Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.QuinazolinesSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Tyrphostins: A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Genes, erbB-1: The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1: A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Receptor, erbB-3: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUREGULINS. It has extensive homology to and can heterodimerize with the EGF RECEPTOR and the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR. Overexpression of the erbB-3 receptor is associated with TUMORIGENESIS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Somatomedins: Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesGRB2 Adaptor Protein: A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl: Proto-oncogene proteins that negatively regulate RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE signaling. It is a UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASE and the cellular homologue of ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CBL.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.PhosphoproteinsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Oncogene Proteins v-erbB: Transforming proteins encoded by erbB oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The protein is a truncated form of the EGF receptor (RECEPTOR, EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR) whose kinase domain is constitutively activated by deletion of the ligand-binding domain.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Neuregulins: A family of peptides originally found as factors that stimulate the phosphorylation of the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTORS, ERBB-2). Multiple variant forms of NEUREGULINS occur due to alternative splicing of their mRNAs. The NEUREGULINS include products from the three known genes (NGR1; NGR2 and NGR3).Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLTransplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Mice, Inbred BALB CCulture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Autocrine Communication: Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.Genes, ras: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Receptor Cross-Talk: The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Epidermal growth factor. Transforming growth factor alpha. Cholera toxin. Within the epidermis keratinocytes are associated ... These factors include: The transcription factor p63, which prevents epidermal stem cells from differentiating into ... The roles of transforming growth factor-alpha and epidermal growth factor". Cell. 50 (7): 1131-7. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87) ... Rheinwald, JG; Green, H (1977). "Epidermal growth factor and the multiplication of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes". ...
It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). This protein interacts with ... a member of the epidermal growth factor family". Growth Factors. 7 (3): 195-205. doi:10.3109/08977199209046924. PMID 1333777. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. It is an autocrine growth factor as ... Berquin IM, Dziubinski ML, Nolan GP, Ethier SP (2001). "A functional screen for genes inducing epidermal growth factor autonomy ...
"Chromosomal mapping of genes for transforming growth factors beta 2 and beta 3 in man and mouse: dispersion of TGF-beta gene ... and controls wound healing by regulating the movements of epidermal and dermal cells in injured skin.[5] ... transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • transforming growth factor beta binding. • type ... type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • type I transforming growth factor beta ...
"Crystal structure of a truncated epidermal growth factor receptor extracellular domain bound to transforming growth factor α". ... There are 11 growth factors that activate ErbB receptors. The ability ('+') or inability ('-') of each growth factor to ... "Crystal structure of a truncated epidermal growth factor receptor extracellular domain bound to transforming growth factor ... and interaction partners of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling after stimulation by epidermal growth factor using ...
... fibroblast growth factors, transforming growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factors and epidermal growth factors. Co- ... such as Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β) co-receptors. Expression of the co-receptor endoglin, which is expressed on the ... T cells to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-mediated suppression. Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, 60, 291-297. ... CD109 acts as a negative regulator of the tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor. Upon binding TGF-β, the receptor is ...
"Cell-cell adhesion mediated by binding of membrane-anchored transforming growth factor alpha to epidermal growth factor ... Juxtacrine signaling has been observed for some growth factors, cytokine and chemokine cellular signals, playing an important ... Aoki, SK; Pamma, R; Hernday, AD; Bickham, JE; Braaten, BA; Low, DA (Aug 19, 2005). "Contact-dependent inhibition of growth in ... for such purpose as to inhibit their growth in harsh conditions.[6][7] ...
... epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Decorin has been shown to either ... Other angiogenic growth factors that decorin inhibits are angiopoietin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and platelet-derived ... "Transforming growth factor-beta and p-21: multiple molecular targets of decorin-mediated suppression of neoplastic growth". ... Decorin has been shown to interact with: Collagen type I Epidermal growth factor receptor and TGF beta 1, TLR2, and TLR4. ...
... decapentaplegic/transforming growth factor beta, Hedgehog/Sonic Hedgehog, Wingless/Wnt, epidermal growth factor, and fibroblast ... growth factor. Some of the earliest and best-studied morphogens are transcription factors that diffuse within early Drosophila ... the Drosophila homologue of Transforming Growth Factor Beta), acted as a morphogen during later stages of Drosophila ... Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard identified the first morphogen, Bicoid, one of the transcription factors present in a gradient in ...
