Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A general term for MYCOBACTERIUM infections of any part of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA which are pathogenic to SHEEP.
Accumulation of serous fluid between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) covering the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.

The outcome of sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in patients with obstructive azoospermia: impact of previous tuberculous epididymitis. (1/127)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to investigate the influence of previous tuberculous epididymitis in patients with obstructive azoospermia on the outcome of sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). METHODS: Eighty-eight cycles of ICSI were performed in 44 patients with obstructive azoospermia; 16 cycles (7 patients) with tuberculous obstructive azoospermia and 72 cycles (37 patients) with nontuberculous obstructive azoospermia. RESULTS: The rates of fertilization and embryo cleavage were comparable, and there was no significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate per fresh transfer between the two groups. The rates of embryo implantation and clinical miscarriage were also comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Embryo quality and pregnancy outcome in sperm retrieval and ICSI were comparable in both the tuberculous and the nontuberculous obstructive azoospermia patients. Although there was a preponderance of testicular sperm used in the tuberculous obstructive azoospermia group, our results suggest that previous tuberculous epididymitis in patients with obstructive azoospermia does not affect the outcome of sperm retrieval and ICSI.  (+info)

Demonstration of Tritrichomonas foetus in the external genitalia and of specific antibodies in preputial secretions of naturally infected bulls. (2/127)

Portions of penis and prepuce were collected from 24 bulls with current or recent Tritrichomonas foetus infection. Epididymides were collected from seven of the bulls, and seminal vesicles and prostate were collected from four. Following immunohistochemical staining with two monoclonal antibodies (34.7C4.4 and TF1.15) prepared against T. foetus surface antigens, trichomonads were identified in sections from 15 of the bulls. Organisms were most often located in penile crypts in the midshaft and caudal regions and less often in preputial crypts. Trichomonads were not observed in sections from other genitalia or in subepithelial tissue. T. foetus antigen, however, was present in the cytoplasm of some epithelial cells and the cytoplasm of some mononuclear cells in subepithelial lymphoid aggregates and follicles. Preputial smegma was collected from 16 T. foetus-infected bulls and from 16 control bulls with negative T. foetus cultures. Preputial antibody levels to TF1.17, a surface antigen of T. foetus, were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial secretions from infected bulls contained specific antibody of each isotype and subisotype tested. IgG1 responses were the greatest, IgM and IgA responses were approximately equal, and IgG2 responses were low. Each isotype and subisotype response in infected bulls was significantly greater than that in the controls. These results confirm previous speculation concerning anatomical sites of infection and suggest that parasite antigen can be taken up and processed locally, resulting in deposition of specific IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM antibodies in the preputial cavity.  (+info)

Relevance of male accessory gland infection for subsequent fertility with special focus on prostatitis. (3/127)

Infections of the male genitourinary tract may contribute to infertility to a various extent depending on the site of inflammation. Especially in prostatitis, the exact classification of the infection contributes to its impact on changes in the ejaculate. Similarly, in urethritis, epididymitis and orchitis, only a clear clinical diagnosis allows a rational approach to altered sperm parameters. Several inflammatory and reactive alterations of sperm quality seem to be proven; nevertheless, the impact of these findings on male fertility remains in many cases unclear. Even therapeutic trials do not provide more insights into the association of male genital infections and impaired fertility, although the efficacy of antibiotic trials seems to be proven. For the future, it may be decisive to evaluate inflammatory changes in the ejaculate not only on the basis of standard but also on functional parameters, thus providing new definitions of the interactions between male urogenital tract infection and disturbances of male fertility.  (+info)

Chlamydia trachomatis infection mimicking testicular malignancy in a young man. (4/127)

A young man with a low risk history for sexually transmitted diseases presented with an apparently longstanding, previously asymptomatic scrotal mass, highly suggestive of testicular malignancy on palpation. Ultrasound sited the lesion in the epididymis. Although there was no evidence of urethritis, chlamydia polymerase chain reaction testing was positive. Tumour markers were negative. Complete clinical and radiological response was achieved after a long course of doxycycline treatment, without surgical exploration of the scrotum, confirming the diagnosis of chlamydial epididymitis.  (+info)

Effectiveness and limits of antimicrobial treatment on seminal leukocyte concentration and related reactive oxygen species production in patients with male accessory gland infection. (5/127)

To evaluate whether bacteriological cure, sperm outcome, spontaneous pregnancy rate and white blood cell (WBC)-related reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were related to the extent of the infection and to an intermittent and repetitive antimicrobial treatment, 122 patients with bacterial [>10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml] male accessory gland infections (MAGI) were studied. According to ultrasound criteria, patients had prostatitis (PR, n = 52), prostatovesiculitis (PV, n = 32) or prostatovesiculoepididymitis (PVE, n = 38). Each group was further subdivided into two subsets: one subset (PR, n = 40; PV, n = 20; PVE, n = 25) was given ofloxacin or doxycycline for 14 consecutive days per month for 3 months; the other subset (PR, n = 12; PV, n = 12; PVE, n = 13) received no treatment. The female partners were also treated. All patients were evaluated before, during (1 and 3 months) and after (3 months) treatment. The bacteriological cure rate was the highest (92.5%) after the third antibiotic course in PR, followed by PV (70.4%), and the lowest in PVE (52.0%). At 3 months after therapy discontinuation, some sperm parameters, seminal WBC concentration and ROS generation (assessed in the 45% Percoll fraction) were ameliorated in PR and PV, whereas no improvement occurred in patients with PVE, except for the percentage of coiled tails. Antibiotic treatment in PR and PV patients led to positive effects on sperm output and spontaneous pregnancy rate (40%) by removing pro-oxidant noxae (microbial and/or WBC-related ROS production). The persistent infertility, dyspermia and sperm-derived ROS overproduction in PVE may relate to a significant percentage of antibiotic-independent re-infection and/or to low antioxidative epididymal properties, which persisted following antimicrobial treatment.  (+info)

An antimicrobial peptide gene found in the male reproductive system of rats. (6/127)

Little is known about the innate defense mechanisms of the male reproductive tract. We cloned a 385-base pair complementary DNA and its genomic DNA named Bin1b that is exclusively expressed in the caput region of the rat epididymis and that is responsible for sperm maturation, storage, and protection. Bin1b exhibits structural characteristics and antimicrobial activity similar to that of cationic antimicrobial peptides, beta-defensins. Bin1b is maximally expressed when the rats are sexually mature and can be up-regulated by inflammation. Bin1b appears to be a natural epididymis-specific antimicrobial peptide that plays a role in reproductive tract host defense and male fertility.  (+info)

