Eosinophil Granule Proteins
Chemotactic Factors, Eosinophil
Eosinophil Cationic Protein
Eosinophil Major Basic Protein
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Platelet Activating Factor
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Interleukin-5 Receptor alpha Subunit
Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial
Nasal Lavage Fluid
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal
Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (1/3575)ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced. (+info)
Clonality of isolated eosinophils in the hypereosinophilic syndrome. (2/3575)The idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a rare disorder characterized by unexplained, persistent eosinophilia associated with multiple organ dysfunction due to eosinophilic tissue infiltration. In the absence of karyotypic abnormalities, there is no specific test to detect clonal eosinophilia in IHES. Analysis of X-chromosome inactivation patterns can be used to determine whether proliferative disorders are clonal in origin. Methylation of HpaII and Hha I sites near the polymorphic trinucleotide repeat of the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) has been shown to correlate with X-inactivation. In this study, we have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with nested primers to analyze X-inactivation patterns of the HUMARA loci in purified eosinophils from female patients with eosinophilia. Peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated by their autofluoresence using flow cytometric sorting. Eosinophils purified from a female patient presenting with IHES were found to show a clonal pattern of X-inactivation. Eosinophil-depleted leukocytes from this patient were polyclonal by HUMARA analysis, thus excluding skewedness of random X-inactivation. After corticosteroid suppression of her blood eosinophilia, a clonal population of eosinophils could no longer be detected in purified eosinophils. In contrast, eosinophils purified from a patient with Churg-Strauss syndrome and from six patients with reactive eosinophilias attributed to allergy, parasitic infection, or drug reaction showed a polyclonal pattern of X-inactivation by HUMARA analysis. The finding of clonal eosinophilia in a patient presenting with IHES indicates that such patients may have, in reality, a low-grade clonal disorder that can be distinguished from reactive eosinophilias by HUMARA analysis. Further, the method described can be used to monitor disease progression. (+info)
Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (3/3575)The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific. (+info)
Selective eosinophil transendothelial migration triggered by eotaxin via modulation of Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4/VCAM-1 interactions. (4/3575)We have recently cloned eotaxin, a highly efficacious eosinophilic chemokine involved in the development of lung eosinophilia during allergic inflammatory reactions. To understand more precisely how eotaxin facilitates the specific migration of eosinophils, we have studied which adhesion receptors are essential for eotaxin action both in vivo and in vitro. Experiments using mice genetically deficient in adhesion receptors demonstrated that molecules previously reported to be involved in both leukocyte tethering/rolling (P-selectin and E-selectin) and in sticking/ transmigration (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) are required for eotaxin action in vivo. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in this process, we have used an in vitro transendothelial chemotaxis model. mAb neutralization studies performed in this system suggest that the integrins Mac-1 (CD11b/18), VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) and LFA-1 (CD11a/18) are involved in the transendothelial chemotaxis of eosinophils to eotaxin. Accordingly, the expression of these integrins on eosinophils is elevated by direct action of this chemokine in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vivo and in vitro relies on Mac-1/ICAM-1 and VLA-4NCAM-1 interactions, the latter ones becoming more relevant at later time points of the eotaxin-induced recruitment process. (+info)
Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity. (5/3575)The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment. (+info)
Orally exhaled nitric oxide levels are related to the degree of blood eosinophilia in atopic children with mild-intermittent asthma. (6/3575)Increased levels of nitric oxide have been found in expired air of patients with asthma, and these are thought to be related to the airway inflammatory events that characterize this disorder. Since, in adults, bronchial inflammatory changes are present even in mild disease, the present study was designed to evaluate whether a significant proportion of children with mild-intermittent asthma could have increased exhaled air NO concentrations. Twenty-two atopic children (aged 11.1+/-0.8 yrs) with mild-intermittent asthma, treated only with inhaled beta2-adrenoreceptor agonists on demand and 22 age-matched controls were studied. NO concentrations in orally exhaled air, measured by chemiluminescence, were significantly higher in asthmatics, as compared to controls (19.4+/-3.3 parts per billion (ppb) and 4.0+/-0.5 ppb, respectively; p<0.01). Interestingly, 14 out of 22 asthmatic children had NO levels >8.8 ppb (i.e. >2 standard deviations of the mean in controls). In asthmatic patients, but not in control subjects, statistically significant correlations were found between exhaled NO levels and absolute number or percentage of blood eosinophils (r=0.63 and 0.56, respectively; p<0.01, each comparison). In contrast, exhaled NO levels were not correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or forced expiratory flows at 25-75% of vital capacity (FEF25-75%) or forced vital capacity (FVC), either in control subjects, or in asthmatic patients (p>0.1, each correlation). These results suggest that a significant proportion of children with mild-intermittent asthma may have airway inflammation, as shown by the presence of elevated levels of nitric oxide in the exhaled air. The clinical relevance of this observation remains to be established. (+info)
A genome-wide screen for asthma-associated quantitative trait loci in a mouse model of allergic asthma. (7/3575)Asthma is the most common illness of childhood, affecting one child in seven in the UK. Asthma has a genetic basis, but genetic studies of asthma in humans are confounded by uncontrolled environmental factors, varying penetrance and phenotypic pleiotropy. An animal model of asthma would offer controlled exposure, limited and consistent genetic variation, and unlimited size of sibships. Following immunization and subsequent challenge with ovalbumin, the Biozzi BP2 mouse shows features of asthma, including airway inflammation, eosinophil infiltration and non-specific bronchial responsiveness. In order to identify genetic loci influencing these traits, a cross was made between BP2 and BALB/c mice, and a genome-wide screen carried out in the F2progeny of the F1intercross. Five potentially linked loci were identified, four of which corresponded to human regions of syntenic homology that previously have shown linkage to asthma-associated traits. (+info)
Effects of Th2 cytokines on chemokine expression in the lung: IL-13 potently induces eotaxin expression by airway epithelial cells. (8/3575)Airway inflammation associated with asthma is characterized by massive infiltration of eosinophils, mediated in part by specific chemoattractant factors produced in the lung. Allergen-specific Th2 cells appear to play a central role in asthma; for example, adoptively transferred Th2 cells induced lung eosinophilia associated with induction of specific chemokines. Interestingly, Th2 supernatant alone administered intranasally to naive mice induced eotaxin, RANTES, monocyte-chemotactic protein-1, and KC expression along with lung eosinophilia. We tested the major cytokines individually and found that IL-4 and IL-5 induced higher levels of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha and KC; IL-4 also increased the production of monocyte-chemotactic protein-1; IL-13 and IL-4 induced eotaxin. IL-13 was by far the most potent inducer of eotaxin; indeed, a neutralizing anti-IL-13 Ab removed most of the eotaxin-inducing activity from Th2 supernatants, although it did not entirely block the recruitment of eosinophils. While TNF-alpha did not stimulate eotaxin production by itself, it markedly augmented eotaxin induction by IL-13. IL-13 was able to induce eotaxin in the lung of JAK3-deficient mice, suggesting that JAK3 is not required for IL-13 signaling in airway epithelial cells; however, eosinophilia was not induced in this situation, suggesting that JAK3 transduces other IL-13-mediated mechanisms critical for eosinophil recruitment. Our study suggests that IL-13 is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and therefore a potential target for asthma therapy. (+info)
Eosinophil Peroxidase (EPO) is an enzyme that is produced by eosinophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune system. EPO is found in the granules of eosinophils and is released when the cells are activated. In the medical field, EPO is often used as a diagnostic marker for allergic reactions and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis, and eosinophilic pneumonia. It is also used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. EPO is a type of peroxidase, which means that it is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from hydrogen peroxide. These ROS can cause damage to cells and tissues, which is why EPO is thought to play a role in the inflammatory response. In addition to its role in allergic reactions and inflammatory diseases, EPO has also been studied for its potential use in the treatment of cancer. Some studies have suggested that EPO may be able to enhance the immune response to cancer cells and improve the effectiveness of cancer treatments. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings.