... α and epidermal growth factor during fetal and neonatal development published in 1992 and 1993. There, she continued to ... School with a lighter teaching workload and more research opportunities including her research on transforming growth factor- ... featured her work on insulin-related growth factors. The segment ran as part of a six-part PBS series on women in science, ... The laboratory also discovered direct evidence that the Gap-43 protein was important in the growth of the axons of nerve cells ...
... involves the formation of buds in the plasma membrane and is initiated by growth factors like epidermal growth factor (EGF), ... transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), which act through phosphoinositide 3-kinase ( ... 2015). "The invadopodia scaffold protein tks5 is required for the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo". ... In the early 1980s, researchers noticed protrusions coming from the ventral membrane of cells that had been transformed by the ...
TGF-α is a transforming growth factor that is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor, which activates a signaling ... "Fibroblast growth factor 5 proto-oncogene is expressed in normal human fibroblasts and induced by serum growth factors". ... Transforming growth factor- α (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) immunoreactivity in normal and pathologic ... "Expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and its ligands, EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha, in human ...
Martí-Carvajal AJ, Gluud C, Nicola S, Simancas-Racines D, Reveiz L, Oliva P, Cedeño-Taborda J (October 2015). "Growth factors ... Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). *transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) ... Epidermal growth factor can be found in urine, saliva, milk, and plasma.[10] The production of epidermal growth factor has been ... EGF, HOMG4, URG, epidermal growth factor, Epidermal growth factor. External IDs. OMIM: 131530 MGI: 95290 HomoloGene: 1483 ...
In addition to IGF-1, other paracrine growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta ( ... fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are involved in breast development as mediators downstream ... Serra R, Crowley MR (2005). "Mouse models of transforming growth factor beta impact in breast development and cancer". Endocr. ... Important players include beta-1 integrin, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), laminin-1/5, collagen-IV, matrix ...
"Expression of the transforming growth factor-alpha/epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in normal human breast epithelial ... "Mitogenic properties of insulin-like growth factors I and II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 and epidermal growth ... tumor necrosis factor β (TNF-β), transforming growth factor α (TGF-α),[62] transforming growth factor β (TGF-β),[63] heregulin, ... epidermal growth factor (EGF), IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which in turn have specific roles in breast growth ...
... including epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor α (TGFα) ErbB2 has no known direct activating ligand, and may ... interplay with the epidermal growth factor receptor". Growth Factors. 22 (2): 89-95. doi:10.1080/08977190410001700998. PMID ... "Epidermal growth factor induces rapid, reversible aggregation of the purified epidermal growth factor receptor". Biochemistry. ... can prevent the growth of EGFR-expressing tumours and improve the patient's condition. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ...
"Chromosomal mapping of genes for transforming growth factors beta 2 and beta 3 in man and mouse: dispersion of TGF-beta gene ... and controls wound healing by regulating the movements of epidermal and dermal cells in injured skin. Transforming growth ... "Entrez Gene: TGFB3 transforming growth factor, beta 3". Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (May 2004). "Transforming growth factor- ... "Transforming growth factor-beta, transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, and p27Kip1 expression in nontumorous and ...
Epidermal development is a product of several growth factors, two of which are: Transforming growth factor Alpha (TGFα) is an ... Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF or FGF7) is a paracrine growth factor produced by the underlying dermal fibroblasts in which ... Epidermal organogenesis, the formation of the epidermis, begins in the cells covering the embryo after neurulation, the ... This inner layer is a germinal epithelium that give rise to all epidermal cells. It divides to form the outer spinous layer ( ...
The EGF and TGF families of neurotrophic factors are composed of epidermal growth factor, the neuregulins, transforming growth ... insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet- ... factor alpha (TGFα), and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). They signal through receptor tyrosine kinases and serine/ ... The CNTF family of neurotrophic factors includes ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), ...
Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β ... Binding to HS stabilizes fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and prevents them ... Each event in metastasis is highly regulated and requires a synergistic activation of different ECM proteins, growth factors ... Mechanisms of metalloprotease action in cell motility involve: Proteolytic cleavage of growth factors, so they are readily ...
Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor. *Nerve growth factor. *Platelet-derived growth factor ... Burt DW, Law AS (1994). "Evolution of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily". Prog. Growth Factor Res. 5 (1): 99-118 ... The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)[6] is a multifunctional peptide that controls proliferation, differentiation and ...
... transforming growth factors alpha, beta 1 and beta 2, fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factor, granulocyte- ... macrophage-stimulating growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and colony- ... Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1), and II, ... 1997). "Identification and partial purification of a basic fibroblast growth factor-like growth factor derived from bovine ...
October 2003). "Aldosterone stimulates epidermal growth factor receptor expression". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (44): 43060-66. doi: ... Many of these remodelling effects seem to be mediated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is a common ... April 2008). "Factors Identified as Precipitating Hospital Admissions for Heart Failure and Clinical Outcomes: Findings From ... and also by epidermal growth factor (EGF), which is a target of the signaling pathway activated by aldosterone[35] ...
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) Transforming growth factors ... TGFs) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Peptide hormones Insulin Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) Oxytocin Steroid ... ion channels Potassium channels Calcium channels Sodium channels Glucose transporter Growth factors Colony-stimulating factors ... Factor VIII Factor XIII Protein C Protein S Protein Z Protein Z-related protease inhibitor Thrombin Von Willebrand Factor C- ...
For example, epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances osteogenic differentiation, [2] while fibroblast growth factors and ... Transforming growth factors *Transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α). *Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) ... Growth factors are important for regulating a variety of cellular processes. Growth factors typically act as signaling ... A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth,[1] proliferation, healing, and ...
... transforming growth factors alpha,[26] beta 1 and beta 2,[27][28] fibroblast growth factors,[29] epidermal growth factor,[30] ... granulocyte-macrophage-stimulating growth factor,[31] platelet-derived growth factor,[31] vascular endothelial growth factor,[ ... Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1),[24] and II,[25] ... 1997). "Identification and partial purification of a basic fibroblast growth factor-like growth factor derived from bovine ...
... (Mig-7 or Mig7) is a gene. The protein is cysteine-rich, and localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. It is the first-in-class of novel proteins translated from what are thought to be long Non-coding RNAs. Induction of Mig-7 expression occurs downstream of Epidermal growth factor/Epidermal growth factor receptor, Cox-2/PGE-2 or Hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met activation and signalling. Data has shown that Mig-7 expression is specific to human embryonic/fetal cytotrophoblast cells and epithelial type cancer cells, while not expressed in normal cells. Data demonstrate that targeting of Mig-7 simultaneously inhibits more than one cancer-progressing pathway while likely sparing normal cells. Mig-7 expression is found on, as well as in, epithelial tumor cells at the primary site, ...
... , also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. It is an autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells, fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). This protein interacts with the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells. Estradiol and progesterone mostly induce amphiregulin expression to mediate ductal development of the mammary glands. ...
Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ERBB4 gene. Alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor subfamily. ERBB4 is a single-pass type I transmembrane protein with multiple furin-like cysteine rich domains, a tyrosine kinase domain, a phosphotidylinositol-3 kinase binding site and a PDZ domain binding motif. The protein binds to and is activated by neuregulins-2 and -3, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor and betacellulin. Ligand binding induces a variety of cellular responses including mitogenesis and differentiation. Multiple proteolytic events allow for the release of a cytoplasmic fragment and an ...
... binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the outer membrane of normal and tumor cells. The matuzumab epitope has been mapped to domain III of the extracellular domain of the EGFR.[7][8] The EGFR is receptor tyrosine kinase which binds multiple growth factors including EGF (epidermal growth factor) and other members of the EGF family of growth factors, resulting in activation of its tyrosine kinase activity. Activation of the EGFR has diverse effects on target cells depending on cell type and tissue context. It directs cell fate decision relating to cell growth, survival and, differentiation. Development of matuzumab and other antibodies to the EGFR (for example cetuximab) as cancer ...
... are a model human cell line (epidermoid carcinoma) used in biomedical research. More specifically, they are used in studies of the cell cycle and cancer-associated cell signalling pathways since they express abnormally high levels of the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). As such they are often used as a positive control for EGFR expression. They contain no functional p53, a potent tumor suppressor gene, and so are highly sensitive to mitogenic stimuli. A431 cells were established from an epidermoid carcinoma in the skin/epidermis of an 85- year-old female patient. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of A431 cells induces rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular signalling proteins which control cellular processes such as growth, proliferation and apoptosis. At low (picomolar) ...
