Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.
A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL11 and a variety of other CC CHEMOKINES. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; BASOPHILS; and MAST CELLS.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs.
The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
A low affinity interleukin-5 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-5. Several isoforms of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha subunit exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A CC-type chemokine that is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS; MONOCYTES; and LYMPHOCYTES. It is a potent and selective eosinophil chemotaxin that is stored in and released from PLATELETS and activated T-LYMPHOCYTES. Chemokine CCL5 is specific for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR3 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS. The acronym RANTES refers to Regulated on Activation, Normal T Expressed and Secreted.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Chemokines that are chemoattractants for monocytes. These CC chemokines (cysteines adjacent) number at least three including CHEMOKINE CCL2.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Chronic ESOPHAGITIS characterized by esophageal mucosal EOSINOPHILIA. It is diagnosed when an increase in EOSINOPHILS are present over the entire esophagus. The reflux symptoms fail to respond to PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS treatment, unlike in GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE. The symptoms are associated with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to food or inhalant allergens.
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
A monocyte chemoattractant protein that has activity towards a broad variety of immune cell types. Chemokine CCL7 has specificity for CCR1 RECEPTORS; CCR2 RECEPTORS; and CCR5 RECEPTORS.
A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (1/3575)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Clonality of isolated eosinophils in the hypereosinophilic syndrome. (2/3575)

The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a rare disorder characterized by unexplained, persistent eosinophilia associated with multiple organ dysfunction due to eosinophilic tissue infiltration. In the absence of karyotypic abnormalities, there is no specific test to detect clonal eosinophilia in IHES. Analysis of X-chromosome inactivation patterns can be used to determine whether proliferative disorders are clonal in origin. Methylation of HpaII and Hha I sites near the polymorphic trinucleotide repeat of the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) has been shown to correlate with X-inactivation. In this study, we have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with nested primers to analyze X-inactivation patterns of the HUMARA loci in purified eosinophils from female patients with eosinophilia. Peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated by their autofluoresence using flow cytometric sorting. Eosinophils purified from a female patient presenting with IHES were found to show a clonal pattern of X-inactivation. Eosinophil-depleted leukocytes from this patient were polyclonal by HUMARA analysis, thus excluding skewedness of random X-inactivation. After corticosteroid suppression of her blood eosinophilia, a clonal population of eosinophils could no longer be detected in purified eosinophils. In contrast, eosinophils purified from a patient with Churg-Strauss syndrome and from six patients with reactive eosinophilias attributed to allergy, parasitic infection, or drug reaction showed a polyclonal pattern of X-inactivation by HUMARA analysis. The finding of clonal eosinophilia in a patient presenting with IHES indicates that such patients may have, in reality, a low-grade clonal disorder that can be distinguished from reactive eosinophilias by HUMARA analysis. Further, the method described can be used to monitor disease progression.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (3/3575)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (4/3575)

We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process.  (+info)

Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity. (5/3575)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

Orally exhaled nitric oxide levels are related to the degree of blood eosinophilia in atopic children with mild-intermittent asthma. (6/3575)

Increased levels of nitric oxide have been found in expired air of patients with asthma, and these are thought to be related to the airway inflammatory events that characterize this disorder. Since, in adults, bronchial inflammatory changes are present even in mild disease, the present study was designed to evaluate whether a significant proportion of children with mild-intermittent asthma could have increased exhaled air NO concentrations. Twenty-two atopic children (aged 11.1+/-0.8 yrs) with mild-intermittent asthma, treated only with inhaled beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists on demand and 22 age-matched controls were studied. NO concentrations in orally exhaled air, measured by chemiluminescence, were significantly higher in asthmatics, as compared to controls (19.4+/-3.3 parts per billion (ppb) and 4.0+/-0.5 ppb, respectively; p<0.01). Interestingly, 14 out of 22 asthmatic children had NO levels >8.8 ppb (i.e. >2 standard deviations of the mean in controls). In asthmatic patients, but not in control subjects, statistically significant correlations were found between exhaled NO levels and absolute number or percentage of blood eosinophils (r=0.63 and 0.56, respectively; p<0.01, each comparison). In contrast, exhaled NO levels were not correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced expiratory flows at 25-75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) or forced vital capacity (FVC), either in control subjects, or in asthmatic patients (p>0.1, each correlation). These results suggest that a significant proportion of children with mild-intermittent asthma may have airway inflammation, as shown by the presence of elevated levels of nitric oxide in the exhaled air. The clinical relevance of this observation remains to be established.  (+info)

A genome-wide screen for asthma-associated quantitative trait loci in a mouse model of allergic asthma. (7/3575)

Asthma is the most common illness of childhood, affecting one child in seven in the UK. Asthma has a genetic basis, but genetic studies of asthma in humans are confounded by uncontrolled environmental factors, varying penetrance and phenotypic pleiotropy. An animal model of asthma would offer controlled exposure, limited and consistent genetic variation, and unlimited size of sibships. Following immunization and subsequent challenge with ovalbumin, the Biozzi BP2 mouse shows features of asthma, including airway inflammation, eosinophil infiltration and non-specific bronchial responsiveness. In order to identify genetic loci influencing these traits, a cross was made between BP2 and BALB/c mice, and a genome-wide screen carried out in the F2progeny of the F1intercross. Five potentially linked loci were identified, four of which corresponded to human regions of syntenic homology that previously have shown linkage to asthma-associated traits.  (+info)

Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells. (8/3575)

Airway inflammation associated with asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils, mediated in part by specific chemoattractant factors produced in the lung. Allergen-specific Th2 cells appear to play a central role in asthma; for example, adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced lung eosinophilia associated with induction of specific chemokines. Interestingly, Th2 supernatant alone administered intranasally to naive mice induced eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and KC expression along with lung eosinophilia. We tested the major cytokines individually and found that IL-4 and IL-5 induced higher levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha and KC; IL-4 also increased the production of monocyte-chemotactic protein-1; IL-13 and IL-4 induced eotaxin. IL-13 was by far the most potent inducer of eotaxin; indeed, a neutralizing anti-IL-13 Ab removed most of the eotaxin-inducing activity from Th2 supernatants, although it did not entirely block the recruitment of eosinophils. While TNF-alpha did not stimulate eotaxin production by itself, it markedly augmented eotaxin induction by IL-13. IL-13 was able to induce eotaxin in the lung of JAK3-deficient mice, suggesting that JAK3 is not required for IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells; however, eosinophilia was not induced in this situation, suggesting that JAK3 transduces other IL-13-mediated mechanisms critical for eosinophil recruitment. Our study suggests that IL-13 is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore a potential target for asthma therapy.  (+info)

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Eosinophils are major effector cells in type 2 inflammatory responses and become activated in response to IL-4 and IL-33, yet the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We examined the direct effect of these cytokines on eosinophils and demonstrated that murine eosinophils respond to IL-4 and IL-33 by phosphorylation of STAT-6 and NFkB, respectively. RNA sequencing analysis of murine eosinophils indicated that IL-33 regulates 519 genes, whereas IL-4 regulates only 28 genes, including 19 IL-33-regulated genes. Interestingly, IL-33 induced eosinophil activation via two distinct mechanisms, IL-4 independent and IL-4 secretion/auto-stimulation dependent. Anti-IL-4 or anti-IL-4Ra antibody-treated eosinophils, as well as Il4- or Stat6-deficient eosinophils, had attenuated protein secretion of a subset of IL-33-induced genes, including Retnla and Ccl17. However, the induction of most IL-33-regulated transcripts (e.g. Il6 and Il13) was IL-4 independent and blocked by NFkB inhibition. Indeed, IL-33 induced the
Eosinophil cell. Coloured Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of a human eosinophil cell, containing granules with crystal inclusions in its cytoplasm. Granules (red) are seen in the cell cytoplasm (orange); the large cell nucleus is yellow and purple. Eosinophils are white blood cells, known also as granulocytes for the granular cytoplasm they possess. These oval-shaped granules contain enzymes responsible for bacterial destruction. The function of the crystals is unknown. Eosinophil cells, produced in the bone marrow, play an important role in the immune response against allergic and parasitic diseases. Magnification: x6,800 at 6x7cm. - Stock Image P248/0165
Eosinophils are hypothesized to be crucial in the development of allergic airway inflammation; however, the actual mechanisms that determine their inflammatory activity are still largely undefined. To investigate the factors that regulate eosinophil function in allergic airway disease, we have previously used segmental bronchoprovocation with allergen to study ex vivo eosinophil function. To determine whether the functional changes associated with airway eosinophils obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage 48 hours after antigen challenge are caused by exposure to airway-generated cytokines, normodense blood eosinophils were cultured in vitro with recombinant human interleukin-5 (IL-5) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The effect of cytokine exposure was then evaluated on selected cell functions. In vitro incubation with these cytokines for 24 hours significantly increased eosinophil membrane expression of CD18 and CD11b compared with culture in medium alone or eosinophils obtained
Of the three types of leukocytes recruited, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages, the most striking difference between BLTR−/− and wild-type mice occurred in eosinophil recruitment (Fig. 5 A). Neither group had substantial numbers of peritoneal eosinophils at baseline or 4 h after thioglycollate instillation. Peak numbers of eosinophils were seen in both groups at 48 h, but BLTR−/− mice recruited only 33% as many eosinophils to the inflamed peritoneum as wild-type mice at this time point (P , 0.005). Numbers of peritoneal eosinophils declined in both groups at 96 h, but BLTR−/− mice continued to have significantly fewer of these cells. At 96 h, BLTR−/− mice had only 20% as many eosinophils recovered from the peritoneal cavity as wild-type mice (P , 0.01).. Although the numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and macrophages appeared lower in the BLTR−/− mice at some time points, the differences from wild type did not reach statistical significance for either of these cell ...
Eosinophils are potent inflammatory cells with numerous immune functions including antigen presentation and exacerbation of inflammatory responses through their capacity to release a range of largely preformed cytokines and lipid mediators. as well as degranulation evidenced by increased CD63 surface expression secretion of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN). Moreover NK cells significantly and dose dependently increased eosinophil apoptosis as shown by 4-Chlorophenylguanidine hydrochloride annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Direct contact was necessary for eosinophil degranulation and apoptosis. 4-Chlorophenylguanidine hydrochloride Increased expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) C13orf1 in cocultured eosinophils and inhibition of eosinophil CD63 expression by pharmacologic inhibitors suggest that MAPK and PI3K pathways are involved in NK cell-induced eosinophil degranulation. Finally we showed that NK cells ...
Background: Eosinophils are pro-inflammatory cells implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and atopy. Apoptosis has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation and studies have indicated the ability of interventions that induce human eosinophil apoptosis to promote the resolution of eosinophilic inflammation. Recently, the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor R-roscovitine was shown to enhance neutrophil apoptosis and promote the resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of CDKs in human blood eosinophils, the effects of R-roscovitine on eosinophil survival in vitro and whether R-roscovitine could influence eosinophilic lung inflammation in vivo. Methods: Eosinophils were isolated from human peripheral blood and the effects of R-roscovitine on apoptosis, degranulation and phagocytic uptake examined in vitro. The effects of R-roscovitine on eosinophilic lung inflammation in vivo ...
Eosinophils play a central role in asthma. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on longevity of isolated human eosinophils. In contrast to Fas, TNF-α inhibited eosinophil apoptosis as evidenced by a combination of flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation assay and morphological analyses. The effect of TNF-α on eosinophil apoptosis was reversed by a TNF-α neutralising antibody. The anti-apoptotic effect of TNF-α was not due to autocrine release of known survival-prolonging cytokines interleukins 3 and 5 or granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulatin​gfactor as their neutralisation did not affect the effect of TNF-α. The anti-apoptotic signal was mediated mainly by the TNF-receptor 1. TNF-α induced phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and an increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity. The survival-prolonging effect of TNF-α was reversed by inhibitors of NF-κB pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and gliotoxin and by an inhibitor of IκB kinase, ...
Blood eosinophilia (≥0.5 × 109/l) may be an early sign of hematological malignancy. We investigated associations between levels of blood eosinophils and risks of hematological malignancies and mortality in order to provide clinically derived cut-offs for referral to specialist hematology care. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356,196 individuals with at least one differential cell count encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007 and matched these laboratory data with Danish nationwide health registers. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the 4-year incidences of hematological malignancies and mortality between the eosinophil counts and a reference count of 0.16 × 109/l which was the median eosinophil count in our data. Risks of hematological malignancies and mortality increased above the median eosinophil count. At the 99th percentile, corresponding to an eosinophil count of 0.75 × 109/l, ...
The role of selectins in mediating eosinophil recruitment in vivo was assessed in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse pleurisy. LPS administration
Airway eosinophilia is considered a central event in the pathogenesis of asthma. The toxic components of eosinophils are thought to be important in inducing bronchial mucosal injury and dysfunction. Previous studies have suggested an interaction between nitric oxide (NO) and chemokines in modulating eosinophil functions, but this is still conflicting. In the present study, we have carried out functional assays (adhesion and degranulation) and flow cytometry analysis of adhesion molecules (VLA-4 and Mac-1 expression) to evaluate the interactions between NO and CC-chemokines (eotaxin and RANTES) in human eosinophils. Eosinophils were purified using a percoll gradient followed by immunomagnetic cell separator. Cell adhesion and degranulation were evaluated by measuring eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity, whereas expression of Mac-1 and VLA-4 was detected using flow cytometry. At 4 h incubation, both eotaxin (100 ng/ml) and RANTES (1000 ng/ml) increased by 133% and 131% eosinophil adhesion, respectively.
Eosinophils natively inhabit the small intestine, but a functional role for them there has remained elusive. Here, we show that eosinophil-deficient mice were protected from induction of Th2-mediated peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis, and Th2 priming was restored by reconstitution with il4(+/+) or il4(-/-) eosinophils. Eosinophils controlled CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) activation and migration from the intestine to draining lymph nodes, events necessary for Th2 priming. Eosinophil activation in vitro and in vivo led to degranulation of eosinophil peroxidase, a granule protein whose enzymatic activity promoted DC activation in mice and humans in vitro, and intestinal and extraintestinal mouse DC activation and mobilization to lymph nodes in vivo. Further, eosinophil peroxidase enhanced responses to ovalbumin seen after immunization. Thus, eosinophils can be critical contributors to the intestinal immune system, and granule-mediated shaping of DC responses can promote both intestinal and ...
An interactive resource tool for Eosinophil Cell Markers that includes a brief background on Eosinophil Cell Markers and links to related antibodies.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The eosinophil as an effector cell of the immune response during hepatic allograft rejection. AU - De Groen, Piet C.. AU - Kephart, Gail M.. AU - Gleich, Gerald J.. AU - Ludwig, Jurgen. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the role of the eosinophil granulocyte during hepatic allograft rejection. Design: (a) A retrospective case‐control study and (b) a prospective study of consecutive liver transplant recipients. Patients: In the retrospective study, eight patients with severe rejection in the first month after liver transplantation were compared with six patients without rejection. In the prospective study, 20 consecutive patients were studied for the presence of liver allograft rejection between March 1989 and October 1989. Measurements: Absolute eosinophil counts were determined whenever blood was drawn. Serum was analyzed for the presence of two eosinophil granule proteins, major basic protein and eosinophil‐derived neurotoxin, on days 7, 14 and 21 after ...
Previous investigations have demonstrated a link between elevated levels of eosinophils, eosinophil activation, and adult IBD. However, there have been conflicting data regarding the individual contribution of the eosinophil-selective chemokines eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 in eosinophil recruitment in IBD. In the present study we demonstrate the following: 1) that eosinophil numbers are elevated in pediatric UC and that their level correlates with disease severity; 2) eotaxin-1 and not eotaxin-2 or eotaxin-3 is up-regulated in lesional colonic biopsy samples of pediatric UC patients; and 3) eotaxin-1 mRNA expression correlates with colonic eosinophil levels in pediatric UC. Using a chemical-induced colonic injury model, we define that eotaxin-1, and not eotaxin-2, is critical for eosinophil recruitment and that eotaxin-1 is predominantly derived from intestinal macrophages. Consistent with our experimental analysis, we show that eotaxin-1 is predominantly expressed by intestinal macrophages; ...
