Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme that plays a role in the VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE catabolic pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of 2-methyl-3-oxopropanate to propanoyl-CoA using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by elevated BETA-ALANINE and 3-hydropropionic acid.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A compound that, along with its isomer, Cleland's reagent (DITHIOTHREITOL), is used for the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation to disulfides and for the reduction of disulfides to sulfhydryl groups.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder due to mutation of the gene CYP27A1 encoding a CHOLESTANETRIOL 26-MONOOXYGENASE. It is characterized by large deposits of CHOLESTEROL and CHOLESTANOL in various tissues resulting in xanthomatous swelling of tendons, early CATARACT, and progressive neurological symptoms.
An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.
CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on carbon-carbon bonds. This enzyme group includes all the enzymes that introduce double bonds into substrates by direct dehydrogenation of carbon-carbon single bonds.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.
Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 12-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of sterols in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP8B1gene, converts 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one to 7-alpha-12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and is required in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS from cholesterol.
Cornforth RH, Popják G (1969). "Chemical syntheses of substrates of sterol biosynthesis". In Raymond BC (ed.). Methods in ... Enzymology. 15. Academic Press. pp. 359-390. Reardon JE, Abeles RH (Sep 1986). "Mechanism of action of isopentenyl ... "Structural genomics of enzymes involved in sterol/isoprenoid biosynthesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
Methods in Enzymology. 432. pp. 59-82. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32003-X. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. PMID 17954213.CS1 maint: ... APCI is particularly useful for the analysis of nonpolar lipids such as triacylglycerols, sterols, and fatty acid esters. The ... Methods in Enzymology. 432. pp. 1-20. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32001-6. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. PMID 17954211.CS1 maint: ... Methods in Enzymology. 432. pp. 21-57. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32002-8. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. PMID 17954212.CS1 maint: ...
Between 1963 and 1987, sterol biosynthesis was studied by radiochemical methods, enzymology and the use of inhibitors, ... Mutants affected in sterol biosynthesis, site1 mutant defective in Δ7 sterol-C5-desaturase, sterov mutant overproducing sterols ... An Arabidopsis mutant has been isolated that contains mainly Δ7-sterols instead of the normal Δ5-sterols, and has a defect in ... In this mutant, excess sterols are found in the form of sterol esters which accumulate dramatically in lipid globules. The work ...
In enzymology, a triacylglycerol---sterol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.77) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... This enzyme is also called triacylglycerol:sterol acyltransferase. Zimowski J, Wojciechowski ZA (1981). "Acyl donors for sterol ...
In enzymology, a diacylglycerol-sterol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.73) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 1,2- ... sterol ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol and sterol, whereas its two products are ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol:sterol O-acyltransferase. This enzyme is also called 1,2- ... Garcia RE; Mudd JB (1981). "1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycerol:sterol acyl transferase from spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.)". Methods ...
In enzymology, a phosphatidylcholine---sterol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.43) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... a sterol ester Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are phosphatidylcholine and sterol, whereas its two products are 1- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphatidylcholine:sterol O-acyltransferase. Other names in common use include ... Bartlett K, Keat MJ, Mercer EI (1974). "Biosynthesis of sterol esters in Phycomyces blakesleeanus". Phytochemistry. 13: 1107- ...
In enzymology, a sterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction sterol ester + H2O ⇌ {\ ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } sterol + fatty acid Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are sterol ester and H2O, whereas ... Okawa Y, Yamaguchi T (May 1977). "Studies on sterol-ester hydrolase from Fusarium oxysporum. I Partial purification and ... sterol ester hydrolase, cholesterol ester hydrolase, cholesterase, and acylcholesterol lipase. This enzyme participates in bile ...
In enzymology, a sterol 3beta-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.173) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-glucose ... Other names in common use include UDPG:sterol glucosyltransferase, UDP-glucose-sterol beta-glucosyltransferase, sterol:UDPG ... sterol glucosyltransferase, sterol-beta-D-glucosyltransferase, and UDP-glucose-sterol glucosyltransferase. Duperon R; Duperon P ... a sterol 3-beta-D-glucoside Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-glucose and sterol, whereas its two products are ...