Eosinophil granule proteins (EGPs) are a group of proteins that are stored in the granules of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. These proteins are released from the eosinophils when they are activated and migrate to sites of inflammation or infection. There are several different types of EGP, including major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). These proteins have a variety of functions, including the destruction of pathogens, the promotion of inflammation, and the regulation of immune responses. EGP levels can be measured in the blood as a diagnostic tool for certain conditions, such as asthma and parasitic infections.
Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an increase in the number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the blood. Eosinophils are a type of granulocyte, which are immune cells that play a role in fighting off infections and parasites. Eosinophilia can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and some chemotherapy drugs. Eosinophilia can be classified as either absolute eosinophilia, which is an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood regardless of the total number of white blood cells, or relative eosinophilia, which is an increase in the proportion of eosinophils to other types of white blood cells. Eosinophilia can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, and it is important to identify and treat the underlying cause in order to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may involve medications to reduce inflammation or to target the underlying cause of the eosinophilia, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms.
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a role in regulating the immune system. It is primarily produced by T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. IL-5 has a number of functions in the immune system. One of its main functions is to stimulate the growth and differentiation of eosinophils, which are a type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. IL-5 also promotes the production of antibodies by B cells, which are another type of white blood cell that plays a role in the immune response. In the medical field, IL-5 is often used as a diagnostic marker for certain types of diseases, such as asthma and eosinophilic disorders. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, as well as for the treatment of other immune-related disorders.
Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a type of protein produced by eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. ECP is a cationic protein, meaning it has a positive charge, and it is one of the major mediators of eosinophil-induced tissue injury. In the medical field, ECP is often used as a biomarker for eosinophilic inflammation, which is characterized by an increased number of eosinophils in the body. ECP levels can be measured in blood, sputum, or other body fluids, and elevated levels of ECP are often seen in conditions such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis. ECP is also thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of these conditions, as it can cause tissue damage by disrupting the integrity of cell membranes and promoting the release of inflammatory mediators. As such, ECP has been the subject of research as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of eosinophilic disorders.
Chemokine CCL11, also known as eotaxin-1, is a type of protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a chemokine, which is a type of signaling molecule that helps to direct the movement of immune cells to specific areas of the body in response to infection or injury. CCL11 is primarily produced by cells in the lung and is involved in the recruitment of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, to the lung. Eosinophils play a role in the immune response to parasitic infections and in allergic reactions, such as asthma. CCL11 is also involved in the recruitment of other immune cells, such as T cells and monocytes, to the lung. In the medical field, CCL11 is often studied in the context of asthma and other allergic diseases, as well as in the development of new treatments for these conditions. It is also being studied as a potential target for cancer therapy, as it has been found to be overexpressed in some types of cancer.
Eosinophil Major Basic Protein (MBP) is a protein found in the granules of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. It is a basic protein, meaning it has a positive charge, and it is one of the major components of eosinophil granules. In the medical field, Eosinophil MBP is often used as a diagnostic marker for allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. It is also used to monitor the response to treatment in these conditions. Eosinophil MBP is thought to play a role in the immune response by attracting and activating other immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, and by promoting the release of inflammatory mediators. It is also involved in the destruction of parasites and other foreign substances in the body. Overall, Eosinophil MBP is an important protein in the immune system and plays a role in the pathophysiology of various diseases.
Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin (EDN) is a protein that is produced by eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. It is found in the granules of eosinophils and is released when the cells are activated. In the medical field, EDN is known to have neurotoxic effects, meaning it can cause damage to nerve cells. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Additionally, EDN has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for these conditions.
Ribonucleases (RNases) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of RNA molecules. They are found in all living organisms and play important roles in various biological processes, including gene expression, RNA processing, and cellular signaling. In the medical field, RNases are used as research tools to study RNA biology and as therapeutic agents to treat various diseases. For example, RNases have been used to degrade viral RNA, which can help to prevent viral replication and infection. They have also been used to degrade abnormal RNA molecules that are associated with certain diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders. In addition, RNases have been developed as diagnostic tools for detecting and monitoring various diseases. For example, some RNases can bind specifically to RNA molecules that are associated with certain diseases, allowing for the detection of these molecules in biological samples. Overall, RNases are important tools in the medical field, with applications in research, diagnosis, and therapy.
Receptors, CCR3 are a type of cell surface receptor that belongs to the chemokine receptor family. They are primarily expressed on immune cells, such as eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells, and play a role in the recruitment and activation of these cells in response to certain chemical signals, such as chemokines. CCR3 receptors are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including inflammation, allergic responses, and the immune response to parasites. They are also implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and certain types of cancer. In the medical field, CCR3 receptors are often targeted in the development of new drugs for the treatment of these conditions. For example, drugs that block CCR3 receptors can help to reduce inflammation and allergic responses, and may be useful in the treatment of asthma and COPD.
Pulmonary eosinophilia is a condition characterized by an increased number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lungs. Eosinophils are a type of immune cell that play a role in fighting off parasitic infections and allergies. In pulmonary eosinophilia, the increased number of eosinophils can lead to inflammation and damage to the lungs, causing symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Pulmonary eosinophilia can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, parasitic infections, and certain medications. It is often diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans. Treatment for pulmonary eosinophilia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms, as well as measures to address any underlying allergies or infections.
Chemokine CCL24, also known as eotaxin-2, is a type of protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a chemokine, which means that it is a signaling molecule that helps to direct the movement of immune cells, such as eosinophils, to specific areas of the body where they are needed. Eotaxin-2 is primarily produced by cells in the skin, lungs, and other tissues, and it is thought to play a role in the recruitment of eosinophils to these areas in response to inflammation or allergic reactions. Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that are involved in the immune response to parasites and allergens, and they are also involved in the development of certain types of asthma and other inflammatory diseases. In the medical field, chemokine CCL24 is sometimes used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions, such as asthma and other allergic diseases, and it is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions.
Chemokines, CC are a family of small proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system by regulating the movement of immune cells, such as white blood cells, to specific areas of the body in response to infection or injury. They are classified based on the number of cysteine residues in their amino acid sequence, with CC chemokines having two cysteines at the amino terminus. CC chemokines are involved in the recruitment of immune cells to sites of inflammation and are also involved in the development of certain types of cancer.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways in the lungs. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Asthma can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, exercise, and respiratory infections. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to control inflammation and open up the airways, as well as lifestyle changes to avoid triggers and improve overall lung function.
Blood proteins are proteins that are found in the blood plasma of humans and other animals. They play a variety of important roles in the body, including transporting oxygen and nutrients, regulating blood pressure, and fighting infections. There are several different types of blood proteins, including albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen. Each type of blood protein has a specific function and is produced by different cells in the body. For example, albumin is produced by the liver and helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood, while globulins are produced by the immune system and help to fight infections. Fibrinogen, on the other hand, is produced by the liver and is involved in the clotting of blood.