Low Eosinophils Count is also known as Eosinopenia, it occurs when the Eosinophils count is less than 50 cells/µL of human blood.. The normal white blood cell count of Eosinophils range between 450 cells/µL in infants to 200 cells/µL in adults.. Low Eosinophils count may occur due to the same causes of Leukopenia such like aplastic anemia and HIV.. Eosinophil is also reduced in the circulating blood in cases of Severe Infections, Shocks, and Adrenocortical Stimulation.. Eosinopenia is also a sing of stress and Cushings Disease since the Eosinophils are reduced due to the presence of Adrenocortical Hormones such like cortisol and aldosterone. Treatments with corticosteroids is also a cause of low Eosinophils count for the same reason.. ...
Eosinophil Chip-IHC from 3H Biomedical AB,Human peripheral blood eosinophils, For immunohistochemistry (IHC) Cell Chip with Human Peripheral Blood Granulocytes,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
TY - CHAP. T1 - Eosinophils. AU - Lee, Nancy A.. AU - Dahl, Mark V.. AU - Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.. AU - Ochkur, Sergei I.. PY - 2011/7/27. Y1 - 2011/7/27. KW - Allergic, nonatopic asthma - allergic asthma, observed in atopic patients. KW - Asthma in humans, three groups - nonatopic allergic asthma, asthma associated with allergies and atopic asthma. KW - Eosinophil numbers, increasing in presence - of allergic disease, as asthma, AD and hay fever. KW - Eosinophil presence, in airway allergic disease - and inflammation in respiratory tract. KW - Eosinophils and T cells - cooperating in asthmatic inflammation. KW - Eosinophils and asthma - disease of lungs and airways, pathologies outside lungs, as well. KW - Eosinophils, classical view of eosinophils - as destructive effector cells, killing cells or tissues indiscriminately. KW - Nonallergic asthma, not often responsive - to prednisone treatment. KW - T cells, and eosinophils - key immune modulators and remodeling agents in asthma. KW - T cells, ...
GM-CSF), and IL-5. Activated T cells likely are the principal sources of IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 that induce eosinophil differentiation in bone marrow. However, depending on pathogenic stimuli, eosinophilopoietic cytokines may be released by other cell types, including mast cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, endothelial cells, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and even eosinophils, themselves.4 IL-3 and GM-CSF are pluripotent cytokines that have effects on other hematopoietic lineages. IL-5 is the most selective eosinophil-active cytokine, but it is relatively late acting. Although it is both necessary and sufficient for eosinophil differentiation, IL-5 demonstrates maximum activity on the IL-5 receptor (IL-5R)-positive eosinophil progenitor pool that first is expanded by earlier acting pluripotent cytokines such as IL-3 and GM-CSF4; expression of the high affinity IL-5R is a prerequisite for eosinophil development. Exodus from the bone marrow also is regulated by IL-5. IL-3, GM-CSF, along ...
Eosinophils are a myeloid cell subpopulation that mediates type 2 T helper cell immune responses. Unexpectedly, we identified a rapid accumulation of eosinophils in 22 human liver grafts after hepatic transplantation. In contrast, no eosinophils were detectable in healthy liver tissues before transplantation. Studies with two genetic mouse models of eosinophil deficiency and a mouse model of antibody-mediated eosinophil depletion revealed exacerbated liver injury after hepatic ischemia and reperfusion. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow-derived eosinophils normalized liver injury of eosinophil-deficient mice and reduced hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury in wild-type mice. Mechanistic studies combining genetic and adoptive transfer approaches identified a critical role of suppression of tumorigenicity (ST2)-dependent production of interleukin-13 by eosinophils in the hepatoprotection against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury. Together, these data provide insight into a mechanism of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human eosinophil, but not neutrophil, adherence to IL-1-stimulated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells is alpha 4 beta 1 (very late antigen-4) dependent. AU - Walsh, G M. AU - Mermod, J J AU - Hartnell, A AU - Kay, A B AU - Wardlaw, A J PY - 1991/5/15. Y1 - 1991/5/15. N2 - Eosinophils, through their ability to generate an array of potent mediators, are thought to be the major effector cells in a number of conditions, including parasitic infection, asthma, and other allergic diseases. The mechanism(s) by which eosinophils, as opposed to neutrophils, accumulate at inflammatory sites is unknown. One possible mechanism would be an eosinophil-specific pathway of adhesion to vascular endothelium. In this study we have demonstrated that human eosinophils, but not neutrophils, constitutively express alpha-4-beta-1 (CD49d/CD29). Expression was not increased on low density eosinophils or normal density cells stimulated with platelet-activating factor. Eosinophils, but not ...
A HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induced apoptosis in the presence of survival-prolonging cytokines interleukin-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in eosinophils and neutrophils. TSA enhanced constitutive eosinophil and neutrophil apoptosis. Similar effects were seen with a structurally dissimilar HDAC inhibitor apicidin. TSA showed additive effect on the glucocorticoid-induced eosinophil apoptosis, but antagonized glucocorticoid-induced neutrophil survival. Eosinophils and neutrophils expressed all HDACs at the mRNA level except that HDAC5 and HDAC11 mRNA expression was very low in both cell types, HDAC8 mRNA was very low in neutrophils and HDAC9 mRNA low in eosinophils. TSA reduced eosinophil and neutrophil nuclear HDAC activities by ~50-60%, suggesting a non-histone target. However, TSA did not increase the acetylation of a non-histone target NF-κB p65. c-jun-N-terminal kinase and caspases 3 and 6 may be involved in the mechanism of TSA-induced apoptosis, ...
Apart from playing critical roles in the initiation of allergic reactions such as asthma, eosinophils are also effector cells in the induction of non-IgE mediated inflammation such as eosinophilic pneumonia, some subtypes of eosinophilic oesophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. The mechanism of activation of eosinophils in non-IgE mediated disorders remains largely unknown. The present study provides novel evidence that eosinophils produce CRH upon stimulation of psychological stress. SP plays a critical role in the expression of CRH in eosinophils via activation of its receptor NK1. Furthermore, SP also activates NK2 on eosinophils to evoke the release of CRH. On the other hand, eosinophil-derived CRH has the ability to activate mast cells and further induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction.. Although CRH has been found in the serum, its peripheral cellular sources remain to be further understood.4 22 Using cellular and molecular approaches, the present study provides evidence ...
In allergic diseases of the upper and lower airways, eosinophils are characteristically recruited from the bloodstream into the tissues and lumina of the airways and are present in respiratory secretions from the nose and lungs. As such, intraluminal and tissue eosinophils are exposed to inhaled allergens. In the present study, we assessed whether recruited airway eosinophils might serve as distinct inflammatory APCs for airway Ags in mediating T cell responses. Normal lungs contain several cell types, DCs, B cells, and macrophages, in their airways and parenchyma capable of acting as professional APCs (28, 29, 30). Native lung myeloid DCs, likely indicative of regulatory mechanisms that restrain local lung T cell activation, lack the full functional capabilities of Ag-processing APCs in that they can present antigenic peptides but not whole proteins to naive CD4+ T cells (28). Lung myeloid DCs, however, acquire the full capabilities of professional APCs following in vitro exposures to ...
The intestinal immune system is composed of a complex network of cells that must balance immunity and tolerance to ingested food antigens, pathogens, and the microbiota. Derangements in intestinal homeostasis lead to allergy, autoimmunity, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Although eosinophils have long been appreciated to be qualitatively abundant in the intestine, even in the absence of any pathology, a functional role for them there has remained elusive.. In this months Society of Mucosal Immunology Featured Paper, Indigenous Enteric Eosinophils Control DCs to Initiate a Primary Th2 Immune Resonse in vivo, Chu et al. shed light on The curious case of the intestinal eosinophil. First, the authors quantitated and analyzed eosinophils along the intestinal tract and showed that eosinophils are most abundant within the small intestine. To evaluate the contribution of intestinal eosinophils to mucosal immunity, the authors analyzed eosinophils in a model of peanut food allergy and anaphylaxis. In ...
Correlations between peripheral blood eosinophil activity and eosinophil count as well as IL-5 levels in the induced sputum in the patients with allergic asthma
Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the cellular source and individual contribution of the eotaxins to colonic eosinophilic accumulation in inflammatory bowel diseases remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate, by gene array and quantitative PCR, elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA in the rectosigmoid colon of pediatric UC patients. We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice ...
Eosinophils are specialized myeloid cells associated with allergy and helminth infections. Blood eosinophils demonstrate circadian cycling, as described over 80 years ago, and are abundant in the healthy gastrointestinal tract. Although a cytokine, interleukin (IL)-5, and chemokines such as eotaxins mediate eosinophil development and survival, and tissue recruitment, respectively, the processes underlying the basal regulation of these signals remain unknown. Here we show that serum IL-5 levels are maintained by long-lived type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) resident in peripheral tissues. ILC2 cells secrete IL-5 constitutively and are induced to co-express IL-13 during type 2 inflammation, resulting in localized eotaxin production and eosinophil accumulation. In the small intestine where eosinophils and eotaxin are constitutive, ILC2 cells co-express IL-5 and IL-13; this co-expression is enhanced after caloric intake. The circadian synchronizer vasoactive intestinal peptide also stimulates ILC2 cells
Sodium Salicylate-Induced Apoptosis of Human Peripheral Blood Eosinophils Is Independent of the Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase and p38 Mitogen-Activated
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes playing important roles in allergic inflammation and helminth infections. Although most research concerning eosinophils has focused on understanding their function in the blood and lung, it should be noted that eosinophils are much more abundant in the lamina propria (LP) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract than in other tissues. In this study, CD11bhighCD11cint cells, representing an almost pure population of eosinophils, were successfully isolated from the small intestinal LP wild type mice and this subset was not found in the LP of the genetically engineered eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. The CD11bhighCD11cint cells had prominent eosinophilic granules in the cytoplasm. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated that a significant fraction of the cytoplasmic granules were bi-compartmental, with an electron-dense or -lucent crystalline core. LP eosinophils express substantially lower levels of L-selectin, PSGL-1, integrin α4β7, and IL-5Rα and ...
Eosinophils play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma, and T cells are controller cells in the recruitment and activation of eosinophils.
Background: There is a lack of information about peripheral blood eosinophil activity during allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate eosinophil chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), degranulation, and apoptosis during allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation in asthma patients.. Methods: 30 patients with asthma (AA), 25 with rhinitis (AR) and 20 healthy subjects (HS) were examined. Peripheral blood was collected 24 h before and 7 h as well as 24 h after the bronchial allergen challenge. Peripheral blood eosinophil chemotaxis, production of ROS and apoptosis were estimated flow cytometrically and degranulation was analyzed by the levels of neurotoxin in serum.. Results: Eosinophil chemotaxis (A), production of ROS (B), degranulation (C) and apoptosis (D) are presented in Figure 1 and Figure 2.. Conclusions: During allergen-induced late-phase airway inflammation, eosinophils from patients with AA demonstrated ...
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils from asthmatic patients are known to release greater amounts of leukotrienes than normal eosinophils when stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) in priming eosinophils was investigated. METHODS: Eosinophils were obtained from 18 asthmatic patients and 18 healthy donors. Cells separated by the Percoll gradients were incubated with PAF (C-18) for 30 minutes and then stimulated with the calcium ionophore A23187 (2.5 microM) for 15 minutes. The amount of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in supernatants was measured using a combination of high pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The mean (SD) amount of LTC4 released by eosinophils from asthmatic patients upon stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 alone was 27.9 (9.9) ng/10(6) cells (n = 6). The amount of LTC4 released following stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 after pretreatment with PAF (1, 5, and 10 microM) was 57.2 (8.9), 75.1 (14.3), ...
The eosinophil is an enigmatic cell with a continuing ability to fascinate. In this book, experts in the field of eosinophil biology comprehensively update our knowledge on the human eosinophil in health and disease. Topics discussed include a synopsis of eosinophil characteristics, properties and role in disease. Important information on how eosinophils release their potent and toxic granule proteins will be covered and how these basic proteins give rise to pathologies including issues such as the function of the nerves. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The Influence of the Injection of Tuberculin on the Eosinophile Cells in the Peripheral Blood. by Jeffrey M. Swan
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of eosinophils in gastrointestinal inflammatory disease of dogs. AU - Bastan, Idil. AU - Rendahl, Aaron. AU - Seelig, David AU - Day, Michael. AU - Hall, Edward. AU - Rao, Savita. AU - Washabau, Robert. AU - Sriramarao, P. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. N2 - BackgroundAccurate identification of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of dogs with eosinophilic GI disease (EGID) by histological evaluation is challenging. The currently used hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining method detects intact eosinophils but does not detect degranulated eosinophils, thus potentially underrepresenting the number of infiltrating eosinophils.ObjectiveTo develop a more sensitive method for identifying and quantifying both intact and degranulated eosinophils to diagnose EGID more accurately.MethodsEndoscopically obtained paraffin‐embedded intestinal biopsy specimens from dogs with GI signs were examined. The study groups were dogs with eosinophilic enteritis (EE), ...
DefinitionAn absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of one type of white blood cells called eosinophils. Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions.
Abstract. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between feeding intolerance or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), andneonatal blood eosinophilc counts ,700 cells/mm3 (eosinophilia) in the first 28 days of life. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, the highest and the average absolute eosinophil counts were recordedfor each infant. Date of onset at first enteral feed, type of milk, time taken to reach full oral feeding, and incidence of feedingintolerance were also noted. Results: A total of 486 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit with 1171 complete blood cell count samplesdrawn were observed. Eosinophilia (count ,700/mm3) was noted in 106 infants (22%). When compared to infants withouteosinophilia (n = 380) infants with eosinophilia had significantly younger gestational age. Fourteen percent of infants witheosinophilia compared with 6% of the controls developed feeding intolerance (OR 2.86, 95% CL 1.40-5.68). Moreover, infantswith eosinophilia were ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate peripheral eosinophil counts, serum total IgE, eosinophilic cationic protein(ECP), IL-4 and soluble E-selectin as severity indices or disease marker. METHOD: A total of 21 patients with atopic dermatitis and 21 normal controls were evaluated for the symptoms and signs according to SCORAD index and measured for peripheral eosinophil counts, serum total IgE, ECP, IL-4 and soluble E-selectin ...
Status: Complete. Support:. Short Description:. Purpose: Acute, severe asthma exacerbations can be difficult to predict and thus prevent. Patients who have frequent exacerbations are of particular concern. Practical exacerbation predictors are needed for these patients in the primary-care setting.. Patients and methods: Medical records of 130,547 asthma patients aged 12-80 years from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database and Clinical Practice Research Datalink, 1990-2013, were examined for 1 year before (baseline) and 1 year after (outcome) their most recent blood eosinophil count. Baseline variables predictive (P,0.05) of exacerbation in the outcome year were compared between patients who had two or more exacerbations and those who had no exacerbation or only one exacerbation, using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Exacerbation was defined as asthma-related hospital attendance/admission (emergency or inpatient) or acute oral corticosteroid (OCS) course.Documents and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of Bcl-2 and its homologues in human eosinophils - Modulation by interleukin-5. AU - Dewson, G AU - Walsh, Garry. AU - Wardlaw, A J PY - 1999/4. Y1 - 1999/4. N2 - The Bcl-2 family has been shown to be vital regulators of programmed cell death in numerous systems. To investigate the role of such proteins in the regulation of apoptosis of eosinophils, the expression of Bcl-2 and homologues Bcl-x(L), (death antagonists), Bax, and Bcl-x(S) (death agonists) were examined by immunoblot, flow cytometry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, Potential modulation of apoptosis-associated molecules during spontaneous apoptosis and in the presence of interleukin (IL)-5 was also investigated. Peripheral blood eosinophils were found to express constitutively Pax and Bcl-x, but Bcl-2 was absent. Analysis of mRNA revealed that the bcl-x(L), isoform predominated, although bcl-x(S), was also detectable. Spontaneous apoptosis due to culturing in the absence of ...
