eslicarbazepine. Overview of attention for article published in ...
EMA approves once-daily therapy for partial-onset epilepsy. Back To Homepage Subscribe To RSS Feed ... "We are pleased that adults with partial-onset epilepsy across Europe are now able to benefit from a once-daily monotherapy ... "This approval brings the promise of a new monotherapy option for over half of patients with epilepsy who experience partial- ... "This milestone means that newly-diagnosed adult patients in Europe who experience partial-onset epilepsy will now have a ...
These seizures are also called partial seizures.. * Simple focal seizures affect a small part of the brain. These seizures can ... Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain. People are diagnosed with epilepsy when they have had two or more seizures. ... Complex focal seizures can make a person with epilepsy confused or dazed. The person will be unable to respond to questions or ... A person with epilepsy can have more than one type of seizure. ... Managing Epilepsyplus icon *Managing Epilepsy Well Checklist. * ...
EPILEPSY * Drug-resistant epilepsy * Partial or focal epileptic seizures * Widespread epileptic seizures ... Pioneers in research in areas such as epilepsy and movement disorders. Research. Neuroscience Area. The Department of Neurology ... We boast highly specialised therapies such as Parkinsons disease surgery with deep brain stimulation devices and epilepsy, and ... Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. The main objective is to achieve new treatments that would help solve or slow down the ...
Partial seizures may or may not cause a change in or loss of consciousness. Partial seizures can cause an "aura", which may ... Epilepsy and school. It is important for your childs teachers to know about their epilepsy because they may need to provide ... Childrens Mercy Kansas City / Departments and Clinics / Neurology / Epilepsy Center / Epilepsy Education ... Partial seizures can "generalize," meaning they can start in one spot in the brain and then spread to both sides of the brain ...
2.2 Dosage for Epilepsy with Partial Onset Seizures 2.3 Dosage Adjustment in Patients with Renal Impairment 2.4 Dosage in ... Epilepsy with Partial Onset Seizures (2.2) *Patients 12 years of age and older: starting dose is 300 mg three times daily; may ... 14.2 Epilepsy for Partial Onset Seizures (Adjunctive Therapy) 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING 17 PATIENT COUNSELING ... Epilepsy with Partial Onset Seizures (Adjunctive Therapy) The most common adverse reactions with gabapentin in combination with ...
Seizures are most commonly partial, with symptoms determined by the location of the ICH. As many as half of the patients ...
Selected scientific articles published in journals and books about epilepsy. ... Medical decision-making abilities in older adults with chronic partial epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2007;10(1): 63-68. Abstract. ... Managing Epilepsy Well: Emerging e-Tools for epilepsy self-management. Epilepsy Behav. 2013;29:133-140. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh. ... People with epilepsy are diagnosed most often with unspecified epilepsy, followed by focal epilepsy, generalized convulsive ...
Partial results of this paper were presented in Toronto, Canada, at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of ... Epilepsy Res Suppl 5:175-188, 1992. Olivier. A. : Temporal resections in the surgical treatment of epilepsy. . Epilepsy Res ... Epilepsy Res Suppl 5:175-188, 1992. Olivier. A. : Temporal resections in the surgical treatment of epilepsy. . Epilepsy Res ... Epilepsy Res Treat 2012:769825, 2012. Kucukyuruk. B. , Richardson. RM. , Wen. HT. , Fernandez-Miranda. JC. , Rhoton. AL. Jr. : ...
We review the available evidence for the use of neurostimulation to treat pediatric epilepsy, including vagus nerve stimulation ... Neurostimulation for epilepsy refers to the application of electricity to affect the central nervous system, with the goal of ... Long-term efficacy and safety of thalamic stimulation for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Neurology 2015, 84, 1017-1025. [ ... Morrell, M.J. Responsive cortical stimulation for the treatment of medically intractable partial epilepsy. Neurology 2011, 77, ...