Contribution of environmental factors to the risk of male infertility. (7/127)

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. We investigated the relationships between exposure to environmental agents and seminal characteristics, and the concentrations of reproductive hormones in the serum of men seeking infertility treatment. METHODS: We studied 225 male partners from consecutively recruited couples, who had their first infertility consultation between 1995 and 1998, in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina, one of the most productive farming regions in the world. RESULTS: A multivariate logistic regression model showed that exposure to pesticides and solvents is significantly associated with sperm threshold values well below the limit for male fertility. We also found that men exposed to pesticides had higher serum oestradiol concentrations, and that men exposed to solvents had lower LH concentrations than non-exposed men. All of these effects were greater in men with primary infertility than in men with secondary infertility. CONCLUSION: We have shown that environmental factors contribute to the severity of infertility, and that this may worsen the effects of pre-existing genetic or medical risk factors.  (+info)

Effects of treatment with carnitines in infertile patients with prostato-vesiculo-epididymitis. (8/127)

BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that patients with prostato-vesiculo-epididymitis (PVE) have a greater reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction than patients with prostatitis or prostato-vesiculitis. Since this biochemical stress persists even after treatment with antimicrobials, it may relate to an imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors at the epididymal level. METHODS: To evaluate the effects of antioxidant treatment of patients with PVE, whether in the presence or absence of pro-oxidant factors, abacterial PVE infertile patients with normal (<1x10(6)/ml, group A, n = 34) or abnormal (>1x10(6)/ml, group B, n = 20) seminal white blood cell (WBC) concentrations received carnitines (L-carnitine 1 g and acetyl-carnitine 0.5 g twice/day) for 3 months followed by a wash-out period of 3 months. Semen parameters, ROS production and pregnancy outcome were evaluated before, during and following carnitine treatment. RESULTS: Carnitines increased sperm forward motility and viability in group A patients. This was associated with a significant reduction in ROS production which persisted during wash-out. Carnitines increased only the percentage of viable spermatozoa in group B patients. Within 3 months after the discontinuation of carnitines, the rate of spontaneous pregnancy in group A patients was significantly higher than that of group B patients, being 11.7% (4/34) compared with 0%. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that carnitines are only an effective treatment in patients with abacterial PVE and elevated ROS production when seminal WBC concentration is normal.  (+info)

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

Orchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of one or both testicles, usually caused by an infection. The most common cause of orchitis is a bacterial infection that spreads from the epididymis, resulting in a condition known as epididymo-orchitis. However, viral infections such as mumps can also lead to orchitis. Symptoms may include sudden and severe pain in the testicle(s), swelling, warmth, redness of the overlying skin, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections and supportive care for symptom relief. If left untreated, orchitis can lead to complications such as infertility or testicular atrophy.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the male genital system, also known as genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB), is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the urinary and genital organs. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which typically enters the body through inhalation and spreads to other parts of the body via the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

In males, GUTB can affect the epididymis, testes, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and urethra. The most common site of infection is the epididymis, followed by the prostate gland. Symptoms may include pain or swelling in the affected area, discharge from the urethra, blood in the urine, fever, fatigue, and weight loss.

Diagnosis of GUTB typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as urinalysis, culture, or biopsy). Treatment usually involves a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics that are effective against TB, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Surgery may be necessary in some cases to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

GUTB can lead to serious complications if left untreated, including infertility, chronic pain, and spread of the infection to other parts of the body. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms suggestive of GUTB.

Spermatic cord torsion is a urological emergency that refers to the twisting of the spermatic cord, which contains the vas deferens, blood vessels (testicular artery and pampiniform plexus), nerves, and lymphatics. This twisting results in the compromise of the blood supply to the testicle, leading to potential ischemia, necrosis, and loss of the testicle if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The spermatic cord torsion mainly affects the pediatric population, particularly newborns and adolescents; however, it can also occur in adults, especially those with a history of an undescended testicle or previous episodes of torsion. The most common presenting symptom is sudden onset of severe scrotal pain, often associated with nausea, vomiting, and fever. A physical examination may reveal swelling, tenderness, and elevation of the affected testicle (known as a high-riding or "bell clapper" testicle). Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound or Doppler ultrasonography, although in some cases, surgical exploration might be necessary for definitive diagnosis and treatment.

Treatment of spermatic cord torsion usually involves prompt surgical intervention to untwist the spermatic cord and secure the affected testicle to the scrotal wall (orchidopexy) to prevent recurrence. Delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to severe complications, including loss of the testicle, infertility, and chronic pain.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

Genital diseases in males refer to various medical conditions that affect the male reproductive and urinary systems, including the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. These conditions can be infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic (cancerous) in nature. Some common examples of male genital diseases include:

1. Balanitis: Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis, often caused by infection, irritants, or poor hygiene.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be acute or chronic, bacterial or non-bacterial in origin.
3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. It is often caused by infection.
4. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, usually resulting from infection or autoimmune disorders.
5. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency characterized by twisting of the spermatic cord, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage in the testicle.
6. Varicocele: Dilated veins in the scrotum that can cause pain, discomfort, or fertility issues.
7. Peyronie's disease: A connective tissue disorder causing scarring and curvature of the penis during erections.
8. Penile cancer: Malignant growths on the penis, often squamous cell carcinomas, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause lower urinary tract symptoms such as difficulty initiating or maintaining a steady stream of urine.
10. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Infectious diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papillomavirus (HPV), that can be transmitted through sexual contact and affect the male genital region.

Pasteurellaceae infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae. This family includes several genera of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, with the most common pathogenic genus being Pasteurella. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including pets like cats and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated fluids.

Pasteurellaceae infections can cause a range of clinical manifestations, depending on the specific species involved and the site of infection. Common Pasteurella species that cause human infections include P. multocida and P. pneumotropica. Infections caused by these bacteria often present as localized skin or soft tissue infections, such as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections, following animal contact.

In addition to skin and soft tissue infections, Pasteurellaceae can also cause respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, bronchitis), septicemia, and, rarely, meningitis or endocarditis. Immunocompromised individuals, those with chronic lung disease, or those who have alcohol use disorder are at increased risk for severe Pasteurellaceae infections.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics active against gram-negative bacteria, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate, doxycycline, or fluoroquinolones. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent potential complications and the spread of infection.