The Bayer H1 haematology analyser automatically counts leucocyte populations on the basis of their differential peroxidase staining.22 By incorporating additional software we have adapted this analyser to accurately determine both eosinophil and neutrophil position on a peroxidase dot plot. This software allows gating of stained neutrophil and eosinophil populations, and determination of the amount of absorption (plotted on thex axis) and scatter (plotted on they axis) of light produced by individual leucocytes.. In this study experiments were performed to validate the methodology, with the quantitation of neutrophil and eosinophil absorption and scatter co-ordinates being shown to be repeatable and reproducible. The method has the benefits of using whole blood, it is rapid, and does not require sample processing. Furthermore, neutrophil and eosinophil assays can be performed on blood stored at room temperature for up to eight hours, and do not depend on the venepuncture method or amount of ...
Blood Eosinophil Counts, Withdrawal of Inhaled Corticosteroids and Risk of COPD Exacerbations and Mortality in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD ...
Question - Is it serious to have a high eosinophils level in child ?. Ask a Doctor about Eosinophil granulocyte, Ask a Pediatrician
Background IL-31 is a pruritogenic cytokine, and IL-33 is an alarmin for damaging inflammation. They together relate to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Eosinophil infiltration into the inner dermal compartment is a predominant pathological feature of AD. We herein investigated the in vitro inflammatory effects of IL-31 and IL-33 on the activation of human eosinophils and dermal fibroblasts. Methodology/Principal Findings Receptors, adhesion molecules and signaling molecules were assessed by Western blot or flow cytometry. Chemokines and cytokine were quantitated by multiplex assay. Functional IL-31 receptor component IL-31RA, OSMR-β and IL-33 receptor component ST2 were constitutively expressed on the surface of eosinophils. Co-culture of eosinophils and fibroblasts significantly induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and AD-related chemokines CXCL1, CXCL10, CCL2 and CCL5. Such inductions were further enhanced with IL-31 and IL-33 stimulation. IL-31 and IL-33 could significantly provoke
MIAMI BEACH -- Researchers suggested that peripheral blood eosinophil counts could serve as a marker of inflammation to guide asthma therapy.
False-colour transmission electron micrograph of a section through an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell. Eosinophils possess a large bilobed nucleus (left, yellow & blue) & a cytoplasm packed with specific granules (orange circles). Each granule contains a dense crystalloid of uncertain function & some enzymes, including histaminase. Eosinophil numbers increase in certain parasitic infections & notably, in asthma, where the cell is now regarded as the most important inflammatory factor in tissue damage. Toxic concentrations of eosinophil products have been identified in asthmatic lungs. Magnification: x3125 at 6x4.5cm size. - Stock Image P248/0081
Definition of Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor? Meaning of Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor as a finance term. What does Eosinophil Chemotactic Factor mean in finance?
Looking for eosinophil chemotactic factor? Find out information about eosinophil chemotactic factor. A peptide released from mast cell granules that stimulates chemotaxis of eosinophils; may be responsible for accumulation of eosinophils at sites of... Explanation of eosinophil chemotactic factor
Faecal egg counts, peripheral blood eosinophil counts and plasma pepsinogen concentrations were monitored during 2 successive, deliberate infections in 24 Scottish Blackface sheep. For all 3 techniques, the repeatability of replicate counts or of measurements made at short intervals were high which suggests that all 3 assays were reliable. Within an infection the repeatability of different samples from the same animal decreased as the interval between samples increased. The repeatability between infections was only moderate for faecal egg counts but high for peripheral eosinophil counts and plasma pepsinogen concentrations. Of the 3 variables, faecal egg count was the most strongly associated with the worm burden. Together, the three variables accounted for, in a statistical sense, one half of the variation in worm burden. The three variables, if measured concurrently, should provide a more effective identification of resistant and susceptible lambs. ...
Eosinophil peroxidase is an enzyme found within the eosinophil granulocytes, innate immune cells of humans and mammals. This oxidoreductase protein is encoded by the gene EPX, expressed within these myeloid cells. EPO shares many similarities with its orthologous peroxidases, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoperoxidase (LPO), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO). The protein is concentrated in secretory granules within eosinophils. Eosinophil peroxidase is a heme peroxidase, its activities including the oxidation of halide ions to bacteriocidal reactive oxygen species, the cationic disruption of bacterial cell walls, and the post-translational modification of protein amino acid residues. The major function of eosinophil peroxidase is to catalyze the formation of hypohalous acids from hydrogen peroxide and halide ions in solution. For example: H2O2 + Cl− → HOCl + H2O Hypohalous acids formed from halides or pseudohalides are potent oxidizing agents. The open reading frame of human eosinophil peroxidase was ...
History Quantification of tissues eosinophils remains the fantastic regular in diagnosing eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) but this process is suffering from poor specificity. histology (1) we regarded patients to possess when they fulfilled the following requirements: 1. treatment with PPI for ≥4 weeks to diagnostic endoscopy prior; 2. tissues eosinophil count number >15/hpf in at least one biopsy; 3. exclusion of various other roots of oesophageal eosinophilia. Usage of corticosteroids was regarded an exclusion requirements. Conversely patients had been classified as if they demonstrated: 1. histological proof oesophageal tissue swelling such as for example basal area hyperplasia and an inflammatory cell infiltrate; 2. eosinophil count number 1-15/hpf; 3. a medical background suggestive of reflux-associated symptoms 4. Proof pathologic GERD either by irregular pH/impedance research or by erosive oesophagitis that healed after antacid therapy and 5 no proof advancement of EoE after long-term ...
Rationale: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and responses to treatment are heterogeneous. Objectives: Investigate the usefulness of blood eosinophils to direct corticosteroid therapy during exacerbations. Methods: Subjects with COPD exacerbations were entered into a randomized biomarker-directed double-blind corticosteroid versus standard therapy study. Subjects in the standard arm received prednisolone for 2 weeks, whereas in the biomarker-directed arm, prednisolone or matching placebo was given according to the blood eosinophil count biomarker. Both study groups received antibiotics. Blood eosinophils were measured in the biomarker-directed and standard therapy arms to define biomarker-positive and -negative exacerbations (blood eosinophil count , and ,= 2%, respectively). The primary outcome was to determine noninferiority in health status using the chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ) and in the proportion of exacerbations associated with a treatment failure ...
A new human leukemia cell line with an eosinophilic phenotype, designated YJ, was established from the peripheral blood cells of a patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) with eosinophilia. When cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, most YJ cells were myeloblastoid with a small number of the cells having eosinophilic granules. Cell surface markers in the YJ cells were positive for CD33 and were negative for CD34, CD16 and CD23. The eosinophilic characteristics of YJ cells were confirmed by histochemical staining with Fast-Green/Neutral-Red and by the expression of mRNAs for eosinophil-associated granule proteins, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), and major basic protein (MBP), and for the Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein. The YJ cells could be induced towards monocytic differentiation by stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The monocytic characteristics of YJ cells treated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of eosinophils to airway nerves and effect on neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function. AU - Costello, Richard W.. AU - Schofield, Brian H.. AU - Kephart, Gail M.. AU - Gleich, Gerald J.. AU - Jacoby, David B.. AU - Fryer, Allison D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors inhibit acetylcholine release from pulmonary parasympathetic nerves but are dysfunctional in antigen-challenged animals and asthmatics. Depletion of pulmonary eosinophils protects M2 receptor function in antigen-challenged guinea pigs. Therefore, the association of eosinophils with airway nerves was investigated. Nerve- associated eosinophils were significantly increased in challenged animals compared with controls (0.75 ± 0.05 vs. 0.28 ± 0.05 eosinophils/nerve). In antigen-challenged animals, eosinophil density was greatest around airway nerves, suggesting recruitment to the nerves. M2 receptor function ...
The existence of a functional receptor for secretory component (SC) on the eosinophil membrane might explain the preferential degranulation induced by secretory IgA (sIgA) when compared to serum IgA. Indeed, flow cytometry analysis revealed that purified human SC could bind to a subpopulation (4-59%) of blood eosinophils purified from 19 patients with eosinophilia. Binding of radiolabeled human SC could be competitively inhibited using unlabeled SC or secretory IgA but not with serum IgA or IgG. Immunoprecipitation and immunosorbent chromatography using human SC revealed the presence of a major component at 15 kDa in eosinophil extracts as well as in culture supernatants but not in neutrophils. The 15-kDa protein eluted from the human SC immunosorbent was able to bind to SC or to sIgA but not to serum IgA. Eosinophils preincubated with human SC or sIgA released eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) after addition of anti-SC or anti-IgA monoclonal antibody as respective cross
SUMMARY Eosinophils continue to be studied intensively, in large part, as a result of their potential role in the pathogenesis of asthma. The concept of the eosinophil as a cell that has protective effects against helminthic parasite infection, but can cause tissue damage when inappropriately activated, remains intact, although the evidence for both these roles is circumstantial. Eosinophil production and function are profoundly influenced by interleukin (IL)-5; and, thus, eosinophilia is associated with diseases characterized by T-helper (Th)2-mediated immune responses, including infections by helminthic parasites and extrinsic asthma. However, eosinophilia also occurs in diseases not obviously associated with Th2 dominance, such as intrinsic asthma, hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs), and inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, IL-5 and other eosinophil mediators can be generated in various types of inflammatory response.. The eosinophil, like other leukocytes, can generate proinflammatory ...
Hematopoietins, interleukin (IL)-3, IL-5, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have previously been shown to prolong eosinophil survival and abrogate apoptosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on eosinophil survival and apoptosis. Eosinophils from peripheral blood of mildly eosinophilic donors were isolated to , 97% purity using discontinuous Percoll density gradient. Eosinophils were cultured with hematopoietins with or without TGF-beta for 4 d and their viability was assessed. We confirmed previous observations that hematopoietins prolonged eosinophil survival and inhibited apoptosis. TGF-beta at concentrations , or = 10(-12) M abrogated the survival-prolonging effects of hematopoietins in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis as determined by DNA fragmentation in agarose gels. The effect of TGF-beta was blocked by an anti-TGF-beta antibody. The anti-TGF-beta antibody also prolonged ... A =Eosinophil count - absolute: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of one type of white blood cells called eosinophils . Eosinophils G E C become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, Eosinophil19.3 MedlinePlus4.6 Infection4.1 Allergy3.7 Blood test3 White blood cell3 Blood2.8 Vein2.2 Cell (biology)1.8 Disease1.8 A.D.A.M., Inc.1.6 Medication1.2 Hemostasis1.2 Hypodermic needle1.1 JavaScript1.1 Skin1 Medical diagnosis0.9 Elsevier0.9 Comorbidity0.9 Health professional0.9 ...
Eosinophilia (e-o-sin-o-FILL-e-uh) is a higher than normal level of eosinophils. Eosinophils are a type of disease-fighting white blood cell. This condition most often indicates a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer.. You can have high levels of eosinophils in your blood (blood eosinophilia) or in tissues at the site of an infection or inflammation (tissue eosinophilia).. Tissue eosinophilia may be found in samples taken during an exploratory procedure or in samples of certain fluids, such as mucus released from nasal tissues. If you have tissue eosinophilia, the level of eosinophils in your bloodstream is likely normal.. Blood eosinophilia may be detected with a blood test, usually as part of a complete blood count. A count of more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is generally considered eosinophilia in adults. A count of more than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood that lasts for several months is called hypereosinophilia.. Eosinophils play two roles in your ...
Looking for Charcot-Leyden crystal? Find out information about Charcot-Leyden crystal. a solid body bounded by natural plane faces that are the external expression of a regular internal arrangement of constituent atoms, molecules, or ions. Explanation of Charcot-Leyden crystal
The integrin α4β1 is expressed on a wide variety of peripheral leukocytes, and functions in recruitment of these cells to sites of inflammaiton. We infected august (AUG) rats with the helminth parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and later used leukocytes from the peritoneum of the sensitized animals and antibodies against α4β1 integrin to localize that adhesion molecule on the cell surfaces after antigen challenge. We found that after antigen challenge, eosinophils, monocytes, and small lymphocytes, but not mast cells, expressed α4β1 integrin if the animals had been previously infected, but cells from uninfected animals did not show expression of this molecule. Our study describes a novel protocol for immunohistochemical analysis of rat eosinophils.
Eosinophils are generally linked to innate host defense against helminths, as well as the pathologies associated with allergic diseases, such as asthma. Nonetheless, the activities of eosinophils remain poorly understood, which in turn, has prevented detailed definitions of their role(s) in health and disease. Homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells was used to insert a mammalianized Cre recombinase in the ORF encoding Epx. This knock-in strategy overcame previous inefficiencies associated with eosinophil-specific transgenic approaches and led to the development of a knock-in strain of mice (eoCRE), capable of mediating recombination of floxed reporter cassettes in greater than 95% of peripheral blood eosinophils. We also showed that this Cre expression was limited exclusively to eosinophil-lineage committed cells with no evidence of Cre-mediated toxicity. The efficiency and specificity of Cre expression in eoCRE mice were demonstrated further in a cross with a knock-in mouse ...
Subjects admitted on this protocol will have elevated eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood or tissues or will be relatives of subjects with eosinophilia. Eosinophilic subjects will undergo an extensive clinical evaluation focused on the identification of the cause of eosinophilia and the presence of end organ manifestations. In addition, they will be characterized in detail immunologically, and their blood cells and/or serum will be collected to provide reagents (eg. specific antibodies, T-cell clones, etc.) that will be used in the laboratory to address broader questions relating to the etiology of eosinophilia, its immunoregulation, the degree and source of eosinophil activation, and/or the functional role of eosinophils in the afferent arm of those immune response where they are prominent. While the protocol is not primarily designed to study treatment of patients with blood and tissue eosinophilia, the clinical and immunological responses to various medically indicated therapies will be ...
Immunotherapies targeting T lymphocytes are revolutionizing cancer therapy but only benefit a subset of patients, especially in colorectal cancer. Thus, additional insight into the tumor microenvironment (TME) is required. Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived cells that have been largely studied in the context of allergic diseases and parasite infections. Although tumor-associated eosinophilia has been described in various solid tumors including colorectal cancer, knowledge is still missing regarding eosinophil activities and even the basic question of whether the TME promotes eosinophil recruitment without additional manipulation (e.g., immunotherapy) is unclear. Herein, we report that eosinophils are recruited into developing tumors during induction of inflammation-induced colorectal cancer and in mice with the Apcmin/+ genotype, which develop spontaneous intestinal adenomas. Using adoptive transfer and cytokine neutralization experiments, we demonstrate that the TME supported prolonged ...
This study is the first to provide clinical insights into the role of peripheral blood eosinophil level in patients with COPD complicated with CAP requiring IMV and admission to an ICU. The important findings are the associations between peripheral blood eosinophil level and severity of lung function, leucocyte count and in-ICU treatment outcomes in terms of prolonged RICU admission (RICU length of stay ,14 days) and a distinct bacterial profile for the cause of CAP in this population.. The strengths of this study include that all participants had spirometric data to confirm the diagnosis of COPD, and that the bacteriology was profiled using samples collected via transbronchial aspirates on insertion of an endotracheal tube. In addition, this study population has never previously been studied with regard to the relationship between peripheral blood eosinophil level and clinical characteristics, bacteriology of EAs and clinical outcomes. This ensures a valid study population of patients with COPD ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The appellant is the applicant of European patent application No. 91 118 744.1 (the application). The application was filed on 4 November 1991 and is entitled Treatment of eosinophil-mediated diseases with Paf Antagonists and Procedure for Determining their Efficacy. The application as originally filed contained inter alia claims directed to:. 1. A method of treating eosinophil-mediated diseases comprising administering to a subject requiring said treatment with an effective amount of at least one paf antagonist.. 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the paf antagonist is a triazolo-thieno-diazepine or a homologue thereof, a ginkgolide, a ginkgolide mixture or a synthetic ginkgolide derivative or an analogue of paf.. 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the eosinophil- mediated disease to be treated is an allergic and inflammatory disease including inflammatory, allergic, hepathic and nephrotic oedema formation.. 4. The method of claim 2, wherein the ...
in Thorax (2010), 65(12), 1039-1044. Background It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that ... [more ▼]. Background It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that identifies a sputum eosinophil count ,/=3% in an unselected population of patients with asthma has been poorly studied. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in 295 patients with asthma aged 15-84 years recruited from the asthma clinic of University Hospital of Liege. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between sputum eosinophil count and FeNO, taking into account covariates such as inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), smoking, atopy, age and sex. Results Derived from ...