Post-Ictal Heart Rate Oscillations in Partial Epilepsy. This database contains "post-ictal heart rate oscillations in a ... Post-Ictal Heart Rate Oscillations in Partial Epilepsy. This database contains "post-ictal heart rate oscillations in a ...
Partial; Epilepsy, Focal; Epilepsy, Simple Partial; Seizure Disorder, Partial; Abdominal Epilepsy; Digestive Epilepsy; Focal ... Partial Epilepsy; Gelastic Epilepsy; Partial Seizure Disorder; Simple Partial Seizures. On-line free medical diagnosis ... In our opinion, AE is part of a large group (partial epilepsies) and does not require a special classification. Pediatric ... Only when long-term video-EEG recorded two typical attacks with left temporal ictal seizure patterns was focal epilepsy ...
Long-term efficacy and safety of thalamic stimulation for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Neurology. 2015;84(10):1017-1025. ... Memory and mood outcomes after anterior thalamic stimulation for refractory partial epilepsy. Seizure. 2017;45:133-141. ... Mortality in adult epilepsy patients decreased over 3 decades: A hospital-based cohort. Epilepsy Curr. 2015;15:214-215. ... Molnar G. Medtronic registry for epilepsy (MORE). Interim results - baseline data. 69th Annual Meeting American Epilepsy ...
... and some research suggests a connection between allergic diseases and epilepsy. Learn more. ... Focal onset seizures affect one area of the brain, and people sometimes call them partial seizures. Within this category, there ... Over counter medications and epilepsy. (n.d.). https://www.epilepsy.com/what-is-epilepsy/seizure-triggers/over-counter- ... A person with epilepsy who also experiences seasonal allergies may find they have more seizures when there is a lot of pollen ...
bNational Epilepsy Center (K.M., K.B.), Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan ... bNational Epilepsy Center (K.M., K.B.), Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan ... Correction for partial-volume effects on brain perfusion SPECT in healthy men. J Nucl Med 2003; 44: 1243- 52 ... Correction for partial volume effects in PET: principle and validation. J Nucl Med 1998; 39: 904- 11 ...
Since then, basic and clinical researchers in epilepsy have gathered together about every 14 years to assess where epilepsy ... In a foreword written for the second edition of Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies, published in 1983, Jasper reminded us that ... on the Epilepsies of the National Institutes of Health published the first edition of Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies. The ... Interictal Epileptiform Discharges in Partial Epilepsy: Complex Neurobiological Mechanisms Based on Experimental and Clinical ...
... epilepsy (4V; 2 P); febrile convulsion (5 V; 5 P); infantile spasms (1 V; 3 P); partial seizure (1 V; 0 P) (personal ... partial seizure, epilepsy and infantile spasms. This table incorporates serious (in this case, hospitalizations) and non- ... Partial series efficacy: RotateqTM has been approved for use as a three-dose series. Data on the efficacy of fewer than three ... partial breast feeding. However, there was no overall protection during the first two years of life, suggesting that breast ...
Structural connectivity of the frontal lobe in children with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2011;21:65-70. ... also known as partial or focal epilepsy, including FLE and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).5⇓⇓⇓-9 These changes were identified ... Reduced nodal efficiency in localization-related epilepsy (A), frontal lobe epilepsy (B), and temporal lobe epilepsy (C) in ... Characteristics of patients with epilepsy, including those with frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy and controls ...
He says he feels a certain way and usually will have a partial. When this happens he concentrates to not have a grand mal and ... Im 21 years old and Ive had epilepsy since I was 5. I would like to know if there is anything I could do to limit the risk of ... Our son has been diagnosed with epilepsy 2 years ago. We didnt know he had it til we were driving to school one day and he had ... I am 45 years old and was diagnosed with epilepsy when i was 11,im up for my esa tribunal hearing soon which i know im gonna ...