... is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.[3] Historically, cytokines were associated with hematopoietic (blood and lymph forming) cells and immune system cells (e.g., lymphocytes and tissue cells from spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes). For the circulatory system and bone marrow in which cells can occur in a liquid suspension and not bound up in solid tissue, it makes sense for them to communicate by soluble, circulating protein molecules. However, as different lines of research converged, it became clear that some of the same signaling proteins which the hematopoietic and immune systems use were also being used by all sorts of other cells and tissues, during development and in the mature organism. While growth factor implies a positive effect on cell division, cytokine is a neutral term with respect to whether a molecule affects proliferation. While some cytokines can be growth ...
EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 2 also known as CD312 (cluster of differentiation 312) is a protein encoded by the ADGRE2 gene. EMR2 is a member of the adhesion GPCR family. Adhesion GPCRs are characterized by an extended extracellular region often possessing N-terminal protein modules that is linked to a TM7 region via a domain known as the GPCR-Autoproteolysis INducing (GAIN) domain. EMR2 is expressed by monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells and all types of granulocytes. In the case of EMR2 the N-terminal domains consist of alternatively spliced epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) domains. EMR2 is closely related to CD97 with 97% amino-acid identity in the EGF-like domains. The N-terminal fragment (NTF) of EMR2 presents 2-5 EGF-like domains in human. Mice lack the Emr2 gene. This gene is closely linked to the gene encoding EGF-like molecule containing mucin-like hormone receptor 3 EMR3 on ...
In the immune system, CD97 is known as a critical mediator of host defense. Upon lymphoid, myeloid cells and neutrophil activation, CD97 is upregulated to promote adhesion and migration to sites of inflammation.[28] Moreover, it has been shown that CD97 regulates granulocyte homeostasis. Mice lacking CD97 or its ligand CD55 have twice as many granulocytes as wild-type mice possibly due to enhanced granulopoiesis.[29] Antibodies against CD97 have been demonstrated to diminish various inflammatory disorders by depleting granulocytes.[30] Notably, CD97 antibody-mediated granulocytopenia only happens under the condition of pro-inflammation via an Fc receptor-associated mechanism.[31] Finally, the interaction between CD97 and its ligand CD55 regulates T-cell activation and increases proliferation and cytokine production.[32][33] Changes in the expression of CD97 have been described for auto-inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The expression of CD97 on ...
... (EPR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EREG gene. Epiregulin consists of 46 amino acid residues. Its secondary structure contains approximately 30 percent of β-sheet in the strand. Some of the residues form loops and turns due to the hydrogen bonding. The percentage of β-sheet in epiregulin depends on the domain and the secondary structures that they occupy. The polymeric molecules of epiregulin has the formula weight of 5280.1 g/mol with a polypeptide(L), a polymer type. Structural motifs in most proteins have typical connections in an all β motif. Meaning that the polypeptide chains do not make a crossover connection or in so far as this type of connection has not been observed. Epiregulin is one of the proteins that occupies a typical connection in all β motif. Furthermore, as the structure of epiregulin forms a chain in an all β motif, it also forms β hairpin structural motif. A β hairpin is when the two adjacent anti-parallel β strands connected by a β-turn. ...
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)) is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents the catalytic subunit, which uses ATP to phosphorylate phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns), PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2.[7] The involvement of p110α in human cancer has been hypothesized since 1995. Support for this hypothesis came from genetic and functional studies, including the discovery of common activating PIK3CA missense mutations in common human tumors.[8] It has been found to be oncogenic and is implicated in cervical cancers.[9] PIK3CA mutations are present in over one-third of breast cancers, with enrichment in the luminal and in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive subtypes (HER2 +). The three hotspot mutation positions (GLU542, GLU545, and HIS1047) have been widely reported till date.[10] ...