In enzymology, a Delta24-sterol reductase (EC 1.3.1.72) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5alpha-cholest-7-en- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is sterol:NADP+ Delta24-oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called lanosterol Delta24- ...
In enzymology, a Delta24(241)-sterol reductase (EC 1.3.1.71) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ergosterol + ... Other names in common use include sterol Delta24(28)-methylene reductase, and sterol Delta24(28)-reductase. This enzyme ... Zweytick D, Hrastnik C, Kohlwein SD, Daum G (2000). "Biochemical characterization and subcellular localization of the sterol C- ... Neal WD, Parks LW (1977). "Sterol 24(28) methylene reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". J. Bacteriol. 129 (3): 1375-8. PMC ...
In enzymology, a sterol 14-demethylase (EC 1.14.13.70) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction obtusifoliol + 3 O2 + ... and other types of sterols in plants. These sterols localize to the plasma membrane of cells, where they play an important ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is sterol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (14-methyl cleaving). Other names in common use ... Becher R, Wirsel SG (August 2012). "Fungal cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) and azole resistance in plant and ...
In enzymology, a Delta14-sterol reductase (EC 1.3.1.70) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4,4-dimethyl-5alpha- ... Bottema CK, Parks LW (1978). "Delta14-sterol reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 531 (3): 301-7. ...
In enzymology, a sterol-4alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) (EC 1.1.1.170) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... Brady DR, Crowder RD, Hayes WJ (1980). "Mixed function oxidases in sterol metabolism. Source of reducing equivalents". J. Biol ... Rahimtula AD, Gaylor JL (1972). "Partial purification of a microsomal sterol 4 -carboxylic acid decarboxylase". J. Biol. Chem. ... and sterol 4alpha-carboxylic decarboxylase. This enzyme participates in biosynthesis of steroids. ...
In enzymology, a sterol 24-C-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.41) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... sterol Delta24-methyltransferase, SMT1, 24-sterol C-methyltransferase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:Delta24(23)-sterol ... "Two families of sterol methyltransferases are involved in the first and the second methylation steps of plant sterol ... Moore JT, Gaylor JL (1969). "Isolation and purification of an S-adenosylmethionine: delta 24-sterol methyltransferase from ...
In enzymology, a prenyl-diphosphatase (EC 3.1.7.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction prenyl diphosphate + H2O ... Tsai SC, Gaylor JL (1966). "Testicular sterols. V. Preparation and partial purification of a microsomal prenol pyrophosphate ...
This enzyme is also called sterol C-methyltransferase. Mangla AT, Nes WD (2000). "Sterol C-methyl transferase from Prototheca ... In enzymology, a cycloartenol 24-C-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.142) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... wickerhamii mechanism, sterol specificity and inhibition". Bioorg. Med. Chem. 8 (5): 925-36. doi:10.1016/S0968-0896(00)00040-7 ...
In enzymology, a cycloeucalenol cycloisomerase (EC 5.5.1.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cycloeucalenol ... Enzymatic cleavage of the 9beta, 19beta-cyclopropane ring of cyclopropyl sterols in bramble tissue cultures". J. Biol. Chem. ... Rahier A, Schmitt P, Benveniste P (1982). "7-oxo-24ξ(28)-dihydrocycloeucalenol, a potent inhibitor of plant sterol biosynthesis ... Heintz R, Benveniste P (1974). "Plant sterol metabolism. ...
Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 изд.). Wiley- ... Tsai, S.-C. & Gaylor, J.L. (1966). „Testicular sterols. V. Preparation and partial purification of a microsomal prenol ... Nicholas C. Price; Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... William P. Jencks (1987). Catalysis in Chemistry and Enzymology. Dover Publications. ISBN 0486654605.. ...
Eric J. Toone (2006). Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 izd.). Wiley- ... Dean, P.D.G., Oritz de Montellano, P.R., Bloch, K. and Corey, E.J. (1967). "A soluble 2,3-oxidosqualene sterol cyclase". J. ... Nicholas C. Price, Lewis Stevens (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins ( ... 3-oksidoskvalen sterol ciklaza, oksidoskvalenska ciklaza, 2,3-oksidoskvalen ciklaza, 2,3-oksidoskvalen-lanosterol ciklaza, ...