What is epilepsy? Do you know what a seizure is, and how to respond when someone is having one? We are here to help answer all ... Focal Seizures with Impaired Awareness (formerly known as Complex Partial). Focal seizures with impaired awareness usually ... Epilepsy Toronto has a rich resource library, an online epilepsy course and a full range of epilepsy Fact Sheets where you can ... Epilepsy most often starts in childhood or in seniors, but anyone can develop epilepsy at any time. Epilepsy affects people of ...
  • Bial has an ongoing commitment to all people living with epilepsy and we look forward to continuing to work with the epilepsy community to bring this new indication to patients. (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • There are several different types of seizures that people living with epilepsy may experience. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features syndrome is a rare, relatively benign, hereditary epileptic disorder that is characterized by seizures, seizure-associated hearing alterations and receptive aphasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal epilepsies, also termed partial or localization-related epilepsies, are seizure disorders that originate within a neuronal network limited to one hemisphere, whether unifocal or multifocal. (medscape.com)
  • Focal aware seizure" replaces the previous term "simple partial seizure" and a "focal impaired awareness seizure" replaces the term "complex partial seizure. (medscape.com)
  • A person with epilepsy can have more than one type of seizure. (cdc.gov)
  • Tian N, Boring M, Kobau R, Zack M, Croft J. Active Epilepsy and Seizure Control in Adults - United States, 2013 and 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • Epilepsy beyond seizure: A population-based study of comorbidities. (cdc.gov)
  • A seizure that starts in one spot of the brain is considered a partial seizure. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Partial seizures can "generalize," meaning they can start in one spot in the brain and then spread to both sides of the brain causing a generalized seizure, such as tonic-clonic. (childrensmercy.org)
  • It is important for your child's teachers to know about their epilepsy because they may need to provide care for your child if they have a seizure during school. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Neurostimulation for epilepsy refers to the application of electricity to affect the central nervous system, with the goal of reducing seizure frequency and severity. (mdpi.com)
  • DBS for Epilepsy was shown to reduce median seizure frequency, and these results improved over time. (medtronic.com)
  • For patients receiving Medtronic Deep Brain Stimulation Therapy for Epilepsy in the SANTE study, the responder rate (percentage of subjects with ≥50% seizure reduction) was 43% (n=99) at one year and 74% (n=50) at year seven. (medtronic.com)
  • A generalized seizure involves both halves of the brain, whereas a partial seizure is related to a specific brain region. (purina.com)
  • Network parameters were not significantly associated with intelligence quotient, age at seizure onset, or duration of epilepsy. (ajnr.org)
  • Ask Epilepsy Toronto for a free Seizure Journal, where you can record your seizures and medications for each consultation. (epilepsytoronto.org)
  • Also, the electrical problem in a partial seizure can spread to cause a generalized seizure. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Kids who experience partial seizures may be frightened or confused during or after the seizure. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Partial-onset seizures are the most common type of seizure seen in people with epilepsy, accounting for 60 percent of all seizures. (prnewswire.com)
  • The 2 main categories of epileptic seizures are focal (partial) seizure and generalized seizure. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Michelucci R, Nobile C. Autosomal Dominant Epilepsy with Auditory Features. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Electroencephalogram demonstrating polyspike and wave discharges, which can be seen in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • All current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), with the exception of ethosuximide, can be used in the treatment of complex partial seizures. (medscape.com)
  • Data from ten patients with complex partial seizures who underwent positron emission tomography using the 15-0 inhalation technique are presented. (bmj.com)
  • During the blinded phase, DBS was shown to significantly reduce patients' most severe seizures, complex partial seizures, and incidence of epilepsy-related injury. (medtronic.com)
