Skin DiseasesSkin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Lumpy skin disease virus: A species of CAPRIPOXVIRUS causing a cattle disease occurring in Africa.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous: Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)Lumpy Skin Disease: A poxvirus infection of cattle characterized by the appearance of nodules on all parts of the skin.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Skin Diseases, Genetic: Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Prurigo: A name applied to several itchy skin eruptions of unknown cause. The characteristic course is the formation of a dome-shaped papule with a small transient vesicle on top, followed by crusting over or lichenification. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pemphigus: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Skin UlcerSkin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Rosacea: A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Epidermolysis Bullosa: Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Pemphigoid, Bullous: A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous: A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Ultraviolet Therapy: The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.Capripoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising poxviruses infecting sheep, goats, and cattle. Transmission is usually mechanical by arthropods, but also includes contact, airborne routes, and non-living reservoirs (fomites).National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress. It was established in 1986.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Tinea Pedis: Dermatological pruritic lesion in the feet, caused by Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, or Epidermophyton floccosum.Malassezia: A mitosporic fungal genus that causes a variety of skin disorders. Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare) causes TINEA VERSICOLOR.PUVA Therapy: Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Non-Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.Mycobacterium ulcerans: A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.Lichen Planus: An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.Vitiligo: A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Hand DermatosesScleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Skin Physiological Processes: Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.Desmoglein 1: A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Skin Diseases, Eczematous: Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.Ichthyosis: Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.Skin Diseases, Metabolic: Diseases of the skin associated with underlying metabolic disorders.Military HygieneDermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar: Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).Acantholysis: Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris (see PEMPHIGUS) and DARIER DISEASE.Desmoglein 3: A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.Patch Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Erythema Multiforme: A skin and mucous membrane disease characterized by an eruption of macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and/or bullae with characteristic "bull's-eye" lesions usually occurring on the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Hidradenitis Suppurativa: A chronic suppurative and cicatricial disease of the apocrine glands occurring chiefly in the axillae in women and in the groin and anal regions in men. It is characterized by poral occlusion with secondary bacterial infection, evolving into abscesses which eventually rupture. As the disease becomes chronic, ulcers appear, sinus tracts enlarge, fistulas develop, and fibrosis and scarring become evident.Scalp DermatosesPoxviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.Dermatitis, Irritant: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.Pyoderma Gangrenosum: An idiopathic, rapidly evolving, and severely debilitating disease occurring most commonly in association with chronic ulcerative colitis. It is characterized by the presence of boggy, purplish ulcers with undermined borders, appearing mostly on the legs. The majority of cases are in people between 40 and 60 years old. Its etiology is unknown.Dermatitis, Exfoliative: The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Buruli Ulcer: A lesion in the skin and subcutaneous tissues due to infections by MYCOBACTERIUM ULCERANS. It was first reported in Uganda, Africa.Warts: Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Scleroderma, Diffuse: A rapid onset form of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA with progressive widespread SKIN thickening over the arms, the legs and the trunk, resulting in stiffness and disability.Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Alopecia Areata: Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.Neurodermatitis: An extremely variable eczematous skin disease that is presumed to be a response to prolonged vigorous scratching, rubbing, or pinching to relieve intense pruritus. It varies in intensity, severity, course, and morphologic expression in different individuals. Neurodermatitis is believed by some to be psychogenic. The circumscribed or localized form is often referred to as lichen simplex chronicus.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous: A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Desmogleins: A group of desmosomal cadherins with cytoplasmic tails that resemble those of classical CADHERINS.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Foot Dermatoses: Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.Antipruritics: Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Dermcidins: 47-amino acid peptides secreted by ECCRINE GLANDS and having a role in innate cutaneous defense, being antimicrobial to some pathogenic BACTERIA. They are overexpressed by some primary BREAST CANCER cells. They are derived from 110 residue PROTEIN PRECURSORS.Parapsoriasis: The term applied to a group of relatively uncommon inflammatory, maculopapular, scaly eruptions of unknown etiology and resistant to conventional treatment. Eruptions are both psoriatic and lichenoid in appearance, but the diseases are distinct from psoriasis, lichen planus, or other recognized dermatoses. Proposed nomenclature divides parapsoriasis into two distinct subgroups, PITYRIASIS LICHENOIDES and parapsoriasis en plaques (small- and large-plaque parapsoriasis).Coal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Ichthyosis, Lamellar: A chronic, congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Infants are usually born encased in a collodion membrane which sheds within a few weeks. Scaling is generalized and marked with grayish-brown quadrilateral scales, adherent at their centers and free at the edges. In some cases, scales are so thick that they resemble armored plate.Folliculitis: Inflammation of follicles, primarily hair follicles.