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES) is a rare disorder characterized by the overproduction of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the body. Eosinophils are a type of immune cell that play a role in fighting off infections and parasites. In HES, the overproduction of eosinophils can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications, including inflammation, tissue damage, and organ dysfunction. The exact cause of HES is not always clear, and the condition can be difficult to diagnose. Some cases of HES may be caused by an underlying genetic disorder, while others may be triggered by an infection or exposure to certain medications or environmental factors. In some cases, the cause of HES may never be identified. Treatment for HES typically involves managing the symptoms and complications of the condition, such as reducing inflammation and controlling organ damage. In some cases, medications may be used to reduce the production of eosinophils or to treat the underlying cause of the condition. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be considered as a treatment option.
Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) is a chemical compound that is produced by leukocytes (white blood cells) in response to inflammation. It is a member of a larger group of compounds called leukotrienes, which are involved in the inflammatory response and play a role in the development of asthma, allergic reactions, and other inflammatory conditions. LTC4 is produced by the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid, a fatty acid found in cell membranes, into LTC4 and other leukotrienes. LTC4 is then released from the leukocyte and acts on nearby cells to cause inflammation and other effects. LTC4 acts on specific receptors on the surface of cells, triggering a cascade of events that leads to the release of other inflammatory mediators, such as histamine and prostaglandins. It also causes constriction of blood vessels and smooth muscles, which can contribute to inflammation and pain. In the medical field, LTC4 is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, such as asthma and allergic reactions. Inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase, which are drugs that prevent the production of LTC4 and other leukotrienes, are sometimes used to treat these conditions.
Ovalbumin is a protein found in egg whites. It is a major allergen and can cause allergic reactions in some people. In the medical field, ovalbumin is often used as a model antigen for studying allergic reactions and for developing allergy vaccines. It is also used in research to study the structure and function of proteins, as well as in the production of various medical products, such as diagnostic reagents and pharmaceuticals.
Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various substrates using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. In the medical field, peroxidases are commonly used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of specific substances in biological samples, such as blood, urine, or tissue. One of the most well-known peroxidases in medicine is the enzyme lactoperoxidase, which is found in high concentrations in human milk. Lactoperoxidase plays a crucial role in protecting the newborn from bacterial and viral infections by generating antimicrobial compounds. Another important peroxidase in medicine is the enzyme myeloperoxidase, which is produced by white blood cells (neutrophils) and is involved in the immune response against infections. Myeloperoxidase is often used as a marker of inflammation in various medical conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Peroxidases are also used in forensic science to analyze biological samples for evidence in criminal investigations. For example, the enzyme cytochrome c peroxidase can be used to detect the presence of blood at a crime scene, while the enzyme glucose oxidase is used to detect the presence of glucose in urine samples.
Hypersensitivity is a medical term used to describe an exaggerated immune response to a substance that is normally harmless or even beneficial to the body. This response can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including allergens, toxins, and medications. There are four main types of hypersensitivity reactions, each with its own specific characteristics and mechanisms: 1. Type I hypersensitivity (also known as immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction that occurs within minutes or hours of exposure to an allergen. It is mediated by IgE antibodies and involves the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils. 2. Type II hypersensitivity (also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity) is an immune response that involves the destruction of cells by antibodies. It is typically seen in autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own cells. 3. Type III hypersensitivity (also known as immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity) is an immune response that involves the formation of immune complexes, which can deposit in tissues and trigger inflammation. It is seen in conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. 4. Type IV hypersensitivity (also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity) is an immune response that occurs over a period of days or weeks after exposure to an allergen or antigen. It involves the activation of T cells and the release of cytokines, which can cause inflammation and tissue damage. Overall, hypersensitivity reactions can range from mild to severe and can cause a wide range of symptoms, including itching, swelling, redness, and pain. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen or antigen that triggers the reaction, as well as medications to manage symptoms and reduce inflammation.
Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is a condition in which the bronchial tubes (airways) of the lungs become excessively sensitive to stimuli such as cold air, exercise, or allergens. This sensitivity causes the airways to narrow, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. BHR is a common feature of asthma and other respiratory conditions, and it can also occur in people without a diagnosed respiratory condition. BHR can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including spirometry and bronchial provocation testing. Treatment for BHR typically involves avoiding triggers that cause symptoms, taking medications to open the airways, and using breathing techniques to manage symptoms.
Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) is a signaling molecule that plays a role in the immune response and inflammation. It is produced by various cells, including platelets, leukocytes, and endothelial cells, and acts on a specific receptor on the surface of these cells to trigger a variety of cellular responses. PAF is involved in the recruitment and activation of immune cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, to sites of inflammation. It also promotes the release of other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and can cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels, leading to edema and tissue damage. In addition to its role in inflammation, PAF has been implicated in a variety of other conditions, including allergic reactions, asthma, and certain types of heart disease. It is also a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune system's response to allergens and parasites. It is produced by B cells in response to specific antigens, such as those found in pollen, dust mites, or certain foods. When an allergen enters the body, it triggers the production of IgE antibodies by B cells. These antibodies then bind to mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells that are involved in the inflammatory response. When the same allergen enters the body again, the IgE antibodies on the mast cells and basophils bind to the allergen and cause the release of histamine and other inflammatory chemicals. This leads to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. IgE is also involved in the immune response to parasites, such as worms. In this case, the IgE antibodies help to trap and kill the parasites by binding to them and marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Overall, IgE is an important part of the immune system's defense against allergens and parasites, but it can also contribute to allergic reactions and other inflammatory conditions when it binds to inappropriate antigens.
Respiratory hypersensitivity refers to an exaggerated immune response to inhaled substances, such as allergens or irritants, that triggers inflammation and symptoms in the respiratory system. This can result in a range of conditions, including asthma, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Symptoms of respiratory hypersensitivity may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and nasal congestion. Treatment typically involves avoiding triggers, taking medications to reduce inflammation and control symptoms, and in some cases, immunotherapy to desensitize the immune system to the allergen.
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a protein that plays a critical role in the development and function of white blood cells, particularly granulocytes and macrophages. It is produced by a variety of cells, including bone marrow cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. In the bone marrow, GM-CSF stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into granulocytes and macrophages. These cells are important components of the immune system and play a key role in fighting infections and removing damaged or infected cells from the body. GM-CSF also has a number of other functions in the body, including promoting the survival of granulocytes and macrophages, enhancing their ability to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) pathogens, and stimulating the production of cytokines and other signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. In the medical field, GM-CSF is used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, including cancer, bone marrow suppression, and certain immune disorders. It is typically administered as a recombinant protein, either as a standalone therapy or in combination with other treatments.
Receptors, Interleukin-5 (IL-5) are proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, such as eosinophils and basophils. These receptors bind to the cytokine interleukin-5 (IL-5), which is produced by immune cells in response to infections or allergic reactions. When IL-5 binds to its receptors on eosinophils and basophils, it stimulates the production and release of inflammatory molecules, such as histamine, which can cause symptoms of allergies and asthma. In addition, IL-5 also plays a role in the development and survival of eosinophils, which are a type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response to parasitic infections.
