A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Inflammation of the epiglottis.
The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of any part of the LARYNX, commonly associated with laryngeal injuries and allergic reactions.
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.

Influence of gas density on simulated snoring. (1/90)

According to a recent theoretical model, snoring is related to instability of the upper airway (UA). Factors promoting UA instability include increased gas density. The aim of this study was to test the influence of gas density on simulated snoring production and supraglottic resistance. Supraglottic pressure and flow rate (V') were measured in 10 healthy seated subjects during simulated snoring. Subjects breathed three different gas mixtures: Helium-oxygen, He 79%-O2 21% (He-O2); air; and sulphur hexafluoride-oxygen, F6S 79%-O2 21% (F6S-O2) administered in a random order. Supraglottic resistance (Rsg) was measured on its linear range during quiet breathing and V' was measured at the onset and middle of snoring. Linear Rsg increased and V' conversely decreased with gas density. These data are in agreement with predictions of a mathematical model of the upper airway showing that snoring occurs at lower flow rates when gas density is increased.  (+info)

Ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus paraphrophilus laryngo-epiglottitis. (2/90)

A case of life-threatening laryngo-epiglottitis is reported, caused by ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus paraphrophilus. Clinicians and microbiologists should be aware of a beta-lactamase-mediated resistance among Haemophilus species other than H. influenzae.  (+info)

Pallister-Hall syndrome: clinical and MR features. (3/90)

A 4-month-old boy with polydactyly and bifid epiglottis was found to have a large sellar and suprasellar mass. When the diagnosis of Pallister-Hall syndrome was made, conservative management was elected. When the patient was 2 years old, the tumor had grown proportionally with the patient, and he was developing appropriately. Although rare, this entity is important to recognize not only for clinical diagnosis but also for appropriate management and genetic counseling.  (+info)

Malposition of the epiglottis after tracheal intubation via the intubating laryngeal mask. (4/90)

The intubating laryngeal mask has been reported to be a successful method of tracheal intubation although advancement of the tracheal tube via the laryngeal inlet into the trachea cannot be seen. Damage to the larynx or other tissues may occur during blind passage of a tracheal tube. We report a case in which the tracheal tube, advanced blindly, tucked the epiglottis into the laryngeal inlet, resulting in oedema of the epiglottis. This case illustrates the potential for airway obstruction after extubation when using the intubating laryngeal mask as a blind intubation guide.  (+info)

An investigation of the family background of acute Haemophilus infections of children. (5/90)

Nose and throat swabs, for culture of Haemophilus influenza type b, and blood samples, for measurement of antibodies specific for that serotype, were collected from members of 28 families from which children had been admitted to hospital with acute H. influenzae type b infections (mainly meningitis or epiglottitis). The patients with meningitis were younger than those with epiglottitis and had more siblings, with a marked predominance of sisters. Investigations within a few days of admission of the affected children to hospital detected carriers of H. influenzae type b (19 altogether) in 13 of the 28 families, including 9 of the 13 families with 3 or more children. Members with raised antibody titres for H. influenzae type b (suggesting the presence of the organism for at least a few weeks) were found in 17 of the 25 families from which blood samples were obtained, including all 11 families with 3 or more children. Most of the patients probably acquired their infections from within their own families, and siblings under 11 years old were of predominant importance both as carriers and as potential sources of the patients' infections. Persistence of the organism within families for up to 6 months was demonstrated. Possible reasons for the difference in age-incidence between haemophilus meningitis and epiglottitis and for the occurrence of the former in babies with older sisters are suggested, and also a possible connection between the results of this survey and the likely value of immunization against H. influenzae type b.  (+info)

Surgical mandibular advancement and changes in uvuloglossopharyngeal morphology and head posture: a short- and long-term cephalometric study in males. (6/90)