Hormon EGF (bahasa Inggris: epidermal growth factor, EGF) adalah senyawa hormon yang diturunkan dari keping darah selain PDGF dan TGF.[1] Penemuan EGF oleh Stanley Cohen dari Unversitas Vanderbilt memenangkan hadiah Nobel di bidang Fisiologi dan Pengobatan pada tahun 1986.[2] EGF mempunyai panjang 53 AA dan bersifat mitogenik oleh karena tiga gugus disulfida yang menghubungkan Cys6-Cys20, Cys14-Cys31, dan Cys33-Cys42; serta gugus asam amino ke 13 (Tyr), 41 (Arg), dan 47 (Leu), yang berperan dalam berbagai sistem tubuh seperti proliferasi sel, onkogenesis dan penyembuhan luka.[3] ...
Abl interactor 1 also known as Abelson interactor 1 (Abi-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABI1 gene. Abl interactor 1 has been found to form a complex with EPS8 and SOS1, and is thought to be involved in the transduction of signals from Ras to Rac. In addition, the encoded protein may play a role in the regulation of EGF-induced Erk pathway activation as well as cytoskeletal reorganization and EGFR signaling. Several transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been found for this gene. Abi1 is adaptor protein. It interacts with c-Abl and WAVE2 which is an actin polymerization regulator. It is known that Abi1 enhances the phosphorylation of WAVE2 by c-Abl. The phosphorylation of c-Abl promotes actin polymerization. Furthermore, Abi1 is a component of the WAVE complex. Some research has shown that knockdown of Abi1 by siRNA promoted degradation of WAVE complex proteins.[citation needed] ABI1 has been shown to interact with ENAH, NCKAP1, EPS8, and SOS1. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
... (født 17. november 1922 i Brooklyn, New York) er en amerikansk biokjemiker og nobelprisvinner. Han ble tildelt Nobelprisen i fysiologi eller medisin sammen med Rita Levi-Montalcini i 1986 for deres oppdagelser av tilvekstfaktorer som EGF (epidermal growth factor) og NGF (nerve growth factor). Cohen ble også tildelt Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award samme år. ...
Purchase Recombinant Human Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha(PDGFRA),partial. It is produced in Yeast. High purity ... of SF3A3 significantly reduced the splicing efficiency of epidermal growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor ... and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling [review] PMID: 27638178. *PDGFRA mutation, but not amplification is ... The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the ...
Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor ... Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor ... Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor ... Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor ...
G.B. van Setten, G.S. Schultz, and S. Macauley, Growth factors in human tear fluid and in lacrimal glands, Adv Exp Med Biol 350 ... Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulates Fluid Transport in SV40 Transformed Rabbit Lacrimal Gland Cells. ... Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulates Fluid Transport in SV40 Transformed Rabbit Lacrimal Gland Cells. In: Sullivan D.A., Stern M. ... S. Schuller, M. Knorr, K.P. Steuhl, and H.J. Thiel, Lacrimal secretion of human epidermal growth factor in perforating ...
Overall, survival was calculated by the method of Kaplan and Meier, and prognostic factors were compared using the log-rank ... The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligand transforming growth factor (TGF) alpha are hypothesized to form an ... Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligand transforming growth factor alpha is frequent in ... Overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligand transforming growth factor alpha is frequent in ...
... was used to amplify the growth factors (EGF, FGFb, TGFb1, and IL-1 alpha), EGF receptor, and beta actin sequences from each of ... Epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor beta-1, and interleukin-1 ... Epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor beta-1, and interleukin-1 ... S E Wilson, S A Lloyd; Epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor ...
Treisman R. Ternary complex factors: growth factor regulated transcriptional activators. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994;4:96-101. ... Angiotensin II-Induced Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Regulates Fibronectin and Transforming Growth Factor ... Angiotensin II-Induced Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Regulates Fibronectin and Transforming Growth Factor ... Angiotensin II-Induced Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Regulates Fibronectin and Transforming Growth Factor ...
Type beta transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor suppress the plasminogen activator activity in a human ... in T-MG1 cells was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by B-TGF and EGF after 24 hours of exposure to these growth factors. ... epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, acidic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, and ... Transforming growth factor-beta 1 induces transforming growth factor-alpha promoter activity and transforming growth factor- ...