Testicular diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the testicles, the male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. These diseases can affect either one or both testicles and may cause pain, swelling, or impact fertility. Here are some examples of testicular diseases:

1. Testicular cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the testicle. It is a relatively rare cancer but is highly treatable if detected early.
2. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency that occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, becomes twisted, cutting off the blood flow.
3. Epididymitis: An infection or inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube that stores and carries sperm from the testicle.
4. Orchitis: An infection or inflammation of the testicle itself. It can occur on its own or as a complication of mumps.
5. Hydrocele: A fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle, causing swelling.
6. Varicocele: Enlarged veins in the scrotum that can cause pain and affect fertility.
7. Inguinal hernia: A condition where a portion of the intestine or fat protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge in the groin or scrotum.
8. Testicular trauma: Injury to the testicle, which can result from accidents, sports injuries, or other causes.
9. Undescended testicles: A condition where one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth.

It is essential for men to perform regular self-examinations to check for any unusual lumps, swelling, or pain in the testicles and seek medical attention if they notice any changes.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Urogenital tuberculosis (UTB) is a less common form of TB that affects the urinary and genital systems. It occurs when the bacteria spread through the bloodstream from the initial site of infection, usually the lungs, to the kidneys. The infection can then spread to other parts of the urinary system, including the ureters, bladder, and urethra, as well as the genital organs in both men and women.

UTB symptoms may include:
- Persistent dull pain in the lower back or side
- Frequent urination or urgent need to urinate
- Painful urination (dysuria)
- Blood in the urine (hematuria)
- Incontinence
- Sexual dysfunction in men, such as epididymitis or infertility
- Scrotal mass in men
- Amenorrhea or irregular menstruation in women

Diagnosis of UTB typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), urine analysis and culture, and sometimes biopsy. Treatment usually consists of a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics to eliminate the infection. Surgery may be required in some cases to repair damaged organs or remove scar tissue.

'Brucella ovis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus-shaped bacterium that belongs to the genus Brucella. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen that primarily causes contagious epididymitis and orchitis in rams (male sheep), leading to infertility and decreased flock productivity.

This bacterial species is host-adapted, meaning it mainly affects sheep and goats, and does not typically cause disease in humans. However, there have been rare cases of laboratory-acquired infections in people working with infected animals or their tissues.

'Brucella ovis' infection control measures include proper sanitation practices, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and vaccination programs for susceptible animal populations to minimize transmission and disease spread.

A testicular hydrocele is a type of fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle (testis), typically in the scrotum. This sac, known as the tunica vaginalis, normally contains a small amount of fluid that helps to lubricate and protect the testicle. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates in this sac, it results in the formation of a hydrocele.

Testicular hydroceles can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life due to various reasons such as injury, inflammation, or infection in the scrotal area. They are usually painless but may cause discomfort or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum, especially when they become large. In some cases, hydroceles may resolve on their own without treatment, while others may require surgical intervention to drain the fluid and repair the underlying issue.

It is essential to differentiate between hydroceles and other conditions with similar symptoms, such as hernias or tumors, which may require more urgent medical attention. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and possibly recommend further testing, like an ultrasound, to confirm the diagnosis of a testicular hydrocele.

Pasteurellaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic or aerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract of animals and humans. Some members of this family can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and localized infections such as abscesses and cellulitis.

Some notable genera within Pasteurellaceae include:

* Pasteurella: includes several species that can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and soft tissue infections in animals and humans. The most common species is Pasteurella multocida, which is a major pathogen in animals and can also cause human infections associated with animal bites or scratches.
* Haemophilus: includes several species that are normal flora of the human respiratory tract and can cause respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and meningitis. The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis and sepsis, particularly in young children.
* Mannheimia: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract of ruminants (such as cattle and sheep) and can cause pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections in these animals. The most common species is Mannheimia haemolytica, which is a major pathogen in cattle and can also cause human infections associated with animal contact.
* Actinobacillus: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract of animals and can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and localized infections in these animals. The most common species is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes a severe form of pneumonia in pigs.

Overall, Pasteurellaceae family members are important pathogens in both veterinary and human medicine, and their infections can range from mild to severe and life-threatening.

The epididymis is a tightly coiled tube located on the upper and posterior portion of the testicle that serves as the site for sperm maturation and storage. It is an essential component of the male reproductive system. The epididymis can be divided into three parts: the head (where newly produced sperm enter from the testicle), the body, and the tail (where mature sperm exit and are stored). Any abnormalities or inflammation in the epididymis may lead to discomfort, pain, or infertility.

'Brucella' is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively intracellular bacteria that are causative agents of brucellosis, a zoonotic disease with various clinical manifestations in humans and animals. The bacteria are primarily hosted by domestic and wild animals, such as cattle, goats, pigs, and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through direct contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal products, such as unpasteurized milk and cheese.

There are several species of Brucella, including B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and B. canis, which primarily infect different animal hosts but can also cause disease in humans. The bacteria have a unique ability to survive and replicate within host cells, such as macrophages, allowing them to evade the immune system and establish chronic infection.

Human brucellosis is characterized by nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, joint pain, and sweats, which can make diagnosis challenging. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline and rifampin, to eradicate the infection. Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products, vaccination of animals, and use of personal protective equipment when handling animals or their products.

Urethritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. Urethritis can be caused by various factors, including bacterial or viral infections, chemical irritants, or trauma to the urethra.

The most common cause of urethritis is a bacterial infection, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea, which can be transmitted through sexual contact. Other symptoms of urethritis may include pain or burning during urination, discharge from the urethra, and frequent urination.

Urethritis is typically diagnosed through a physical examination and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause of the inflammation. Treatment for urethritis depends on the cause but may include antibiotics or other medications to treat infections, as well as measures to relieve symptoms such as pain and discomfort.

Addison disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism, is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the dysfunction and underproduction of hormones produced by the adrenal glands, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, stress response, and immune system function.

The primary cause of Addison disease is the destruction of more than 90% of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands responsible for hormone production. This damage can be due to an autoimmune disorder where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the adrenal gland tissue, infections such as tuberculosis or HIV, cancer, genetic disorders, or certain medications.

The symptoms of Addison disease often develop gradually and may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, low blood pressure, darkening of the skin, and mood changes. In some cases, an acute crisis known as acute adrenal insufficiency or Addisonian crisis can occur, which is a medical emergency characterized by sudden and severe symptoms such as extreme weakness, confusion, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood sugar, and coma.

Diagnosis of Addison disease typically involves blood tests to measure hormone levels, imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs to assess the adrenal glands' size and structure, and stimulation tests to evaluate the adrenal glands' function. Treatment usually involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and sometimes mineralocorticoids. With proper treatment and management, individuals with Addison disease can lead normal and productive lives.