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Methoxsalen: A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Larva Migrans: Infections caused by nematode larvae which never develop into the adult stage and migrate through various body tissues. They commonly infect the skin, eyes, and viscera in man. Ancylostoma brasiliensis causes cutaneous larva migrans. Toxocara causes visceral larva migrans.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic: A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Skin Diseases, Vascular: Skin diseases affecting or involving the cutaneous blood vessels and generally manifested as inflammation, swelling, erythema, or necrosis in the affected area.Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus: A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.Onchocerciasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Impetigo: A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Molluscum Contagiosum: A common, benign, usually self-limited viral infection of the skin and occasionally the conjunctivae by a poxvirus (MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS). (Dorland, 27th ed)Bowen's Disease: A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Erythrokeratodermia Variabilis: An autosomal dominant skin disease characterized by transient and variable noninflammatory ERYTHEMA and hyperkeratosis. It has been associated with mutations in the genes that code for CONNEXINS. Erythrokeratodermia variabilis inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion has also been reported. Affected individuals often develop PALMOPLANTAR KERATODERMA.Mycosis Fungoides: A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional: Form of epidermolysis bullosa having onset at birth or during the neonatal period and transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by generalized blister formation, extensive denudation, and separation and cleavage of the basal cell plasma membranes from the basement membrane.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous: A group of lymphomas exhibiting clonal expansion of malignant T-lymphocytes arrested at varying stages of differentiation as well as malignant infiltration of the skin. MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES; SEZARY SYNDROME; LYMPHOMATOID PAPULOSIS; and PRIMARY CUTANEOUS ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA are the best characterized of these disorders.Photosensitivity Disorders: Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.Mice, Inbred C57BLScleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Skin Cream: A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Croton Oil: Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.Photomicrography: Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Sarcoptes scabiei: A species of mite that causes SCABIES in humans and sarcoptic mange in other animals. Specific variants of S. scabiei exist for humans and animals, but many have the ability to cross species and cause disease.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Ichthyosis Vulgaris: Most common form of ICHTHYOSIS characterized by prominent scaling especially on the exterior surfaces of the extremities. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Collagen Type VII: A non-fibrillar collagen involved in anchoring the epidermal BASEMENT MEMBRANE to underlying tissue. It is a homotrimer comprised of C-terminal and N-terminal globular domains connected by a central triple-helical region.Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Telepathology: Transmission and interpretation of tissue specimens via remote telecommunication, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or consultation but may also be used for continuing education.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Darier Disease: An autosomal dominantly inherited skin disorder characterized by warty malodorous papules that coalesce into plaques. It is caused by mutations in the ATP2A2 gene encoding SERCA2 protein, one of the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. The condition is similar, clinically and histologically, to BENIGN FAMILIAL PEMPHIGUS, another autosomal dominant skin disorder. Both diseases have defective calcium pumps (CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES) and unstable desmosomal adhesion junctions (DESMOSOMES) between KERATINOCYTES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Epidermolysis Bullosa Dystrophica: Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by atrophy of blistered areas, severe scarring, and nail changes. It is most often present at birth or in early infancy and occurs in both autosomal dominant and recessive forms. All forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa result from mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE VII, a major component fibrils of BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPIDERMIS.Cathelicidins: Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Otitis Externa: Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Onchocerca volvulus: A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory: Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mice, Inbred BALB CMycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Hydroxychloroquine: A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Psoralens: Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The World Health Organization issued a bulletin, published online 28 November 2008, entitled "Epidermal parasitic skin diseases ... Mites penetrate the skin and feed on skin cells that are broken down through an enzyme they secrete from their mouthparts, but ... shedding and subsequent skin repair). At this phase, the lesion is seen as brown or black. If the flea is left within the skin ... In its parasitic phase it has significant impact on its host, which include humans and certain other mammalian species. A ...
... and some epidermal parasitic skin diseases, including scabies. Ivermectin is currently being used to help eliminate river ... "Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected ... Common side effects include red eyes, dry skin, and burning skin. It is unclear if it is safe for use during pregnancy, but is ... as well as showing efficacy against an expanding number of other parasitic diseases". It is sold under the brand names ...