In enzymology, a mevaldate reductase (NADPH) (EC 1.1.1.33) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-mevalonate + ... 1959). CIBA Symposium on the Biosynthesis of Terpenes and Sterols. London. pp. 62-74. Jakoby WB, ed. (1980). Enzymatic Basis of ...
In enzymology, a sarsasapogenin 3β-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.193) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP- ... It is specific for substrate sterols with the uncommon 5β-configuration (sarsasapogenin and smilagenin), that is with a cis- ...
In enzymology, a propanoyl-CoA C-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.176) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3alpha,7alpha ... Other names in common use include peroxisomal thiolase 2, sterol carrier protein-, SCP, and PTE-2 (ambiguous). This enzyme ...
Other names in common use include Δ7-sterol Δ5-dehydrogenase, Δ7-sterol 5-desaturase, Δ7-sterol-C5(6)-desaturase, and 5-DES. ... In enzymology, a lathosterol oxidase (EC 1.14.21.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5α-cholest-7-en-3β-ol + ... Taton M, Rahier A (1996). "Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification and characterization of higher plant Δ7-sterol C5(6)- ... This enzyme is one of C-5 sterol desaturases, belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on paired ...
"Two families of sterol methyltransferases are involved in the first and the second methylation steps of plant sterol ... In enzymology, a 24-methylenesterol C-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.143) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ...
"Sterol carrier protein X is peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl coenzyme A thiolase with intrinsic sterol carrier and lipid transfer activity ... In enzymology, a propionyl-CoA C2-trimethyltridecanoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.154) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... Wanders RJ, Denis S, Wouters F, Wirtz KW, Seedorf U (1997). "Sterol carrier protein X (SCPx) is a peroxisomal branched-chain ... Other names in common use include 3-oxopristanoyl-CoA hydrolase, 3-oxopristanoyl-CoA thiolase, peroxisome sterol carrier ...
In enzymology, a 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha-diol 12alpha-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.96) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... Yang Y, Zhang M, Eggertsen G, Chiang JY (June 2002). "On the mechanism of bile acid inhibition of rat sterol 12alpha- ... Lundell K, Wikvall K (November 2003). "Gene structure of pig sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) and expression in fetal liver ... sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase (ambiguous), CYP8B1, and cytochrome P450 8B1. Hansson R, Wikvall K (July 1982). "Hydroxylations in ...
In enzymology, a 7alpha-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one 12alpha-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.95) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... Other names used include 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one 12alpha-monooxygenase, CYP12, sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase (ambiguous ... "Molecular cloning and expression of rabbit sterol 12alpha-hydroxylase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (50): 32269-75 ...
The predominant sterol in fungal cell membranes is ergosterol. Sterols are steroids in which one of the hydrogen atoms is ... Methods in Enzymology. 432. pp. 21-57. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32002-8. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. PMID 17954212. van Holde and ... Other examples of sterols are the bile acids and their conjugates, which in mammals are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol and ... Methods in Enzymology. 423. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. Hunt SM, Groff JL, Gropper SA (1995). Advanced ...
In enzymology, a 3-keto-steroid reductase (EC 1.1.1.270) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4alpha-methyl-5alpha ... Swindell AC, Gaylor JL (1968). "Investigation of the component reactions of oxidative sterol demethylation. Formation and ...
In enzymology, a cholest-5-ene-3β,7α-diol 3β-dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.181) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... This enzyme is a membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein which is active against 7-alpha hydrosylated sterol ...
phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activity. • phospholipid binding. • cholesterol transporter activity. • ... Methods in Enzymology. 128: 745-52. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(86)28103-3. ISBN 978-0-12-182028-2. . PMID 3088392.. ...
... sterols, drugs, and a large variety of primary and secondary metabolites. Some of these exporters in humans are involved in ... Methods in Enzymology. 292: 3-853. Horio M, Gottesman MM, Pastan I (May 1988). "ATP-dependent transport of vinblastine in ...
Schroepfer GJ (1981). "Sterol biosynthesis". 》Annual Review of Biochemistry》 50: 585-621. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.50.070181. ... 2007). 》Lipodomics and Bioactive Lipids: Mass Spectrometry Based Lipid Analysis》. Methods in Enzymology 423. Boston: Academic ... Villinski JC, Hayes JM, Brassell SC, Riggert VL, Dunbar R (2008). "Sedimentary sterols as biogeochemical indicators in the ... Methods in Enzymology 432: 21-57. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32002-8. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. . PMID 17954212.. ...