The aim of the present study was to investigate, by means of an extensive cephalometric examination, the alterations which took place in hyoid bone position, head posture, position and morphology of the soft palate, and tongue and sagittal dimensions of the pharyngeal airway after mandibular advancement osteotomy for the correction of mandibular retrognathism. The sample consisted only of adult males who underwent mandibular advancement by bilateral sagittal ramus split osteotomy (BSRO) with rigid fixation. Profile cephalograms were obtained 1-3 days before surgery (20 subjects), and 6 months (20 subjects) and 3 years (19 subjects) after the surgery. Statistical evaluation was performed by paired Student's t-test and Pearson product moment correlation analysis. At the short-term follow-up, hyoid bone and vallecula assumed a more superior (AH perpendicular FH, AH perpendicular ML, AH perpendicular S, V perpendicular FH) and anterior position (AH-C3 Hor, V-C3), which was maintained at the long-term follow-up. The soft palate (NL/PM-U) became more upright at the short-term follow-up. The tongue demonstrated a transient increase in height (H perpendicular VT) and a less upright position (VT/FH) at the long-term observation. In addition, a more upright cervical spine (OPT/HOR, CVT/HOR) was recorded at the long-term follow-up. The pharyngeal airway space at the level of the oropharynx (U-MPW) and the retroglossal space at the base of the tongue (PASmin) showed an increase in the sagittal dimension at the short-term follow-up. Significant widening at the PASmin level was sustained at the long-term follow-up, indicating that mandibular advancement osteotomy could increase airway patency and be a treatment approach for sleep apnoea in selected patients.  (+info)

Phasic mechanoreceptor stimuli can induce phasic activation of upper airway muscles in humans. (7/90)

1. Upper airway dilator muscles are phasically activated throughout breathing by respiratory pattern generator neurons. Studies have shown that non-physiological upper airway mechanoreceptive stimuli (e.g. rapidly imposed pulses of negative pressure) also activate these muscles. Such reflexes may become activated during conditions that alter airway resistance in order to stabilise airway patency. 2. To determine the contribution of ongoing mechanoreceptive reflexes to phasic activity of airway dilators, we assessed genioglossal electromyogram (GG EMG: rectified with moving time average of 100 ms) during slow (physiological) oscillations in negative pressure generated spontaneously and passively (negative pressure ventilator). 3. Nineteen healthy adults were studied while awake, during passive mechanical ventilation across normal physiological ranges of breathing rates (13-19 breaths min-1) and volumes (0.5-1.0 l) and during spontaneous breathing across the physiological range of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PET,CO2; 32-45 mmHg). 4. Within-breath phasic changes in airway mechanoreceptor stimuli (negative pressure or flow) were highly correlated with within-breath phasic genioglossal activation, probably representing a robust mechanoreceptive reflex. These reflex relationships were largely unchanged by alterations in central drive to respiratory pump muscles or the rate of mechanical ventilation within the ranges studied. A multivariate model revealed that tonic GG EMG, PET,CO2 and breath duration provided no significant independent information in the prediction of inspiratory peak GG EMG beyond that provided by epiglottic pressure, which alone explained 93 % of the variation in peak GG EMG across all conditions. The overall relationship was: Peak GG EMG = 79.7 - (11.3 X Peak epiglottic pressure), where GG EMG is measured as percentage of baseline, and epiglottic pressure is in cmH2O. 5. These data provide strong evidence that upper airway dilator muscles can be activated throughout inspiration via ongoing mechanoreceptor reflexes. Such a feedback mechanism is likely to be active on a within-breath basis to protect upper airway patency in awake humans. This mechanism could mediate the increased genioglossal activity observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (i.e. reflex compensation for an anatomically smaller airway).  (+info)

Glycoconjugate in rat taste buds. (8/90)

The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA). Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively.  (+info)

The epiglottis is a flap-like structure located at the base of the tongue, near the back of the throat (pharynx). It is made of elastic cartilage and covered with mucous membrane. The primary function of the epiglottis is to protect the trachea (windpipe) from food or liquids entering it during swallowing.

During normal swallowing, the epiglottis closes over the opening of the larynx (voice box), redirecting the food or liquid bolus into the esophagus. In this way, the epiglottis prevents aspiration, which is the entry of foreign materials into the trachea and lungs.

Inflammation or infection of the epiglottis can lead to a serious medical condition called epiglottitis, characterized by swelling, redness, and pain in the epiglottis and surrounding tissues. Epiglottitis can cause difficulty breathing, speaking, and swallowing, and requires immediate medical attention.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

Epiglottitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis, which is a flap of tissue that sits at the base of the tongue and covers the windpipe (trachea) during swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering the airway. When the epiglottis becomes inflamed and swollen, it can obstruct the flow of air into the lungs, leading to difficulty breathing and other symptoms such as fever, sore throat, and drooling. Epiglottitis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment, often with antibiotics and airway management measures such as intubation or tracheostomy.

Deglutition is the medical term for swallowing. It refers to the process by which food or liquid is transferred from the mouth to the stomach through a series of coordinated muscle movements and neural responses. The deglutition process involves several stages, including oral preparatory, oral transit, pharyngeal, and esophageal phases, each of which plays a critical role in ensuring safe and efficient swallowing.