... an increase in susceptibility to streptococcal skin infections. The neuroimmune system plays a role in Alzheimer's disease. In ... The neuroimmune system is involved in reflexes associated with parasitic invasions of hosts. Nociceptors are also associated ... For example, scratching is induced by pruritogens that stimulate nociceptors on epidermal tissues. These pruritogens, like ... Hickman SE, El Khoury J (2013). "The neuroimmune system in Alzheimer's disease: the glass is half full". J. Alzheimers Dis. 33 ...
These mites seem to feed on epidermal cells. They can crawl out on the surface of the skin, aided by secretions from the skin's ... C. Brown Company Publishers, ISBN 0-697-04757-1. Paterson, S. (2008) Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Oxford: ... Some mites are the intermediate host of parasitic worms, but not defined as vectors because they do not parasitize a host. For ... Chronic infestations lead to thickening of the skin by overproduction of epidermal cells (acanthosis), resulting in a ...
Other specified epidermal thickening (L85.9) Epidermal thickening, unspecified (L86) Keratoderma in diseases classified ... Certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99) Complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperinum (O00-O9A) ... Disorder of skin and subcutaneous tissue, unspecified (L99) Other disorders of skin and subcutaneous tissue in diseases ... Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. (L00) Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (L01) Impetigo (L01.0) Impetigo ...
... skin has been shown to be the most similar to human skin. Pig skin is structurally similar to human epidermal thickness and ... Herron, Alan J. (5 December 2009). "Pigs as Dermatologic Models of Human Skin Disease" (PDF). ivis.org. DVM Center for ... Pigs are also known to host large concentrations of parasitic ascarid worms in their digestive tract. Some strains of influenza ... Human skin is very similar to pig skin, therefore pig skin has been used in many preclinical studies. The genus Sus is ...
Skin disease caused by sarcoptic mites is variably called scabies, or in some countries mange. (The adjectives 'mangy' and ' ... Other mites are parasitic, and those that infest livestock animals cause many diseases that are widespread, reduce production ... Chronic infestations lead to thickening of the skin by overproduction of epidermal cells (acanthosis), resulting in a ... Infestation by mites usually causes skin diseases known as mange, scabies, scab, demodecosis, or in general as acariasis. The ...
Epidermal necrosis then evolved to myonecrosis extending from midthigh to the foot which necessitated below knee amputation of ... Skin biopsy revealed extensive small vessel thrombosis throughout the superficial and deep dermal plexuses with perivascular ... It experienced some usage for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but was primarily used for the treatment of parasitic ... With the recently recognized dermal disease, the face and ears are commonly affected, especially the bilateral helices and ...
... cytokines in a skin of mice infected for the first time. Lymphocytes from their skin draining lymph nodes exhibit mixed Th1/Th2 ... This disease, caused not only by T. regenti but also by cercariae of other bird schistosome species, is called cercarial ... Trichobilharzia regenti is a neuropathogenic parasitic flatworm of birds which also causes cercarial dermatitis in humans. The ... is substantially elevated and the extensive inflammation may lead to formation of large abscesses or even epidermal and/or ...
The epidermal cells give off numerous hair-like cilia on the body surface. There are 17-22 epidermal cells. Epidermal plate is ... This occurs in three stages, an initial attachment to the skin, followed by the creeping over the skin searching for a suitable ... Clinical management of liver disease". Clinical Liver Disease. 6 (3): 59-62. doi:10.1002/cld.495. Mentink-Kane MM, Cheever AW, ... Macpherson, C.N.L.; Craig, P.S. (1991). "Animal reservoirs of schistosomiasis". Parasitic helminths and zoonoses in Africa. ...
The pupae have a thin translucent skin called the epidermal layer, through which the developing wings and legs can be seen. ... the most common disease of the New Zealand Grass Grub is Amber Disease. Amber Disease is a chronic infection of the stomach of ... Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitic in the New Zealand grass grub, Costelytra zealandica (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptera). Fundamental ... Diseases Because grass grub build up large colonies in the soil, disease can spread quickly and be devastating to the ...