... hepatocyte growth factor/c-met, acidic fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptors during hepatocarcinogenesis ... Expression of transforming growth factor-alpha/epidermal growth factor receptor, ... localization of growth factors fibroblast growth factor-1 and fibroblast growth factor-2 and receptors fibroblast growth factor ... Epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor alpha, transforming growth factor beta, acidic fibroblast growth factor, ...
Study of gonadic growth factors: Seminal transforming growth factor-β1, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor- ... Yie, S.M., Lobb, D.K., Clark, D.A. and Younglai, E.V. (1994) Identification of a transforming growth factor alpha-like molecule ... 1993) Role of transforming growth factor b in testicular immunosuppression. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 24, 123-137. ... Nocera, M.A. and Chu, T.M. (1993) Transforming growth factor-b as an immunosuppressive protein in human seminal plasma. ...
... induce migration in pure populations of bovine and human corneal cells and support the concept that these growth factors may ... Effects of epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta on corneal cell chemotaxis. ... Effects of epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta on corneal cell chemotaxis. ... The effects of recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor- ...
LOSS OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTORS AND RELEASE OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH-FACTORS DO NOT CORRELATE WITH SARCOMA VIRUS- ... 1985) LOSS OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTORS AND RELEASE OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH-FACTORS DO NOT CORRELATE WITH SARCOMA VIRUS- ...
Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) alters the cellular response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) in a number of systems, but ... N2 - Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) alters the cellular response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) in a number of systems, ... AB - Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) alters the cellular response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) in a number of systems, ... abstract = "Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) alters the cellular response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) in a number of ...
The intraovarian epidermal growth factor/transforming growth factor-α system. EGF, epidermal growth factor; TGF, transforming ... TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR/EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR. Purified on the basis of its ability to stimulate precocious eyelid opening ... Bennett RA, Osathanondh R, Yeh J: Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-alpha, epidermal growth factor ... Induction of apoptosis in rat thecal/interstitial cells by transforming growth factor alpha plus transforming growth factor ...
Divergent effects of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors on a human endometrial carcinoma cell line. Cancer ... Divergent effects of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors on a human endometrial carcinoma cell line. / Korc ... Divergent effects of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors on a human endometrial carcinoma cell line. ... Korc, M, Haussler, CA & Trookman, NS 1987, Divergent effects of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors on a ...
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in EGF and TGFB1 genes alter the expression of these growth factors and influence the ... Genetic susceptibility of epidermal growth factor +61A,G and transforming growth factor beta1 -509C,T gene polymorphisms with ... Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) play important roles in tumor biology. ... Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics*. Substances. *Transforming Growth Factor beta1. *Epidermal Growth Factor ...
Transforming Growth Factors Medicine & Life Sciences * Epidermal Growth Factor Medicine & Life Sciences ... Yang, P., & Roy, S. K. (2006). Transforming growth factor B1 stimulated DNA synthesis in the granulosa cells of preantral ... Yang, Peixin ; Roy, Shyamal K. / Transforming growth factor B1 stimulated DNA synthesis in the granulosa cells of preantral ... Transforming growth factor B1 stimulated DNA synthesis in the granulosa cells of preantral follicles: Negative interaction with ...
Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α mRNA in rat small intestine : In situ hybridization study. In: FEBS ... The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) mRNA in the small intestine of ... Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α mRNA in rat small intestine : In situ hybridization study. / Dvořák, ... Dvořák B, Holubec H, LeBouton AV, Wilson J, Koldovský O. Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α mRNA in rat ...
There was no apparent change in follicular TβRI immunoreactivity regardless of test factors or follicular growth status. These ... epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-βI) on receptor expression in preantral follicles were ... epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-βI) on receptor expression in preantral follicles were ... epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-βI) on receptor expression in preantral follicles were ...
... and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To evaluate the roles of these growth factors and their respective receptors in ... Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) are potent mitogens for both ... the pathogenesis of stromal lesions and tumor growth, we investigated their immunohistochemical expression in 43 normal ...
The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), one of EGF-related growth factors ... Epidermal Growth Factor and Transforming Growth Factor-α Stimulate the Proliferation of Mouse Uterine Stromal Cells ... Epidermal Growth Factor and Transforming Growth Factor-α Stimulate the Proliferation of Mouse Uterine Stromal Cells ... Growth factors produced in the uterine endometrium are considered to be involved in the proliferation of the mouse uterine ...