Dysphagia is the medical term for difficulty with swallowing, which can result from various underlying conditions such as neurological disorders, structural abnormalities, or muscular weakness. Proper evaluation and management of deglutition disorders are essential to prevent complications such as aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, and dehydration.

Laryngeal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure and function of the larynx, also known as the voice box. The larynx is a complex structure composed of cartilages, muscles, membranes, and mucous glands that play essential roles in breathing, swallowing, and vocalization.

Laryngeal diseases can be categorized into several types based on their causes and manifestations. Some common laryngeal diseases include:

1. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the larynx that can cause hoarseness, throat pain, coughing, and difficulty swallowing. Acute laryngitis is often caused by viral infections or irritants, while chronic laryngitis may result from prolonged exposure to smoke, chemicals, or acid reflux.
2. Vocal cord lesions: Abnormal growths on the vocal cords, such as polyps, nodules, or cysts, that can affect voice quality and cause hoarseness, breathiness, or pain. These lesions are often caused by overuse, misuse, or trauma to the vocal cords.
3. Laryngeal cancer: Malignant tumors that develop in the larynx and can invade surrounding structures, such as the throat, neck, and chest. Laryngeal cancer is often associated with smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
4. Laryngeal stenosis: Narrowing of the airway due to scarring or thickening of the tissues in the larynx. This condition can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, and coughing, especially during physical activity or sleep.
5. Reinke's edema: Swelling of the vocal cords caused by fluid accumulation in the mucous membrane that covers them. Reinke's edema is often associated with smoking and can cause hoarseness, low voice, and difficulty projecting the voice.
6. Laryngeal papillomatosis: A rare condition characterized by the growth of benign tumors (papillomas) in the larynx, usually caused by HPV infection. These tumors can recur and may require repeated surgeries to remove them.
7. Vocal cord paralysis: Inability of one or both vocal cords to move due to nerve damage or other medical conditions. This condition can cause hoarseness, breathiness, and difficulty speaking or swallowing.

These are some of the common laryngeal disorders that can affect a person's voice, breathing, and swallowing functions. Proper diagnosis and treatment by an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist) are essential to manage these conditions effectively and prevent complications.

The hyoid bone is a U-shaped bone located in the anterior neck, superior to the thyroid cartilage. It does not articulate with any other bones and serves as an attachment point for various muscles, including those involved in swallowing, breathing, and speaking. The unique structure of the hyoid bone allows it to support the tongue and contribute to the stability of the airway.

Laryngeal edema is a medical condition characterized by the swelling of the tissues in the larynx or voice box. The larynx, which contains the vocal cords, plays a crucial role in protecting the airways, regulating ventilation, and enabling speech and swallowing. Laryngeal edema can result from various causes, such as allergic reactions, infections, irritants, trauma, or underlying medical conditions like angioedema or autoimmune disorders.

The swelling of the laryngeal tissues can lead to narrowing of the airways, causing symptoms like difficulty breathing, noisy breathing (stridor), coughing, and hoarseness. In severe cases, laryngeal edema may obstruct the airway, leading to respiratory distress or even suffocation. Immediate medical attention is necessary for individuals experiencing these symptoms to ensure proper diagnosis and timely intervention. Treatment options typically include medications like corticosteroids, antihistamines, or epinephrine to reduce swelling and alleviate airway obstruction.

The soft palate, also known as the velum, is the rear portion of the roof of the mouth that is made up of muscle and mucous membrane. It extends from the hard palate (the bony front part of the roof of the mouth) to the uvula, which is the small piece of tissue that hangs down at the back of the throat.

The soft palate plays a crucial role in speech, swallowing, and breathing. During swallowing, it moves upward and backward to block off the nasal cavity, preventing food and liquids from entering the nose. In speech, it helps to direct the flow of air from the mouth into the nose, which is necessary for producing certain sounds.

Anatomically, the soft palate consists of several muscles that allow it to change shape and move. These muscles include the tensor veli palatini, levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and palatoglossus. The soft palate also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves that provide sensation and help regulate its function.

Glossectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the partial or total removal of the tongue. This type of surgery may be performed for various reasons, such as treating certain types of cancer (like oral or tongue cancer) that have not responded to other forms of treatment, or removing a portion of the tongue that's severely damaged or injured due to trauma.

The extent of the glossectomy depends on the size and location of the tumor or lesion. A partial glossectomy refers to the removal of a part of the tongue, while a total glossectomy involves the complete excision of the tongue. In some cases, reconstructive surgery may be performed to help restore speech and swallowing functions after the procedure.