Methods in Enzymology. Methods in Enzymology. 2007, 432: 21-57. ISBN 9780123738950. PMID 17954212. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07) ... Schroepfer G. Sterol biosynthesis. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 1981, 50: 585-621. PMID 7023367. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi. ... Sedimentary sterols as biogeochemical indicators in the Southern Ocean. Organic Geochemistry. 2008, 39 (5): 567-88. doi:10.1016 ... Brown HA (编). Lipodomics and Bioactive Lipids: Mass Spectrometry Based Lipid Analysis, Volume 432 (Methods in Enzymology). ...
Methods in Enzymology 432: 21-57. 2007. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32002-8. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. PMID 17954212.. ... "Sedimentary sterols as biogeochemical indicators in the Southern Ocean". Organic Geochemistry 39 (5): 567-588. 2008. doi: ... "Glycerophospholipid identification and quantitation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry". Methods in Enzymology. ... såvel som andre sterol-indeholdende metabolitter såsom kolesterol.[7] Selvom mennesker og andre pattedyr bruger diverse ...
Stevens L, Price NC (1999). Fundamentals of enzymology: the cell and molecular biology of catalytic proteins. Oxford [ ... Although liver X receptor (LXRs) modulate the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in feeding ... and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in response to feeding/insulin in living animals.[29][30] ... "Occupancy and function of the -150 sterol regulatory element and -65 E-box in nutritional regulation of the fatty acid ...
Steroids such as sterol are another major class of lipids. Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with many hydroxyl groups ... ISBN 0-19-860783-0. Advanced Price N, Stevens L (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic ... Schroepfer GJ (1981). "Sterol biosynthesis". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 50: 585-621. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.50.070181. ... Lanosterol can then be converted into other sterol such as cholesterol and ergosterol. Organisms vary in their ability to ...
Notably, sterols control FPPS expression through two cis regulatory factors (an inverted CAAT box and SRE-3) in the proximal ... In enzymology, a geranyltranstransferase (EC 2.5.1.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction geranyl diphosphate + ... Ericsson J, Jackson SM, Edwards PA (Oct 1996). "Synergistic binding of sterol regulatory element-binding protein and NF-Y to ... the farnesyl diphosphate synthase promoter is critical for sterol-regulated expression of the gene". The Journal of Biological ...
In enzymology, a dephospho-[reductase kinase] kinase (EC 2.7.11.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + ... 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase prevents phosphorylation by AMP-activated kinase and blocks inhibition of sterol ...
... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ... Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1544 (1-2): 311-9. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00243-0. PMID 11341940. Feng Y, Longo ... Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1544 (1-2): 311-9. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00243-0. PMID 11341940. Touitou R, ...
Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology. 77. pp. 1-60. doi:10.1002/9780470920541.ch1. ISBN 9780470920541 ... the eukaryotic sterol homeostasis family, and the hydrophobe/amphiphile efflux-3 family. These RND systems are involved in ... Nikaido H (2011). "Structure and mechanism of RND-type multidrug efflux pumps". Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of ...
Methods in Enzymology. 248. pp. 183-228. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(95)48015-3. ISBN 978-0-12-182149-4. PMID 7674922. Minde DP, ... Members of the M50 metallopeptidase family include: mammalian sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) site 2 protease ...
... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ... Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1079 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(91)90020-Z. PMID 1888762. "Entrez Gene: ... Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1037 (2): 178-85. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(90)90165-C. PMID 2306472. Kristensen P, ...
Advances in Enzymology and Related Subjects of Biochemistry. Advances in Enzymology - and Related Areas of Molecular Biology. ... Steryl-sulfatase is also known as arylsulfatase, steroid sulfatase, sterol sulfatase, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate sulfatase ... Roy AB (1960). "The synthesis and hydrolysis of sulfate esters". Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology ... Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1078 (2): 251-7. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(91)90566-I. PMID 2065092. Stein C, Hille A, ...
... sterol-regulated element-binding proteins and androgen receptors are all controlled by the UPS and thus involved in the ... Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology. 1079 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(91)90020-Z. PMID 1888762. Coux O, Tanaka K, ...