Brucellosis is a bacterial infection caused by the Brucella species, which are gram-negative coccobacilli. It is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. The most common way for humans to contract brucellosis is through consumption of contaminated animal products, such as unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat, from infected animals like goats, sheep, and cattle.

Humans can also acquire the infection through direct contact with infected animals, their tissues, or bodily fluids, especially in occupational settings like farming, veterinary medicine, or slaughterhouses. In rare cases, inhalation of contaminated aerosols or laboratory exposure can lead to brucellosis.

The onset of symptoms is usually insidious and may include fever, chills, night sweats, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, and loss of appetite. The infection can disseminate to various organs, causing complications such as endocarditis, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, orchitis, and epididymoorchitis.

Diagnosis is confirmed through blood cultures, serological tests, or molecular methods like PCR. Treatment typically involves a long course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline combined with rifampin or streptomycin. Prevention measures include pasteurization of dairy products and cooking meat thoroughly before consumption. Vaccination is available for high-risk populations but not for general use due to the risk of adverse reactions and potential interference with serodiagnosis.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Urination, also known as micturition, is the physiological process of excreting urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra. It is a complex process that involves several systems in the body, including the urinary system, nervous system, and muscular system.

In medical terms, urination is defined as the voluntary or involuntary discharge of urine from the urethra, which is the final pathway for the elimination of waste products from the body. The process is regulated by a complex interplay between the detrusor muscle of the bladder, the internal and external sphincters of the urethra, and the nervous system.

During urination, the detrusor muscle contracts, causing the bladder to empty, while the sphincters relax to allow the urine to flow through the urethra and out of the body. The nervous system plays a crucial role in coordinating these actions, with sensory receptors in the bladder sending signals to the brain when it is time to urinate.

Urination is essential for maintaining the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, as well as eliminating waste products such as urea, creatinine, and other metabolic byproducts. Abnormalities in urination can indicate underlying medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, bladder dysfunction, or neurological disorders.

Inguinal hernia, also known as an inguinal rupture or groin hernia, is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is a passage in the lower abdominal wall that carries the spermatic cord in males and a round ligament in females. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women.

There are two types of inguinal hernias: direct and indirect. Direct inguinal hernias occur when the abdominal lining and/or fat push through a weakened area in the lower abdominal wall, while indirect inguinal hernias result from a congenital condition where the abdominal lining and/or fat protrude through the internal inguinal ring, a normal opening in the abdominal wall.

Inguinal hernias can cause discomfort or pain, especially during physical activities, coughing, sneezing, or straining. In some cases, incarceration or strangulation of the hernia may occur, leading to serious complications such as bowel obstruction or tissue necrosis, which require immediate medical attention.

Surgical repair is the standard treatment for inguinal hernias, and it can be performed through open or laparoscopic techniques. The goal of surgery is to return the protruding tissues to their proper position and strengthen the weakened abdominal wall with sutures or mesh reinforcement.