R01 AI072265, NIH/NIAID - Bochner (PI). Studies in this grant will explore whether Siglec-8, a molecule selectively expressed by eosinophils and mast cells, can be targeted for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in allergic, gastrointestinal and malignant diseases.. Siglecs (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins) are cell surface proteins found predominantly on leukocytes. Siglec-8 was discovered by us about a decade ago and is selectively expressed on eosinophils and mast cells. Its closest functional paralog in the mouse is Siglec-F, which is also selectively expressed by eosinophils but unfortunately not on mast cells. Both Siglec-8 and Siglec-F preferentially and uniquely recognize the glycan 6-sulfo-sialyl Lewis X (6-sulfo-sLeX) and its non-fucosylated form. Engagement of Siglec-8/-F with antibodies (Abs) and/or artificial ligands causes eosinophil death. Administration of Siglec-F Abs in mouse models of chronic allergic asthma and eosinophilia normalizes eosinophilic ...
Im doing a project for my cell class (sorry if this is in the wrong forum--I couldnt find a homework forum) about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. I was wondering if someone could point me in the right direction for a few answers. My professor seemed to think everything could be found online and I dont doubt him, Im just getting conflicting answers. Heres what I have so far ...
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Figure 1. Clinical Pictures of Skin Papules and Nodules in a Case of L-HES.. Hypereosinophilic syndrome is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-mediated end-organ damage. In the lymphocytic variant of HES (L-HES), the disorder is caused by a T cell clone that produces pathogenic levels of eosinophil-promoting cytokines. In a recent manuscript published in Blood, we identified STAT3 signaling as a driver of L-HES. These studies provided the scientific rationale for a study at Yale to treat L-HES patients with JAK inhibitors. Preliminary studies suggest that JAK inhibitors are highly efficacious for patients with this disease. CTCL is commonly associated with L-HES but the patients we studied did not have CTCL.. Reference: Letter to the Editor in Blood. ...
Editors note: Dupilumab is not the magic bullet that cures asthma. This study included a selected group of patients with elevated eosinophils. Not all patients with asthma have elevated eosinophils. Another monoclonal antibody, mepolizumab, anti-IL5, has been shown to help patients with eosinophil-predominant asthma. Yet another monoclonal antibody,lebrikizumab, anti-IL13 helps patients with asthma and elevated periostin level. It is becoming clearer that as we get better at defining different asthma phenotypes based on biological markers (eosinophils, periostin, etc.), we may be able to offer targetted therapy to selected patients that fullfill the criteria for efficacy. These antibodies would not help all patients with asthma. In addition, the monoclonal antibodies require an injection and are very expensive. It is important to determine the number needed to treat (NNT) in order to make a cost-benefit analysis of such treatments ...
Looking for online definition of eosinophil or what eosinophil stands for? eosinophil is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Eosinophilia occurs in a variety of clinical disorders including parasitic infections, hypereosinophilic syndrome, cancer, and atopic diseases. Eosinophils are...
A granuloma is a solid grouping of inflammatory cells coming together in a solid structure. An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell that is commonly associated with allergic responses or with parasitism. Finding eosinophils in tissue suggests allergic disease usually whereas finding increased eosinophil numbers in a blood sample more commonly suggest parasitism. Sometimes proliferations grow from the actual footpads where they ulcerate as the cat is forced to walk on them. There is some tendency for this condition to occur in adolescent kittens though it can occur at any age. The eosinophilic granuloma complex represents a disorder of eosinophil function. The eosinophils real job is to attack parasites. In cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex, eosinophils are called to the site of an allergic response and the biochemicals released cause damage to local collagen. For more ...
This study investigates the relationship between helminth infection and allergic sensitization by assessing the influence of preexisting allergy on the outcome of helminth infections, rather than the more traditional approach in which the helminth infection precedes the onset of allergy. Here we used a murine model of house dust mite-induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation followed by Ascaris infection to demonstrate that allergic sensitization drives an eosinophil-rich pulmonary type 2 immune response (Th2 cells, M2 macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, IL-33, IL-4, IL-13, and mucus) that directly hinders larval development and reduces markedly the parasite burden in the lungs. This effect is dependent on the presence of eosinophils, as eosinophil-deficient mice were unable to limit parasite development or numbers. In vivo administration of neutralizing antibodies against CD4 prior to HDM sensitization significantly reduced eosinophils in the lungs, resulting in the reversal of the ...
This study investigates the relationship between helminth infection and allergic sensitization by assessing the influence of preexisting allergy on the outcome of helminth infections, rather than the more traditional approach in which the helminth infection precedes the onset of allergy. Here we used a murine model of house dust mite-induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation followed by Ascaris infection to demonstrate that allergic sensitization drives an eosinophil-rich pulmonary type 2 immune response (Th2 cells, M2 macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, IL-33, IL-4, IL-13, and mucus) that directly hinders larval development and reduces markedly the parasite burden in the lungs. This effect is dependent on the presence of eosinophils, as eosinophil-deficient mice were unable to limit parasite development or numbers. In vivo administration of neutralizing antibodies against CD4 prior to HDM sensitization significantly reduced eosinophils in the lungs, resulting in the reversal of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential effect of glucocorticoids on pulmonary responses and eosinophils. AU - Parker, Stephen D.. AU - Brown, Robert H.. AU - Hirshman, Carol A.. PY - 1991/3. Y1 - 1991/3. N2 - The persistent airway hyperresponsivenes oof Basenji-Greyhound (BG) dogs to 10% citric acid (CA) is abolished by chronic administration of methylprednisolone (MP) and is accompanied by the disappearance of eosinophils from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. To determine whether the disappearance of eosinophils from BAL fluid was temporally related to the loss of airway responsiveness to CA, we investigated the time course of the reduction in airway responsiveness to CA and correlated it with changes in cell profiles in BAL fluid in a group of BG dogs treated with MP for 1 to 7 days. Six dogs in separate studies were pretreated with MP (2 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously for either 1, 3 or 7 days. Each dog served as its own control for each set of studies. Under thiopental anesthesia, lung resistance ...
The early signalling events that may ultimately contribute to the assembly and subsequent activation of the NADPH oxidase in guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils were investigated in response to leukotriene B4 (LTB4). LTB4 promoted a rapid, transient and receptor-mediated increase in the rate of H2O2 generation that was potentiated by R 59 022, a diradylglycerol (DRG) kinase inhibitor, implicating protein kinase C (PKC) in the genesis of this response. This conclusion was supported by the finding that the PKC inhibitor, Ro 31-8220, attenuated (by about 30%) the peak rate of LTB4-induced H2O2 generation under conditions where the same response evoked by 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) was inhibited by more than 90%. Paradoxically, Ro 31-8220 doubled the amount of H2O2 produced by LTB4 which may relate to the ability of PKC to inhibit cell signalling through phospholipase C (PLC). Indeed, Ro 31-8220 significantly enhanced LTB4-induced Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation and the duration of the Ca2+ ...
Question - High eosinophil count. Blood test done. Medication for high count?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Eosinophil count is advised, Ask a Hematologist
BACKGROUND: Sputum induction is an important non-invasive technique for measuring airway inflammation in asthma. Cell numbers are often too low for flow cytometric analysis. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a novel technique that allows objective multicolour fluorescence analysis of cells on a microscope slide. METHODS: LSC was used to determine sputum eosinophil and bronchial epithelial cell counts. We first confirmed that we could measure eosinophil counts accurately in peripheral blood using alpha-major basic protein (MBP) immunofluorescent staining. Sputum induction was performed according to standard protocols. Sputum samples from eight normal controls and 12 asthmatic patients were analysed by LSC and manual counting by two independent observers. Octospot cytospins were fixed and stained with mouse-alpha-human-MBP monoclonal antibody or mouse-alpha-human-cytokeratin antibody and goat-alpha-mouse Oregon Green conjugated second antibody. RESULTS: Sputum induction provided a mean (SE) of 0.99 (0.2)
Description:. Mepolizumab is a humanized IL-5 antagonist monoclonal antibody. Mepolizumab is produced by recombinant DNA technology in Chinese hamster ovary cells.. US- FDA-Approved Indications:. NUCALA is an interleukin-5 antagonist monoclonal antibody (IgG1 kappa) indicated for add-on maintenance treatment of patients with severe asthma aged 12 years and older, and with an eosinophilic phenotype.. Mepolizumab is an interleukin-5 antagonist (IgG1 kappa). IL-5 is the major cytokine responsible for the growth and differentiation, recruitment, activation, and survival of eosinophils. Mepolizumab binds to IL-5 with a dissociation constant of 100 pM, inhibiting the bioactivity of IL-5 by blocking its binding to the alpha chain of the IL-5 receptor complex expressed on the eosinophil cell surface. Inflammation is an important component in the pathogenesis of asthma. Multiple cell types (e.g. , mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, ...
The study consists of a single visit at which patients fill in a questionnaire on actual hayfever and asthma symptoms as well as current treatment. Blood samples and nasal lavages are drawn and analysed for eosinophils as well as eosinophil cationic protein and tryptase. Spirometry is performed.. If patients use drugs which can interfere with results, ie. corticosteroids or beta-agonists, biochemistry and/or spirometry are omitted. ...
The body produces a large number of eosinophils to fight against the invasion of microorganisms or due to an allergic response. During an allergic reaction to medications, food, environmental factors, or cosmetic products, the eosinophils count will be higher.
An abnormally high number of eosinophils in the blood. Normally, eosinophils constitute 1 to 3% of the peripheral blood leukocytes, at a count of 350 to 650 per cubic millimeter. Eosinophilia can be categorized as mild (less than 1500 eosinophils per cubic millimeter), moderate (1500 to 5000 per cubic millimeter), or severe (more than 5000 per cubic millimeter). In areas of the world where parasitic diseases are common, they are the usual cause of eosinophilia. In developed nations, eosinophilia is most often due to allergy or, less often, a drug reaction. There are numerous other causes of eosinophilia, but individually they are quite uncommon. Eosinophilia may be primary or secondary. In primary eosinophilia, the increased production of eosinophils is due to an abnormality in a hematopoietic stem cell as, for example, in eosinophilic leukemia. In secondary eosinophilia, the increased production of eosinophils is a reactive process driven by cytokines, as is the case in allergy. ...
목적: Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia CEP is a disorder characterized by chronic or recurrent eosinophilic infiltration of the lung It is dramatically responsive to corticosteroid therapy but relapses are frequent after tapering or stopping the corticosteroid The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide FeNO is a wellknown marker of eosinophilic inflammation of the lung The aim of this study was to ev
Abstract. The expression of the hematopoietic transcription factors GATA-1, GATA- 2, and GATA-3 was studied in eosinophils and basophils. Eosinophils express mR
... eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin). These agents serve to orchestrate ... the eosinophil. Typically, the disorder is associated with hypereosinophilia, i.e. an eosinophil blood cell count greater than ... However, elevated blood eosinophil counts may not occur during the early phase of the disorder. Other, less specific laboratory ... Eosinophils: how they contribute to endothelial damage and dysfunction". La Presse Médicale. 42 (4 Pt 2): 503-7. doi:10.1016/j. ...
However, elevated blood eosinophil counts may not occur during the early phase of the disorder. Other, less specific laboratory ... Secondary causes (i.e. disorders in which other diseases cause the eosinophil to become dysfunctional) include allergic and ... Diny NL, Rose NR, Čiháková D (2017). "Eosinophils in Autoimmune Diseases". Frontiers in Immunology. 8: 484. doi:10.3389/fimmu. ... The signs and symptoms of Loeffler endocarditis tend to reflect the many underlying disorders causing eosinophil dysfunction as ...
CSF analysis shows predominantly eosinophils. An acute progressive pyogranulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis is seen in mature ... It differs in pathology from GME by more tissue breakdown and increased eosinophils (white blood cells). CSF analysis is also ...
Eosinophils also have kidney-shaped lobed nuclei (two to four lobes). The number of granules in an eosinophil can vary because ... Eosinophils play a crucial part in the killing of parasites (e.g., enteric nematodes) because their granules contain a unique, ... "Segmented Eosinophil". University of Virginia Health System. Retrieved 2009-04-10. Baron, Samuel (editor) (1996). Medical ... Kariyawasam HH, Robinson DS (April 2006). "The eosinophil: the cell and its weapons, the cytokines, its locations". Seminars in ...
Infiltration of eosinophils causes organ damage. Most cases of CEL are associated with rearrangements in PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or ... Chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a form of cancer in which too many eosinophils are found in the bone marrow, blood, and other ... For a diagnosis of CEL, hypereosinophilia with greater than 30% eosinophils is required. Serum IgE is usually normal. In cases ...
Like eosinophils, basophils play a role in both parasitic infections and allergies. They are found in tissues where allergic ... Stone KD, Prussin C, Metcalfe DD (February 2010). "IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils". The Journal of Allergy and ... Blood cell lineage Alternate stain of a basophil Biology portal Medicine portal Allergy Diamine oxidase Eosinophil Food ...
Tissue has increased numbers of eosinophils. In an article from 1977, histological research into 349 cases of Küttner's tumor ( ... In one retrospective cohort study, baseline concentrations of serum IgG4, IgE and blood eosinophils were found to be ... Approximately 1/3 of cases exhibit increases in blood eosinophil counts, either eosinophilia or hypereosinophilia.[citation ...
It is constitutively expressed on mast cells and basophils and is inducible in eosinophils. FcεRI is found on epidermal ... and eosinophils". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 117 (2 Suppl Mini-Primer): S450-5456. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.11. ... Langerhans cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. As a result of its cellular distribution, this receptor plays a major ...
... and eosinophils; and other processes). In a new development in the field of antibody-based therapeutics, the Fc region of ...
This ligand has been found to have a functional affinity for H4 receptors that are expressed by eosinophils and mast cells. ... "Liver-expressed chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 16 attracts eosinophils by interacting with histamine H4 receptor". Journal of ... CCL16 may be useful for trafficking eosinophils. ...
Th2 cells and eosinophils; and cytokiness which either activate eosinophils (viz.,. Interleukin 5), promote adaptive and ... The syndrome is also associated with other maladies caused by high levels of blood eosinophils such as the various ... and/or eosinophils to release pro-allergic mediators (e.g. histamine); b) Type I, Type II, and Type III hypersensitivity ... and tissue-injuring action of eosinophils. Skin lesions inflict 73% to 100% of afflicted individuals; they are generally ...
... specifically attracts eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. This chemokine is found predominantly in lymph nodes and ...
The work suggests eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in fat tissue play an important role in preventing insulin ... We speculate that eosinophils may have evolved to optimize metabolic homeostasis during chronic infections by ubiquitous ... 8 April 2011). "Eosinophils Sustain Adipose Alternatively Activated Macrophages Associated with Glucose Homeostasis" (PDF). ... The authors concluded: Although sparse in blood of persons in developed countries, eosinophils are often elevated in ...
... although the eosinophil expresses much lower levels of these structures on its surface. Ligands for P-selectin on eosinophils ... Neutrophils and eosinophils bind to E-selectin. One of the reported ligands for E-selectin is the sialylated Lewis X antigen ( ... Bochner BS, Sterbinsky SA, Bickel CA, Werfel S, Wein M, Newman W (January 1994). "Differences between human eosinophils and ... Wein M, Sterbinsky SA, Bickel CA, Schleimer RP, Bochner BS (March 1995). "Comparison of human eosinophil and neutrophil ligands ...