Skin lesions of Lyme-like disease. Early symptoms in the first four weeks after a tickbite include a rash or red patch that ... Guided by the palps, the chelicerae cut into the skin with their horizontal cutting action. These rip and tear at the epidermal ... So as ticks have moved from a predatory existence to a parasitic existence, most species have lost their toxin which would have ... PCR analysis of skin biopsies is a more recent testing method. The disease runs its course in two weeks or so but can be cured ...
... is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin. It is ... These peels only affect the epidermal layer of the skin and can be useful in the treatment of superficial acne scars as well as ... and inadequate sloughing of dead skin cells from acne pores. Infection with the parasitic mite Demodex is associated with the ... Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease of the pilosebaceous unit and develops due to blockages in the skin's hair follicles. ...
The surface of both butterflies and moths is covered by scales, each of which is an outgrowth from a single epidermal cell. The ... When metamorphosis is complete, the pupal skin splits, the adult insect climbs out, and after its wings have expanded and dried ... Braconid and other parasitic wasps lay their eggs in lepidopteran eggs or larvae and the wasps' parasitoid larvae devour their ... Caterpillars are also affected by a range of bacterial, viral and fungal diseases, and only a small percentage of the butterfly ...
Braconid and other parasitic wasps lay their eggs in lepidopteran eggs or larvae and the wasps' parasitoid larvae devour their ... Some flies lay their eggs on the outside of caterpillars and the newly hatched fly larvae bore their way through the skin and ... The surface of both butterflies and moths is covered by scales, each of which is an outgrowth from a single epidermal cell. The ... Caterpillars are also affected by a range of bacterial, viral and fungal diseases, and only a small percentage of the butterfly ...
SP concentrations cannot yet be used to diagnose disease clinically or gauge disease severity. It is not yet known whether ... The SP receptor promoter contains regions that are sensitive to cAMP, AP-1, AP-4, CEBPB, and epidermal growth factor. Because ... Substance P and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ... Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular parasitic protozoan that infects the lower gastrointestinal tract of humans. The ...
Diseases of the skin and appendages by morphology. Growths. Epidermal. *wart. *callus ... Ramdass, P; Mullick, S; Farber, HF (December 2015). "Viral Skin Diseases". Primary Care (Review). 42 (4): 517-67. doi:10.1016/j ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... 2% vehicle). Erythema was the most frequently reported local skin reaction. Severe local skin reactions reported by Aldara- ...
Diseases of the skin and appendages by morphology. Growths. Epidermal. *wart. *callus ... James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978- ... Alzheimer's disease. HSV-1 has been proposed as a possible cause of Alzheimer's disease.[26][27] In the presence of a certain ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ...
... epidermal detachment is less than 10% TBSA for Stevens-Johnson syndrome and 30% or more for toxic epidermal necrolysis. The ... Erythema multiforme (EM) is a skin condition of unknown cause; it is a type of erythema possibly mediated by deposition of ... Fungal (Coccidioides immitis) Parasitic (Trichomonas species, Toxoplasma gondii), Viral (especially Herpes simplex) Drug ... Physical factors: radiotherapy, cold, sunlight Others: collagen diseases, vasculitides, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukaemia, ...
The ALOX12 gene has susceptibility alleles (rs6502997, rs312462, rs6502998, and rs434473) for the parasitic disease, human ... Arora JK, Lysz TW, Zelenka PS (June 1996). "A role for 12(S)-HETE in the response of human lens epithelial cells to epidermal ... in the skin, and regulates regional blood flow in animal models; it also promotes the malignant behavior of cultured human ... In a single study, ALOX12 mRNA was found elevated in the brain tissue of Alzheimer disease patients compared to control ...
The body is covered by anucleate epidermal plates separated by epidermal ridges. The epidermal cells give off numerous hair- ... After proper orientation, they start piercing the skin by secreting proteolytic enzymes that widen the skin pores (hair ... It is the major agent of schistosomiasis, the most prevalent parasitic infection in humans. It is the only blood fluke that ... Hygienic disposal of waste would be sufficient to eliminate the disease. Water for drinking bathing should be boiled in endemic ...
Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, and cysts are skin lesions that develop from the epidermal layer of the skin. Aberrant basal cell ... Skin Disorders at Curlie (based on DMOZ) All the Internet - Directory - Main/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Skin_Disorders ... Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites in humans are caused by several groups of organisms belonging to the following phyla ... Peeling skin syndrome (acral peeling skin syndrome, continual peeling skin syndrome, familial continual skin peeling, ...