Chronic epididymitis is epididymitis that is present for more than 3 months. Chronic epididymitis is characterized by ... Congestive epididymitis is a long-term complication of vasectomy. Chemical epididymitis may also result from drugs such as ... However, in acute suppurating epididymitis (acute epididymitis with a discharge of pus), an epididymotomy may be recommended; ... acute epididymitis's major complications are abscess formation and testicular infarction. Chronic epididymitis can lead to ...
Pain experienced due to chronic epididymitis is usually more dull compared to acute epididymitis and can be intermittent. ... Epididymitis can be acute (lasting less than six weeks) or chronic (lasting equal to or more than six weeks). ... Epididymitis is the inflammation (swelling) of the tube connecting testicle and vas deferens. When the testis becomes swollen, ... "Epididymitis - STI Treatment Guidelines". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021-07-14. Retrieved 2023-07-30. " ...
Chronic noninfectious epididymitis - Trauma, autoimmune disease, or vasculitis can cause chronic noninfectious epididymitis, ... Management of chronic infectious epididymitis is similar to management of acute infectious epididymitis, rarely does treatment ... Noninfectious epididymitis that happen spontaneously might be caused by the reflux of urine through the ejaculatory ducts and ... Chronic infectious epididymitis is rare. Some signs and symptoms include localized tenderness and swelling in the epididymis, ...
... and epididymitis (35%). In adults, the most common cause is epididymitis.[citation needed] Testicular torsion usually presents ... Epididymitis occurs when there is inflammation of the epididymis (a curved structure at the back of the testicle). This ... It occurs in 15-19% of men post vasectomy, due to infections such as epididymitis, prostatitis, and orchitis, as well as ... Trojian TH, Lishnak TS, Heiman D (April 2009). "Epididymitis and orchitis: an overview". Am Fam Physician. 79 (7): 583-7. PMID ...
... epididymitis). Untreated epididymitis can lead to infertility. Infection that spreads to the joints and other areas of the body ...
Up to 20% of cases can have genitourinary involvement; orchitis and epididymitis are most common. Neurological symptoms include ... abortion Mediterranean fever/epizootic abortion Rock fever of Gibraltar/slinking of calves Gastric fever/ram epididymitis ...
... is sometimes responsible for epididymitis. Amiodarone accumulates in the head of the organ and can cause unilateral ...
A frequent complication to prostatectomy was epididymitis. In 1904, Proust had recommended vasectomy at the time of ...
... such as epididymitis, which can present similarly. While both conditions can cause testicular pain, the pain of epididymitis is ... Epididymitis may also be characterized by discoloration and swelling of the testis, and fever. The cremasteric reflex in ... Epididymitis - can cause testicular pain and present similarly to testicular torsion. Ludvigson, AE; Beaule, LT (June 2016). " ... Epididymitis is more commonly a postpubertal condition. Several congenital anatomic malformations or variations in the testicle ...
If left untreated, complications include epididymitis and infertility. Consistent and correct use of latex condoms during ...
Causes include: infections associated with urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis; use of anti-depressants; cancer of the ...
604 Orchitis and epididymitis 604.9 Orchitis/epididymitis, unspec. 605 Redundant prepuce and phimosis 605.0 Phimosis 606 ...
It can also involve swelling, pains and frequent infection, particularly of the epididymis, as in epididymitis. The term is ... Chung JJ, Kim MJ, Lee T, Yoo HS, Lee JT (September 1997). "Sonographic findings in tuberculous epididymitis and epididymo- ... Orchitis can be related to epididymitis infection that has spread to the testicles (then called "epididymo-orchitis"), ... Sensitivity test Ultrasound scanning In most cases where orchitis is caused by epididymitis, treatment is an oral antibiotic ...
An inflammation of the epididymis is called epididymitis. It is much more common than testicular inflammation, termed orchitis ... placing of an incision into the epididymis and is sometimes considered as a treatment option for acute suppurating epididymitis ... removal of the epididymis sometimes performed for post-vasectomy pain syndrome and for refractory cases of epididymitis. ...
Complications for symptomatic men include urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis, and infertility. It is also associated with ...
History of trauma or epididymitis can also lead to sperm granuloma. In vasectomies, the vas deferens are cut and the two ends ... "Testicular necrosis due to complicated epididymitis and ruptured sperm granuloma in a 13-year-old boy". Journal of Surgical ...
In males, this includes the prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymitis and testes. Exposure of fish to EDCs has also been ...
Clinical and microbiological study of seminal vesiculitis in patients with acute epididymitis". 4 July 2023. Zeitlin, S. I.; ...
... is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with epididymitis of sheep. Sneath, P. H. A.; Stevens, M. (1990 ... "Isolation and Characterization of Actinobacillus seminis Strains from Ovine Semen Samples and Epididymitis". Journal of ...
It is commonly associated with epididymal abnormalities, such as spermatocele, epididymal cyst, and epididymitis. The condition ...
In males, the infection can cause acute orchitis and epididymitis, and in turn infertility. Arthritis can also occur. ...
In males, complications can lead to epididymitis, reactive arthritis, conjunctivitis, skin lesions, and discharge. In females, ...
There is a weak association between orchitis and later development of epididymitis and testicular tumors. Mumps meningitis ... Mumps orchitis is accompanied by inflammation of the epididymis, called epididymitis, about 85% of the time, typically ...
His racing was reduced due to suffering from epididymitis, following his withdrawal from the UAE Tour. Jakob Fuglsang lives in ...
Extracts of Pulsatilla have been used to treat reproductive problems such as premenstrual syndrome and epididymitis. Additional ...
... can also occur in conjunction with infertility, inguinal hernia, testicular torsion, epididymitis, hydrocele ...
According to Prehn's sign, the physical lifting of the testicles relieves the pain of epididymitis but not pain caused by ... Although elevation of the scrotum when differentiating epididymitis from testicular torsion is of clinical value, Prehn's sign ... Positive Prehn's sign indicates there is pain relief with lifting the affected testicle, which points towards epididymitis. ... Another way to differentiate between epididymitis and torsion on physical examination is checking for the cremaster reflex ...
Pain can be present continuously in the form of orchialgia and/or congestive epididymitis or it can be situational, such as ... post-vasectomy pain syndrome is often described as congestive epididymitis. In their Vasectomy Guideline (2015), the American ...
... for example to urgently distinguish epididymitis from testicular torsion). In young males, it is used to distinguish more ...
Infection may spread from the urethra in the penis to nearby structures, including the testicles (epididymitis/orchitis), or to ...
Recommended Regimens for Epididymitis. For acute epididymitis most likely caused by chlamydia or gonorrhea: Ceftriaxone 500 mg ... Acute epididymitis can be caused by STIs (e.g., C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, or M. genitalium) or enteric organisms (i.e., ... Chronic epididymitis is characterized by a ≥6-week history of symptoms of discomfort or pain in the scrotum, testicle, or ... Acute epididymitis is a clinical syndrome causing pain, swelling, and inflammation of the epididymis and lasting ,6 weeks (1191 ...
Chronic epididymitis is epididymitis that is present for more than 3 months. Chronic epididymitis is characterized by ... Congestive epididymitis is a long-term complication of vasectomy. Chemical epididymitis may also result from drugs such as ... However, in acute suppurating epididymitis (acute epididymitis with a discharge of pus), an epididymotomy may be recommended; ... acute epididymitiss major complications are abscess formation and testicular infarction. Chronic epididymitis can lead to ...
Epididymitis is swelling (inflammation) of the tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens. The tube is called the ... Epididymitis is most common in young men ages 19 to 35. It is most often caused by the spread of a bacterial infection. ... Epididymitis is swelling (inflammation) of the tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens. The tube is called the ... Epididymitis most often gets better with antibiotic treatment. There are no long-term sexual or reproductive problems in most ...
Epididymitis must be differentiated from testicular torsion, which is a true urologic emergency. ... Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis; see the image below) is a significant cause of morbidity and is the fifth most ... Pharmacologic treatment of epididymitis may include the following:. * In chronic epididymitis, a 4- to 6-week trial of ... Etiology of chronic epididymitis. The etiology of chronic epididymitis includes the following:. * Inadequate treatment of acute ...