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a biologically active lipid mediator that plays a key role in the inflammatory response. It is produced by leukocytes, particularly neutrophils, in response to various stimuli such as bacterial or fungal infections, tissue damage, or allergic reactions. LTB4 acts as a chemoattractant, recruiting more leukocytes to the site of inflammation and promoting their activation and migration. It also stimulates the release of other pro-inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and cytokines, from leukocytes and other cells. In the medical field, LTB4 is often measured in blood or other body fluids as a marker of inflammation. It is also a target for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as leukotriene receptor antagonists, which block the effects of LTB4 and reduce inflammation.
Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by various cells of the immune system, including white blood cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses and inflammation, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cytokines can be classified into different groups based on their function, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), promote inflammation and recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), help to dampen the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), help to regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Cytokines play a critical role in many diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also important in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.
Pleurisy is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pleura, which is the thin layer of tissue that covers the lungs and lines the inside of the chest cavity. This inflammation can cause the pleura to become thickened, sticky, and inflamed, leading to pain and difficulty breathing. There are two types of pleurisy: viral and bacterial. Viral pleurisy is usually caused by a respiratory virus, such as the flu or COVID-19, and is usually self-limiting. Bacterial pleurisy, on the other hand, is caused by bacteria and requires antibiotics to treat. Symptoms of pleurisy may include chest pain that worsens with deep breathing or coughing, difficulty breathing, fever, and a dry cough. Treatment for pleurisy typically involves pain management, antibiotics if the cause is bacterial, and rest. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
CD18 is a cluster of differentiation antigens that are expressed on the surface of many immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. CD18 is a component of the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules, which play a critical role in the recruitment and activation of immune cells at sites of inflammation or infection. Antigens, CD18 are proteins that are recognized by the immune system as foreign or non-self. They are often used as markers to identify and study immune cells, and they can also be targeted by therapeutic agents to modulate immune responses. In the context of infectious diseases, CD18 antigens may be recognized by the immune system as part of the pathogen, leading to the activation and recruitment of immune cells to eliminate the infection.
Interleukin-5 receptor alpha subunit (IL5RA) is a protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a component of the interleukin-5 receptor complex, which is found on the surface of certain immune cells, such as eosinophils and basophils. These cells are involved in the body's response to infections and inflammation. IL5RA is encoded by the IL5RA gene, which is located on chromosome 5. The protein is composed of two extracellular domains and a single transmembrane domain. It is expressed on the surface of cells that express the interleukin-5 receptor complex, which includes the IL5RA subunit and the IL5RB subunit. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a cytokine that is produced by immune cells, such as T cells and mast cells. It binds to the IL5RA subunit of the IL5 receptor complex, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation and proliferation of eosinophils and basophils. These cells play a role in the body's response to infections and inflammation, but they can also contribute to the development of certain diseases, such as asthma and allergies. In the medical field, IL5RA is used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases, such as eosinophilic asthma and eosinophilic esophagitis. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, as well as for other diseases that involve the immune system.
Integrin alpha4 is a protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and is involved in the adhesion of immune cells to the blood vessels and tissues. It is a member of the integrin family of proteins, which are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In the medical field, integrin alpha4 is often studied in the context of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, where it is thought to play a role in the migration of immune cells into the central nervous system and the joints, respectively. It is also involved in the development and function of various immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells. Integrin alpha4 is also a target for therapeutic intervention in certain diseases. For example, monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between integrin alpha4 and its ligand, VCAM-1, have been developed for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases.
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune system. IL-3 is produced by a variety of cells, including immune cells such as T cells, B cells, and mast cells, as well as by some non-immune cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In the medical field, IL-3 is primarily used as a therapeutic agent to treat certain types of blood disorders and cancers. For example, IL-3 has been shown to stimulate the growth and differentiation of certain types of blood cells, such as neutrophils and eosinophils, which are important for fighting infections and allergies. It has also been used to treat certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, as well as myelodysplastic syndrome, a group of blood disorders characterized by abnormal blood cell production. However, IL-3 can also have harmful effects if it is produced in excess or if it is not properly regulated. For example, it has been implicated in the development of certain types of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues. As a result, the use of IL-3 as a therapeutic agent is carefully monitored and regulated to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
Chemokine CCL5, also known as RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), is a small protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a type of chemokine, which are signaling molecules that help to direct the movement of immune cells to specific areas of the body in response to infection or injury. CCL5 is produced by a variety of cells, including immune cells such as T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, as well as non-immune cells such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. It acts on specific receptors on the surface of immune cells to attract them to the site of infection or injury. CCL5 has been implicated in a number of different diseases and conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and certain types of cancer. It is also involved in the recruitment of immune cells to sites of inflammation, and has been shown to play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Overall, CCL5 is an important molecule in the immune system that helps to regulate the movement of immune cells and plays a role in the body's response to infection and injury.
Lysophospholipase is an enzyme that breaks down lysophospholipids, which are a type of phospholipid that contains a fatty acid chain with only one hydroxyl group. Lysophospholipases are found in a variety of tissues and cells throughout the body, and they play important roles in many physiological processes, including cell signaling, inflammation, and lipid metabolism. In the medical field, lysophospholipases are of interest because they have been implicated in a number of diseases and conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, some studies have suggested that lysophospholipases may play a role in the development and progression of certain types of cancer by promoting cell proliferation and invasion. Additionally, lysophospholipases have been shown to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, by promoting inflammation and oxidative stress. Overall, lysophospholipases are an important class of enzymes that play a variety of roles in the body, and they are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field.
Hypersensitivity, immediate, also known as an allergic reaction, is a type of immune response that occurs when the body reacts to a substance that is normally harmless, such as pollen, certain foods, or medications. In an immediate hypersensitivity reaction, the immune system recognizes the substance as a threat and releases antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE) to attack it. This triggers the release of histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation and other symptoms, such as itching, redness, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions can be severe and life-threatening, especially if they involve the respiratory system or the cardiovascular system. Treatment typically involves removing the allergen from the environment, administering antihistamines or other medications to reduce symptoms, and in severe cases, using epinephrine to counteract the effects of the allergic reaction.
Nasal polyps are benign (non-cancerous) growths that develop in the lining of the nasal passages or sinuses. They are usually caused by an allergic reaction or chronic inflammation of the nasal passages, such as occurs in chronic sinusitis. Nasal polyps can cause blockage of the nasal passages, leading to symptoms such as congestion, runny nose, postnasal drip, and difficulty breathing through the nose. They can also cause facial pain or pressure, and in some cases, hearing loss. Treatment for nasal polyps typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and shrink the polyps, as well as surgery to remove them if they are causing significant symptoms or complications.
Monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs) are a family of small proteins that are produced by various cells in the body, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. These proteins play a crucial role in the recruitment of monocytes, a type of white blood cell, to sites of inflammation or injury. MCPs function by binding to specific receptors on the surface of monocytes, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation and migration of these cells towards the site of inflammation. This process is known as chemotaxis. There are several different types of MCPs, including MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MCP-4, and MCP-5, each with its own specific properties and functions. MCPs are also involved in other physiological processes, such as the regulation of angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and the development of atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries). In the medical field, MCPs are often studied as potential biomarkers for various diseases, including inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. They are also being investigated as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these conditions.