ISBN 978-0-321-20413-4. Prussin C, Metcalfe DD (February 2003). "4. IgE, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils". The Journal ... Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S (2011). "Role of Mast Cells, Basophils and Eosinophils in Immediate Hypersensitivity". Cellular ... such as eosinophil chemotactic factor reactive oxygen species Histamine dilates post-capillary venules, activates the ...
Corwin, H. L.; Bray, R. A.; Haber, M. H. (1989-11-01). "The detection and interpretation of urinary eosinophils". Archives of ... Urine samples stained with Wright's stain will identify eosinophils, which can indicate interstitial nephritis or urinary tract ...
Eosinophils may be present within the infiltrate. Emperipolesis, where there is penetration of one cell through another, within ...
3. Steroid hormones and number of eosinophils in the uterus of the mouse and rat". Acta Endocrinologica. 54 (4): 696-706. doi: ... ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Baker AP, Bergman F, Paul KG (April 1967). "Studies of eosinophil granulocytes. ...
The compound is generated in warm-blooded vertebrate organisms especially by eosinophils, which produce it by the action of ... Mayeno, AN; Curran, AJ; Roberts, RL; Foote, CS (1989). "Eosinophils preferentially use bromide to generate halogenating agents ... using the action of an oxidizing agent to generate hypobromite in a similar fashion to the peroxidase in eosinophils. It is ... eosinophil peroxidase, an enzyme which preferentially uses bromide. Bromide is also used in hot tubs and spas as a germicidal ...
... and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils play a role in the mediation of inflammation in the airways. Eosinophilic asthma is a ... Reductions in blood eosinophil counts were observed following the first dose of reslizumab and maintained through 52 weeks of ... In phase III clinical trials, mean eosinophil counts were 696 cells/µL (n=245) and 624 cells/µL (n=244) at baseline. Following ... Furthermore, eosinophil count returned towards baseline in those reslizumab-treated patients who completed a follow-up ...
PGLYRP1 is highly constitutively expressed in the bone marrow and in the granules of neutrophils and eosinophils, and also in ... A microbicidal granule protein of eosinophils and neutrophils". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (22): 19658-19664. doi ...
Eosinophils compose about 2-4% of the WBC total. This count fluctuates throughout the day, seasonally, and during menstruation ... Eosinophils are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions. The most important causes of eosinophilia ... This can occur in hemolytic anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura A normal eosinophil count is considered to be less ... Basophils can also release chemical signals that attract eosinophils and neutrophils to an infection site. Lymphocytes are much ...
... eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin). These agents serve to orchestrate ... Eosinophils usually account for less than 7% of the circulating leukocytes. A marked increase in non-blood tissue eosinophil ... Elevations in blood eosinophil counts can be transient, sustained, recurrent, or cyclical. Eosinophil counts in human blood ... IgE-mediated eosinophil production is induced by compounds released by basophils and mast cells, including eosinophil ...
... an eosinophil blood count of 7,150 per microliter (normal 60%) eosinophil CFUs when incubated with bone marrow cells taken from ... Immunophenotyping of these eosinophil CFU-stimulating T cells indicated that they expressed the CD4 but not CD8 cell surface ... Eosinophils: how they contribute to endothelial damage and dysfunction". Presse Médicale. 42 (4 Pt 2): 503-7. doi:10.1016/j.lpm ... The overly stimulated CFU-Eos cells mature to apparently normal appearing but possibly overactive eosinophils which enter the ...
Capron M, Soussi Gounni A, Morita M, Truong M, Prin L, Kinet J, Capron A (1995). "Eosinophils: from low- to high-affinity ... In a similar mechanism, activated eosinophils release preformed mediators such as major basic protein, and enzymes such as ... and eosinophils) and mast cells. It is also used by certain lymphocytes such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells ... "Mechanism of the interaction mediating killing of Schistosoma mansoni by human eosinophils". Am J Trop Med Hyg. 29 (5): 842-8. ...
The sites may also contain poorly differentiated cells; but rarely have T-cells, eosinophils, or plasma cells. The lesion's ...
It is formed by eosinophil peroxidase. Kambayashi Y, Ogino K, Takemoto K, et al. (January 2009). "Preparation and ...
Eosinophil recruitment into inflammatory tissue is a complex process, regulated by a number of inflammatory cytokines. In EG ... In addition eotaxin has been shown to have an integral role in regulating the homing of eosinophils into the lamina propria of ... As a part of host defense mechanism, eosinophil is normally present in gastrointestinal mucosa, though finding in deeper tissue ... Mishra A, Hogan S, Brandt E, Rothenberg M (2001). "An etiological role for aeroallergens and eosinophils in experimental ...
In EoE, eosinophils migrate to the esophagus in large numbers. When a trigger food is eaten, the eosinophils contribute to ... Eosinophil-predominant inflammation on esophageal biopsy, characteristically consisting of a peak value of ≥15 eosinophils per ... If no eosinophils are present in the repeat biopsy, the diagnosis is either acid mediated GERD with eosinophilia or non GERD ... The eosinophils are recruited into the tissue in response to local production of eotaxin-3 by IL-13 stimulated esophageal ...
... is the abnormal presence of eosinophils in the urine. It can be measured by detecting levels of eosinophil ...
Subsequently eosinophil peroxidase was found to be localized to primary and secondary granules of the eosinophil. Eosinophils ... Eosinophil peroxidase is secreted by eosinophil cells into the tissue at the site of infection. Activation of cells in the face ... Eosinophil peroxidase is an enzyme found within the eosinophil granulocytes, innate immune cells of humans and mammals. This ... Eosinophil peroxidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Eosinophil peroxidase on InterPro ...
The protein encoded by this gene is found in eosinophil granulocytes. It is closely related to the eosinophil cationic protein ... 1998). "Localization of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein in neutrophilic leukocytes". J. Leukoc. ... 1990). "Structure and chromosome localization of the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein genes ... Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASE2 gene.[5][6][7] ...
This article provides a brief overview of eosinophils; specialized cells of the immune system involved in anti-parasitic and ... eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil peroxidize (EPO), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). These are involved in ... What are eosinophils?. Eosinophils are specialized pro-inflammatory white blood cells. They have a bilobed nucleus and are ... Eosinophils and infectious disease. Viral infections Eosinophils are recruited in the lower airway epithelium during viral ...
... providing vital techniques from eosinophil purification to experimental modelling. ... Eosinophils. Book Subtitle. Methods and Protocols. Editors. * Garry M. Walsh Series Title. Methods in Molecular Biology. Series ... Authoritative and practical, Eosinophils: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition provides the practical means to extend our ... This second edition of Eosinophils: Methods and Protocols updates several techniques from the first edition together with novel ...
Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is a condition that affects certain white blood cells called eosinophils but causes no health ... In eosinophil peroxidase deficiency, eosinophils have little or no eosinophil peroxidase. A lack of this protein does not seem ... eosinophils have severely reduced amounts of eosinophil peroxidase or none at all. Other proteins within affected eosinophils ... Mutations in the EPX gene cause eosinophil peroxidase deficiency. The EPX gene provides instructions for making the eosinophil ...
A high eosinophils count can result from allergies, environmental toxins, autoimmune diseases, parasitic infections and fungal ... Eosinophils are one type of white blood cell, and their function in the body is to ward off disease. They perform this function ... A high eosinophils count can result from allergies, environmental toxins, autoimmune diseases, parasitic infections and fungal ... A wide range of diseases and conditions can cause eosinophil levels to rise, with allergic reactions and parasitic infections ...
An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell. ... An eosinophil count is a type of blood test that measures the ... An eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the quantity of eosinophils in your body. Abnormal eosinophil levels are ... In children, eosinophil levels vary with age.. Abnormal results If you have over 500 eosinophil cells per microliter of blood, ... Low eosinophil counts may also be due to the time of day. Under normal conditions, eosinophil counts are lowest in the morning ...
Stockley, R. A., Rennard, S. I., Rabe, K. and Celli, B. (2007) Eosinophils and COPD, in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ...
... C. P. Martinelli-Kläy, B. R. R. N. Mendis, and T. Lombardi ... The eosinophil cell has been related as a prognostic indicator for cancers. However, its exact function in tumour behaviour is ... In the oral cavity the presence of eosinophils can be a favourable prognostic indicator as well as it may be associated with a ... In this short review, we briefly summarize the role of the eosinophils in the general context of immunoregulation and its ...
HIGH Eosinophils/Lymphs When On Imuran?? liverbelching Hello: 23 YO Male diagnosed with AIH just under 2 years ago. I am on ... High Eosinophils 11% High AST 93 High ALT 70 High GGT 87 I thought Imuran was supposed to SUPPRESS the immune system. I was ... HIGH Eosinophils/Lymphs When On Imuran??. Hello: 23 YO Male diagnosed with AIH just under 2 years ago. I am on Imuran now. Just ... High Eosinophils 11% High AST 93 High ALT 70 High GGT 87 I thought Imuran was supposed to SUPPRESS the immune system. I was ...
Eosinophils are made in the bodys bone marrow, and then circulate around the body via the blood. ... Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play a key part in the bodys immune system. They are responsible for fighting ... Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play a key part in the bodys immune system. They are responsible for fighting ... Eosinophils are made in the bodys bone marrow, and then circulate around the body via the blood. During a blood test, health ...
Eos, eosinophils. (C-E) Parenchymal eosinophils from normal lung tissue (rEos) and eosinophils from the sputa of eosinophilic ... and a matrix composed of eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (1). ... Human versus mouse eosinophils: "that which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red". J Allergy Clin ... Lung-resident eosinophils represent a distinct regulatory eosinophil subset. Claire Mesnil,1,2 Stéfanie Raulier,1 Geneviève ...
Make research projects and school reports about eosinophil easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... eosinophil (ee-oh-sin-ŏ-fil) n. a variety of white blood cell (see polymorph) distinguished by the presence in its cytoplasm of ... eosinophil A type of white blood cell (leucocyte) that has a granular cytoplasm (see granulocyte). Its function involves the ... eosinophil A Dictionary of Nursing © A Dictionary of Nursing 2008, originally published by Oxford University Press 2008. ...
2018 Berek article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike-No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International license, as described at ...
Copyright 1995-2010 - Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. The material available at this site is for educational purposes only and is NOT intended for any diagnostic, clinically related, or other purpose. Carden Jennings Publishing Co., Ltd., assumes no responsibility for any use or misuse of this material and makes no warranty or representation of any kind with respect to the material available at this site.. ...
Researchers suggested that peripheral blood eosinophil counts could serve as a marker of inflammation to guide asthma therapy. ... Even counting the patients who were on treatment, the correlation between blood eosinophil counts and eosinophil counts on ... At a poster session, Farooqui said that a blood eosinophil count can be accomplished in the time it takes for the sample to be ... "By the time the doctor gets to the room, the information on the level of eosinophils will already be in the chart," he said. " ...
Eosinophil overview: structure, biological properties, and key functions. In Eosinophils. Berlin: Springer; 2014. pp 1-12. ... Differentiation in vitro of hybrid eosinophil/basophil granulocytes: autocrine function of an eosinophil developmental ... Eosinophils in innate immunity: an evolving story. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;343:57-83.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Eosinophils: changing perspectives in health and disease. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012;13:9-22.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
Blood and Sputum Eosinophils. Blood eosinophilia greater than 4% or 300-400/μL supports the diagnosis of asthma, but an absence ... Eosinophil counts greater than 8% may be observed in patients with concomitant atopic dermatitis. This finding should prompt an ... Low sputum eosinophils predict the lack of response to beclomethasone in symptomatic asthmatic patients. Chest. 2006 Mar. 129(3 ... Asthma exacerbations and sputum eosinophil counts: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Nov 30. 360(9347):1715-21. [ ...
... eosinophil recruitment in response to chemokine receptor 3 agonists eosinophil transit mediated by specific ligand-receptor ... Eosinophil trafficking in allergy and asthma.. Rosenberg HF1, Phipps S, Foster PS. ... Novel rational therapies including antiselectin and antichemokine receptor modalities designed to block eosinophil development ... recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote expansion and differentiation of eosinophil ...
... where T cells and eosinophils are prominent. This article summarizes the evidence that asthmatic bronchial inflammation is ... T cells and eosinophils in the pathogenesis of asthma Immunol Today. 1992 Dec;13(12):501-7. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(92)90026-4. ... Persistent asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation of the bronchial mucosa, where T cells and eosinophils are prominent ... describes how the release of specific cytokines could result in local preferential accumulation and activation of eosinophils. ...
Eosinophils, normally about 1-3% of the total white blood cell count, are believed to function in allergic responses and in ...
Acute allergic responses induce a prompt luminal entry of airway tissue eosinophils.. Erjefalt JS1, Korsgren M, Malm-Erjefalt M ... Eosinophil egression was effectively inhibited by the antiexudative drug formoterol, whereas the proexudative drug bradykinin ... The present study tests the hypothesis that when eosinophils are present in the tissue before allergen exposure, as in ... By 2 min after challenge, eosinophils had moved up to apical epithelial positions. Within 10 min, a marked migration of ...
... Misako Sakai-Kashiwabara1,2 and Kazuhito Asano3 ... Misako Sakai-Kashiwabara and Kazuhito Asano, "Inhibitory Action of Quercetin on Eosinophil Activation In Vitro," Evidence-Based ...
... s, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells of the ... Major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, and eosinophil cationic protein are toxic to many tissues.[11] Eosinophil cationic ... Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells of the ... An increase in eosinophils, i.e. the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/microlitre of blood is called an eosinophilia, and ...
Human peripheral blood eosinophils, For immunohistochemistry (IHC) Cell Chip with Human Peripheral Blood Granulocytes, ... Eosinophil IHC Staining Kit, EoProbe from BioFX Laboratories, Inc.. 2. UCB Eosinophil Chip-IHC from 3H Biomedical AB. 3. UCB ... Human peripheral blood eosinophils, For immunohistochemistry (IHC). Cell Chip with Human Peripheral Blood Granulocytes. ... Eosinophil Chip-IHC from 3H Biomedical AB, ... Eosinophil Chip-IHC from 3H Biomedical AB. Company. 3H ...
Eosinophils are present in normal human intestinal mucosa, where their main functions are presumably participation in ... Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phagocytic Activity Blood Eosinophil Allergic State Colonic Neoplasm This is a preview of ... Eosinophils are present in normal human intestinal mucosa, where their main functions are presumably participation in ... Enumeration, Receptor Expression and Phagocytic Capabilities of Eosinophils of Human Colon Mucosa. ...
Problems arise if a person has a higher-than-normal number of eosinophils in their blood and/or if eosinophils infiltrate ... We can identify eosinophil-related inflammation in the esophagus of patients with EoE, said Mansi. This new diagnostic also ... Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play a role in the bodys immune system. ... Tags: Asthma, Blood, Cell, Compound, Dermatology, Diagnostic, Diagnostics, Eosinophil, Eosinophilic Esophagitis, Eosinophilic ...
Steroids In Eosinophil Negative Asthma (SIENA). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ...
Untreated, freshly prepared eosinophils or neutrophils did not lyse any of the anti-Fc gamma R bearing HC nor did they lyse CE ... In contrast, eosinophils have only about 5% as much of the low affinity Fc gamma R found on human granulocytes and large ... Fc gamma R-mediated killing by eosinophils. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from The Journal of ... Fc gamma R-mediated killing by eosinophils.. R F Graziano, R J Looney, L Shen and M W Fanger ...
is an association of researchers and clinicians keen on the eosinophil, a platelet unequivocally connected with num... ... International Eosinophil Society. The International Eosinophil, Inc. is an association of researchers and clinicians keen on ... As enthusiasm for the eosinophil expanded, a progression of gatherings happened with the eosinophil as the focal core interest ... Eosinophil (re Phoenix) Rising, and Amy Klion sorted out a pre-meeting on eosinophil-related ailment. These pre-gatherings are ...