3-6). Epididymitis is often difficult to differentiate from torsion of the spermatic cord. Radiologic techniques can be used to ... Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis caused by infection or trauma. The causative agent responsible for infection ... Epididymitis usually resolves without sequelae if treatment is administered promptly. However, there are some indications that ... If chlamydial or gonococcal epididymitis is suspected, treatment should include ceftriaxone, 125 mg IM, followed by a 10-day ...
Meningitis and epididymitis caused by Toscana virus infection imported to Switzerland diagnosed by metagenomic sequencing: a ... Symptoms included both meningitis and as well epididymitis. This is only the fourth case of Toscana virus reported in ... Symptoms included both meningitis and as well epididymitis. This is only the fourth case of Toscana virus reported in ... The patient presented with lymphocytic meningitis and scrotal pain due to epididymitis. Meningitis was initially treated with ...
Epididymitis and Epididymo-orchitis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Symptoms of Epididymitis and Epididymo-orchitis Symptoms of epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis include ... Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis (the coiled tube on top of the testis that provides the space and environment ... Epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis are diagnosed by physical examination and urinalysis. Doppler ultrasonography Doppler ...
Can Epididymitis Be Caused By Heavy Lifting? What is Epididymitis? - And Can Epididymitis Be Caused By Heavy Lifting? ... epididymitis Can Epididymitis Be Caused By Heavy Lifting?. May 1, 2023. October 30, 2019. by Tommy (Certified Personal Trainer ... It seems you have caught a case of epididymitis, and youre starting to connect the dots to your new hobby. ...
Epididymitis is an infection of the epididymis, which is the organ where sperm matures before exiting the body. ... Some causes of scrotal masses include epididymitis and cancer.. *Spermatocele: This is a fluid buildup in the testicle, also ... Sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, can cause epididymitis. Urinary tract infections can also ... such as inguinal hernias and epididymitis. A doctor can help to diagnose the tumor or any underlying condition. ...
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With epididymitis, pain is gradual in onset, and the tenderness is mostly posterior to the testis. With testicular torsion, the ... Somekh E, Gorenstein A, Serour F. Acute epididymitis in boys: evidence of a post-infectious etiology. J Urol. 2004;171(1):391- ... Trojian TH, Lishnak TS, Heiman D. Epididymitis and orchitis: an overview. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79(7):583-587. [View Abstract ...
Epididymitis must be differentiated from testicular torsion, which is a true urologic emergency. ... Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis; see the image below) is a significant cause of morbidity and is the fifth most ... Pharmacologic treatment of epididymitis may include the following:. * In chronic epididymitis, a 4- to 6-week trial of ... Etiology of chronic epididymitis. The etiology of chronic epididymitis includes the following:. * Inadequate treatment of acute ...
Epididymitis. Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis - the coiled tube at the rear of the testicle. While it affects ... Trauma, urinary tract infections, and viral infections can also trigger epididymitis. While testicular pain and discomfort are ... If youre diagnosed with bacterial epididymitis, youll need to take antibiotics to treat it. Your doctor may also prescribe ... 2018). Epididymitis.. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/epididymitis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20363854. ...
Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, a tube located at the back of the testicles. We explain the symptoms, ... Epididymitis. This condition is typically caused by a bacterial infection, including sexually transmitted infections such as ... There are other potential causes of severe testicular pain, such as the inflammatory condition epididymitis. You should still ... 2018). Epididymitis.. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/epididymitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20363853. ...
Tag: epididymitis. Written by Frank J Peter. May 10, 2023. May 10, 2023. ...
Epididymitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the epididymis of various etiologies, from the online textbook of urology ... Epididymitis. Review Literature: (Luzzi and OBrien, 2001). Definition, Classification and Etiology of Epididymitis. Acute or ... Bacterial epididymitis *Epididymitis secondary to urinary tract infection: E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, ... Nonbacterial infectious epididymitis: viral, fungal or parasitic etiology. *Noninfectious epididymitis: traumatic etiology, ...
It got worse, like an aching pain, so I went to the doctor, where I was diagnosed with epididymitis. I didnt tell my GP that I ...
Does ejaculating hurt epididymitis: The epididymis is a tubular structure responsible for transporting sperm from the testis to ... Can epididymitis be prevented?. There is no general measure that can be used to prevent epididymitis. However, if there is a ... Epididymitis: Does Ejaculating Hurt Epididymitis?. May 9, 2022. May 9, 2022. by Dr. Ashwani Kumar, MD ... Diagnosis of epididymitis. Sometimes epididymitis can be confused with testicular torsion. Therefore, it is vitally important ...
Epididymitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the epididymis (a coiled tube located on the back of the testicle that ... Chronic epididymitis is difficult to treat because its causes are often unknown.[4]Nickel JC. Chronic epididymitis: a practical ... Treatment with antibiotics resolves a large percentage of acute epididymitis cases. Some men may develop chronic epididymitis, ... www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/epididymitis.htm STI tests will determine if gonorrhea and chlamydia may be causing epididymitis. Urine ...
Home/natural cure epididymitis. natural cure epididymitis. * Herbal Remedies. Natural Health NewsJanuary 3, 2023. 0 138 ... Epididymitis Home Remedies is Best Ways to Cure and Reduce Discomfort. Epididymitis A swollen, irritable, and inflamed ... epididymis is known as epididymitis. It may be mistaken for testicular torsion and causes… ...
Browsing: herbal remedies for epididymitis Health Get Rid of Epididymitis Infection Fast with These Natural Remedies. By ... Epididymitis is a painful epididymis infection, the coiled tube at the back of the testicles. If left untreated, epididymitis ...
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To know about the Symptoms, Signs and Management of EPIDIDYMITIS, You can go through the following Links & Pages given below. ...
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Epididymitis Tests:. Our Epididymitis screen helps patients determine if they currently have an inflamed epididymis, which is ...
Epididymitis. ˂1:50. NA. NA. 3. VMDC. Clinical complaint. Discospondylitis. ,1:400. Litter 1 (2/2/2), 2 littermates. NA. 2, 3-4 ...
  • Chronic epididymitis is characterized by a ≥6-week history of symptoms of discomfort or pain in the scrotum, testicle, or epididymis. (cdc.gov)
  • Men who have acute epididymitis typically have unilateral testicular pain and tenderness, hydrocele, and palpable swelling of the epididymis. (cdc.gov)
  • Epididymitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the epididymis, a curved structure at the back of the testicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic epididymitis can lead to permanent damage or even destruction of the epididymis and testicle (resulting in infertility and/or hypogonadism), and infection may spread to any other organ or system of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Color Doppler sonogram of the left epididymis in a patient with acute epididymitis. (medscape.com)
  • Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis caused by infection or trauma. (health.am)
  • Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis (the coiled tube on top of the testis that provides the space and environment for sperm to mature), and epididymo-orchitis is inflammation of the epididymis and testes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Epididymitis is an infection of the epididymis, which is the organ where sperm matures before exiting the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis - the coiled tube at the rear of the testicle. (healthline.com)
  • In epididymitis, ultrasound imaging shows an enlarged epididymis, often together with a hydrozele [ ultrasound imaging: epididymitis ]. (urology-textbook.com)
  • Typical findings for an epididymitis are increased testicular perfusion and an enlarged epididymis. (urology-textbook.com)
  • Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis , the tubular structure in which sperm mature and which connects the testicle to the vas deferens. (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • The main cause of epididymitis is the spread of microorganisms from tissues near the epididymis, such as the urethra, prostate , and bladder. (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • When the inflammation of the epididymis lasts more than 6 weeks or reappears after some time, it is chronic epididymitis . (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • Epididymitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the epididymis (a coiled tube located on the back of the testicle that carries sperm). (havihealth.com)
  • Epididymitis A swollen, irritable, and inflamed epididymis is known as epididymitis. (natural-health-news.com)
  • Epididymitis is a painful epididymis infection, the coiled tube at the back of the testicles. (greendigital.info)
  • Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis (the tube within the testis that carries sperm from the testicle to the vas deferens). (healthyhousemom.com)
  • Our Epididymitis screen helps patients determine if they currently have an inflamed epididymis, which is the tube through which sperm passes at the back of each testicle. (privatemdlabs.com)
  • If there is inflammation of the urogenital system, these bacteria will pass through the vas deferens into the epididymis and multiply rapidly in the epididymis, which will cause epididymitis. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • Epididymitis is a condition that occurs when the epididymis gets swollen or in. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Acute epididymitis is caused by infection of the patient's urinary system and spreads to the epididymis along the vas deferens. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Color Doppler ultrasound image demonstrating increased flow within the epididymis, consistent with epididymitis. (logicalimages.com)
  • Epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis are diagnosed by physical examination, urinalysis, and sometimes Doppler ultrasonography. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis are usually caused by a bacterial infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis are usually treated with antibiotics taken by mouth, pain relievers, and ice packs applied to the scrotum. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Untreated epididymitis can lead to orchitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Trojian TH, Lishnak TS, Heiman D. Epididymitis and orchitis: an overview. (5minuteconsult.com)
  • indicated in epididymo-orchitis, abscess formation and in epididymitis refractory to antibiotic treatment as an alternative to epididymectomy. (urology-textbook.com)
  • At the same time, if the man suffers from prostatitis, orchitis, etc., these diseases are also likely to cause epididymitis because of the proximity of these organs. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • What can Men do to Prevent Reproductive Diseases, Like Orchitis and Epididymitis? (selfgrowth.com)
  • Epididymitis and orchitis are two common infectious diseases of the reproductive system. (selfgrowth.com)
  • While patients may suffer from isolated epididymitis or orchitis, it is common for inflammation to involve both structures. (logicalimages.com)
  • In males, the main features are vesiculitis, orchitis, and epididymitis, which may render infected male infertile for life. (bvsalud.org)
  • The treatment of epididymitis depends on the cause that causes this inflammation. (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • Treatment of epididymitis caused by C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae will result in microbiologic cure of infection, improve signs and symptoms, and prevent transmission to others. (cdc.gov)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) can cause epididymitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This medicine can also cause epididymitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sexually transmitted infections , such as chlamydia and gonorrhea , can cause epididymitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Taking a drug for abnormal heart rhythms called amiodarone or genitourinary malformations in children under 2 years of age can cause epididymitis. (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • In rare instances, mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) may cause epididymitis. (havihealth.com)
  • Can Overwork Cause Epididymitis? (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • Some bad living habits may also cause epididymitis, such as bad sex habits, forced coitus interruption, etc. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • In addition, poor eating habits may also cause epididymitis. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • Epididymitis is swelling (inflammation) of the tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Unfortunately, no one had an answer for me until one day when someone suggested I try using a Natural Treatment for Epididymitis pain and inflammation. (herbs-solutions-by-nature.com)
  • Garlic helps reduce pain and inflammation associated with epididymitis. (healthyhousemom.com)
  • Epididymitis occurs mainly due to E. coli and staphylococcus bacteria caused by the inflammation of the urinary system. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • For epididymitis caused by inflammation, men can take the traditional Chinese medicine Diuretic and Anti-inflammatory Pill. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • Epididymitis is usually caused by a bacterial infection or by sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia . (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as C. trachomatis (chlamydia) or N. gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) represent the most common causes of acute epididymitis-especially for men under age 35. (havihealth.com)
  • [3] Epididymitis (Last reviewed June 4, 2015) https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/epididymitis.htm STI tests will determine if gonorrhea and chlamydia may be causing epididymitis. (havihealth.com)
  • Chronic epididymitis can be caused by one of two types of bacteria: Chlamydia or Enterobacter. (herbs-solutions-by-nature.com)
  • Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may result in urethritis, epididymitis, cervicitis, acute salpingitis, or other syndromes when sexually transmitted. (cdc.gov)
  • For men with severe unilateral pain with sudden onset, those whose test results do not support a diagnosis of urethritis or urinary tract infection, or for whom diagnosis of acute epididymitis is questionable, immediate referral to a urologist for evaluation for testicular torsion is vital because testicular viability might be compromised. (cdc.gov)
  • Though urinary tract infections in men are rare, bacterial infection is the most common cause of acute epididymitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although epididymitis may often be an infectious process, cultures commonly fail to demonstrate any identifiable infection. (medscape.com)
  • Urinary bladder obstructions most often seen in older men may cause urine to enter the epididymitis, causing infection. (havihealth.com)
  • Epididymitis is a condition that is caused by an infection of your testicles. (herbs-solutions-by-nature.com)
  • But what if there was a natural way to prevent getting (or at least lessen) an epididymitis infection? (herbs-solutions-by-nature.com)
  • Luckily, there are some home remedies that can be used to ease the symptoms of epididymitis and reduce the severity of the infection. (healthyhousemom.com)
  • 1. The bacterial infection causes epididymitis. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • Epididymitis caused by sexually transmitted Escherichia coli infection also occurs among homosexual men who are the insertive partners during anal intercourse. (cdc.gov)
  • Special Considerations HIV Infection - Persons with HIV infection and uncomplicated epididymitis should receive the same treatment as persons without HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic infectious epididymitis is most frequently observed with conditions associated with a granulomatous reaction. (cdc.gov)
  • The majority of patients who present with chronic epididymitis have had symptoms for over five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic pain is also an associated complication for untreated chronic epididymitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rare non-infectious causes of chronic epididymitis include sarcoidosis (more prevalent in black men) and Behçet's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicated in epididymitis refractory to antibiotic treatment or chronic epididymitis. (urology-textbook.com)
  • What about chronic epididymitis treatment? (havihealth.com)
  • Chronic epididymitis is difficult to treat because its causes are often unknown. (havihealth.com)
  • Chronic epididymitis: a practical approach to understanding and managing a difficult urologic enigma. (havihealth.com)
  • Although this approach isn't formally studied, many urologists recommend that men with chronic epididymitis ejaculate at least every two days. (havihealth.com)
  • Overall, acute or chronic epididymitis typically does not lead to long-term health problems. (havihealth.com)