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in regulating the immune system. IL-4 is primarily produced by T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, which are a type of immune cell that helps to fight off parasitic infections and allergies. IL-4 has several important functions in the immune system. It promotes the differentiation of Th2 cells and stimulates the production of other Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13. IL-4 also promotes the activation and proliferation of B cells, which are responsible for producing antibodies. Additionally, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to suppress the activity of T-helper 1 (Th1) cells, which are involved in fighting off bacterial and viral infections. In the medical field, IL-4 is being studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it is being investigated as a treatment for allergies, asthma, and certain autoimmune diseases. IL-4 is also being studied as a potential cancer immunotherapy, as it can help to activate immune cells that can recognize and attack cancer cells.
Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.
Receptors, Chemokine are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to specific chemokines, which are small signaling molecules that play a role in immune cell trafficking and inflammation. These receptors are involved in the regulation of immune cell migration and are important for the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection or injury. There are several different types of chemokine receptors, each of which is specific to a particular chemokine or group of chemokines. Dysregulation of chemokine receptors has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.
Complement C5a is a protein that is produced as a result of the activation of the complement system, which is a part of the immune system. The complement system is a series of proteins that work together to help the body fight off infections and other foreign substances. Complement C5a is a potent inflammatory mediator that is involved in the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection or injury. It does this by binding to receptors on the surface of immune cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, and triggering a signaling cascade that leads to the release of these cells from the blood vessels and their migration to the site of inflammation. Complement C5a also has other functions, such as promoting the activation of the complement system and enhancing the ability of immune cells to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) pathogens. In the medical field, complement C5a is often measured as a marker of inflammation and immune system activation. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases, infections, and cancer.
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Conjunctivitis, allergic, also known as allergic conjunctivitis, is a type of inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. It is caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust, pet dander, or certain types of cosmetics or contact lenses. Symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis may include redness, itching, tearing, swelling of the eyelids, and a feeling of grittiness or scratchiness in the eyes. In severe cases, the conjunctiva may become swollen and produce a thick, yellow or green discharge. Allergic conjunctivitis is usually treated with antihistamines, decongestants, or corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In some cases, allergy shots or immunotherapy may be recommended to help the body build up a tolerance to the allergen. It is important to identify and avoid the allergen whenever possible to prevent future episodes of allergic conjunctivitis.
Integrin alpha4beta1, also known as very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), is a cell surface protein that plays a crucial role in the adhesion and migration of immune cells, particularly leukocytes, to the endothelium of blood vessels. It is composed of two subunits, alpha4 and beta1, which are encoded by different genes. In the context of the immune system, integrin alpha4beta1 is involved in the homing of immune cells to specific tissues, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. It also plays a role in the activation and differentiation of immune cells, as well as in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. In addition to its role in the immune system, integrin alpha4beta1 has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, it has been shown to be involved in the metastasis of certain types of cancer cells, as well as in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Overall, integrin alpha4beta1 is a key regulator of immune cell function and has important implications for the development and treatment of various diseases.
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a role in regulating the immune system. It is produced by various types of immune cells, including T cells, B cells, and mast cells, and is involved in the inflammatory response. IL-13 has a number of effects on the body, including: 1. Anti-inflammatory effects: IL-13 can reduce inflammation by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and by promoting the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. 2. Mucosal protection: IL-13 has been shown to protect the mucous membranes of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, helping to prevent infections and maintain tissue integrity. 3. Fibrosis inhibition: IL-13 can inhibit the production of fibrotic tissue, which is the excessive accumulation of connective tissue that can lead to organ damage and scarring. 4. Allergy and asthma: IL-13 plays a key role in the development of allergic reactions and asthma, by promoting the production of IgE antibodies and by increasing the sensitivity of airways to allergens. Overall, IL-13 is an important mediator of the immune response and has a number of important functions in the body.
Rhinitis, allergic, perennial is a type of chronic inflammation of the nasal passages that is caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. It is called "perennial" because it can occur all year round, rather than just during certain seasons. Symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis may include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, and postnasal drip. Treatment typically involves avoiding triggers whenever possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal corticosteroids. In some cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended.
Methacholine chloride is a bronchoconstrictor drug that is used in the medical field to test the responsiveness of the airways to bronchoconstricting agents. It is typically administered through inhalation or intravenous injection, and its effects are measured by observing changes in lung function, such as changes in lung volume or air flow. Methacholine chloride works by stimulating muscarinic receptors in the airways, which can cause the smooth muscle in the walls of the airways to contract and narrow. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing, which are characteristic of asthma and other respiratory conditions. In the medical field, methacholine chloride is often used as part of a diagnostic test called a bronchial challenge test, which is used to help diagnose asthma and other respiratory conditions. During the test, the patient is given increasing doses of methacholine chloride, and their lung function is monitored to see how their airways respond to the drug. If the airways become more constricted in response to the drug, it may indicate that the patient has asthma or another respiratory condition that is sensitive to bronchoconstricting agents.
Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the esophagus characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the lining of the esophagus. This leads to symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and heartburn. EoE is more common in children than adults and is often associated with allergies, food intolerances, and other autoimmune disorders. Treatment typically involves avoiding triggers that may worsen symptoms, taking medications to reduce inflammation, and in some cases, endoscopic procedures to remove inflamed tissue.
Rolipram is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitors. It is primarily used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the muscles in the airways and improving breathing. Rolipram may also be used to treat other conditions, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, by reducing inflammation in the body. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets or capsules.
Macrophage-1 Antigen (Mac-1) is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, including macrophages and neutrophils. It is also known as CD11b/CD18 or CR3 (complement receptor 3). Mac-1 plays a role in the immune system by mediating the adhesion and migration of immune cells to sites of inflammation or infection. It also plays a role in the recognition and phagocytosis of pathogens by immune cells. In the medical field, Mac-1 is often used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases, such as sepsis, and as a target for the development of new therapies for inflammatory and infectious diseases.
Chemokine CCL7, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), is a small protein that plays a role in the immune system. It is a type of chemokine, which are a group of signaling molecules that help to direct the movement of immune cells to specific areas of the body in response to infection or injury. CCL7 is produced by a variety of cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells, and it is involved in the recruitment of monocytes and other immune cells to sites of inflammation. It does this by binding to specific receptors on the surface of immune cells, which triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation and movement of these cells. In the medical field, CCL7 is often studied in the context of various diseases and conditions, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, high levels of CCL7 have been associated with the development and progression of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and lung cancer. It is also involved in the recruitment of immune cells to sites of inflammation in autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and it plays a role in the immune response to infections, such as tuberculosis. Overall, CCL7 is an important molecule in the immune system that helps to regulate the movement of immune cells to specific areas of the body. It is involved in a variety of physiological processes and has been implicated in the development and progression of certain diseases and conditions.
Leukotrienes are a group of biologically active molecules that are produced by leukocytes (white blood cells) in response to inflammation. They are synthesized from arachidonic acid, which is an essential fatty acid found in cell membranes. There are several different types of leukotrienes, including leukotriene A4 (LTA4), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), leukotriene D4 (LTD4), and leukotriene E4 (LTE4). These molecules have a variety of effects on the body, including: 1. Constricting blood vessels: Leukotrienes can cause blood vessels to narrow, which can increase blood pressure and contribute to inflammation. 2. Recruiting immune cells: Leukotrienes can attract immune cells to the site of inflammation, which can help to fight off infections. 3. Increasing mucus production: Leukotrienes can stimulate the production of mucus in the respiratory tract, which can lead to symptoms such as coughing and wheezing. 4. Aggravating allergic reactions: Leukotrienes can worsen allergic reactions by increasing inflammation and mucus production. Leukotrienes are involved in a number of different medical conditions, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They are also involved in the development of certain types of cancer, such as lung cancer and colon cancer. Medications that block the production or action of leukotrienes are used to treat these conditions.