Cornforth RH, Popják G (1969). "Chemical syntheses of substrates of sterol biosynthesis". In Raymond BC (ed.). Methods in ... Enzymology. 15. Academic Press. pp. 359-390. Reardon JE, Abeles RH (Sep 1986). "Mechanism of action of isopentenyl ... "Structural genomics of enzymes involved in sterol/isoprenoid biosynthesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
Methods in Enzymology. 432. pp. 59-82. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32003-X. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. PMID 17954213.CS1 maint: ... APCI is particularly useful for the analysis of nonpolar lipids such as triacylglycerols, sterols, and fatty acid esters. The ... Methods in Enzymology. 432. pp. 1-20. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32001-6. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. PMID 17954211.CS1 maint: ... Methods in Enzymology. 432. pp. 21-57. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(07)32002-8. ISBN 978-0-12-373895-0. PMID 17954212.CS1 maint: ...
Steroids such as sterol are another major class of lipids. Carbohydrates are aldehydes or ketones, with many hydroxyl groups ... ISBN 0-19-860783-0. Advanced Price N, Stevens L (1999). Fundamentals of Enzymology: Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic ... Schroepfer GJ (1981). "Sterol biosynthesis". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 50: 585-621. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.50.070181. ... Lanosterol can then be converted into other sterol such as cholesterol and ergosterol. Organisms vary in their ability to ...
Sterol esterase - genetics, deficiency, therapeutic use *Search similar. Cholesterol esters - metabolism *Search similar ... Lysosomes - enzymology *Search similar. Recombinant proteins - therapeutic use *Search similar. Enzyme replacement therapy * ...
  • Paoletti E.G. (1971) Biosynthesis of Sterols in Developing Brain. (springer.com)
  • These compositions are discussed in terms of taxonomic groupings and from the viewpoint of the various steps involved in sterol biosynthesis that introduce specific double bonds or alkylate the sterol side-chain. (springer.com)
  • The conversion of OS to cycloartenol by the cycloartenol cyclase (CAS, EC 5.4.99.8) is the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, but OS can be also cyclized by distinct OS cyclases (OSCs), also known as triterpene synthases, into a variety of triterpene skeletons including those of α - and β -amyrins, the most commonly occurring plant triterpenes. (hindawi.com)
  • ERG3 is the putative gene encoding the C-5 sterol desaturase required for ergosterol biosynthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Steroid Biosynthesis: Enzymology, Integration and Control. (steroids-australia.net)
  • Sterol Biosynthesis. (steroids-australia.net)
  • Andrew has worked on cytochrome P450 and sterol biosynthesis since 1998 in Aberystwyth and Swansea Universities. (beaconwales.org)
  • At this time Konrad Bloch was beginning his work on the biosynthesis of the sterols and Popják and I began to concert experiments in which the disciplines of chemistry and biochemistry could be applied to this subject. (nobelprize.org)
  • An enzymatic assay for delta 8,14-sterol delta 14-reductase, an enzyme involved in sterol biosynthesis, has been developed for the first time in higher plants. (eurekamag.com)
  • Based on their conserved biochemical activities, we expect that prenyltransferases are likely integrated with the sterol biosynthesis pathway in the control of plant cell growth. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The previous view of a rather inert storage pool of neutral lipids--triacylglycerol and sterols or steryl esters--has markedly changed. (nih.gov)
  • and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene subunits). (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri- , di- , monoglycerides , and phospholipids ), as well as other sterol -containing metabolites such as cholesterol . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1947, T. P. Hilditch divided lipids into "simple lipids", with greases and waxes (true waxes, sterols, alcohols), and "complex lipids", with phospholipids and glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This volume in the well-established Methods in Enzymology series features methods for the study of lipids using mass spectrometry techniques. (skinvaders.com)
  • 4 extra chapters then take care of the genetic and hormonal law of P450 enzymes and their particular roles within the processing of sterols and lipids. (revistadue.com)
  • Other lipids were imaged, including phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidic acids, sterols, and gossypol, indicating the broad range of metabolites and applications for this chemical visualization approach. (plantcell.org)