  • Eosinophil peroxidase is a heme peroxidase, its activities including the oxidation of halide ions to bacteriocidal reactive oxygen species, the cationic disruption of bacterial cell walls, and the post-translational modification of protein amino acid residues. (
  • One of the first aspects known of eosinophil peroxidase was that it was highly cationic, as indicated by its high isoelectric point (see Protein). (
  • It is closely related to the eosinophil cationic protein ( RNASE3 ) from which it diverged ~50 million years ago after the split between the old world and the new world monkeys. (
  • 1989). "Eosinophil cationic protein cDNA. (
  • 1986). "Biochemical and functional similarities between human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophil cationic protein: homology with ribonuclease" . (
  • The granules in eosinophils contain four major proteins: major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil peroxidize (EPO), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). (
  • Following activation, eosinophils effector functions include production of the following: Cationic granule proteins and their release by degranulation Reactive oxygen species such as hypobromite, superoxide, and peroxide (hypobromous acid, which is preferentially produced by eosinophil peroxidase) Lipid mediators like the eicosanoids from the leukotriene (e.g. (
  • Following activation by an immune stimulus, eosinophils degranulate to release an array of cytotoxic granule cationic proteins that are capable of inducing tissue damage and dysfunction. (
  • Major basic protein, eosinophil peroxidase, and eosinophil cationic protein are toxic to many tissues. (
  • [11] Eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin are ribonucleases with antiviral activity. (
  • Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)/human RNase 3, a member of the RNase A family, is a remarkably cytotoxic protein implicated in asthma and allergies. (
  • Eosinophils function by releasing cytokines and cationic proteins, including eosinophil major basic proteins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), and mouse eosinophil-associated ribonucleases, or human eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), from their cytoplasmic granules. (
  • Eosinophils secrete a variety of cytokines and factors including eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, peroxidase and major basic protein which have either anti-tumor effects or stimulate tumor progression. (
  • The eosinophilic characteristics of YJ cells were confirmed by histochemical staining with Fast-Green/Neutral-Red and by the expression of mRNAs for eosinophil-associated granule proteins, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), and major basic protein (MBP), and for the Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein. (
  • The eosinophil has characteristic specific granules that contain eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), major basic protein (MBP), and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). (
  • Biosynthesis of the granule proteins is discussed in detail with particular emphasis on neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). (
  • A number of cytotoxic substances are then released, including highly cationic molecules such as eosinophil cationic protein, major basic protein, ribonuclease eosinophil -derived neurotoxin, oxidizing molecules such as eosinophil peroxidase and free oxygen radicals, and enzymes such as elastase and collagenase. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel processing method using eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biochemical marker of sputum eosinophil number and activation in subjects with asthma and other airway diseases. (
  • Eosinophil peroxidase is an enzyme found within the eosinophil granulocytes, innate immune cells of humans and mammals. (
  • The major function of eosinophil peroxidase is to catalyze the formation of hypohalous acids from hydrogen peroxide and halide ions in solution. (
  • The open reading frame of human eosinophil peroxidase was found to have a length of 2,106 base pairs (bp). (
  • The promoter sequence for human eosinophil peroxidase is an unusually strong promoter. (
  • Eosinophil peroxidase is a predominately α-helical heme-containing enzyme. (
  • Eosinophil peroxidase has not been characterized by X-ray crystallography. (
  • The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. (
  • Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is a condition that affects certain white blood cells called eosinophils but causes no health problems in affected individuals. (
  • One of these proteins is called eosinophil peroxidase. (
  • In eosinophil peroxidase deficiency, eosinophils have little or no eosinophil peroxidase. (
  • Because eosinophil peroxidase deficiency does not cause any health problems, this condition is often diagnosed when blood tests are done for other reasons or when a family member has been diagnosed with the condition. (
  • Approximately 100 individuals with eosinophil peroxidase deficiency have been described in the scientific literature. (
  • Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is estimated to occur in 8.6 in 1,000 Yemenite Jews, in 3 in 1,000 North-African Jews, and in 1 in 1,000 Iraqi Jews. (
  • and in Luxembourg, eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is thought to occur in 1 in 100,000 people. (
  • Mutations in the EPX gene cause eosinophil peroxidase deficiency. (
  • The EPX gene provides instructions for making the eosinophil peroxidase protein. (
  • During an immune response, activated eosinophils release eosinophil peroxidase at the site of injury. (
  • EPX gene mutations reduce or prevent eosinophil peroxidase production or result in a protein that is unstable and nonfunctional. (
  • As a result, eosinophils have severely reduced amounts of eosinophil peroxidase or none at all. (
  • Other proteins within affected eosinophils are normal, and while the cells lacking eosinophil peroxidase are smaller and may have structural changes, the loss of eosinophil peroxidase does not appear to impair the function of eosinophils. (
  • Kutter D, Mueller-Hagedorn S, Forges T, Glaesener R. A case of eosinophil peroxidase deficiency. (
  • Romano M, Patriarca P, Melo C, Baralle FE, Dri P. Hereditary eosinophil peroxidase deficiency: immunochemical and spectroscopic studies and evidence for a compound heterozygosity of the defect. (
  • Three responses were studied, the transient rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) (derived from indo-1 fluorescence), shape changes (measured by laser turbidimetry), and exocytosis of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) (assessed by H2O2/luminol-dependent chemiluminescence). (
  • A whole blood automated method was developed to assess eosinophil and neutrophil activity in terms of peroxidase content and cell morphology using the Bayer haematology analyser. (
  • Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASE2 gene . (
  • An eosinophil granule protein, the eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), was measured as an indicator of eosinophil degranulation. (
  • Eosinophils released eosinophil-derived neurotoxin when incubated with Sepharose beads coupled to Ig of the IgG or IgA isotypes, as well as IgA-Fc fragments. (
  • We offer Eosinophil derived neurotoxin Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin, Western Blot. (
  • Each Eosinophil derived neurotoxin Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (
  • Our Eosinophil derived neurotoxin Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (
  • Choose from our Eosinophil derived neurotoxin polyclonal antibodies. (
  • Eosinophil derived neurotoxin Anti. (
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Eosinophil derived neurotoxin. (
  • Eosinophils release their proinflammatory and cytotoxic granule proteins, and various chemokines in response to a fungal infection. (
  • Eosinophils produce and store many secondary granule proteins prior to their exit from the bone marrow. (
  • There is evidence to suggest that eosinophil granule protein expression is regulated by the non-coding RNA EGOT. (
  • Eosinophils are bone marrow-derived, granule-containing leukocytes that play a key role in the innate immune response to helminth infection and allergic disease. (
  • When viewed under the electron microscope the eosinophil granule, as shown in Figure 1, is seen as a membrane bounded cytoplasmic organelle with a distinctive internal structure. (
  • In most cases, the eosinophil granule has an electron dense core and a less dense matrix. (
  • This is suggested by increased numbers of activated eosinophils, as well as eosinophil derived inflammatory mediators and granule proteins in blood, induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and bronchial biopsy specimens from asthmatic subjects. (
  • 4 Serum levels of these granule proteins have been used as a tool for measuring eosinophil activation in asthma, 5 and levels can be related to disease severity 6 and the effects of treatment. (
  • The protein is concentrated in secretory granules within eosinophils. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in eosinophil granulocytes . (
  • A lack of this protein does not seem to affect the eosinophils' ability to carry out an immune response. (
  • Gleich, professor of internal medicine and dermatology at the U, discovered that eosinophils contain a major basic protein, a toxic substance that damages tissue where it is deposited after eosinophils release it, causing inflammation. (
  • If a patient swallows this proprietary imaging agent, X-ray-like images will reveal inflamed tissue in which eosinophil major basic protein is deposited. (
  • To examine the role of local induction of IL-18 in promoting eosinophil-associated intestinal disorders, we generated enterocyte IL-18-overexpressing mice using the rat intestinal fatty acid-binding promoter (Fabpi) and analysed tissue IL-18 overexpression and eosinophilia by performing real-time polymerase chain reaction, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and anti-major basic protein immunostaining. (
  • Listed below are anti-Eosinophil Major Basic Protein antibodies from multiple suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 318 Eosinophil Major Basic Protein Antibodies across 32 suppliers. (
  • The activated eosinophils release a major basic protein -- a toxic protein -- into the mucus, which attacks and kills the fungi but damages the nose and sinus membranes. (
  • Eosinophils arise from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow, and take approximately eight days to mature. (
  • IL-5 controls the development of eosinophils in the bone marrow, as they differentiate from myeloid precursor cells. (
  • Eosinophilia arises when an area of the body needs more eosinophils than usual, causing the bone marrow to produce more. (
  • Eosinophils are made in the body's bone marrow, and then circulate around the body via the blood. (
  • Over-the-counter or prescription antihistamines can control the body's reaction to allergens, thereby signalling the body that the production of eosinophils in the bone marrow are not necessary, according to (
  • In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote expansion and differentiation of eosinophil progenitors in bone marrow, eosinophil recruitment in response to chemokine receptor 3 agonists eosinophil transit mediated by specific ligand-receptor interactions, and prolonged survival of eosinophils in peripheral tissues. (
  • Eosinophils develop and mature in bone marrow. (
  • Differentiation of haemato-poietic progenitors to eosinophils in the bone marrow is governed by SCF, IL-3, IL-4, GM-CSF and CCL11. (
  • IL-5 and CCL11 then act in concert to drive final differentiation, maturation and release of eosinophils from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. (
  • Eosinophils fully mature in the bone marrow and are found in the blood in low numbers and in specific tissues in higher numbers. (
  • He has a particular expertise in eosinophils, bone marrow-derived white blood cells that have mostly been studied in the context of allergic diseases and parasite infections, but not much in cancers. (
  • While mature mast cells do not occur in blood, eosinophils are found both circulating in blood (normally less than 5% of leukocytes) and in hematopietic and lymphatic organs, such as the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. (
  • Eosinophils are a type of white blood cells (WBCs) produced in the bone marrow that contain proteins that contribute to the immunologic responses against infectious disease agents and to tissue damage in allergic and autoimmune diseases. (
  • The eosinophils of the blood originate and mature in the bone marrow. (
  • Both cytokines play an important role in the production, activation and survival of eosinophils in the bone marrow and peripheral blood, as well as the enhancement of cellular functions of eosinophils in peripheral circulation (6,7). (
  • Proteins and cytokines (such as IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF) are involved in the maturation, survival, and persistence of eosinophils. (
  • Along with the allergen-induced egression of eosinophils, acute luminal entry of plasma proteins and eotaxin occurred. (
  • Cytotoxic proteins MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO are unique to eosinophils and are important in the defense against extracellular parasitic infections but may also cause excessive tissue damage in allergic conditions. (
  • Eosinophils are terminally differentiated granulocytic effector cells that produce and store biologically active molecules, including cytotoxic proteins, lipid mediators, chemotactic peptides, and cytokines. (
  • Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. (
  • They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils. (
  • In patients with EGIDs, particularly eosinophilic esophagitis, food proteins often trigger eosinophils to release toxins into the affected area, causing inflammation and damage. (
  • We have investigated eosinophils as potential anti-cancer effector cells, and have reported the ability of their toxic granular proteins (MBP, EPO, ECP, EDN) to inhibit prostate tumor cell growth in vitro . (
  • These preliminary results demonstrate the growth inhibitory potential of eosinophil granular proteins and strongly support the hypothesis that eosinophils modulate the expression of oncogenes associated with prostate tumor proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • Thus, eosinophils induced by transactivation-deficient C/EBPbeta alleles were found to be blocked in their maturation, whereas those expressing wild-type C/EBP proteins were not. (
  • When eosinophils are activated, they undergo cytolysis, where the breaking of the cell releases eosinophilic granules found in extracellular DNA traps. (
  • eosinophil (ee-oh- sin -ŏ-fil) n. a variety of white blood cell (see polymorph ) distinguished by the presence in its cytoplasm of coarse granules that stain orange-red with Romanowsky stains. (
  • In addition, eosinophils play a role in fighting viral infections, which is evident from the abundance of RNAses they contain within their granules, and in fibrin removal during inflammation . (
  • This causes eosinophils to show up as orange-red granules. (
  • Human eosinophils are approximately 8μm in diameter and are identified by their bi-lobed nucleus, pink staining with eosin and characteristic cytoplasmic granules. (
  • Composition of azurophil and specific granules from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and granules from eosinophils is presented. (
  • Sinus inflammation is due to the release of eosinophilic inflammatory mediators from the cytoplasmic granules in eosinophils. (
  • Hansel stain is specific for eosinophils and will stain the cytoplasmic granules red, distinguishing these cells from neutrophils. (
  • The increase of eosinophils within the blood is known as eosinophilia. (
  • Someone who has more than 500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is classed as suffering from eosinophilia, according to Mayo Clinic. (
  • The medical term for a high eosinophils count is eosinophilia, as Mayo Clinic explains. (
  • Blood eosinophilia occurs when there are more eosinophils in the blood than normal, while tissue eosinophilia occurs when there is a high concentration of eosinophils in a particular area of tissue where there is infection or inflammation. (
  • If you have over 500 eosinophil cells per microliter of blood, then it indicates you have a disorder known as eosinophilia. (
  • Using a guinea-pig allergic model, where eosinophilia is present at baseline conditions, the traffic of resident eosinophils was examined in vivo immediately after allergen challenge. (
  • A high number of eosinophils (eosinophilia) are often linked to a variety of disorders. (
  • Eosinophilia and eosinophil-related disorders. (
  • Additionally, we observed comparable tissue eosinophilia in IL-13-deficient-Fabpi-IL-18 mice, and reduced numbers of tissue eosinophils in eotaxin-deficient-Fabpi-IL-18 and IL-5-deficient-Fabpi-IL-18 mice compared with Fabpi-IL-18 transgenic mice. (
  • Notably, jejunum eosinophilia in IL-5-deficient-Fabpi-IL-18 mice is significantly induced compared with wild-type mice, which indicates the direct role of induced IL-18 in the tissue accumulation of eosinophils and mast cells. (
  • Taken together, we provide direct in vivo evidence that induced expression of IL-18 in the enterocytes promotes eotaxin-1, IL-5 and IL-13 independent intestinal eosinophilia, which signifies the clinical relevance of induced IL-18 in eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs) to food allergens. (
  • Increased eosinophil survival has been proposed as a mechanism underlying tissue eosinophilia, and part of the anti-inflammatory effects of GCs has been attributed to their ability to promote eosinophil apoptosis. (
  • Eosinophilia is an expansion of eosinophil numbers in the blood, due to either a reactive process, such as an allergic reaction or parasitic infection (secondary eosinophilia), or to a neoplastic process that involves clonal eosinophils or their precursors (primary eosinophilia). (
  • Eosinophilia can accompany a range of disorders from benign diseases, to eosinophilias with organ damage, to eosinophil neoplasms. (
  • The term "hypereosinophilia," has been used to refer to an absolute eosinophil count of greater than 1,500/microl, thereby encompassing moderate and severe eosinophilia. (
  • An increase in the percentage of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or an increase in their absolute number is called eosinophilia. (
  • Aggregations of eosinophils observed in the tissues, as, for example, in the mucosa of the bronchi (and sputum) in bronchial asthma, are called tissue eosinophilia. (
  • For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. (
  • MIAMI BEACH -- Researchers suggested that peripheral blood eosinophil counts could serve as a marker of inflammation to guide asthma therapy. (
  • Eosinophils in sputum have been known to positively correlate with inflammation in asthma patients, but collecting sputum and analyzing it for eosinophils is cumbersome and time consuming, researchers said. (
  • We believe use of the eosinophils from blood samples can measure the state of inflammation in asthma. (
  • Treatment strategies aimed at reducing this inflammation, quantified by sputum eosinophil counts, have shown to improve control of asthma when compared with therapy based on symptoms, airway function, and use of rescue inhalers, as recommended by current guidelines," Farooqui said. (
  • The literature supports the role of eosinophils as a marker of inflammation," said Allen P. Kaplan, MD, professor of medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. (