  • My passion to improve the lives of people with epilepsy was born when my son, Matthew developed complex partial seizures nine years ago, aged thirteen. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • Focal epilepsies represent the most common type of adult-onset epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • In light of the risk of retinal pigmentation, healthcare professionals should only prescribe Trobalt to adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalisation for whom other appropriate combinations have proved inadequate or have not been tolerated. (europa.eu)
  • The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved Zebinix (eslicarbazepine acetate) for use as once-daily monotherapy to treat adults with newly-diagnosed partial-onset epilepsy. (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • It is already indicated in Europe as an adjunctive therapy in adults, adolescents and children aged above 6 years, with partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalisation. (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • This approval brings the promise of a new monotherapy option for over half of patients with epilepsy who experience partial-onset seizures. (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • We are pleased that adults with partial-onset epilepsy across Europe are now able to benefit from a once-daily monotherapy option that is simple to use, which may optimise their adherence," added António Portela, CEO of Bial , Portugal. (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • This milestone means that newly-diagnosed adult patients in Europe who experience partial-onset epilepsy will now have a broader range of treatment options available. (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • The authorisation has been based on the results of a Phase III, randomised, double-blind, active controlled, non-inferiority study, comparing once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate as monotherapy to twice-daily, controlled-release carbamazepine in newly diagnosed adults with partial-onset seizures. (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • SANTE (Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of the Thalamus in Epilepsy) was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel groups study intended to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bilateral stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy, characterized by partial-onset (focal) seizures, with or without secondary generalization. (medtronic.com)
  • The study's outcomes demonstrated the safety, effectiveness and long-term benefits of Deep Brain Stimulation therapy for medically refractory partial-onset (focal) seizures in adults. (medtronic.com)
  • Focal onset seizures affect one area of the brain, and people sometimes call them partial seizures. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this study we want to find out if a medicine (pregabalin) helps reduce partial onset seizures in children. (akronchildrens.org)
  • This trial is for children aged 1 month to less than 4 years with epilepsy who currently have uncontrolled partial-onset seizures. (ucb.com)
  • Subject has a diagnosis of epilepsy with partial-onset seizures. (ucb.com)
  • 2 partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization during the End-of-Baseline video EEG. (ucb.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration has approved GlaxoSmithKline's Lamictal XR (lamotrigine) extended-release tablets as a once-a-day therapy for epilepsy patients suffering from partial onset seizures. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • FYCOMPA (perampanel) is indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy 12 years of age and older. (prnewswire.com)
  • The various types of epilepsy differ in many aspects, including (1) age of onset, (2) semiology, (3) EEG findings, and (4) outcome. (medscape.com)
  • These epilepsies are presented according to the age of onset, starting from the neonatal period. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, treatment with antiepileptic medication should always be initiated once a diagnosis of epilepsy is made. (medscape.com)
  • In the Spotlight The Mistaken Diagnosis of Epilepsy - Another Cause In the October, 2007 issue of Heart Rhythm, physicians from Belgium report that young patients may be receiving the. (coping-with-epilepsy.com)
  • In the 2017 International League of Epilepsy (ILAE) classification syndrome, epileptic etiologies are divided into six non-mutually exclusive categories: structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune, and unknown. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, the authors retrospectively compared 18 F-FDG PET/MRI images ( SHFJ hybrid PET/MRI machine ) with anterior 18 F-FDG PET co-registered with MRI (PET+MRI), in 25 patients with refractory focal epilepsy, included between 2017 and 2020. (cea.fr)
  • WOODCLIFF LAKE, N.J. , April 27, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Eisai Inc. announced today the presentation of results from a new meta-analysis of published clinical trials showing that the effect of adjunctive antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment versus placebo on primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures appears similar between adults and children (greater than or equal to four years old) living with epilepsy. (prnewswire.com)
