Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Cunninghamella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Dealkylation: The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase I: Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II: The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Trinitrotoluene: A 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, which is an explosive chemical that can cause skin irritation and other toxic consequences.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Gordonia Bacterium: A genus of gram-positive BACTERIA in the family Gordoniaceae, isolated from soil and from sputa of patients with chest disorders. It is also used for biotransformation of natural products.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingTroleandomycin: A macrolide antibiotic that is similar to ERYTHROMYCIN.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Oncorhynchus kisutch: An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Equol: A non-steroidal ESTROGEN generated when soybean products are metabolized by certain bacteria in the intestines.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Berberidaceae: The Barberry plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The shrubs have spiny leaves.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Fenthion: Potent cholinesterase inhibitor used as an insecticide and acaricide.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6: A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Ethylmorphine: A narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is metabolized in the liver by ETHYLMORPHINE-N-DEMETHYLASE and used as an indicator of liver function.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.BenzaldehydesTandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B1: A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Ethylmercuric Chloride: A highly toxic compound used as a fungicide for treating seeds.Eugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Ethyl EthersSoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Ethoxyquin: Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Atrazine: A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Aspergillus ochraceus: An imperfect fungus that produces ochratoxins and contaminates EDIBLE GRAIN and coffee beans.Ethylmercury Compounds: Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase: A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.Parathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Nuphar: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene thioalkaloids.Batch Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.tert-Butyl AlcoholCatechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Rats, Inbred F344Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Pyrazolones: Compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring with two nitrogens and a keto OXYGEN. Some are inhibitors of TNF-ALPHA production.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Photinia: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. The common names of chokeberry or chokecherry are also used for some species of PRUNUS.Skin Lightening Preparations: Substances used to obtain a lighter skin complexion or to treat HYPERPIGMENTATION disorders.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Umbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.L-Lysine 6-Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Micromonospora: A genus of gram-positive bacteria that forms a branched mycelium. It commonly occurs as a saprophytic form in soil and aquatic environments.Dichloroethylenes: Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.Octanes: Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Carboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Mercury Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Dichloroacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Fluorenes: A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Chlorella: Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.NorbornanesPyrrolizidine Alkaloids: A group of ALKALOIDS, characterized by a nitrogen-containing necine, occurring mainly in plants of the BORAGINACEAE; COMPOSITAE; and LEGUMINOSAE plant families. They can be activated in the liver by hydrolysis of the ester and desaturation of the necine base to reactive electrophilic pyrrolic CYTOTOXINS.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Pseudomonas mendocina: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Estrogens, Non-Steroidal: Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antimitotic Agents: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Transaldolase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the reaction sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to yield D-erythrose 4-phosphate and D-fructose phosphate in the PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.2.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Anemarrhena: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).Safrole: A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedPolychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
2005). "Microbial cells and enzymes". Microbial enzymes and biotransformations. pp. 1-10. ISBN 1-58829-253-3. Ghorbani, HR; ... doi:10.1007/s00253-014-6127-3. Ahmad, A; Mukherjee P; Mandal D; Senapati S; Khan M; Kumar R; Sastry M (2002). "Enzyme mediated ... 2002) reported that cadmium sulfide nanoparticle synthesis by Fusarium oxysporum was based on a sulfate reductase (enzyme) ... while several enzymes, α-NADPH-dependent reductases, nitrate-dependent reductases and an extracellular shuttle quinone, were ...
"Genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes in patients with Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas". Hum. Mol. Genet. 10 ... role of polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 12 (10): 848-54. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201249. PMID ... Epoxide hydrolase 1 is an enzyme encoded by the EPHX1 gene in humans. Epoxide hydrolase plays an important role in both the ... Oesch F, Raphael D, Schwind H, Glatt HR (1977). "Species differences in activating and inactivating enzymes related to the ...
M1 is further metabolized to M2 metabolite by cytosolic enzymes. M2 is pharmacologically inactive. Excretion in the urine is ... Metabolism is by oxidative biotransformation, it is hepatic and complete. First, the medication is metabolized to M1 metabolite ...
In this formula, E is the remaining enzyme activity, E0 is the initial enzyme activity, t is the time interval after mixing of ... doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00543-4. Jokanović, Milan (2001-09-25). "Biotransformation of organophosphorus compounds". Toxicology ... Many enzymes are important for the degradation of TEPP. One of these are the phosphotriesterases (PTEs). In the serum and the ... TEPP is metabolized with the assistance of many different enzymes en the metabolistes are excreted via the urine. The first ...