It is essential to note that a glossectomy can significantly impact a patient's quality of life, as the tongue plays crucial roles in speaking, swallowing, and taste sensation. Therefore, multidisciplinary care involving speech therapists, dietitians, and other healthcare professionals is often necessary to help patients adapt to their new conditions and optimize their recovery process.

Laryngoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the larynx, which is the upper part of the windpipe (trachea), and the vocal cords using a specialized instrument called a laryngoscope. The laryngoscope is inserted through the mouth or nose to provide a clear view of the larynx and surrounding structures. This procedure can be performed for diagnostic purposes, such as identifying abnormalities like growths, inflammation, or injuries, or for therapeutic reasons, such as removing foreign objects or taking tissue samples for biopsy. There are different types of laryngoscopes and techniques used depending on the reason for the examination and the patient's specific needs.

Gas lasers are a type of laser that uses a gas as the gain medium, or the material through which the laser beam is amplified. In a gas laser, the gas is excited electrically or through the use of a radio frequency (RF) generator, causing the atoms or molecules within the gas to emit light at specific wavelengths.

The most common type of gas laser is the helium-neon (HeNe) laser, which produces a red beam at a wavelength of 632.8 nanometers. Other types of gas lasers include the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, which produces an infrared beam and is commonly used for industrial cutting and welding applications, and the nitrogen laser, which produces a ultraviolet beam.

Gas lasers are known for their high efficiency, stability, and long lifespan. They are also relatively easy to maintain and operate, making them popular choices for a variety of industrial, scientific, and medical applications. In medicine, gas lasers are used for procedures such as laser surgery, where they can be used to cut or coagulate tissue with high precision.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

A laryngeal mask is a type of supraglottic airway device that is used in anesthesia and critical care to secure the airway during procedures or respiratory support. It consists of an inflatable cuff that is inserted into the hypopharynx, behind the tongue, and above the laryngeal opening. The cuff forms a low-pressure seal around the laryngeal inlet, allowing for the delivery of ventilated gases to the lungs while minimizing the risk of aspiration.

Laryngeal masks are often used as an alternative to endotracheal intubation, especially in cases where intubation is difficult or contraindicated. They are also used in emergency situations for airway management and during resuscitation efforts. Laryngeal masks come in various sizes and designs, with some models allowing for the placement of a gastric tube to decompress the stomach and reduce the risk of regurgitation and aspiration.

Overall, laryngeal masks provide a safe and effective means of securing the airway while minimizing trauma and discomfort to the patient.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Laryngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Laryngeal neoplasms can affect any part of the larynx, including the vocal cords, epiglottis, and the area around the vocal cords called the ventricle.

Benign laryngeal neoplasms may include papillomas, hemangiomas, or polyps. Malignant laryngeal neoplasms are typically squamous cell carcinomas, which account for more than 95% of all malignant laryngeal tumors. Other types of malignant laryngeal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma.

Risk factors for developing laryngeal neoplasms include smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to industrial chemicals, and a history of acid reflux. Symptoms may include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, or a lump in the neck. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Fiber optic technology in the medical context refers to the use of thin, flexible strands of glass or plastic fibers that are designed to transmit light and images along their length. These fibers are used to create bundles, known as fiber optic cables, which can be used for various medical applications such as:

1. Illumination: Fiber optics can be used to deliver light to hard-to-reach areas during surgical procedures or diagnostic examinations.
2. Imaging: Fiber optics can transmit images from inside the body, enabling doctors to visualize internal structures and tissues. This is commonly used in medical imaging techniques such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, and laparoscopy.
3. Sensing: Fiber optic sensors can be used to measure various physiological parameters such as temperature, pressure, and strain within the body. These sensors can provide real-time data during surgical procedures or for monitoring patients' health status.

Fiber optic technology offers several advantages over traditional medical imaging techniques, including high resolution, flexibility, small diameter, and the ability to bend around corners without significant loss of image quality. Additionally, fiber optics are non-magnetic and can be used in MRI environments without causing interference.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

The oropharynx is the part of the throat (pharynx) that is located immediately behind the mouth and includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. It serves as a passageway for both food and air, and is also an important area for the immune system due to the presence of tonsils.