  • Epilepsy syndromes include symptomatic, cryogenic, and idiopathic epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • EEG characteristics of these specific electroclinical epilepsy syndromes are discussed in this article. (medscape.com)
  • In retrospect, children with head nodding, or rhythmic dorsoventral movements of the head ( 3 ), as 1 characteristic feature of epilepsy syndromes, had been observed in Tanzania, Liberia, and western Uganda as far back as the 1960s but were not studied separately or described as a distinctive clinical group ( 3 - 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epilepsy Program. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Association of Epilepsy Centers recognizes Cook Children's Comprehensive Epilepsy Program as a Level 4 Pediatric Epilepsy Center. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Level 4 epilepsy centers have the professional expertise and facilities to provide the highest level medical and surgical evaluation and treatment for patients with complex epilepsy. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Most comprehensive epilepsy centers that provide epilepsy surgery can also offer the RNS ® System. (epilepsy.com)
  • Cryptogenic epilepsy consists of seizures that occur without an identifiable cause in a patient with cognitive impairment or with neurologic deficits (eg, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), infantile spasms [see the first image below], and myoclonic astatic epilepsy of Doose. (medscape.com)
  • Electroencephalogram demonstrating polyspike and wave discharges seen in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • Symptomatic epilepsy is defined as seizures resulting from an identifiable cerebral disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain. (cdc.gov)
  • Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain and one of the most common neurological conditions worldwide," said Eugen Trinka, professor and chair of the department of neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Austria. (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • Some allergy symptoms may aggravate seizures in people with epilepsy, a brain disorder that causes seizures. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hence, epilepsy is not just a trying neurological disorder for individuals but also a broader public health challenge for society (1,4-7). (cdc.gov)
  • Epilepsy has been considered a disorder of neural networks, in which activity in one part of the network is influenced by activity elsewhere in the network. (ajnr.org)
  • If you have a child with epilepsy, you're not alone - 2.5 million Americans have this disorder. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Lamotrigine is a prescription medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. (rxwiki.com)
  • Epilepsy is a disorder with many possible causes. (healthandyoga.com)
  • [ 1 ] This disorder has been termed benign childhood epilepsy and is thought to be secondary to central nervous system (CNS) immaturity. (medscape.com)
  • Moura LMVR, Karakis I, Zack MM, Tian N, Kobau R, Howard D. Drivers of US health care spending for persons with seizures and/or epilepsies, 2010-2018 [published online ahead of print, 2022 May 17]. (cdc.gov)
  • Focal epilepsies are generally treated with antiseizure medications (ASMs). (medscape.com)
  • Drug and alcohol use are strongly discouraged not only due to the law, but also due to the potential harm it can cause to a child with epilepsy or on antiepileptic medications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • People with seasonal allergies who have epilepsy should avoid these medications and speak with a doctor about which medications are suitable for them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Epilepsy is often controlled by current medications. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Most women with epilepsy can become pregnant, but they should discuss their epilepsy and the medications they are taking with their doctors.Women with epilepsy have a 90 percent or better chance of having a normal, healthy baby. (healthandyoga.com)
  • GlaxoSmithKline chairman Dean Naritoku said that many patients required multiple doses of one or more medications to control their epilepsy. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Epilepsy is a disease associated with a pathologic and enduring tendency to have recurrent seizures. (medscape.com)
  • Epilepsy is a chronic, neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures. (epilepsytoronto.org)
  • The benign partial epilepsies include benign partial epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes, benign occipital epilepsy, and benign epilepsy with affective symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • I've been having seizures for ten years and the first neurologist said I had pseudoseizurez then the second one labeled me with partial Epilepsy tonic clonic. (brainline.org)