Transforming Growth Factors Medicine & Life Sciences * Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases Medicine & Life Sciences ... Disparate effects of thyroid hormone on actions of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α are mediated by 3′, ... Disparate effects of thyroid hormone on actions of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α are mediated by 3′, ... Disparate effects of thyroid hormone on actions of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-α are mediated by 3′, ...
... like transforming growth factor (TGF) activity and EGF receptors in ovine fetal tissues: possible role for TGF in ovine fetal ... To determine whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) or EGF-like transforming growth factors (TGFs) are present in ovine fetal ... Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like transforming growth factor (TGF) activity and EGF receptors in ovine fetal tissues: possible ... tissues, we have tested acid-ethanol extracts of ovine fetal kidney for the ability to induce anchorage-independent growth of ...
... transforming growth factor; EGF: epidermal growth factor; BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte- ... Growth factors. TGF-β1. Plasma. ↓. Okada et al. (2007) [72]. Ashwood et al. (2008) [67]. ... Tumor necrosis factor. TNF-α. Plasma. -. Singh (1996) [39]. PBMC. ↑. Jyonouchi et al. ( 2001) [14]. Ashwood et al. (2011) [42, ...
Martí-Carvajal AJ, Gluud C, Nicola S, Simancas-Racines D, Reveiz L, Oliva P, Cedeño-Taborda J (October 2015). "Growth factors ... Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). *transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) ... Epidermal growth factor can be found in urine, saliva, milk, and plasma.[10] The production of epidermal growth factor has been ... EGF, HOMG4, URG, epidermal growth factor, Epidermal growth factor. External IDs. OMIM: 131530 MGI: 95290 HomoloGene: 1483 ...
Roberts AB, Sporn MB: The transforming growth factor-βs. In Peptide Growth Factors and Their Receptors. Part l. Sporn MB, ... 8-Cys, 8 cysteine; BCI, balloon catheter injury; DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium; EGF, epidermal growth factor; FBS, ... Latent Transforming Growth Factor-β Binding Protein-1, a Component of Latent Transforming Growth Factor-β Complex, Accelerates ... Latent Transforming Growth Factor-β Binding Protein-1, a Component of Latent Transforming Growth Factor-β Complex, Accelerates ...
  • The shelf life is related to many factors, storage state, buffer ingredients, storage temperature and the stability of the protein itself. (cusabio.com)
  • Abstract -Previous studies have suggested that differences in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferative responses between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats can be attributed to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) actions. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 8 9 10 Ang II also induces a rapid increase in expression of the growth-associated nuclear proto-oncogenes in a manner similar to that of cellular events mediated by peptide growth factors and stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple substrates, including p44 and p42 mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). (ahajournals.org)
  • The granulosa cell, in the interest of efficient coupling, may elaborate substances ( e.g. insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I] inhibin, activin) that could alter the function of the neighboring theca. (glowm.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a peptide growth factor that is homologous to both insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin and plays an important role in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. (asm.org)
  • However, the seminal concentrations of these factors could not only provide information on their secretions but also reflect the various interactions with the spermatozoa. (scirp.org)
  • We have also listed neutrophils by staining with peroxidase to examine the association of inflammation with the levels of these factors. (scirp.org)
  • Speculation favors the notion that a host of putative intraovarian regulators may engage in subtle in situ modulation and coordination of growth and function of the varied follicular cell types: oocytes, granulosa, theca, and vascular epithelium (Figure 2 to follow). (glowm.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that this autocrine loop plays an important role in the growth of malignant mesotheliomas (as well as in tumors of the lung, breast, intestine, and other organs) 7 . (biosyn.com)
  • In contrast, growth factor pretreatment decreased actin oxidation and enhanced the stable F-actin, while in concert prevented actin disruption and restored normal barrier function of monolayers exposed to ROM. (bmj.com)
  • In contrast, organisation and stabilisation of actin through promotion of its assembly plays a critical role in the mechanism of growth factor mediated protection. (bmj.com)
  • Our study was devoted to the evaluation of the clinical relevance of the seminal concentrations of the growth factors in the broad sense of the term for the etiologic diagnosis of male infertility. (scirp.org)