Unlike most epidermal cells, the guard cells of plant stomata contain relatively well-developed chloroplasts. However, exactly ... Like the helicosproidia, they're parasitic, and have a nonphotosynthetic chloroplast. They were once thought to be related to ... This makes the apicoplast an attractive target for drugs to cure apicomplexan-related diseases. The most important apicoplast ... thin skin). In dinoflagellates they often form armor plates. Many members contain a red-algal derived plastid. One notable ...
... , also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when dead skin cells and oil from the skin clog hair ... These peels only affect the epidermal layer of the skin and can be useful in the treatment of superficial acne scars as well as ... and inadequate sloughing of dead skin cells from acne pores. Infection with the parasitic mite Demodex is associated with the ... This article is about a skin disease common during adolescence. For other acneiform skin diseases, see Acne (disambiguation). ...
Epidermal nerve fiber density testing (ENFD) is a more recently developed neuropathology test in which a punch skin biopsy is ... A few examples of autoimmune diseases are Type 1 diabetes, Addison's disease and Celiac disease. The third and final type of ... nematodes and parasitic plants. Damage caused by insects, mites, vertebrate, and other small herbivores is not considered a ... Dermatologists are able to recognize most skin diseases based on their appearances, anatomic distributions, and behavior. ...
SP concentrations cannot yet be used to diagnose disease clinically or gauge disease severity. It is not yet known whether ... Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular parasitic protozoan that infects the lower gastrointestinal tract of humans. The ... In contrast to other neuropeptides studied in human skin, substance P-induced vasodilatation has been found to decline during ... and epidermal growth factor. Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines ...
... a heterogeneous category of infectious diseases in which parasite-host interactions are confined to the upper layer of the skin ... Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are a heterogeneous category of infectious diseases in which parasite-host ... Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues; 2009 (sólo en inglés) ... Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues; 2009 (sólo en inglés) ...
epidermal parasitic skin disease answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for ... skin_disease. Epidermal parasitic skin disease. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017 ... skin_disease. Epidermal Parasitic Skin Disease [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company ... skin_disease. Accessed May 24, 2019.. Epidermal parasitic skin disease. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Tabers Medical Dictionary ...
Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues  Feldmeier, Hermann; Heukelbach, Jorg (‎ ... Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected ... Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected ...
ABSTRACT Epidermal parasitic skin diseases encompass scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, and tungiasis. ... Efficacy and safety of dimeticones in the treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases with special emphasis on tungiasis: an ... Efficacy and safety of dimeticones in the treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases w ... Tungiasis is probably the most neglected of all Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD). It occurs in South America, the Caribbean ...
Epidermal parasitic skin diseases encompass scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, and tungiasis. Tungiasis is ... Efficacy and safety of dimeticones in the treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases with special emphasis on tungiasis: an ... Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a parasitic skin disease with origins in the Americas. A multitude of local designations ... all studies investigating the efficacy and safety of dimeticones in the treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases were ...
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Type 2 Excludes*certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (P04-P96) ... certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99). *complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O00-O9A) ... Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Clinical Information *A disorder characterized by greater than 30% total body skin area separation ... Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. 2016 2017 2018 2019 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To*Ritters disease ...
... is a neglected tropical disease. Heavy infestation results in mutilation of the feet and difficulty in walking. We identified ... Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues. Bull World Health Organ 87: 152-159.[ ... Tungiasis (sand flea disease): a parasitic disease with intriguing challenges for public health. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect ... Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a neglected tropical disease. Heavy infestation results in mutilation of the feet and ...
Human scabies is an intensely pruritic skin infestation caused by the host-specific mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. A ... Scabies is clearly an endemic disease in many tropical and subtropical regions, being 1 of the 6 major epidermal parasitic skin ... Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J. Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues. Bull World ... was found to be the second most common skin disease in all age groups of children and the third most common skin disease in ...
Human scabies is an intensely pruritic skin infestation caused by the host-specific mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. A ... Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J. Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues. Bull World ... Related Conditions and Diseases. * Skin and Soft Tissue Infections - Incision, Drainage, and Debridement ... Skin disorders and disease profile of poverty: analysis of medical records in Tigray, northern Ethiopia, 2005-2007. Trans R Soc ...