  • Persistent asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation of the bronchial mucosa, where T cells and eosinophils are prominent. (
  • This article summarizes the evidence that asthmatic bronchial inflammation is initiated and propagated by cytokines secreted by activated T cells and other cells, and describes how the release of specific cytokines could result in local preferential accumulation and activation of eosinophils. (
  • Gerald Gleich, Kristin Leiferman and Kathryn Peterson have developed a way to identify inflammation that occurs in eosinophil-related disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), a chronic and painful inflammatory condition of the esophagus that can strike at any age. (
  • We can identify eosinophil-related inflammation in the esophagus of patients with EoE,' said Mansi. (
  • This new diagnostic also has the potential to identify and diagnose other diseases in which eosinophils are the drivers of inflammation such as eosinophilic asthma and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. (
  • Interleukin 5 (IL-5) enhances eosinophil survival by inhibiting apoptosis, and increased IL-5 expression is reported in eosinophilic inflammation. (
  • Eosinophilic inflammation is a cardinal pathological feature of AD, but little is known about possible direct interaction between SA and eosinophils. (
  • Eosinophils are recruited from the blood into the tissues at sites of inflammation. (
  • To investigate whether peripheral blood eosinophil (PBE) count can predict eosinophilic airway inflammation in stable COPD. (
  • 6. Gene function it controls (responsible for accumulation of eosinophils at sites of inflammation? (
  • Nevertheless, along with the number of blood eosinophils, serum ECP levels have been used in numerous studies to quantitate eosinophilic inflammation. (
  • In the quest to improve treatments for this type of asthma, researchers in the current study focused on sputum eosinophils, white blood cells found in the lung that can serve as biomarkers of airway inflammation. (
  • The positive correlation between eosinophil infiltration and parasite load in males suggests that this sex-dependent eosinophilic infiltration reflects ineffective inflammation. (
  • While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils, eosinophils reside in tissue. (
  • Freshly isolated eosinophils and neutrophils constitutively express similar amounts of the low affinity Fc gamma R, Fc gamma RII on their cell surface, but neither cell type expresses the high affinity Fc gamma R, Fc gamma RI. (
  • In contrast, eosinophils have only about 5% as much of the low affinity Fc gamma R found on human granulocytes and large granular lymphocytes (Fc gamma RIII) as neutrophils. (
  • Untreated, freshly prepared eosinophils or neutrophils did not lyse any of the anti-Fc gamma R bearing HC nor did they lyse CE in the presence of anti-Fc gamma R containing heteroantibodies. (
  • In contrast, 6-h treatment of eosinophils or neutrophils with IFN-gamma induced neither Fc gamma RI expression on either cell type nor killing of HC or CE through Fc gamma R. In summary, incubation with GM-CSF, induced eosinophils and neutrophils to kill anti-Fc gamma RII-bearing HC and to lyse CE through Fc gamma RII. (
  • Neutrophils were purified using plasma-Percoll gradients and eosinophils by RoboSep (StemCell Technologies, Vancouver, Canada). (
  • There is less evidence for the involvement of neutrophils in asthma than for eosinophils, but neutrophils may have greater importance in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. (
  • Granulocytes are of three types - neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils while mononuclear cells are lymphocytes and monocytes. (
  • Eosinophil-platelet interactions can be strengthened via the expression of granulocytes and certain chemokines. (
  • Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments. (
  • Eosinophil granulocytes , commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils ), are white blood cells of the immune system that are responsible for combating infection and parasites in vertebrates. (
  • The WBC differential channel classifies Lymphocytes (LYMPH), Monocytes (MONO), Eosinophils (EO), and Granulocytes by cellular complexity and nucleic acid content. (
  • Granulocytes were re-suspended in RPMI 1640, 50 U/ml streptomycin and penicillin G, and 10% autologous serum before incubation (5% CO 2 , 37°C). A total of 25±1.5% of the eosinophils were apoptotic (assessed by fluorescein isothiocyante (FITC)-Annexin V) by 24 h (data not shown). (
  • Eosinophils are acid loving granulocytes that take upmthe dye eosin during staining procedures. (
  • Boyce JA, Friend D, Matsumoto R, Austen KE Owen WE Differentiation in vitro of hybrid eosinophil /basophil granulocytes: autocrine function of an eosinophil developmental intermediate. (
  • [ 58 ] In 2015, mepolizumab (anti-IL-5 antibody) was FDA approved for the treatment of severe asthmatics with an eosinophilic phenotype who have a baseline eosinophil count of 150 cells/μL or an eosinophil count of 300 cells/μL within the past 12 months. (
  • This eosinophil is from a patient with eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome), a type of inflammatory dermatitis. (
  • However, the exact role of eosinophils in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic diseases remains unclear and is currently a topic of intense research. (
  • Cytoplasmic organelles of eosinophils The distinguishing feature of the eosinophil under the light microscope is the dense eosinophilic granulation which may completely fill the cytoplasm. (
  • Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is diagnosed when eosinophils are clonal or blasts are increased. (
  • Eosinophilic infiltrates, large aggregations of eosinophils in the tissues, are occasionally observed in various organs, predominantly the lungs. (
  • One could try to reduce the eosinophilic mediators, but this is problematic because if we really treat the patient well, we may end up missing the diagnosis-and that is either finding the eosinophils in tissue and mucus or perhaps not finding the fungus, he said. (
  • We demonstrated a strong influence of sex on numbers of eosinophils in the lymph nodes after L. major infection and present the first identification of sex-dependent autosomal loci controlling eosinophilic infiltration. (
  • An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of white blood cells called eosinophils. (
  • The percentage of eosinophils is multiplied by the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. (
  • An absolute eosinophil count above 500, especially in the morning, deserves some attention. (
  • Normally, the absolute eosinophil count in the blood is around 500 per microlitre but it can increase in: allergic conditions (asthma, allergic rhinitis, drug reactions), infectious diseases (especially worm infestation), some connective tissue diseases, malignancies, etc. (
  • Eosinophils, along with basophils and mast cells, are important mediators of allergic responses and asthma pathogenesis and are associated with disease severity. (
  • Examples of specific conditions known to increase eosinophil levels include lupus, ovarian cancer, Chron's disease, allergic reactions to drugs and asthma. (
  • When a patient experiences an asthma attack, the eosinophils are not properly released and accumulate in the lungs. (
  • Steroid medication is generally successful in eliminating this process, so when a patient's asthma is being managed properly via rescue inhaler and other medications, the eosinophil count is low, notes Global Net. (
  • Managing a patient's asthma can also eliminate long-term damage to the lungs from an overabundance of eosinophil toxins. (
  • Explain to interested patients that this study evaluated peripheral blood eosinophil counts for potential use in guiding asthma therapy. (
  • However, by analyzing blood for eosinophils we can have the information to use with our patients rapidly," Nabeel Farooqui, MD, of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center in Memphis, told attendees at the annual meeting of the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. (
  • Farooqui and colleagues recruited 31 adults who had been diagnosed with asthma for a study to determine if the blood levels of eosinophils correlated with sputum levels. (
  • Eosinophil trafficking in allergy and asthma. (
  • Eosinophils are considered the main effector cells in allergic responses and asthma pathogenesis and are associated with disease severity. (
  • Thus, sIgA may be the principal Ig mediating eosinophil effector function at mucosal surfaces in helminth infections and hypersensitivity diseases, especially bronchial asthma. (
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) represent one of the most effective treatments for eosinophil-mediated inflammatory diseases such as asthma. (
  • Eosinophil accumulation and inappropriate activation causes symptoms and pathology in allergic asthma . (
  • In adults with persistent asthma, elevated blood eosinophil levels may be able to predict which individuals are at increased risk for exacerbations. (
  • Eosinophils are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of asthma, and determining their relationship with asthma exacerbations may allow us to determine in advance which of these patients needs targeted interventions," said lead author Dr. Robert Zeiger, MD, PhD, Physician Investigator at Kaiser Permanente in San Diego, California. (
  • In our study, elevated blood eosinophil levels were found to be a risk factor for subsequent exacerbations in adult asthma patients. (
  • Eosinophils are white blood cells that become active in individuals with certain allergic diseases, including asthma, and other medical conditions. (
  • In the study, blood eosinophil levels were measured in 2,392 adult asthma patients in 2010 and the relationship between these levels and the rate of exacerbations in 2011 was determined in analyses adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, and asthma burden and care. (
  • Increasing level of blood eosinophil at baseline was associated with increasing risk of future asthma exacerbation in both crude and adjusted analyses. (
  • Our findings suggest that asthma patients with an elevated blood eosinophil level have a greater disease burden," said Dr. Zeiger. (
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., has presented results from a post hoc analysis of two pivotal Phase III clinical trials showing that treatment with reslizumab reduced clinical asthma exacerbations (CAEs) by 75 percent versus placebo in a subgroup of patients with late onset asthma (diagnosed at 40 years of age and older) with elevated blood eosinophils, who were inadequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). (
  • Reslizumab is a humanized anti-interleukin-5 (IL-5) monoclonal antibody (mAb) for which Teva is seeking approval in the treatment of asthma in patients with elevated blood eosinophils who are inadequately controlled on an ICS-based regimen. (
  • In order to determine the influence that age of asthma onset has as it relates to the efficacy of reslizumab, results were pooled from two Phase III clinical trials that investigated reslizumab IV 3 mg/kg in patients who were inadequately controlled on an ICS-based regimen, who had at least one asthma exacerbation within the previous 12 months, and a blood eosinophil count of ≥400/µL. (
  • Data for this post-hoc analysis were pooled from two identical Phase III clinical trials (which were part of the BREATH clinical program) that comprised four placebo-controlled studies whose population of 1,700 adult and adolescent asthma patients (aged 12-75 years) had elevated blood eosinophils and symptoms that were inadequately controlled with ICS-based therapies. (
  • Asthma is a complex disease, and some phenotypes, such as late onset asthma with elevated blood eosinophils, can present particularly significant treatment challenges that are not adequately addressed by currently available therapies," said Michael Hayden, M.D., Ph.D., President of Global R&D and Chief Scientific Officer at Teva. (
  • BACKGROUND Asthma has been associated with eosinophil activation, measured in serum, sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and urine. (
  • Asthma is recognised as a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with infiltration of eosinophils and mononuclear cells into the bronchial mucosa and associated vasodilation, microvascular leakage, and epithelial disruption. (
  • 1 Indeed, eosinophils have been proposed as the primary cell responsible for bronchial mucosal injury, and may contribute to the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) of asthma. (
  • 2 Furthermore, the increased number of peripheral blood eosinophils correlates with symptoms of disease activity, and raised blood eosinophil counts have been found during nocturnal asthma. (
  • The research highlights the need for developing more effective treatments for asthma and suggests that it may be possible to target particular therapies to subsets of patients, such as those with high or low eosinophils. (
  • New approaches to treating the "low eosinophil" group could be especially helpful for improving the overall effectiveness of treatments for mild asthma, the most common type of this respiratory condition. (
  • We're not saying that steroids are unimportant for mild asthma, but our study does suggest that treatment guidelines should be re-evaluated for patients with mild persistent asthma who have low sputum eosinophils. (
  • This study adds to a growing body of evidence that different patients with mild asthma should be treated differently, perhaps using biomarkers like sputum eosinophils to select which drugs should be used--a precision medicine approach," he said. (
  • Past studies have estimated that about half of the population with mild persistent asthma have less than 2% sputum eosinophils and that most people with low eosinophils do not respond well to steroid treatment. (
  • ECP was measured in sputum supernatant and in the lysed cell pellet and was compared with sputum eosinophil counts in 31 adults with asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), bronchiectasis and healthy controls. (
  • The ratio of supernatant to pellet ECP was used as an index of eosinophil degranulation and found to be elevated in asthma exacerbations, COAD and bronchiectasis, but not in stable asthma. (
  • The ECP ratio may be a useful marker of eosinophil activation, and was increased in asthma exacerbation and COAD. (
  • Herein, we discuss the role of eosinophils in tumor immunity and propose mechanisms accounting for their functional differences in tumorigenesis. (
  • and (3) directed differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells into functionally mature eosinophils. (
  • The induction of eosinophils from hPSCs provides us with a perfect model to study the germination, development, differentiation, and maturation of human eosinophiles, which has not been well defined yet. (
  • In both mice and humans, IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF are important for eosinophil differentiation and expansion. (
  • We found that forced expression of either the alpha or beta isoforms of C/EBP in MEPs induced eosinophil differentiation and that in addition, C/EBPbeta could induce myeloid differentiation. (
  • C/EBP-induced eosinophil differentiation could be separated into two distinct events, lineage commitment and maturation. (
  • Allergic or atopic disorders trigger eosinophils to increase throughout the body. (
  • Because low levels of eosinophils means that the body is not likely to be engaged in fighting off illnesses, a blood test may help rule out several conditions, including certain drug reactions, immunologic disorders, blood disorders, endocrine problems, parasitic infestations and infectious diseases, according to Merck. (
  • The International Eosinophil , Inc. (IES, Inc.) has been built up to unite researchers around the globe who are occupied with examination in the field of Eosinophil Biology and Eosinophil Disorders with a perspective to encouraging trade of thoughts and data about this interesting provocative cell sort and its part in ailments. (
  • however, in several allergic disorders, excessive eosinophils accumulate in the blood as well in the tissues. (
  • Who should be tested for eosinophil-related disorders? (
  • What constitutes a workup for eosinophil-related disorders? (
  • What issues are important when evaluating pediatric patients with possible eosinophil-related disorders? (
  • What is important in monitoring patients with eosinophil-related disorders? (
  • Many different problems can cause high numbers of eosinophils in the blood including allergies (food and environmental), certain infections caused by parasites, eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal disorders, and other problems. (
  • Eosinophils are crucial for combatting parasitic infections and inflammatory processes, such as allergic reactions. (
  • A wide range of diseases and conditions can cause eosinophil levels to rise, with allergic reactions and parasitic infections being especially common causes, notes Mayo Clinic. (
  • I understand that high eosinophils generally means an allergic reaction, but I haven't had so much as a sneeze or runny nose. (
  • Eosinophils are capable of ingesting foreign particles and are involved in allergic responses and host defence against parasites. (
  • Eosinophils, normally about 1-3% of the total white blood cell count, are believed to function in allergic responses and in resisting some infections. (
  • Acute allergic responses induce a prompt luminal entry of airway tissue eosinophils. (
  • Traditionally, traffic and activation of eosinophils in asthmatic airways are thought to take place during the late-phase allergic reaction. (
  • In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that acute allergic reactions initiate a prompt transepithelial migration of resident eosinophils. (
  • We propose that prompt eosinophil response is a significant component of the acute phase of allergic reactions when occurring in airways where these cells are already present in the mucosa. (
  • Eosinophils play an important role as effector cells in allergic, parasitic, and other conditions. (
  • Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. (
  • Recently, we showed in vitro that interleukin (IL)-18 matures and transforms IL-5-generated eosinophils into the pathogenic eosinophils that are detected in human allergic diseases. (
  • Furthermore, we also found that overexpression of IL-18 in the intestine promotes eosinophil-associated peanut-induced allergic responses in mice. (
  • However, eosinophils can also be damaging as part of the inflammatory process of allergic disease. (
  • Eosinophils make up approx 0.5-1% of the white blood cells ( leukocytes ) in normal individuals, but this proportion is often raised to 3-5% in people with allergic symptoms, and can be much higher in those exposed to parasitic worms. (
  • The pathological roles of eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils in allergy are either directly or indirectly linked with the presence of allergen-specific IgE in allergic individuals. (
  • Therefore, therapies that reduce eosinophil numbers are usually effective in allergic diseases. (
  • In allergic reactions, eosinophils release the inhibitor histamine, which belongs to the prostaglandins E 1 and E 2 . (
  • RSV can activate eosinophils which promotes virus clearance through the production of ribonucleases and cytokines. (
  • After maturity, eosinophils migrate into the blood vessels and travel to target tissues around the body. (