Trichinellosis is a parasitic infection caused by the roundworm Trichinella spiralis. The infection occurs when people consume raw or undercooked meat, particularly pork, that is contaminated with the larvae of the parasite. The larvae can then migrate to the muscles of the body, where they can cause inflammation and damage to the tissue. Symptoms of trichinellosis can include fever, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as inflammation of the heart and brain. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to kill the parasites and manage symptoms. Prevention of trichinellosis involves proper cooking of meat to ensure that it is thoroughly cooked and free of parasites.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.
Atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by dry, itchy, and red skin. It is a common condition that affects both children and adults, and is often associated with a family history of allergies and asthma. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition is thought to be caused by an overactive immune system response to irritants or allergens in the environment, which leads to inflammation and dryness of the skin. Symptoms of atopic dermatitis can include red, itchy, and dry skin, which may be covered with scales or crusts. The condition can be very uncomfortable and can lead to sleep disturbances and other quality-of-life issues. It is often treated with moisturizers, corticosteroid creams, and other medications to help reduce inflammation and itching. In some cases, immunosuppressive medications may be prescribed to help control the condition.
Leukotriene antagonists are a class of medications that block the action of leukotrienes, which are chemical messengers produced by the immune system. These drugs are used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Leukotrienes play a role in the inflammatory response and can cause constriction of the airways, leading to difficulty breathing. By blocking the action of leukotrienes, leukotriene antagonists can help to relax the airways and improve breathing in people with asthma or COPD. There are several different types of leukotriene antagonists available, including montelukast (Singulair) and zafirlukast (Accolate). These drugs are usually taken by mouth and are generally well-tolerated. However, like all medications, they can cause side effects, such as headache, nausea, and dizziness. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential benefits and risks of leukotriene antagonists before starting treatment.
N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) is a synthetic peptide that mimics the activity of a naturally occurring bacterial peptide called N-formylmethionine. It is commonly used in the medical field as a chemoattractant for neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the body's immune response. fMLP is typically administered intravenously or intraperitoneally, and its effects are rapid and short-lived. It is often used in research studies to investigate the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment and activation, as well as to test the efficacy of new drugs and therapies for inflammatory and infectious diseases. In addition to its use as a chemoattractant, fMLP has also been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in a variety of conditions, including sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks in these contexts.
Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to inflammation and infection. It is expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the inner lining of blood vessels, and is involved in the recruitment of immune cells, such as monocytes and T cells, to sites of inflammation. VCAM-1 binds to a protein called integrin on the surface of immune cells, which triggers a series of signaling events that lead to the adhesion of the immune cells to the endothelial cells. This process is essential for the immune system to mount an effective response to infection or injury, but it can also contribute to the development of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. In addition to its role in immune cell recruitment, VCAM-1 has been implicated in the development of a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. It is also involved in the progression of certain types of cancer, such as breast and colon cancer. Overall, VCAM-1 is a key player in the complex interplay between the immune system and the vasculature, and its dysregulation has been linked to a range of diseases and conditions.
Zymosan is a polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of yeasts and other fungi. It is commonly used in medical research as an activator of the immune system, particularly in the study of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. When zymosan is injected into the body, it triggers an immune response that involves the release of various inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines. This response can be used to study the function of immune cells and the signaling pathways involved in inflammation. Zymosan has also been used in clinical trials as a potential treatment for various conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and sepsis. However, more research is needed to fully understand its therapeutic potential and potential side effects.
Rhinitis, allergic, seasonal, is a type of inflammation of the nasal passages that occurs in response to exposure to allergens, such as pollen, mold spores, or dust mites, that are typically present in the environment during certain times of the year. It is also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis or hay fever. Symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis can include sneezing, runny nose, itchy or watery eyes, congestion, and postnasal drip. These symptoms are usually worse in the morning or after exposure to allergens and can be relieved with over-the-counter antihistamines or nasal decongestants. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is typically treated with avoidance of allergens, the use of medications to relieve symptoms, and immunotherapy (allergy shots) to reduce sensitivity to allergens over time.
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- Eosinophils are granulocytes (white blood cells that contain granules in their cytoplasm) derived from the same progenitor cells as monocytes-macrophages, neutrophils, and basophils. (msdmanuals.com)
- Although they are phagocytic, eosinophils are less efficient than neutrophils in killing intracellular bacteria. (msdmanuals.com)
- Eosinophil peroxidase, which differs significantly from peroxidase of other granulocytes, generates oxidizing radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and a halide. (msdmanuals.com)
- Eosinophil granulocytes , usually called eosinophils (or, less commonly, acidophils ), are white blood cells of the immune system that are responsible for combating infection and parasites in vertebrates . (wikidoc.org)
- Sustained activation of proton channels and NADPH oxidase in human eosinophils and murine granulocytes requires PKC but not cPLA2 alpha activity. (rush.edu)
- A high number of eosinophils (eosinophilia) are often linked to a variety of disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
- Eosinophilia and eosinophil-related disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
- In 1994, Jennette et al published "The Chapel Hill consensus conference" where they came up with a definition of EGPA as "eosinophil-rich and granulomatous inflammation involving respiratory tract and necrotizing vasculitis affecting small to medium-sized vessels associated with asthma and eosinophilia. (medscape.com)
- However, although eosinophilia commonly accompanies helminthic infections and eosinophils are toxic to helminths in vitro, there is no direct evidence that they kill parasites in vivo. (msdmanuals.com)
- Murine eosinophil development and allergic lung eosinophilia are largely dependent on the signaling adaptor GRB2. (bvsalud.org)
- Based on these findings pharmacologic GRB2 inhibitors may have the potential to dampen tissue eosinophilia in various eosinophil -associated diseases . (bvsalud.org)
- Eosinophils are considered the main effector cells in allergic responses and asthma pathogenesis and are associated with disease severity. (wikidoc.org)
- Eosinophils are major effector cells in allergic inflammatory response. (biomedcentral.com)
- Eosinophils are innate effector cells associated with allergic inflammation . (bvsalud.org)
- Eosinophils are principal effector cells of swelling in allergic asthma characterized by their build up and infiltration at inflammatory sites mediated from the chemokine eotaxin and their connection with adhesion molecules Eribulin Mesylate expressed on bronchial epithelial cells. (biongenex.com)
Presence of eosinophils2