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Raj, Phulchand (1969). "Acute epiglottis in children. A respiratory emergency". Br J Anaesth. 41 (7): 619-627. doi:10.1093/bja/ ... Among them are: Acute epiglottis in children: a respiratory emergency Oxidation drug metabolism in human liver microsomes ...
The epiglottis rests above the soft palate while the animal is not swallowing, forming an airtight seal. Oral breathing can ... Like horses, the normal anatomical position of the epiglottis causes it to be engaged over the caudal rim of the soft palate, ... Negus, VE (1927). "The Function of the Epiglottis". Journal of Anatomy. 62 (Pt 1): 1-8. PMC 1250045. PMID 17104162. Holcombe, ...
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The epiglottis is a flap of elastic cartilage attached to the entrance of the larynx. It is covered with a mucous membrane and ... The epiglottis folds down to a more horizontal position to direct the food into the esophagus, and away from the trachea. Once ... The epiglottis functions to guard the entrance of the glottis, the opening between the vocal folds. It is normally pointed ... There are also taste buds on the epiglottis and upper part of the esophagus. The taste buds are innervated by a branch of the ...
In front, they are bounded by the epiglottis. Behind, they are bounded by the apices of the arytenoid cartilages, the ... They extend from the lateral borders of the epiglottis to the arytenoid cartilages, hence the name 'aryepiglottic'. They ... They originate from the lateral borders of the epiglottis. They insert into the arytenoid cartilages. ...
Epiglottis: A large, spoon-shaped piece of elastic cartilage. During swallowing, the pharynx and larynx rise. Elevation of the ... The cavity of the larynx extends from its triangle-shaped inlet, to the epiglottis, and to the circular outlet at the lower ... The larynx extends vertically from the tip of the epiglottis to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage. Its interior can ... Similarly, only mammals possess a true epiglottis, although a flap of non-cartilagenous mucosa is found in a similar position ...
Epiglottis Rumrill Elf was registered in 1985 by J Rumrill. It was produced by pollinating a S. crurigera with an Epidendrum ...
His descriptions of the larynx and epiglottis are very rudimentary. Mondino describes the closure of an incised intestinal ...
"Adenocarcinoma Involving the Tongue and the Epiglottis in a Horse". Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 76 (3): 467-470. doi ...
The epiglottis closes the opening to the larynx during swallowing. The trachea begins to form in the second month of embryo ...
... epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds, and false cords); and the subglottis. Most laryngeal cancers originate in the ...
The shortened aryepiglottic folds cause the epiglottis to be curled on itself. This is the well known "omega shaped" epiglottis ... the epiglottis) tightly to the mobile cartilage in the back of the larynx (the arytenoids). These bands are known as the ...
The vocal folds are anchored close to the epiglottis base. When comparing an elephant's vocal folds to those of a human, an ...
However, he was scratched from the race on May 1 due to an entrapped epiglottis, which impaired his breathing. Because of his ... Omaha Beach was scratched after he was diagnosed with entrapped epiglottis. Culpepper, Chuck. "Country House wins Kentucky ...
The epiglottis functions to prevent the rabbit from aspirating on its food. Further, the presence of a soft and hard palate ... Because the rabbit's epiglottis is engaged over the soft palate except when swallowing, the rabbit is an obligate nasal ... This is due to the fact that the epiglottis is fixed to the backmost portion of the soft palate. Within the oral cavity, a ...
1892 Jan; 26(Pt 2):197-8 The Action of the Epiglottis during Deglutition. Kanthack A A, Anderson HK. J. Physiol. 1893 Mar;14(2- ...
Swollen epiglottis in laryngoscopy Normal appearance of epiglottis (label 3) as seen on laryngoscopy On lateral C-spine X-ray, ... As the epiglottis is in the upper airway, swelling can interfere with breathing. People may lean forward in an effort to open ... The most accurate way to make the diagnosis is to look directly at the epiglottis. X-rays of the neck from the side may show a ... An infected epiglottis appears swollen and is described as having a "cherry-red" appearance. Imaging is rarely useful, and ...
A third prominence that comes from the fourth arch develops the epiglottis. The laryngeal orifice is behind the third ...
The vocal folds are long and are attached close to the epiglottis base. When comparing an elephant's vocal folds to those of a ...
Horses are unable to breathe through the mouth as the free apex of the rostral epiglottis lies dorsal to the soft palate in a ... The flap of cartilage called the epiglottis stops food from entering the larynx. In humans, the pharynx is part of the ... Because both food and air pass through the pharynx, a flap of connective tissue called the epiglottis closes over the glottis ... It lies inferior to the epiglottis and extends to the location where this common pathway diverges into the respiratory ( ...
They do not have external nares (nostrils) and breathe solely through their epiglottis. The anhinga is placed in the darter ...