  • Generalized seizures account for approximately 40 percent of all epilepsy, with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures being one of the most common and severe forms of generalized seizures. (prnewswire.com)
  • Lamictal was previously approved as an add-on therapy for partial seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients in this age group. (genengnews.com)
  • age, 28 ± 12 years) with intractable epilepsy who had undergone surgical treatment were enrolled in this study. (ajnr.org)
  • I-123 iomazenil brain SPECT is a functional imaging to detect epileptic foci in patients with intractable epilepsy for whom surgical intervention is considered. (ajnr.org)
  • The surgical operation to produce this condition is called corpus callosotomy (not to be confused with colostomy) and is usually used as a last resort to treat otherwise intractable epilepsy. (uncommondescent.com)
  • In turn, focal epilepsy represents a permanent alteration in the epileptic focus, a process termed epileptogenesis, such that the individual develops a propensity for repeated seizures. (medscape.com)
  • Although the traditional understanding of focal epilepsy has focused on hypersynchrony precipitated by the epileptic focus alone, there is increasing recognition that patients with focal epilepsy suffer from widespread brain dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • A team from BioMaps (SHFJ), in collaboration with several hospital groups, analyzed hybrid PET/MRI imaging data from patients with refractory focal epilepsy and compared them to previous images acquired separately on PET and MRI from the same patients. (cea.fr)
  • Focal epilepsy (also called partial epilepsy) affects only a localized area of the brain, without involving the whole brain. (cea.fr)
  • 18 F-FDG PET/MR in focal epilepsy: A new step for improving the detection of epileptogenic lesions. (cea.fr)
  • Certain research suggests that children who experience allergic rhinitis are more likely to develop epilepsy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Epilepsy most often starts in childhood or in seniors, but anyone can develop epilepsy at any time. (epilepsytoronto.org)
  • Anyone can develop epilepsy at any age, but the majority of new diagnoses are in kids. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Structural connectivity has been thought to be a less sensitive measure of network changes relative to functional connectivity in children with localization-related epilepsy. (ajnr.org)
  • The aims of this study were to investigate the structural networks in children with localization-related epilepsy and to assess the relation among structural connectivity, intelligence quotient, and clinical parameters. (ajnr.org)
  • Forty-five children with nonlesional localization-related epilepsy and 28 healthy controls underwent DTI. (ajnr.org)
  • Children with localization-related epilepsy, including those with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), have demonstrated abnormal resting-state functional connectivity in the default mode network and in other resting-state networks, such as attention, frontal, visual, auditory, and somatosensory networks. (ajnr.org)
  • Background Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common genetic childhood epilepsy, consisting of focal, nocturnal seizures and frequent neurodevelopmental impairments in speech, language, literacy and attention. (bmj.com)
  • In most cases, epilepsy is not inherited, although people with a close family member with epilepsy are at a slightly greater risk. (epilepsytoronto.org)
  • In most of these, there's a family history of epilepsy or the condition is believed to be genetic (kids with a parent or other close family member with epilepsy are more likely to have it, too). (cookchildrens.org)
  • Alzain is indicated as adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalisation. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Lamictal XR has been approved as an add-on therapy for adult and adolescent patients who experience partial seizures with or without secondary generalisation. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Neurologic examination and imaging in the essential idiopathic, typically genetic, epilepsies are usually normal. (medscape.com)
  • Normal background suggests primary epilepsy (ie, idiopathic or possibly genetic epilepsy). (medscape.com)
  • Epilepsy in cats should not be confused with the genetic condition called idiopathic epilepsy, which usually affects both dogs and humans, but is a fairly rare illness in felines. (purina.com)
  • Researchers are working to determine what specific genetic factors are responsible for these forms of epilepsy. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Barriers to and disparities in access to health care among adults aged ≥18 years with epilepsy. (cdc.gov)