  • Thus, OS cyclization by the various triterpene synthases is a major branch point in the regulation of the carbon flux toward either the sterol pathway (primary metabolism) or the nonsterol triterpenoid pathway (secondary metabolism). (hindawi.com)
  • An unexpectedly high degree of specialization and a widespread involvement in sterol metabolism among the C. elegans putative aminophospholipid translocases. (nih.gov)
  • tat-5 likely encodes a housekeeping protein that performs the proposed aminophospholipid translocase function routinely.Although individually dispensable, tat-1 through 4 seem to be at most only partly redundant.These findings uncover an unexpectedly high degree of specialization and a widespread involvement in sterol metabolism among the genes encoding the putative aminophospholipid translocases. (nih.gov)
  • Expression patterns and the sterol deprivation hypersensitivity deletion phenotype of tat-2 through 4 suggest that these genes carry out subtle metabolic functions, such as fine-tuning sterol metabolism in digestive or steroidogenic tissues. (nih.gov)
  • We analyzed the expression and activity of 11betaHSD1 as well as the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in adipose and liver and investigated putative associations between 11betaHSD1 and energy metabolism genes. (chalmers.se)
  • During his career, he was a leader in studies of the roles of organic compounds such as sugars, organic acids, amino acids and sterols in plants, and their metabolism in the plants. (usda.gov)
  • Popják, G. in Methods in Enzymology, vol. (springer.com)
  • Methods in Enzymology, Academic Press 432 (2007), LIPID MAPS chapters - (PDF). (lipidmaps.org)
  • For the complete Methods in Enzymology volumes, including LIPID MAPS chapters in Volumes 432, 433, and 434, please see http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/bookseries/00766879 . (lipidmaps.org)
  • This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods in Enzymology , 67 (C), 522-528. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods in Enzymology , 129 (C), 763-783. (unthsc.edu)
  • Volume 1 starts off with an exploration of the biophysics and mechanistic enzymology of cytochrome P450 enzymes, with a dialogue of the constructions of P450 enzymes and their electron donor companions, the mechanisms of oxygen activation and substrate oxidation, and the methods and nature of cytochrome P450 inhibition. (revistadue.com)
  • The critically acclaimed laboratory standard, Methods in Enzymology, is one of the most highly respected publications in the field of biochemistry. (bookdepository.com)
  • The Methods in Enzymology series represents the gold-standard. (bookdepository.com)
  • This new, second edition reflects considerable progress in enzymology: many enzymes are newly classified or reclassified. (springer.com)
  • In the wake of Doering's course, Raetz combined his interests in biology and chemistry to study enzymology, learning all of the intricate details about how enzymes bind to and act on their target molecules. (pnas.org)
  • The deletion of Srebf-2 and subsequent lower sterol synthesis in hepatocytes eliminated the production of an endogenous sterol ligand required for LXR activity and SREBP-1c expression. (elifesciences.org)
  • The enzymology of (neutral) lipid synthesis has been very well worked out in the yeast S. cerevisiae [see (Henry et al. (nih.gov)
  • Liver X receptor (LXR) agonists slow atherogenesis, but cause hepatic steatosis and dysfunction in part by increasing expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1-c (SREBP1-c), a transcription factor that upregulates fatty acid (FA) synthesis. (chemweb.com)
  • [15] In 1920, Bloor introduced a new classification for "lipoids": simple lipoids (greases and waxes), compound lipoids (phospholipoids and glycolipoids), and the derived lipoids (fatty acids, alcohols, sterols). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the biosynthetic reactions of carotenoids involve diiron proteins (common in fatty acid desaturases) and cytochrome p450 (common in sterol biosyntheis). (bris.ac.uk)
  • Our picture of the structure of the fatty acid synthetase has changed dramatically, bringing a new concept in enzymology - the multicatalytic polypeptide chain. (springer.com)
  • These molecules, which number in the thousands, include important natural products such as fatty acids, phospholipids, and sterols ( 1 ) and work at jobs as varied as forming the protective membranes that shelter cells from the outside world to acting as targets for receptors or second messengers in signal transduction cascades. (pnas.org)
  • Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, Protein Evolution (Volume 75 изд. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disciplines such as behavioral ecology are poised to take advantage of recent advances in enzymology. (bris.ac.uk)