... and the vagus nerve from the epiglottis. The sensory processes, using their primary cell bodies from the inferior ganglion, ...
Epiglottal consonants are made with the epiglottis and the back wall of the pharynx. Epiglottal stops have been recorded in ... Voiced epiglottal consonants are not deemed possible due to the cavity between the glottis and epiglottis being too small to ... Radical consonants either use the root of the tongue or the epiglottis during production. Pharyngeal consonants are made by ...
There are risks of damage to the vocal cords and destabilization of the epiglottis. Beautification and rejuvenation procedures ...
... and epiglottis; anastomosing with the vessels of the opposite side. The lingual artery supplies the tongue. It also supplies ...
Radical consonants either use the root of the tongue or the epiglottis during production and are produced very far back in the ... Epiglottal consonants are made with the epiglottis and the back wall of the pharynx. Epiglottal stops have been recorded in ... Voiced epiglottal consonants are not deemed possible due to the cavity between the glottis and epiglottis being too small to ...
The epiglottis (PL: epiglottises or epiglottides) is a leaf-shaped flap in the throat that prevents food and water from ... The epiglottis has been identified as early as Aristotle, and gets its name from being above the glottis (epi- + glottis). The ... The epiglottis here is shown as 2. Structures of the larynx as viewed during laryngoscopy. The leaf-like epiglottis is shown ... The epiglottis was noted by Aristotle, although the epiglottis function was first defined by Vesalius in 1543. The word has ...
USMLE Step 1 General Pathology Active Recall Review [Pathoma Ch 1-3 ...
Blood and Epiglottis Cultures. Blood cultures and culture of the epiglottis should be performed only after the airway is ... Note cherry red epiglottis. This image was taken in 2008 and the child was completely immunized and grew HiB from surface ... Cultures of the surface of the epiglottis obtained during endotracheal intubation are positive in 50-75% of cases. [14] ... In classic epiglottitis, a lateral soft-tissue radiograph of the neck reveals a swollen epiglottis protruding from the anterior ...
Epiglottis. 43. 13,000. 3.3 × 10-3. Trachea. UDL. 145. NA. Right bronchus. 840. 421. 2.0 × 100. ...
The treatment of patients with N0 squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the head and neck remains controversial. The negative impact of regional lymph node metastases on the survival in patients with SCCA of the upper aerodigestive tract has been well established.
the area between the uvula and epiglottis (the small flap that guards your windpipe) ...
That includes the tongue, teeth, epiglottis, and esophagus. ... Next, the epiglottis, a small but important flap of tissue, ... That includes the tongue, teeth, epiglottis, and esophagus.. The teeth grind and chop food into tiny pieces while the glands in ...
The ______ end of the epiglottis is narrow and attached by thyroepiglottic ligament to the angle formed by the 2 laminae of ... The epiglottis is a spoon shaped plate of ________ cartilage, the _______ ned is broad and free. ... The anterior surface of the epiglottis is attached to the body of the hyoid by the ___________ ligament. ...
Corrosive injuries are usually most pronounced in the pharyngeal mucosa, epiglottis and esophagus. Systemic effects include ... Formaldehyde solution (formalin) causes corrosive injury to the gastrointestinal tract, especially the pharynx, epiglottis, ... epiglottis, esophagus, and stomach may occur. Both formaldehyde and the methanol stabilizer are easily absorbed and can ...
Biserrula epiglottis (L.) P.Coulot, P.Rabaute & J.-M.Tison, 2014. Fabaceae. CR. Fiche…. ...
Epiglottitis is an infection and swelling of the epiglottis, the tissue in the throat that covers and protects the larynx ...
The epiglottis is a flap of tissue at the back of the throat that you cant see when you look in the mouth. When you swallow, ... If the epiglottis becomes inflamed or infected, it can swell and quickly block the airway. This makes it very hard to breathe. ...
3] The Bullard laryngoscope barely touches the epiglottis on insertion and provides a clear view of the vocal cords and larynx ... In the resting human larynx, the epiglottis usually protects, and thus covers, the opening of the glottis. Therefore, it needs ... In this, the Bullard laryngoscope is introduced intra-orally to lift the epiglottis while a smaller diameter tracheal tube is ... This retraction of the epiglottis is facilitated by laryngoscopy with the help of the blade of the laryngoscope. ...
... a door-like structure called the epiglottis closes the airway and pushes food into the esophagus. These series of contractions ...
... epiglottis, tracheostomies, or those who need intubation.Fiberoptic tools are not just for surgeons and consultants. The ...
Red and swollen epiglottis and aryepiglottic folds are not volume-or chloride-responsive. Symptomatic and prophylactic ...
The epiglottis can become infected by certain bacteria (epiglottitis Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is a bacterial infection of the ... The epiglottis is a small flap of tissue that closes the entrance to the voice box and windpipe during swallowing. ... Adults who do not appear seriously ill and have no respiratory symptoms may have neck x-rays to look for a swollen epiglottis ... epiglottis and surrounding tissues. Epiglottitis may block the windpipe (trachea) and be fatal. The main symptoms are severe ...