- The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze dermatomyositis skin biopsies for the presence of eosinophils and correlate this finding with other histopathologic and clinical characteristics. (iasp-pain.org)
- The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. (wikidoc.org)
- The effects of a variety of widely used anti-inflammatory agents (dexamethasone, indomethacin, and montelu-kast) as well as ubiquitous mediators of inflammation (prostaglandin E 2and nitric oxide) on the development of murine eosinophils ex vivo and in vivo have been studied over the last decade. (fiocruz.br)
- Can blood eosinophils predict sputum eosinophils in stable COPD? (ers-education.org)
- This causes eosinophils to show up as orange-red granules. (medlineplus.gov)
- The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm , which contain many chemical mediators, such as histamine and proteins such as eosinophil peroxidase , RNase , DNases , lipase , plasminogen , and Major Basic Protein . (wikidoc.org)
- In addition, eosinophils play a role in fighting viral infections, which is evident from the abundance of RNAses they contain within their granules, and in fibrin removal during inflammation . (wikidoc.org)
- Eosinophils contain different populations of mediator-storage organelles, including small secretory vesicles as well as crystalloid granules. (biomedcentral.com)
- In cytolysis, eosinophil cell membrane loses its integrity and crystalloid granules are released to extracellular space. (biomedcentral.com)
- We hypothesized that eosinophil crystalloid granules are equipped to function independently in extracellular space. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our findings indicate that both DNA and RNA localize to human and rabbit eosinophil crystalloid granules and that RNA seems to be synthesized in intra-granular space further suggesting the presence of functional transcription machinery inside the granules. (biomedcentral.com)
- Taken together our findings define a new potential role for eosinophil crystalloid granules as independent extracellular functional units in inflammatory events and may reveal a novel target in modulating the inflammatory events. (biomedcentral.com)
- Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is a condition that affects certain white blood cells called eosinophils but causes no health problems in affected individuals. (medlineplus.gov)
- One of these proteins is called eosinophil peroxidase. (medlineplus.gov)
- In eosinophil peroxidase deficiency, eosinophils have little or no eosinophil peroxidase. (medlineplus.gov)
- Because eosinophil peroxidase deficiency does not cause any health problems, this condition is often diagnosed when blood tests are done for other reasons or when a family member has been diagnosed with the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- Approximately 100 individuals with eosinophil peroxidase deficiency have been described in the scientific literature. (medlineplus.gov)
- Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is estimated to occur in 8.6 in 1,000 Yemenite Jews, in 3 in 1,000 North-African Jews, and in 1 in 1,000 Iraqi Jews. (medlineplus.gov)
- and in Luxembourg, eosinophil peroxidase deficiency is thought to occur in 1 in 100,000 people. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mutations in the EPX gene cause eosinophil peroxidase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
- The EPX gene provides instructions for making the eosinophil peroxidase protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- During an immune response, activated eosinophils release eosinophil peroxidase at the site of injury. (medlineplus.gov)
- EPX gene mutations reduce or prevent eosinophil peroxidase production or result in a protein that is unstable and nonfunctional. (medlineplus.gov)
- As a result, eosinophils have severely reduced amounts of eosinophil peroxidase or none at all. (medlineplus.gov)
- Other proteins within affected eosinophils are normal, and while the cells lacking eosinophil peroxidase are smaller and may have structural changes, the loss of eosinophil peroxidase does not appear to impair the function of eosinophils. (medlineplus.gov)
- Kutter D, Mueller-Hagedorn S, Forges T, Glaesener R. A case of eosinophil peroxidase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
- Romano M, Patriarca P, Melo C, Baralle FE, Dri P. Hereditary eosinophil peroxidase deficiency: immunochemical and spectroscopic studies and evidence for a compound heterozygosity of the defect. (medlineplus.gov)
- Eosinophils become active when you have certain allergic diseases, infections, and other medical conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
- The purpose of this special week is to create awareness and educate both the general public and medical community about eosinophil-associated diseases. (apfed.org)
- We invite you to celebrate National Eosinophil Awareness Week by showing your support of those who live with eosinophil-associated diseases. (apfed.org)
- The conference is a terrific opportunity to learn about eosinophil-associated diseases, gain practical management strategies, and hear research updates from experts in the field. (apfed.org)
- Purchase wearable awareness items to show off your support for eosinophil-associated diseases all throughout the year. (apfed.org)
- There are discussion boards for different types of eosinophil-associated diseases. (apfed.org)
- Eosinophil-associated diseases occur in all epithelial organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, upper and lower respiratory tracts, the skin, and the heart. (medscape.com)
- Because glucocorticoids are a mainstay in the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases, we tested the effect of various steroid hormones on secretory IgA- and IgG-induced eosinophil degranulation in vitro. (elsevierpure.com)
- Cite this: Mixed Results for Eosinophil-Depleting Drug in Eosinophilic Gastritis - Medscape - Jun 20, 2023. (medscape.com)
- Esophageal biopsy demonstrating more than 20 epithelial eosinophils per high-power field indicates eosinophilic esophagitis. (medscape.com)
- Collectively the above results Eribulin Mesylate show the induction of the launch of chemokines inside a coculture of epithelial cells and eosinophils are controlled by Eribulin Mesylate p38 MAPK and NF-κB activities of BEAS-2B cells at least partly through intercellular contact. (biongenex.com)
- Cytolytic mAbs AK002 and benralizumab completely reduce peripheral and tissue eosinophil numbers. (nih.gov)
- Benralizumab , an eosinophil-depleting monoclonal antibody, induces histologic remission in patients with eosinophilic gastritis, but persistence of other disease features suggest coexisting eosinophil-independent pathogenic mechanisms. (medscape.com)
- We will then focus on targeted immunotherapies for atopic disease, their effects on absolute peripheral eosinophil counts, and use of peripheral eosinophils as a predictor of treatment response. (nih.gov)
- In atopic disease, lower absolute peripheral eosinophil counts are typically associated with improved outcomes. (nih.gov)
- The technician then counts how many eosinophils are present per 100 cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Are peripheral blood eosinophil counts a guideline for omalizumab treatment? (ers-education.org)
- Peripheral blood eosinophil counts in COPD patients and its relationship with prescription of inhaled corticosteroid in real world setting in Japan. (ers-education.org)
- Key secondary endpoints were changes in eosinophil counts, histology scores, endoscopic severity, and patient-reported symptoms. (medscape.com)
- c-e) Spearman correlation testing comparing the enrichment score of PRISE #1 with the c) time to exacerbation, d) sputum eosinophil counts (log 10 ), and e) macrophage cell counts (log 10 ). (ersjournals.com)
Major basic p1
- Eosinophilic vasculitis is indicated by angiocentric eosinophil major basic protein (eMBP) staining. (medscape.com)
- Despite the depletion of eosinophils in blood and gastric tissue, key signs and biomarkers of disease persisted. (medscape.com)
- Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8-12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8-12 days in the absence of stimulation. (wikidoc.org)
- Following activation by an immune stimulus, eosinophils degranulate to release an array of cytotoxic granule cationic proteins that are capable of inducing tissue damage and dysfunction. (wikidoc.org)
- Could eosinophil / neutrophil ratio be used to determine treatment in COPD patients? (ers-education.org)
- These results suggest that eosinophil degranulation and rIL-5-mediated eosinophil activation are not direct targets of glucocorticoids and that the beneficial effects of glucocorticoids on allergic inflammation in vivo are not likely due to direct effects on eosinophil degranulation. (elsevierpure.com)