The World Health Organization issued a bulletin, published online 28 November 2008, entitled "Epidermal parasitic skin diseases ... Mites penetrate the skin and feed on skin cells that are broken down through an enzyme they secrete from their mouthparts, but ... shedding and subsequent skin repair). At this phase, the lesion is seen as brown or black. If the flea is left within the skin ... In its parasitic phase it has significant impact on its host, which include humans and certain other mammalian species. A ...
One of the greatest achievements in the war which the medical sciences have waged against epidemic diseases is the discovery ... "Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) occur worldwide and have been known since ancient times. Despite the considerable ... Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues.. 2009 February - World Health ... Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. UP kids killer disease spread through lice, expert panel finds. 2013 Mar. ...
... or positive skin scrapings on microscopy. We screened and line listed cases, performed laboratory investigations on skin ... all skin scrapings were negative for scabies. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. were isolated from secondarily ... proportion of scabies was reported in a retrospective review of skin diseases at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, the nationwide ... Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J. Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues. Bulletin of ...
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Type 2 Excludes*certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (P04-P96) ... certain infectious and parasitic diseases (A00-B99). *complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (O00-O9A) ... Changes in skin texture. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code Applicable To*Desquamation of skin ... Epidermal thickening, unspecified. 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Billable/Specific Code *L85.9 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code ...
Infections with the parasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) cause severe skin and gill disease in rainbow ... Rodlet cells were observed in 41% of the fresh skin scrapes analysed from the second trial. Histologically epidermal oedema was ... Puffy skin disease (PSD) is a disease that causes skin pathology in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Incidence of ... Puffy Skin Disease Is an Emerging Transmissible Condition in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum. ...
... and some epidermal parasitic skin diseases, including scabies. Ivermectin is currently being used to help eliminate river ... "Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected ... Common side effects include red eyes, dry skin, and burning skin. It is unclear if it is safe for use during pregnancy, but is ... as well as showing efficacy against an expanding number of other parasitic diseases". It is sold under the brand names ...
Cutaneous larva migrans is an endemic disease with predilection for poor and vulnerable persons. Preventive efforts such as ... An examination revealed multiple raised serpentine and erythematous skin lesions consistent with cutaneous larva migrans which ... wearing of slippers, usage of drying lines, and deworming of pets are crucial in preventing the occurrence of this disease and ... Cutaneous larva migrans is a neglected zoonotic helminthic disease which is paradoxically underreported in low-income and ...
Disease of the Skin, Andrews Diseases of the Skin... ... Chapter 29: Epidermal Nevi, Neoplasms, and Cysts Chapter 30: ... Chapter 20: Parasitic Infestations, Stings, and Bites Chapter 21: Chronic Blistering Dermatoses ... Disease of the Skin, Andrews Diseases of the Skin Clinical Atlas provides a remarkable collection of 3,000 high-quality images ... MLT] Andrews Diseases of the Skin. Clinical Dermatology. Edition No. 13. * Book ...
Daniela Grassini (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, NIH, USA) ... SOX2 Epidermal Overexpression Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing via Activation of EGFR/MEK/ERK Signaling Mediated by EGFR ... Stem Cell-Driven Developmental Transitions in Parasitic Flatworms 9:20 am - 9:30 am. Discussion ... from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) and all co-funding support provided by ...
Parasitic skin infections. Pediculosis: Lice. 2-4mm. Female lay 100s of nits. Vectors of other diseases: typhus, recurrent ... forces epidermal cells to produce keratin that is softer, more flexible and less likely to crack ... Ointments for dry or lichenified skin. Creams for weeping skin or body foldsOnce under control, intermittent use may prevent ... epidermal curved or linear ridges, follicular papules, pruritus palms. excoriated erythematous papules, pustules, crusted ...
Epidermal parasitic skin diseases encompass scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, and tungiasis. Tungiasis is ... ABSTRACT Epidermal parasitic skin diseases encompass scabies, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, and tungiasis. ... Efficacy and safety of dimeticones in the treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases with special emphasis on tungiasis: an ... Efficacy and safety of dimeticones in the treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases with special emphasis on tungiasis: an ...
... low level of knowledge of disease prevention, and poor sanitation puts more than 1300 madrasa students at risk of Scabies who ... Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J (2009) epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected Category of poverty-associated plagues. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR 2010; 59(No. RR-12): ... UN report on control of communicable diseases -Asia: Copyright (c) UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 2004 ...
... leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. ... Dengue fever, rickettsial diseases, and Q fever are acute febrile illnesses with similar manifestations in tropical areas. In ... Letus is an effective combination antibiotic; however, it may not be suitable for those with kidney or liver disease or folate ... Adhesion molecules CD11a, CD18, and ICAM-1 on human epidermal Langerhans cells serve a functional role in the activation of ...
Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic platyhelminth that causes the chronic, often debilitating disease, schistosomiasis affecting ... These transformed juvenile parasites are now called schistosomula and they move from the epidermal tissues into the blood ... Infection is initiated following skin penetration by larval parasites called cercariae which rapidly adapt to the intra- ... 2009 The role of tegumental aquaporin from the human parasitic worm, Schistosoma mansoni, in osmoregulation and drug uptake. ...
Learn more about their causes, types and treatment of skin ulcers on PetMD.com. ... Skin ulcers in cats require careful wound care to prevent infection, and tend to heal slowly. ... Skin Disease (Dermatophilosis) in Cats. Dermatophilosis is a skin disease most prevalent in warm, wet, or humid climates. This ... Toxic epidermal necrolysis (tissue death, usually medication-induced). *Feline indolent ulcer: an inactive, slow healing lip ...
They can be quite painful, but tend to heal quickly if the skin is protected and the underlying cause is eliminated. ... Erosions are shallow defects in the skin that only affect the skins upper layers. ... Diseases of the Skin on the Nose in Dogs. Many diseases affect the skin on the noses of dogs. This includes bacterial or fungal ... Toxic epidermal necrolysis (tissue death, usually medication-induced). *Feline indolent ulcer: an inactive, slow healing lip ...
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (journalijar.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines , ivermectin is an effective and recommended alternative agent for the treatment of pediculosis pubis (pubic lice). (drugs.com)
  • The survey was conducted by the Ambulatory Care Statistics Branch of the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • ē-ō-tŏks′ĭn) [Gr. eos, dawn (rose-colored) + (chemo)taxin] A chemokine that specifically attracts eosinophils to particular tissues, e.g., to bronchial tissues in asthma or to the skin in contact dermatitis. (mhmedical.com)
  • The larval stage is parasitic on humans and causes the disease called chigger dermatitis. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Pyoderma occurs because natural host defence mechanisms are overcome and is seen as a result of a number of underlying diseases including the manifestations of allergic dermatitis, parasitic disease, keratinisation defects such as feline acne and underlying immunosuppression. (vin.com)
  • LEA is however closely related to autoimmune diseases and immunogenetic studies have revealed a link with HLA-DQ7 4,5,6 Some authors have advanced the theory that the LEA and scleroderma could be facets of the same disease, but the subject remains controversial. (scielo.br)
  • An analogue of this peptide, ShK-186, which is now known as dalazatide, has successfully completed Phase 1 clinical trials and is about to enter Phase 2 trials for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • Aseptic meningitis is a disease caused by the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. (livehopelupus.org)
  • Pruritoceptive itching arises in the nerve fiber endings due to skin damage such as dryness or inflammation. (iacdworld.org)
  • This leads to inflammation and damage of body tissues and the common symptoms of fatigue, painful or swollen joints, unexplained fever, skin rashes, and kidney problems. (davidson.edu)
  • Small immune complexes that are not cleared by splenic and hepatic complement and Fc receptors tend to become trapped in blood vesels of the kidney and joints, leading to the inflammation that results from the disease. (davidson.edu)
  • EVs are secreted during health conditions or upon inflammation during the course of diseases by all mammalian cells types [ 2 , 3 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Feline notoedric acariasis (feline mange) is a highly contagious, intensely pruritic, transmissible skin disease caused by the burrowing epidermal mite Notoedres cati and was first detected by Hering in 1838. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This disease - found mostly in Atlantic salmon - is characterized by boils on the sides of the fish and is highly contagious through open sores, resulting in its spread through salmon farms . (kenyon.edu)
  • This skin condition is not severe or contagious but it is itchy and it can develop into something severe if precautions are not taken. (trustedhealthproducts.com)
  • Publication date: Available online 13 July 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Atsushi Yamanaka, Eiji KonishiAbstractDengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases. (medworm.com)
  • Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent, traditionally against parasitic worms and other multicellular parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ivermectin is contraindicated in children under the age of five, or those who weigh less than 15 kilograms (33 pounds) and those who are breastfeeding, and have a liver or kidney disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • application medical uses ivermectin is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic agent, traditionally against parasitic worms. (dhsteroid.com)