  • CYP51 is a cytochrome P450 that catalyses the oxidative removal of the 14α-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol in yeasts and fungi - an essential step in the production of sterols. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • cholesterol cytochrome p450 Hedgehog Huntington's disease metastasis sterols Oxysterols are oxidised forms of cholesterol or of its. (portlandpress.com)
  • The membrane-bound, inactive forms of SREBPs are located in the endoplasmic reticulum bound to Scap, an escort protein that serves as a sensor of cellular sterol levels ( Brown and Goldstein, 2009 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • When cellular sterol levels are high, Scap binds an ER retention protein, Insig, which retains the SREBP/Scap complex in the ER. (elifesciences.org)
  • Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. (hindawi.com)
  • Plant triterpenoids, which include sterols, steroids, and brassinosteroids, constitute a large and structurally diverse group of natural products, with over 100 different carbon skeletons [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Sterols and nonsterol triterpenoids are synthesized via the cytoplasmic acetate/mevalonate pathway and share common biosynthetic precursors up to (3 S )-2,3-oxidosqualene (OS). (hindawi.com)
  • Whereas the biological roles of sterols and brassinosteroids are well known [ 8 , 9 ], the functions of nonsterol triterpenoids in planta still remain poorly understood. (hindawi.com)
  • Selvom begrebet lipid somme tider bruges som synonym for fedtstof er fedtstoffer en undergruppe af lipider kaldet triglycerider . (wikipedia.org)
  • Fedtsyrer , eller fedtsyreremanenser når de er en del af et lipid, er en forskelligartet molekylegruppe syntetiseret af kæde-forlængelse af en acetyl-CoA -primer med malonyl-CoA - eller metylmalonyl-CoA -grupper i en proces kaldet fedtsyresyntese . (wikipedia.org)
  • Different-sequence peptoids, including lipid- and sterol-conjugated peptoids, are found to be effective in transfection of cells with oligonucleotides. (google.com)
  • In other green algae a predominance of Δ 7 -unsaturated sterols is found dominated by 24-methylcholesta-5,7,22E-dien-3β-ol (ergosterol). (springer.com)
  • Azole antifungal agents to treat the human pathogens Acanthamoeba castellanii and Acanthamoeba polyphaga through inhibition of sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51). (beaconwales.org)
  • Clotrimazole as a potent agent for treating the oomycete fish pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica through inhibition of sterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51). (beaconwales.org)
  • Moreover, the in vitro inhibition of the plant sterol reductase by a series of ammonium-ion-containing fungicides was demonstrated. (eurekamag.com)
  • Fundamentals of Enzymology: The Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins (Third изд. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beastall GH, Rees HH, Goodwin TW (1971) Sterols in Porphyridium cruentum . (springer.com)
  • Insulin regulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase expression in human hepatocytes: roles of forkhead box O1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c. (omeka.net)
  • Cloning, disruption and sequence of the gene encoding yeast C-5 sterol desaturase. (nih.gov)
  • To provide insight into the structural features of the sterol gene that affects transcript regulation, the upstream promoter sequences of soybean SMT2 genes were cloned and characterized. (deepdyve.com)
  • This article provides my reflections on these studies that began with enzymology and the use of cultured mammalian cells, and progressed to utilize the techniques of molecular biology and gene-targeted mice. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Glycine max sterol methyl transferase 2. (deepdyve.com)
  • A sterol C-14 reductase (erg24-1) mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected in a fen1, fen2, suppressor background on the basis of nystatin resistance and ignosterol (ergosta-8,14-dienol) production. (nih.gov)
  • Few humans, in fact, concept an entire solidarity existed, since it was once already identified within the latter a part of the 19th century that the sterols, the polysaccharides, and the pigments of assorted organisms will be considerably various, yet only in the near past, over the past decade or so, has the fuH scope ofthe difference-as weil as ofthe similarity-begun to emerge. (cristinapascual.com)
  • Azole antifungal sensitivity of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) and CYP5218 from Malassezia globosa. (beaconwales.org)
  • Along with Otto Heinrich Warburg and Otto Meyer-hof, Lipmann was the deepest thinking, most clear-sighted, and creative of the architects of biochemistry in its construction phase, laying the foundations of metabolic enzymology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Common sterols include 24-methylcholesta-5,22E-dien-3β-ol, 24-methylenecholesterol and cholesterol. (springer.com)