  • Eosinophils also regulate the glucose tolerance within adipose tissues and produce several different types of growth factors which contribute to tissue repair. (
  • These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. (
  • After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and MCP1/4. (
  • Eosinophils are stored in tissues throughout the body, surviving for up to several weeks. (
  • After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4). (
  • Problems arise if a person has a higher-than-normal number of eosinophils in their blood and/or if eosinophils infiltrate organs and tissues. (
  • Eosinophils are granulocytic leukocytes residing in blood and tissues in the lung, breast, gastrointestinal and reproductive systems. (
  • When a person has elevated numbers of eosinophils in their digestive system, tissues, organs, and/or bloodstream, without a known cause, he or she may have an eosinophil-associated disease (EAD). (
  • Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8-12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8-12 days in the absence of stimulation. (
  • When high concentrations of eosinophil is discovered in tissue, such as the nasal passages, it can give heath care workers a clue about what could be wrong. (
  • The present study tests the hypothesis that when eosinophils are present in the tissue before allergen exposure, as in chronically inflamed asthmatic airways, acute anaphylactic reactions initiate an eosinophil response. (
  • EoE is one of the most common eosinophil-related illnesses and can currently only be diagnosed on biopsies of esophageal tissue obtained with observation via an endoscope, a camera attached to a flexible tube that is inserted into a patient's throat. (
  • Our analysis shows IL-18 overexpression in the jejunum induces a specific population of CD101 + CD274 + tissue eosinophils. (
  • There are many strategies to limit eosinophil-related tissue damage ( Figure 2 ). (
  • and University of Salford, Manchester, UK discovered that the number of eosinophils was greatly reduced in specific tissue layers of obese mice. (
  • Eosinophil numbers in blood and eosinophil tissue infiltration often correlate with the severity of the disease. (
  • Eosinophils are a specialized type of cell within the immune system that are involved in anti-parasitic and inflammatory responses. (
  • Eosinophils are specialized pro-inflammatory white blood cells. (
  • Additionally, we could follow patients by monitoring peripheral eosinophil counts, and thus the underlying inflammatory activity," he said. (
  • Thus, through its ability to inhibit eosinophil migration, LTF has potential as an effective therapeutic in the control of eosinophil infiltration in atopic inflammatory conditions. (
  • GCs act through the GC receptor, leading to proinflammatory cytokine suppression and a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells including eosinophils and T cells. (
  • Upon activation eosinophils can release an array of inflammatory mediators ( Figure 1 ). (
  • Inhaled steroids were better than placebo for a subset of the patients who had high levels of a particular type of inflammatory cells, called eosinophils, in their sputum, but they represented about a fourth of patients enrolled in the trial. (
  • At the ARS section of the recent annual Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meeting, he described the role eosinophils play in polyps and inflammatory sinusitis . (
  • The secondary problem then is what the eosinophils do to the sinus mucous membrane after they release their inflammatory mediators. (
  • Eosinophils, sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. (
  • Eosinophils destroy invading germs like viruses, bacteria, or parasites such as hookworms. (
  • Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play an important part of our immune system, helping us to fight off certain types of infections, such as parasites. (
  • In this review, we will describe the details of methodology for generating these functionally mature eosinophils from hPSCs and the related assay for their function and maturation. (
  • IL-5, GM-CSF and IL-3 are important for eosinophil activation as well as maturation. (
  • These results show that C/EBP can induce both myeloid and eosinophil lineage commitment and that transactivation independent and dependent C/EBP functions are required during eosinophil lineage commitment and maturation, respectively. (
  • Unless alcohol abuse or Cushing's disease is suspected, low levels of eosinophils are not usually of concern unless other white cell counts are also abnormally low. (
  • For example, when someone is affected by hay fever, there are increased levels of eosinophils in the nasal passages, notes (
  • In this report we present data on the ability of the different Fc gamma R present on eosinophils to mediate killing of erythroid and tumor targets, and on a comparison of eosinophil and neutrophil Fc gamma R-mediated killing. (
  • Such anti-CE x anti-Fc gamma R reagents permit linkage of CE target cells with the FcR molecules on the eosinophil or neutrophil effector cells. (
  • Irrespective of its source (milk or neutrophil derived), LTF inhibits eotaxin-stimulated eosinophil migration with no effects on eosinophil viability. (
  • Essentially pure preparations of normal density eosinophils obtained from patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) were stimulated with complement factor 5a (C5a), platelet-activating factor (PAF), FMLP and neutrophil-activating peptide (NAP-1/IL-8). (
  • The YJ cell line should be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms governing lineage switching from the eosinophil to monocytic or neutrophil lineages. (
  • Moreover, the numbers of eosinophils in sputum have been shown to predict the success of anti-eosinophil therapies in asthmatic patients. (
  • Numbers of eosinophils were counted in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections of the inguinal lymph nodes under a light microscope. (
  • The lymph nodes of resistant STS and susceptible BALB/c mice contained very low and intermediate numbers of eosinophils, respectively. (
  • A recent study, based on the retrospective analysis of the clinical record of 4252 hospitalized patients with a positive SARS-Cov-2 PCR test, found that a higher percentage of eosinophils was predictive of higher odds of survival. (
  • Furthermore, chemotactic migration and degranulation ability have confirmed the maturity and function of these hPSC-derived eosinophils. (
  • IgA-induced eosinophil degranulation. (
  • Secretory IgA (sIgA) provided the most potent signal for eosinophil degranulation and was two to three times more potent than IgG. (
  • Effects of ortho-substituent groups of sulochrin on inhibitory activity to eosinophil degranulation. (
  • Sulochrin, a metabolite of fungi, has been shown to have an inhibitory activity to eosinophil degranulation. (
  • The ratio of supernatant to pellet ECP was evaluated as an index of eosinophil degranulation. (
  • Low eosinophil counts may also be due to the time of day. (
  • Under normal conditions, eosinophil counts are lowest in the morning and highest in the evening. (
  • Even counting the patients who were on treatment, the correlation between blood eosinophil counts and eosinophil counts on sputum smear in all patients was 0.5 ( P =0.004). (
  • Eosinophil counts greater than 8% may be observed in patients with concomitant atopic dermatitis. (
  • The technician then counts how many eosinophils are present per 100 cells. (
  • In all studies, ICS/LABA reduced exacerbations versus LABA alone across all eosinophil levels, with progressively greater reductions at increasing baseline blood eosinophil counts. (
  • When eosinophil count was modelled as a continuous predictor, the risk of either unexpected re-admission or post-ICU mortality only increased significantly when the eosinophil counts were less than 0. (
  • ECP measured in the cell pellet lysate correlated closely with sputum absolute eosinophil counts across a range of subject groups ( r = 0.72, P = 0.004). (
  • The measurement of ECP in the sputum cell pellet provides a reliable and efficient estimate of sputum eosinophil counts which can potentially be used in clinical trials and epidemiological surveys. (
  • What Causes a High Eosinophils Count? (
  • A high eosinophils count can result from allergies, environmental toxins, autoimmune diseases, parasitic infections and fungal infections, explains Mayo Clinic. (
  • HIGH Eosinophils/Lymphs When On Imuran? (
  • What does high eosinophils mean? (
  • I'm doing a project for my cell class (sorry if this is in the wrong forum--I couldn't find a homework forum) about the eosinophil chemotactic factor. (
  • If our findings can be replicated in other populations and settings, measurement of blood eosinophil levels may help guide treatment for patients at the greatest risk for exacerbations. (
  • We performed post hoc predictive modeling on data from the FORWARD study and two replicate studies by Dransfield, to evaluate the relationships between baseline eosinophil count and the effect of ICS on exacerbations and lung function in patients with COPD. (
  • However, the mechanisms that counterbalance these positive chemoattractive processes, thereby preventing excessive eosinophil infiltration, have received little attention. (
  • Eosinophil infiltration is considered unfavourable in Hodgkin's lymphoma, conversely it has also been linked to a favourable prognosis in colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. (
  • We analyzed the role of sex in the impact of specific gene loci on eosinophil infiltration and its functional relevance. (
  • Unexpectedly, eosinophil infiltration in strain CcS-9 exceeded that in BALB/c and STS and was higher in males than in females. (
  • We searched for genes controlling high eosinophil infiltration in CcS-9 mice by linkage analysis in F2 hybrids between BALB/c and CcS-9 and detected four loci controlling eosinophil numbers. (
  • Eosinophil infiltration was positively correlated with parasite load in lymph nodes of F2 hybrids in males, but not in females. (
  • Strains CcS-9 (P = 0.00020) (Fig. 1e, f) and CcS-12 (P = 0.0024) exhibit significantly higher eosinophil infiltration in their lymph nodes than the background parental strain BALB/c. (
  • BALB/c and CcS-9 males presented higher eosinophil infiltration than females of these strains P = 0.0089 and P = 0.016, respectively. (
  • The mechanism(s) by which eosinophils mediate their effector functions was studied by incubation of human normodense eosinophils with Sepharose beads coupled to various Ig isotypes as targets. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate whether SA directly induces eosinophil effector functions via PAFR in the context of AD pathogenesis. (
  • In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1-3% of white blood cells, and are about 12-17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. (
  • An acceptable eosinophil range is 30 to 350 in an absolute blood count, Medscape claims. (
  • An adult who has more than 1,500 eosinophils per microliter of blood is classed as having hypereosinophillic syndrome. (
  • Eosinophils are one type of white blood cell, and their function in the body is to ward off disease. (
  • An eosinophil is a type of white blood cell. (
  • An eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the quantity of eosinophils in your body. (
  • Abnormal eosinophil levels are often discovered as part of a routine complete blood count (CBC) test. (
  • In adults, a normal blood sample reading will show fewer than 500 eosinophil cells per microliter of blood. (
  • Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that play a key part in the body's immune system. (
  • During a blood test, health care providers check for eosinophil levels. (
  • eosinophil A type of white blood cell ( leucocyte ) that has a granular cytoplasm (see granulocyte ). (
  • At a poster session, Farooqui said that a blood eosinophil count can be accomplished in the time it takes for the sample to be taken and for the patient to go to the examination room to see the doctor. (
  • During routine office visits, researchers collected blood samples from each patient and performed a peripheral eosinophil count. (
  • The eosinophils induced from hPSCs in our system showed similar morphology and surface marker expression with those in peripheral blood through May-Grϋnwald-Giemsa staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, flow cytometric analysis (FACS), RT-PCR analysis, and immunofluorescent staining. (
  • Eosinophils make up about 1-6% of white blood cells, and are about 12-17 micrometers in size. (
  • Blood eosinophils are a potential biomarker to stratify patient subsets for COPD therapy. (
  • Blood eosinophils are therefore a promising biomarker for phenotyping patients with COPD, although prospective studies are needed to assess blood eosinophils as a biomarker of corticosteroid response for this. (
  • IL-18 overexpression in enterocytes promotes marked increases of eosinophils in the blood and jejunum. (
  • Peripheral blood eosinophils were cultured with heat-killed SA, and EDN release, superoxide generation, and adhesion to fibronectin-coated plates were measured. (
  • the blood total eosinophil count and the number of hypodense eosinophils correlate with the severity of the attack. (
  • Can blood eosinophils predict sputum eosinophils in stable COPD? (
  • Eosinophils are a white blood cell involved in the immune response to antigens (fragments on the surface of pathogens or foreign objects). (
  • Blood eosinophil (EOS) levels are associated with the degree of exacerbation reduction with ICS. (
  • This is a moderately advanced eosinophil (white blood cell of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes subgroup) whose nucleus is bilobed. (
  • Lead researcher, Dr Sheena Cruickshank, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK commented on the findings, explaining: "Our study showed that in fact the secretions from eosinophils have a profound effect on how the blood vessels operate when they are missing, as in obesity, serious health problems can start to develop. (
  • Considering taking medication to treat pneumonia+with+high+amount+of+eosinophil+white+blood+cells? (
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of pneumonia+with+high+amount+of+eosinophil+white+blood+cells. (
  • Growing evidence suggests that blood eosinophil count is associated with patient responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). (
  • Higher blood eosinophil count in patients with COPD is associated with an increased beneficial effect from ICS in terms of exacerbation reduction. (
  • Further prospective data are required to assess the role of blood eosinophils as a biomarker for therapeutic recommendations. (
  • What do elevated eosinophils in the blood mean? (
  • Eosinophils are one type of white blood cell. (
  • The eosinophil level in my blood report is higher than normal. (
  • The upper limit of normal circulating eosinophils in the peripheral blood is 350 to 500/mm 3 . (
  • Last blood workup had normal WBC, but eosinophils were high. (
  • However, patients diagnosed with Chronic RhinoSinusitis (CRS) have an immunologic response to the fungi causing activated white blood cells ( eosinophils ) to enter their mucus. (
  • The improper expression and activity of eosinophils contribute to other dermatological diseases, such as chronic spontaneous urticaria, and gleich syndrome. (
  • Anything from worms to hodgkin's to the eosinophil family of diseases to nothing-at-all can do this. (
  • We hope you'll take a moment to help us teach others about eosinophil-associated diseases. (
  • As part of their research, they have discovered several new syndromes and identified how mast cells and eosinophils play a role in a variety of diseases. (
  • A peptide chemotactic for eosinophils and released from disrupted mast cells. (
  • Eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils all were first recognized and described by Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century. (
  • Mayo Clinic allergy and collaborating physicians are leaders in mast cell and eosinophil-associated disease research. (
  • Normal eosinophil count is less than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). (
  • Eosinophils can phagocytose fungi, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and present antigens to other immune cells. (
  • Eosinophils aid in the body's immune response. (
  • Eosinophils are major effector cells in the immune system. (
  • Munitz and Yu's initial research has indicated that STAT3 is indeed activated in eosinophil immune cells in the tumor. (
  • Ultimately, they hope to develop novel cancer treatments that target eosinophils and other unhelpful immune cells present in the TME. (
  • She has studied the majority of subtypes of immune cells in the TME, but eosinophils were new to her, so Munitz's proposal immediately struck her as appealing. (
  • Eosinophils, a specific type of immune cell, may present as a new target for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity-related hypertension. (
  • In conclusion, SA directly induced eosinophil activation via PAFR. (
  • What is an eosinophil count? (
  • Why do I need an eosinophil count? (
  • How do I prepare for an eosinophil count? (
  • What happens during an eosinophil count? (
  • The eosinophil count is used to help confirm a diagnosis. (
  • This study was the first to identify a correlation between a reduction in eosinophil count within obese mice. (
  • Change in FEV 1 was not associated with eosinophil count in ICS-treated patients in FORWARD, whereas an increased treatment benefit in terms of FEV 1 was observed at higher eosinophil levels in the Dransfield studies. (
  • For example, salmeterol inhibits the rise in serum ECP following allergen challenge without significantly affecting the eosinophil count. (
  • What does it mean when your eosinophils cells count is 0? (
  • I would draw no conclusion whatsoever from a random finding of an eosinophil count below the reference range. (
  • What is the reason for high eosinophil count? (
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » What is the reason for high eosinophil count? (
  • TLC and eosinophil count was higher while monocyte count was lower in smokers (insignificantly low in light smokers). (
  • A method to study apoptosis in eosinophils by flow cytometry. (
  • With their expertise in these different areas of immunology, the two scientists are now pursuing a hypothesis that eosinophils, which migrate into the TME in a variety of tumors, advance lung and breast cancer metastasis with the help of STAT3. (
  • Eosinophils are present in normal human intestinal mucosa, where their main functions are presumably participation in hypersensitivity reactions and defense against helminthic infestations. (
  • Northwood I., Beliveau C., Gump D., Beeken W. (1987) Enumeration, Receptor Expression and Phagocytic Capabilities of Eosinophils of Human Colon Mucosa. (
  • ORLANDO, FL-Eosinophils are the bane of nasal mucosa, and no one knows better than Fredrick A. Kuhn, MD, of the Georgia Nasal and Sinus Institute in Savannah, GA-a region where it is not uncommon for otolaryngologists to see patients presenting with polyps. (
  • Eosinophils migrate to several organs through primary and secondary lymph organs, such as the thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen. (
  • Eosinophils may end up being a way to manipulate the tumor to the benefit of patients. (
  • This study investigates the effect of eosinophil MBP extract on the expression of oncogenes p53, bcl-xl, bax, and c-myc, which modulate tumor growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. (
  • The increased ECP in COAD reflects a non-selective accumulation of eosinophils in this condition. (