  • Among adults with epilepsy reporting recent seizures, one of four on antiseizure medication and three of four not on medication had not seen a neurologist/epilepsy specialist within the last year, the 2010 and 2013 US National Health Interview Surveys. (cdc.gov)
  • Thurman DJ, Kobau R, Luo Y, Helmers S, Zack MM. Health-care access among adults with epilepsy: The U.S. National Health Interview Survey, 2010 and 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • Epilepsy in adults and access to care - United States, 2012. (cdc.gov)
  • Psychosocial factors associated with stigma in adults with epilepsy. (cdc.gov)
  • Prevalence of self-reported epilepsy, health care access, and health behaviors among adults in South Carolina. (cdc.gov)
  • Zack M, Luncheon C. Adults with an epilepsy history, especially those 45 years or older, those with lower family incomes, and those with a history of hypertension, report a history of stroke five times as often as adults without such a history-2010, 2013, and 2015 U.S. National Health Interview Survey. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximately, one in every 100 adults in Ontarians is living with epilepsy [1] . (epilepsytoronto.org)
  • Partial seizures when taken together with other medicines in adults and children 3 years of age and older with seizures. (rxlist.com)
  • The RNS ® System has been approved by the FDA to treat focal or partial seizures in adults, 18 years and older. (epilepsy.com)
  • FDA has approved GlaxoSmithKline's Lamictal® XR™ (lamotrigine) extended-release tablets for conversion to monotherapy in patients aged 13 years and over, with partial seizures taking one anti-epileptic drug. (genengnews.com)
  • The frontal lobe epilepsy subgroup demonstrated more areas with reduced nodal efficiency and more impaired subnetworks than the temporal lobe epilepsy subgroup. (ajnr.org)
  • Regional efficiency and subnetworks were more impaired in frontal lobe epilepsy than in temporal lobe epilepsy. (ajnr.org)
  • Brain blood-flow alterations induced by therapeutic vagus nerve stimulation in partial epilepsy: II. (crossref.org)
  • We review the available evidence for the use of neurostimulation to treat pediatric epilepsy, including vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), responsive neurostimulation (RNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation (CSCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). (mdpi.com)
  • Download a summary of the published clinical evidence for deep brain stimulation in epilepsy patients. (medtronic.com)
  • The SANTE trial provides Level 1 Clinical Evidence for Medtronic Deep Brain Stimulation for Epilepsy. (medtronic.com)
  • Epileptiform discharges help clinicians to separate generalized from focal (ie, partial) seizures. (medscape.com)
  • The generalized epilepsies discussed are limited to childhood absence epilepsy, which is also called pyknolepsy, and juvenile absence epilepsy, also known as epilepsy with nonpyknoleptic absences or epilepsy with spanioleptic absences. (medscape.com)
  • The CHMP therefore concluded that Trobalt remains a valuable alternative option for patients whose epilepsy cannot be controlled by other medicines. (europa.eu)
  • Use of computers and the Internet for health information by patients with epilepsy. (cdc.gov)
  • This database contains "post-ictal heart rate oscillations in a heterogeneous group of patients with partial epilepsy. (physionet.org)
  • The SANTE study showed a significant increase in quality of life for patients with epilepsy. (medtronic.com)
  • Five patients with RE carried a rare CNV that disrupted genes associated with other epilepsies ( KCTD7 , ARHGEF15 , CACNA2D1, GRIN2A and ARHGEF4 ), and 17 cases carried CNVs that disrupted genes associated with other neurological conditions or that are involved in neuronal signalling/development. (bmj.com)
  • Lamictal XR is a once-daily advance for patients with epilepsy who still experience seizures while taking their current therapy," said Naritokou. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Included in the meta-analysis are the results from a global Phase 3 clinical trial of perampanel (marketed as FYCOMPA® CIII) administered as an adjunctive therapy in patients with epilepsy 12 years of age and older with PGTC seizures. (prnewswire.com)
  • In this article, the term benign epilepsy is used to refer to a group of pediatric epileptic disorders in which remission and lack of significant neurologic sequelae are expected in the vast majority of patients. (medscape.com)
  • Differentiating anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with partial epilepsy. (bvsalud.org)
  • If your child has seizures, staring spells, confusion spells, shaking spells, or unexplained deterioration in behavior or school performance and your doctor suspects epilepsy, our neurosciences team will evaluate your child to determine if her or his symptoms suggest epilepsy. (cookchildrens.org)
  • In reality, there is not one but several epilepsies with a diversity of symptoms and evolution. (cea.fr)