  • The significantly acclaimed laboratory ordinary, equipment in Enzymology, is among the such a lot hugely revered courses within the box of biochemistry. (cristinapascual.com)
  • Barrett SM, Volkman JK, Dunstan GA, LeRoi JM (1995) Sterols of 14 species of marine diatoms (Bacillariophyta). (springer.com)
  • The ERG24 null mutant produced ergosta-8,14-dienol as the major sterol, indicating that the delta 8-7 isomerase, delta 5-desaturase and the delta 22-desaturase were inactive on sterols with the C14 = 15 double bond. (nih.gov)
  • The relative specificity of these different series of inhibitors toward cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase, delta 8----delta 7-sterol isomerase and delta 8,14-sterol delta 14-reductase, was directly studied. (eurekamag.com)
  • The scientists have made important research contributions in plant physiology and phytochemistry, enzymology, food science and poultry health. (usda.gov)
  • Dietary sesamin dose-dependently decreased the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) mRNA level, and the value in rats fed a 0.4% sesamin diet was approximately one-half that in those fed a sesamin-free diet. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the sterol-protein complex was rapidly translocated to the intestinal cell nucleus, suggesting a classic steroid hormone action. (elsevier.com)
  • 2009) were shown to complement the SMT deficient cvp1 mutant Arabidopsis plants, consistent with their role in regulation of 24-alkyl sterol-controlled plant physiology. (deepdyve.com)
  • From masochistic enzymology to mechanistic physiology and disease. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The three family members-SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c, and SREBP-2-are basic-helix-loop helix transcription factors that bind to sterol response elements of promoters to activate transcription. (elifesciences.org)
  • In enzymology, a peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase (EC 3.5.1.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction that cleaves a N4-(acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)asparagine residue in which the glucosamine residue may be further glycosylated, to yield a (substituted) N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylamine and a peptide containing an aspartate residue. (worldofchemicals.com)
  • Ballantine JA, Lavis A, Morris RJ (1979) Sterols of the phytoplankton-effects of illumination and growth stage. (springer.com)
  • However, tat-2 through 4 become essential for reproductive growth during sterol starvation. (nih.gov)
  • Microsomal delta 8,14-sterol delta 14-reductase in higher plants. (eurekamag.com)
  • Green microalgae are shown to have a variety of compositions including some with simple distributions of sterols dominated by the C 29 sterol 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3β-ol (sitosterol) more commonly associated with higher plants. (springer.com)
  • Sterol analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis seeds originating in variant constructs of AtHMGR1, GmSMT1, and GmSMT2 engineered in seeds showed relevant modifications in the ratio of 24-methyl to 24-ethyl sterol in the direction of sitosterol formation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Methoden om Beta Cell Death gemedieerd beoordelen door cytotoxische T lymfocyten Jing Chen 1 , Scott Grieshaber 1 , Clayton E. Mathews 1 1 Departments of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida Cel-gemedieerde lymphocytotoxicity (CML) testen kunnen worden gebruikt voor het autoreactieve reacties en onderzoek naar mechanismen van celdood in vitro test. (jove.com)
  • In 1962 Popják and I left the service of the Medical Research Council and became co-directors of the Milstead Laboratory of Chemical Enzymology set up by Shell Research Ltd. Lord Rothschild was influential in the decision to establish this laboratory and I was his subordinate until he left Shell in 1970. (nobelprize.org)
  • Some studies describe 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [lα,25-(OH) 2 D] as the hormonal metabolite responsible for mediating intestinal transport of these minerals and hence necessitate development of a precise method for quantitating this sterol in biological fluids, particularly serum. (elsevier.com)
  • This chapter reviews the sterol compositions reported for the different classes of microalgae. (springer.com)
  • Diatoms contain a surprising diversity of sterol distributions with over 40 sterols identified. (springer.com)
  • The mechanism, enzymology and subcellular localization of α-oxidation has largely be resolved. (chemweb.com)
  • The mechanism of the acyl-carbon bond cleavage reaction catalyzed by recombinant sterol 14 alpha-demethylase of Candida albicans (other names are: lanosterol 14. (naver.com)