Epiglottis (Off-label). 100 mg/kg/day IV on first day; follow with 50 mg/kg on day 2 or 75 mg/kg qDay for 10-14 days ...
FLOPPY EPIGLOTTIS IN ADULT POSES THREAT TO AIRWAY MANAGEMENT: A CASE REPORT DR SHIHAM MOHAMUD FOUZI ...
Epiglottis: Tissue flap at the entrance to the trachea that closes when you swallow to keep food and liquids out of your airway ...
MAC blades are curved to sit in the vallecula to lift the epiglottis indirectly but putting pressure on the glossoepiglottic ... Miller are used in this age group due to their large floppy epiglottis and laxity of the ligament. ... Miller blades are straight blades which are designed to directly lift the epiglottis ...
%CODE1% Javascript not enabled Name: ID: Email: AP Chapter 42 RETEST Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. A B C D E 1. Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the bodys…
Anterior surface of epiglottis. C102. Lateral wall of oropharynx. C103. Posterior wall of oropharynx. ...
Part of Body: Epiglottis Sabian Symbol: A man with rakish silk hat, muffled, braves the storm. ...
... infection and swelling of the epiglottis) and cellulites (rapidly progressing skin infection which usually involves face, head ...
... fluid recirculation at the back of the tongue and cranial to the tip of the epiglottis during mid-inspiration, (ii) horizontal ... fluid recirculation at the back of the tongue and cranial to the tip of the epiglottis during mid-inspiration, (ii) horizontal ... fluid recirculation at the back of the tongue and cranial to the tip of the epiglottis during mid-inspiration, (ii) horizontal ... fluid recirculation at the back of the tongue and cranial to the tip of the epiglottis during mid-inspiration, (ii) horizontal ...
Epiglottis is in the way.. I cant see the.... Dr. Warren, take over for Dr. Ross.. Im sorry.. Mm-hmm.. Now, that is how a ...
Chortling and singing disengages your epiglottis. Its, like, science.. May 19, 2011 at 6:14 AM Charlayne said... Hey Meg. Have ...
  • The epiglottis is made of elastic cartilage covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the entrance of the larynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epiglottis sits at the entrance of the larynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epiglottis originates at the entrance of the larynx, and is attached to the hyoid bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the resting human larynx, the epiglottis usually protects, and thus covers, the opening of the glottis. (medscape.com)
  • Comparative histoanatomy of the epiglottis and pre-epiglottic space of the chimpanzee larynx (a hominid, phyletic closest relative of humans) was investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • These histoanatomical structures of the epiglottis and pre-epiglottic space reflect the fact that chimpanzees have a descended larynx and acquire the pharyngeal space of the vocal tract. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that, in the process of evolution, the histoanatomical structures of the epiglottis and pre-epiglottic space change and allow the larynx to descend and lengthen the pharyngeal space of the vocal tract which facilitates speech production in humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • If you hit the epiglottis (the basket with the bottom intact= blocked end), you must crawl out again and go through the correct tunnel to travel down the esophagus (basket with the bottom cut out). (scienceworld.ca)
  • Corrosive injuries are usually most pronounced in the pharyngeal mucosa, epiglottis and esophagus. (cdc.gov)
  • The epiglottis (PL: epiglottises or epiglottides) is a leaf-shaped flap in the throat that prevents food and water from entering the trachea and the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • During swallowing, the epiglottis bends backwards, folding over the entrance to the trachea, and preventing food from going into it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epiglottis prevents the bolus from entering the trachea (or "windpipe")and beinginhaled. (scienceworld.ca)
  • The space between the epiglottis and the tongue is called the vallecula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage at the base of the tongue at the very back of the throat. (chkd.org)
  • The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Blood cultures and culture of the epiglottis should be performed only after the airway is secured. (medscape.com)
  • The epiglottis may be inflamed in a condition called epiglottitis, which is most commonly due to the vaccine-preventable bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation of the epiglottis is known as epiglottitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the epiglottis becomes swollen and inflamed, it is called epiglottitis. (chkd.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is bacteria that commonly cause bacterial meningitis and pneumonia and the leading cause of other invasive diseases as septic arthritis (joint infection), epiglottitis (infection and swelling of the epiglottis) and cellulites (rapidly progressing skin infection which usually involves face, head, or neck). (who.int)