  • It reduces symptoms and prevents injury to the esophagus or stomach in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or ulcers. (salveolifecare.net)
  • Survival for lupus patients with central nervous system symptoms, major organ involvement, and/or kidney disease, is likely to be shorter than those with only skin and/or joint disease related to lupus. (livehopelupus.org)
  • Many patients who have hookworm disease, symptoms may not appear during the first two months (at this time is the incubation period). (healthlifemag.com)
  • Often, Stevens-Johnson syndrome begins with flu-like symptoms, followed by a painful red or purplish rash that spreads and blisters, eventually causing the top layer of the skin to die and shed. (nih.gov)
  • This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. (nih.gov)
  • For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. (nih.gov)
  • People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. (nih.gov)
  • Other signs and symptoms may include disproportionate fat distribution, overgrowth of the extremities (arms and legs), skin abnormalities and kidney problems such as an unusually small or absent kidney. (nih.gov)
  • Do you have more information about symptoms of this disease? (nih.gov)
  • Palliative care aims to relieve symptoms caused by masses and minimize disease progression and disability. (nih.gov)
  • We defined a case as a school child who on clinical examination, had an intensely pruritic rash on at least one typical predilection site with or without a burrow, or positive skin scrapings on microscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Small Animal Pathology for Veterinary Technicians fosters an understanding of small animal diseases, relating pathology information to the responsibilities of technicians in the clinical setting. (wiley.com)
  • Hookworm disease this is the pathology caused by parasitism of worms of Ancylostoma (round worms) in the intestine of man. (healthlifemag.com)
  • The typical follicular pattern of hair loss seen commonly in superficial canine pyoderma seems to be very rare as are the classic papule, pustule and epidermal collarette progression. (vin.com)
  • For instance, goosebumps form when the erector pili muscles contract to make hairs on the skin stand up straight when someone is cold, excited, or frightened - the blood vessels keep the body from losing heat by narrowing as much as possible and keeping the warm blood away from the skin's surface, offering insulation and protection. (kidshealth.org)
  • Every square inch of skin contains thousands of cells and hundreds of sweat glands, oil glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels. (kidshealth.org)
  • The bottom layer of our skin, the subcutaneous tissue , is made up of connective tissue, sweat glands, blood vessels, and cells that store fat. (kidshealth.org)
  • The underlying dermis consists of connective tissue in which are embedded blood vessels, lymph channels, nerve endings, sweat glands, sebaceous glands sebaceous gland , gland in the skin of mammals that secretes an oily substance called sebum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here, we will overview the recent advances and studies of Evs shed by tumor cells, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, focusing on their inflammatory role and their potential use in vaccination and diagnostic of cancer and infectious diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • These transformed juvenile parasites are now called schistosomula and they move from the epidermal tissues into the blood stream where they mature. (prolekare.cz)
  • The skin provides a barrier against invasion by outside organisms and protects underlying tissues and organs from abrasion and other injury, and its pigments shield the body from the dangerous ultraviolet rays in sunlight. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice, but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some of the potential medical benefits lie in the similarities between the worms' exoskeleton and our own skin and connective tissues, while other benefits might lie in the unique aspects of worm molting. (rupress.org)
  • Additional studies are required as new emerging or re-emerging pathogens occur.As the threat of old and new communicable diseases emerge, it is critical to set public health standards that not only encourage, but also enable parents to send their children to school lice and nit free. (headlice.org)
  • Suppressed immunity may occur either locally in sun-exposed skin or systematically, at non-exposed sites. (columbia.edu)
  • Where most likely to occur, the epidemic of hookworm disease, have high humidity and temperature, they are characterized by unsanitary conditions. (healthlifemag.com)
  • In different directions move in the ground the larvae will not occur until after contact with human skin. (healthlifemag.com)
  • In addition, more than one disease can occur at the same time, leading to a complex presentation. (pemphigus.org)
  • These diseases are very rare in infants, and most cases occur in school-aged children (usually before puberty) (3, 4). (pemphigus.org)
  • They may also occur in cases of sexually transmitted diseases. (trustedhealthproducts.com)
  • Hansen's disease can mimic tinea corporis by presenting as one or more annular, sometimes scaly, plaques. (aafp.org)