- The relative contribution of these signaling pathways for eosinophil development and homeostasis in vivo are poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
- Atopic inflammation is complex largely due to the various cytokines which affect eosinophils activation, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. (nih.gov)
- Our results indicate that GRB2 is important for eosinophil development in steady- state conditions and during allergic inflammation . (bvsalud.org)
- Double IHC showed that the distribution of FcεRI + cells was tryptase + mast cells (33%), CD68 + macrophages (36%), EG2 + eosinophils (20%), CD1a + Langerhans' cells (4%) and unidentified cells (7%), at the 24-hr allergen-challenged sites. (utmb.edu)
- These observations suggest that the cutaneous late-phase reaction in man is associated with up-regulation of FcεRI on eosinophils, macrophages, mast cells and Langerhans' cells. (utmb.edu)
- These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. (wikidoc.org)
- Eosinophils were incubated with various steroids, including dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, estradiol, or dihydrotestosterone at concentrations from 10 -9 to 10 -4 mol/L. Sepharose 4B beads coupled to ovalbumin, secretory IgA, or IgG were added as targets of degranulation and incubated at 37 ° C for 4 hours. (elsevierpure.com)
- Dexamethasone (10 -9 to 10 -4 mol/L), hydrocortisone (10 -9 to 10 -4 mol/L), estradiol (10 -9 to 10 -7 mol/L), and dihydrotestosterone (10 -9 to 10 -4 mol/L) had no effect on normodense eosinophil degranulation. (elsevierpure.com)
- Methylprednisolone, 10 -5 mol/L, inhibited degranulation of normodense eosinophils up to 20%, whereas 10 -4 mol/L inhibited degranulation of hypodense eosinophils, up to 30%, Overall, no difference in inhibition by steroids was observed between normodense and hypodense eosinophils. (elsevierpure.com)
- rIL-5 enhanced immunoglobulin-induced eosinophil degranulation, but this effect of rIL-5 was not blocked by any of the steroids tested. (elsevierpure.com)
- Patients with COPD prescribed inhaled corticosteroid in primary care - Time for re-assessment based on exacerbation rate and blood eosinophils? (ers-education.org)
- Of note, however, patients without eosinophils, in the case of immunodeﬁciency or as a result of immunoglobulin G-mediated eosinophil precursor destruction, do not demonstrate any significant abnormalities related to low or absent eosinophil levels. (medscape.com)
- The eosinophil count can decrease with stress, with the use of beta-blockers or corticosteroids, and sometimes during bacterial or viral infections. (msdmanuals.com)
- An absolute eosinophil count is a blood test that measures the number of one type of white blood cells called eosinophils. (medlineplus.gov)
- The percentage of eosinophils is multiplied by the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. (medlineplus.gov)
- COPD treatment choices based on blood eosinophils: are we there yet? (ers-education.org)
- Analysis of IMPACT: is one blood eosinophil count measurement sufficient to predict ICS treatment response in COPD? (ers-education.org)
- Impact of blood eosinophil variability in asthma: a real-life population study. (ers-education.org)
- Eosinophils blood (%): 0.0-6.0 (This range may vary slightly in different laboratories. (medscape.com)
- Eosinophil blood count (absolute): 30-350. (medscape.com)
- Eosinophils are white blood cells that play a role in fighting parasitic, viral, and bacterial infections. (medscape.com)
- Eosinophils make up about 1-6% of white blood cells, and are about 12-17 micrometers in size. (wikidoc.org)
- After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 ( RANTES ), and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4). (wikidoc.org)
- The Absolute Eosinophil Count Test is a blood test that measures the number of eosinophils in the body. (healthcarentsickcare.com)
- Eosinophils are a type of white blood cell that are involved in the immune system's response to allergens and parasites. (healthcarentsickcare.com)
- The absolute eosinophil count measures the number of eosinophils present in the blood. (healthcarentsickcare.com)
- Eosinophils, a type of white blood cells, help in fighting the disease. (healthcarentsickcare.com)
- Some, but not all, of the developmental effects of glucocorticoids on eosinophils could be accounted for their ability to prevent generation of nitric oxide through inducible NO synthase, which leads to apoptosis through the CD95-CD95L pathway. (fiocruz.br)
- By using GRB2 inhibitors and inducible deletion of the Grb2 gene in mouse eosinophils we demonstrate that GRB2 plays a critical role for development of eosinophils from bone marrow precursors. (bvsalud.org)
- The connection of eosinophils and BEAS-2B cells was found to up-regulate the gene manifestation of the chemokines IL-8 MCP-1 MIG RANTES and IP-10 manifestation in BEAS-2B cells and to significantly elevate the release of the aforementioned chemokines except RANTES inside a coculture of BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils. (biongenex.com)
- Results Effect of the connection of BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils within the gene manifestation of chemokines of BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils Number 1 demonstrates BEAS-2B cells only expressed little or undetectable mRNA gene manifestation of chemokine IL-8 IP-10 MCP-1 MIG and RANTES. (biongenex.com)
- However coculture of BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils for 12 h could up-regulate the mRNA gene manifestation of chemokine IL-8 IP-10 MCP-1 MIG and RANTES of BEAS-2B cells. (biongenex.com)
- Eosinophils only indicated little or undetectable mRNA chemokine gene manifestation except RANTES. (biongenex.com)
- The coculture of BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils for 12 h could up-regulate the Eribulin Mesylate mRNA gene manifestation of chemokine IL-8 MCP-1 MIG and RANTES of eosinophil cells. (biongenex.com)
- Of 12 patients with eosinophils present in at least 1 biopsy specimen, 11 (92%) patients had a clinical history of pruritus of their skin lesions (P = 0.052). (iasp-pain.org)
- Skin biopsy demonstrating few to many intact eosinophils indicates eosinophil-associated skin disease. (medscape.com)
- Biopsy staining typically reveals extracellular eMBP, often out of proportion to the numbers of intact eosinophils. (medscape.com)
- The circulating half-life of eosinophils is 6 to 12 hours, with most eosinophils residing in tissues (eg, the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, uterus). (msdmanuals.com)
- Eosinophils are especially important in defense against parasitic infections. (msdmanuals.com)
- More attention should spotlight how different immunotherapy modalities affect eosinophil-driven responses. (nih.gov)
- The results indicate that developing eosinophils differ markedly in their responses to these agents from the mature forms of the same lineage, studied either in allergic human subjects or experimental animal models of allergic disease. (fiocruz.br)
- Normal eosinophil count is less than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). (medlineplus.gov)
- Eosinophil production appears to be regulated by T cells through the secretion of the hematopoietic growth factors granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and interleukin-5 (IL-5). (msdmanuals.com)
- Although GM-CSF and IL-3 also increase the production of other myeloid cells, IL-5 increases eosinophil production exclusively. (msdmanuals.com)
- Human normodense eosinophils were purified by discontinuous Percoll density gradient, and hypodense eosinophils were obtained by culture of normodense cells with recombinant human interleukin (rIL)-5. (elsevierpure.com)
- In some experiments, rIL-5 was added to eosinophils before addition of beads to activate the cells. (elsevierpure.com)
- Fig. 1 Representative RT-PCR analysis of β-actin IL-8 IP-10 MCP-1 MIG and RANTES mRNA manifestation in (a) BEAS-2B cells and (b) eosinophils. (biongenex.com)
- Launch of IL-8 IP-10 MCP-1 MIG and RANTES upon the connection of BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils As demonstrated in Fig. 2 the coculture of BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils exhibited synergistic effects on the launch of IL-8 IP-10 MCP-1 and MIG but not RANTES after 12 and 18 h incubation (all (biongenex.com)
- The mean value of RANTES in the coculture was found to be higher than that of BEAS-2B cells or eosinophils only after 2 and 6 h incubation (Fig. 2e). (biongenex.com)
- Our findings suggest that the mechanisms driving this disease are in large part independent of excessive eosinophil production. (medscape.com)
- The eosinophils have varied functions which include the physiological role in organ formation such as the development of the post-gestational mammary gland. (healthcarentsickcare.com)