  • I've been dealing with chronic epididymitis since I was 19 years old, after contracting an STD in college. (herbs-solutions-by-nature.com)
  • Epididymitis can be divided into acute and chronic. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Acute epididymitis caused by an STI is usually accompanied by urethritis, which is frequently asymptomatic. (cdc.gov)
  • Urethritis can occur in a continuum with concomitant seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis. (medscape.com)
  • Sexually transmitted epididymitis is usually accompanied by urethritis, which is often asymptomatic. (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms of epididymitis may be similar to those of testicular torsion , which requires emergent treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Contact your provider if you have symptoms of epididymitis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Usually, the symptoms of epididymitis appear suddenly and can range from mild to severe depending on the condition of each patient. (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • Symptoms of epididymitis include scrotal swelling, tenderness, and pain. (healthyhousemom.com)
  • Coconut oil is a natural remedy that can help reduce the symptoms of epididymitis infections. (healthyhousemom.com)
  • This may help prevent epididymitis caused by sexually transmitted diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • That's precisely what we're going to talk about today - how to naturally cure and prevent epididymitis infections. (herbs-solutions-by-nature.com)
  • Healthy, scientific sex life can help males prevent epididymitis. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • Radionuclide scanning of the scrotum is the most accurate method for diagnosing epididymitis but it is not routinely available. (cdc.gov)
  • In the slightest doubt about the diagnosis of epididymitis, a surgical exploration of the scrotum must be done to exclude testicular torsion. (urology-textbook.com)
  • Fortunately, acute epididymitis typically resolves quickly with antibiotics. (havihealth.com)
  • [1] Tracy CR, Panchal B. Diagnosis and management of epididymitis . (havihealth.com)
  • Voiding dysfunctions are most likely in children and in elderly patients with epididymitis. (urology-textbook.com)
  • Management of Sex Partners Patients with epididymitis that is known or suspected to be caused by N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis should be instructed to refer sex partners for evaluation and treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Although ultrasound can demonstrate epididymal hyperemia and swelling associated with epididymitis, it provides minimal diagnostic usefulness for men with a clinical presentation consistent with epididymitis. (cdc.gov)
  • High-impact exercise like running may cause excessive jarring of the testicles-which could aggravate epididymitis. (havihealth.com)
  • Isolated epididymitis may be caused by trauma, but it is much more commonly caused by sexually transmitted pathogens (in military populations, in patients with a new sexual partner, or in patients with high-risk sexual behavior) or by enteric bacterial pathogens (older men and patients with recent manipulation of the genital tract, abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, or a history of bacterial prostatitis are at increased risk). (logicalimages.com)
  • With epididymitis, pain is gradual in onset, and the tenderness is mostly posterior to the testis. (5minuteconsult.com)
  • Swelling and tenderness that persist after completing antimicrobial therapy should be evaluated for testicular cancer and tuberculous or fungal epididymitis. (cdc.gov)
  • If you're diagnosed with bacterial epididymitis, you'll need to take antibiotics to treat it. (healthline.com)
  • Depending on the type of causal agent, it is usually differentiated between bacterial, fungal , viral and non-bacterial epididymitis. (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • In prepubertal boys, bacterial epididymitis is associated with genitourinary anomalies. (logicalimages.com)
  • Fungal and mycobacterial causes of epididymitis are more common, however, among patients who are immunocompromised. (cdc.gov)
  • If symptoms do not improve after initiating therapy, further diagnostic evaluation is warranted as patients may have epididymitis due to an unusual pathogen (eg, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or a fungal pathogen) or may have developed a complication of epididymitis such as an abscess or infarction. (logicalimages.com)
  • The records of 129 men younger than 35 years (age range, 16 to 34 years) who presented with acute scrotal pathology or urinary tract infections and who had a final diagnosis of epididymitis between January 2005 and December 2007 were selected for review. (medscape.com)
  • Intermittent application of ice packs and taking pain medications can help relieve epididymitis discomfort. (havihealth.com)
  • A man can go through weeks of discomfort in search of relief or look for a natural treatment for epididymitis like C&C Nutritional's' Herbal Supplement for Epididymitis . (herbs-solutions-by-nature.com)
  • Epididymitis is a medical condition that causes severe discomfort and pain. (healthyhousemom.com)
  • Trauma, urinary tract infections , and viral infections can also trigger epididymitis. (healthline.com)
  • A high index of suspicion for spermatic cord (testicular) torsion should be maintained among men who have a sudden onset of symptoms associated with epididymitis because this condition is a surgical emergency. (cdc.gov)
  • However, because partial spermatic cord torsion can mimic epididymitis on scrotal ultrasound, differentiation between spermatic cord torsion and epididymitis when torsion is not ruled out by ultrasound should be made on the basis of clinical evaluation. (cdc.gov)
  • Today, Doppler ultrasound is a common test: it can demonstrate areas of blood flow and can distinguish clearly between epididymitis and torsion. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 1 ] Epididymitis must be differentiated from testicular torsion , which is a true urologic emergency. (medscape.com)
  • Physical examination findings may fail to distinguish acute epididymitis from testicular torsion. (medscape.com)
  • Epididymitis is often difficult to differentiate from torsion of the spermatic cord. (health.am)
  • Sometimes epididymitis can be confused with testicular torsion. (healthtwentyfour.com)
  • Because epididymitis and testicular torsion symptoms are similar (testicular torsion is a medical emergency that occurs when the sperm cord gets twisted), men must receive an ultrasound. (havihealth.com)
  • This pain became known as Epididymal Cystitis or Epididymitis and is caused by bacterial overgrowth within your system that can lead to painful bladder infections. (herbs-solutions-by-nature.com)
  • CIO Responsible for this publication: National Center for Prevention Services, Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV Prevention EPIDIDYMITIS Among men less than 35 years of age, epididymitis is most often caused by N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis. (cdc.gov)
  • Apple cider vinegar is a popular home remedy for many diseases of epididymitis, including epididymitis. (healthyhousemom.com)
  • Uncommon infectious causes of nonsexually transmitted acute epididymitis (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Somekh E, Gorenstein A, Serour F. Acute epididymitis in boys: evidence of a post-infectious etiology. (5minuteconsult.com)
  • Nonsexually transmitted acute epididymitis caused by genitourinary pathogens typically occurs with bacteriuria secondary to bladder outlet obstruction (e.g., benign prostatic hyperplasia) ( 1193 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A negative ultrasound does not rule out epididymitis and thus does not alter clinical management. (cdc.gov)
  • The patient presented with lymphocytic meningitis and scrotal pain due to epididymitis. (uzh.ch)
  • There are other potential causes of severe testicular pain, such as the inflammatory condition epididymitis . (healthline.com)
  • To use coconut oil as a home remedy for epididymitis infections, apply a few drops of the oil to the affected area twice a day. (healthyhousemom.com)
  • This leaves men susceptible to bacteria, which can lead to urinary infections and epididymitis in the long run. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • Good hygiene habits can help them avoid genital and urinary infections and reduce the possibility of getting epididymitis. (drleetcmclinic.com)
  • Nonsexually transmitted epididymitis associated with urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative enteric organisms is more common among men greater than 35 years of age, and among men who have recently undergone urinary tract instrumentation or surgery. (cdc.gov)
  • Among older men, nonsexually transmitted acute epididymitis is also associated with prostate biopsy, urinary tract instrumentation or surgery, systemic disease, or immunosuppression. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute epididymitis caused by sexually transmitted enteric organisms might also occur among men who are the insertive partner during anal sex. (cdc.gov)
  • Epididymitis most often gets better with antibiotic treatment. (medlineplus.gov)