  • The epiglottis is normally pointed upward during breathing with its underside functioning as part of the pharynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • The body of the epiglottis consists of elastic cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • panel A) and extensive soft tissue edema and inflammation of the soft palate, uvula, tonsils, epiglottis, and retropharyngeal tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • The epiglottis arises from the fourth pharyngeal arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Swollen epiglottis with characteristic thumbprint sign. (medscape.com)
  • The ______ end of the epiglottis is narrow and attached by thyroepiglottic ligament to the angle formed by the 2 laminae of thyroid cartilage. (brainscape.com)
  • The epiglottis (say: eh-pih-GLAH-tus), is a small flap of tissue that covers the air-only passage when we swallow, keeping food and liquid from going into the lungs. (kidshealth.org)
  • Next, the epiglottis, a small but important flap of tissue, folds over the voice box at the top of the windpipe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This retraction of the epiglottis is facilitated by laryngoscopy with the help of the blade of the laryngoscope. (medscape.com)
  • Flexible laryngoscopy showed ulcerative, vesicular lesions on the epiglottis. (cdc.gov)
  • The epiglottis has been identified as early as Aristotle, and gets its name from being above the glottis (epi- + glottis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior surface of the epiglottis is attached to the body of the hyoid by the ___________ ligament. (brainscape.com)
  • RESULTS: The histoanatomical structures of the chimpanzees' epiglottis and pre-epiglottic space were considerably similar to those of human adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • These histologic findings of epiglottis indicate that the chimpanzee's epiglottis is flexible and plays the role of retroflection. (bvsalud.org)
  • A condition in which the thin membrane lying below the epiglottis moves up and covers the epiglottis. (docsports.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine from MRI measurements whether soft palate length (SPL) and thickness are correlated in dogs, evaluate the association between the olfactory bulb angle (OBA) and degree of brachycephalia, and determine the correlation between soft palate-epiglottis overlap and OBA in dogs. (avma.org)
  • The percentage of epiglottis-soft palate overlap significantly decreased with increasing OBA ( r 2 = 0.31). (avma.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that MRI images can be consistently used to assess anatomic landmarks for measurement of SPL and thickness, OBA, and soft palate-to-epiglottis distance in brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs. (avma.org)
  • The percentage of epiglottis-soft palate overlap was significantly greater in brachycephalic dogs and was correlated to the degree of brachycephalia. (avma.org)
  • Moreover, the distribution of the human pre-epiglottic space likely allows the epiglottis to more effectively play the role of retroflection during swallowing in order to prevent aspiration. (bvsalud.org)
  • The epiglottis is also an important landmark for intubation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today's Medical PowerPoint template is Epiglottis 02 - download here . (medicineppt.com)
  • The epiglottis should be easily visualized to determine the presence of swelling. (medscape.com)
  • Corrosive injuries are usually most pronounced in the pharyngeal mucosa, epiglottis and esophagus. (cdc.gov)
  • The vocal cords close sharply, the epiglottis comes down, and no air is passed. (visiblebody.com)
  • 8. Early-stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma of the epiglottis treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. (nih.gov)
  • Cultures of the surface of the epiglottis obtained during endotracheal intubation are positive in 50-75% of cases. (medscape.com)
  • The bifid epiglottis in rare cases may lead to respiratory failure. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Primary malignant melanoma of the epiglottis: a rare presentation. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Unusual presentation of large-cell poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the epiglottis. (nih.gov)
  • 15. A peculiar site of chondroma: the epiglottis. (nih.gov)
  • reported a case wherein lifting of the epiglottis with stylets helped improve the glottic view. (medscape.com)
  • 7. Chondrosarcoma of the Epiglottis: A Case Report and Literature Review. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Pleomorphic adenoma of the epiglottis: report of a case. (nih.gov)
  • Your epiglottis is a flap of cartilage in front of your voice box. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Additionally, lifting the epiglottis with stylets was not considered to be more difficult compared to not lifting the epiglottis (4.06 ± 2.16 cm versus 4.36 ± 2.16 cm, p = 0.137, 95% CI -0.80-0.11). (medscape.com)
  • Lifting of the epiglottis can accelerate intubation and improve the success rate in difficult intubations without increasing the level of difficulty. (medscape.com)