  • Primary Epilepsy is considered as "Adhija Vyadhi" - a disease caused by an internal imbalance within the system and not caused by an outside agent (such as infection). (healthandyoga.com)
  • In Epilepsy, the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed leading to signal abnormality. (healthandyoga.com)
  • Treatment of focal impaired awareness seizures may involve pharmacologic therapy and, in certain cases, epilepsy surgery. (medscape.com)
  • In drug-resistant focal epilepsies *, detection of epileptogenic lesions is crucial to identify the best candidates for surgery. (cea.fr)
  • It's used in people who can not have epilepsy surgery to remove where the seizures start or resective surgery has not worked. (epilepsy.com)
  • PET/MRI significantly improves the detection of epileptogenic foci and, consequently, the results of surgical treatment of epilepsy. (cea.fr)
  • However, interictal background EEG frequencies that are slower than normal for age usually suggest a symptomatic epilepsy (ie, epilepsy secondary to brain insult). (medscape.com)
  • The cost of epilepsy in the United States: an estimate from population-based clinical and survey data. (cdc.gov)
  • Since then, basic and clinical researchers in epilepsy have gathered together about every 14 years to assess where epilepsy research has been, what it has accomplished, and where it should go. (nih.gov)
  • It's designed for people with drug-resistant epilepsy . (epilepsy.com)
  • Cat epilepsy is a condition characterized by seizures that happen repeatedly and are caused by disruptions in brain activity. (purina.com)
  • This decision for eslicarbazepine acetate by the European Commission reinforces Eisai's commitment to researching and developing neurological treatment options that have the potential to help people manage epilepsy more effectively," stressed Neil West, vice president EMEA, global neurology business unit at Eisai . (biopharmabusiness.com)
  • In a foreword written for the second edition of Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies, published in 1983, Jasper reminded us that the original and ultimate goal of the Public Health Service committee was to search for a "better understanding of the epilepsies and seek more rational methods of their prevention and treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of all epilepsy treatment is to stop the seizures with as few side effects as possible. (epilepsytoronto.org)
  • Once epilepsy is diagnosed, it is important to begin treatment as soon as possible. (healthandyoga.com)
  • This treatment is the only way to cure epilepsy, but it doesn't work in everyone. (epilepsy.com)
  • Episodes that begin as partial seizures and spread throughout the brain are known as secondarily generalized seizures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is integrated by highly qualified specialists in the patient care and research of the most frequent pathologies, such as Parkinson's disease and movement disorders, Alzheimer's and other dementias, epilepsy, headaches, brain tumours, sleep disorders, ALS and multiple sclerosis and cerebrovascular diseases. (cun.es)
  • Idiopathic epilepsy in cats also manifests through seizures, but in this case, no abnormalities can be detected in the brain or anywhere else in the body. (purina.com)
  • What is known to cause epilepsy includes brain tumours, serious head injuries and brain infections. (epilepsytoronto.org)
  • Partial seizures only affect part of the brain. (epilepsytoronto.org)
  • Epilepsy is a condition in which a person experiences repeated seizures, due to an overall electrical disturbance in the brain. (rxlist.com)
  • Epilepsy is a disease of the central nervous system in which electrical signals of the brain misfire. (cookchildrens.org)
  • In less than half the cases of epilepsy, there is a specific identifiable brain problem that causes the seizures. (cookchildrens.org)
  • In kids, more than half of epilepsy cases are idiopathic (meaning there's no other identifiable cause or visible problem in the brain). (cookchildrens.org)
  • The two main categories of seizures are generalized seizures, which affect the whole brain all at once, and partial seizures , in which only part of the brain is mostly affected. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Epilepsy is a chronic disease characterized by the occurrence of seizures reflecting a sudden and transient disturbance in the electrical activity of the brain. (cea.fr)
  • Epilepsy is defined as a tendency to have repeated seizures that originate in the brain. (healthandyoga.com)
  • Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Familial temporal lobe epilepsy with aphasic seizures and linkage to chromosome 10q22-q24. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Eslicarbazepine acetate is a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that selectively targets the slow inactivated state of the sodium ion channel, which has been indicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. (biopharmabusiness.com)