This enzyme cytochrome P-450 catalyzes this step. Ethion monoxon is an inhibitor of the neuro enzyme cholinesterase (ChE), ... Ethion can undergo biotransformation in the human body, this happens in the liver. Ethion undergoes desulfurization here and is ... The phosphorylated form of the enzyme is highly stable, and depending on the R and R' groups attached to the phosphorus this ... The next step in the biotransformation is not yet completely known, and that this happens via esterases in the blood and liver ...
... is applied in the field of molecular biology to purify enzymes and recombinant proteins of microbial strains. The ... Biotransformations & Microbial Genetics Laboratory (Tezel U), Institute of Environmental Sciences, Boğaziçi University, ... Matés JM, Pérez-Gómez C, Núñez de Castro I (1999). "Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases". Clinical Biochemistry. 32 (8): 595 ... Vieille C, Zeikus GJ (2001). "Hyperthermophilic enzymes: sources, uses, and molecular mechanisms for thermostability". ...
Gu J, Su T, Chen Y, Zhang QY, Ding X (Jun 2000). "Expression of biotransformation enzymes in human fetal olfactory mucosa: ... CYP2J2 is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The enzymes are oxygenases which catalyze many reactions ... P450 enzymes have shown both positive and negative effects in the heart, and the production of EETs has been shown to produce ... Mutations to hydrophilic residues in the F-G loop alter the binding mechanism by changing insertion depth of the enzyme into ...
"Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in biotransformation of vicriviroc, a CCR5 receptor antagonist ... In pharmacological studies, the substance is used as an inhibitor of the liver enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Stresser, D. M.; ...
It also arrests cell cycle at G(2)/M, by up- and down- regulation of several enzymes. The mechanism of the biotransformation of ... Zhang, X; Ye, M; Dong, YH; Hu, HB; Tao, SJ; Yin, J; Guo, DA (October 2011). "Biotransformation of bufadienolides by cell ...
"Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro biotransformation of lynestrenol and norethindrone ... while other cytochrome P450 enzymes are each responsible for no more than 1.0% of the total conversion. It appears that ...
"Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro biotransformation of lynestrenol and norethindrone ... The enzymes involved in these metabolic processes are 5α- and 5β-reductase as well as 3α- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ( ... 1, 34), a synthetic 19-nor-17α-ethynyl testosterone derivative, which also undergoes enzyme-mediated 5α-reduction and exerts ... and does not affect cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, 21-hydroxylase, or 11β- ...
A typical example for this type of enzyme is methanol dehydrogenase of methylotrophic bacteria. In biotransformation, alcohol ... In comparison to enzymes the above families, these enzymes are oxygen-sensitive.[citation needed] Members of the iron- ... In the Histidine variant, the enzyme is much more effective at the aforementioned conversion. The enzyme responsible for the ... enzymes that have activity using butanol and ethanol as substrates. E. coli adhE, an iron-dependent enzyme that harbours three ...
Correia, Maria A.; Hollenberg, Paul F. (2015). "Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes". In Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R. ... Macherey, Anne-Christine; Dansette, Patrick M. (2015). "Biotransformations Leading to Toxic Metabolites:Chemical Aspects". In ... it is known that the loop diuretic pharmaceutical agent tienilic acid acts as a suicide substrate at cytochrome P450 enzymes ...
List of enzymes Industrial enzymes Anthonsen, Thorlief (2000). "Reactions Catalyzed by Enzymes". In Adlercreutz, Patrick; ... Faber, Kurt (2011). Biotransformations in Organic Chemistry (6th ed.). Springer. ISBN 9783642173936. [page needed] Jayasinghe, ... Both enzymes that have been more or less isolated and enzymes still residing inside living cells are employed for this task. ... Enantioselectivity: Since almost all enzymes are made from L-amino acids, enzymes are chiral catalysts. As a consequence, any ...
Biotransformation[edit]. n-Hexane is biotransformed to 2-hexanol and further to 2,5-hexanediol in the body. The conversion is ... catalyzed by the enzyme cytochrome P450 utilizing oxygen from air. The pathway is called omega oxidation. 2,5-Hexanediol may be ...
He also dealt with bacterial polysaccharide synthesis as well as bioconversion and biotransformation. Between 1970 and 1972 ... catalytic properties of enzymes and their applications. ...
... is able to biocatalyze the hydroxylation of terpenes and steroids by cytochrome p450 enzymes in the presence of ... Mucor plumbeus has the ability to detoxify pentachlorophenol and has been used in the biotransformation of other products. ... Extracts of Mucor plumbeus have shown acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition activity. ...
Cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation biosystems can be prepared by mixing a number of purified enzymes and coenzymes. ... Enzyme cocktails can tolerate toxic compounds better than microorganisms. Enzyme mixtures usually work under broad reaction ... For example, with an synthetic enzyme pathway, from the reaction with starch and water C6H10O5 (l) + 7 H2O (l) → 12 H2 (g) + 6 ... Bujara et al., for example, were able to use glycolytic network extracts, consisting of enzymes from E. coli that produced ...
"Kinetic Characterization and Identification of the Enzymes Responsible for the Hepatic Biotransformation of Adinazolam and N- ...
2. Change in enzyme activity: Many substances can influence the P-450 enzyme mechanism. Drugs interact with the enzyme family ... 3. Competitive inhibition: Some drugs may share the same P-450 specificity and thus competitively block their bio transformation ... Enzyme inhibitors block the metabolic activity of one or several P-450 enzymes. This effect usually occurs immediately. On the ... Activation of some enzymes in the cytochrome P-450 system such as CYP2E1 also lead to oxidative stress. Injury to hepatocyte ...
One of the crucial enzymes in clopidogrel metabolism is CYP2C19 which is involved in both steps of the biotransformation. A ... However the CYP enzymes that are involved in this pathway are unknown. In the formation of the active metabolite additional ... The CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as well as clopidogrel. Various reports have stated that there is a ... This led to loss of functions of the enzyme which led to poor conversion of clopidogrel into its active metabolite. The ...
In humans, 4-IPO shows minimal effects in the lung because the enzymes needed for biotransformation of 4-IPO are not present. ... The CYP enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are active in the liver and are similar to the rodent CYP4B1. 4-IPO is thus metabolically ... These two enzymes are both part of several pathways involved in the drug metabolism. As both CYPs are mainly active in the ... In rodents it is CYP4B1 that activates 4-IPO [1], an enzyme of the CYP4 family, of which the CYP4B subfamily is involved in the ...
... the rate-limiting enzyme of rabbit liver arsenic biotransformation is MMA(V) reductase". Chem. Res. Toxicol. 12 (12): 1278-83. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is gluthathione:methylarsonate oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called MMA(V) ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donor with ... In enzymology, a methylarsonate reductase (EC 1.20.4.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction methylarsonate + 2 ...
... (EC 1.2.1.86, GaDH, geoB (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name geranial:NAD+ oxidoreductase. This ... Wolken, W.A.; van der Werf, M.J. (2001). "Geraniol biotransformation-pathway in spores of Penicillium digitatum". Appl. ... enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction geranial + H2O + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } geranate + NADH + ...
It reversibly inhibits CYP450 enzymes by binding directly with the complexed heme-iron of the active site via one of its ... This is notable since these three CYP450 isoenzymes are involved in CYP450-mediated drug biotransformations; however, CYP1A2, ... In addition, cimetidine has been found to inhibit 2-hydroxylation of estradiol (via inhibition of CYP450 enzymes, which are ... Cimetidine is reported to be a competitive and reversible inhibitor of several CYP450 enzymes, although mechanism-based ( ...
1990). "Biotransformation of moclobemide in humans". Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 360: 87-90. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1990. ... It has been described as a 'slow binding inhibitor', whereby conformational changes to either moclobemide or the enzyme to MAO- ... Vallès B, Coassolo P, De Sousa G, Aubert C, Rahmani R (October 1993). "In vitro hepatic biotransformation of moclobemide (Ro 11 ... a monoamine oxidase-A enzyme inhibitor: single and multiple dosing in normal subjects". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics ...
Biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with Phanerochaete chrysosporium in agitated culture at pH 4.5. Appl. Environ. ... The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme did not show any sequence similarity with those of other nitroreductases ... PnrA, a new nitroreductase-family enzyme in the TNT-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida JLR11. Environ. Microbiol. 7, 1211-1219 ... Nitroreductase II is an oxygeninsensitive enzyme and reduces both TNT and nitroblue tetrazolium. ...
Oxidizing Enzymes into Multi-Enzyme Biotransformation Processes. The Role of Host-Intrinsic Enzyme Activities in Recombinant ... Multi-Step Enzyme Catalysis: Biotransformations and Chemoenzymatic Synthesis. Eduardo Garcia-Junceda (Editor) ... Enzyme Initiation of Asymmetric Cascade-Reactions. The System of Biotransformations Approach for Multi-Step Processes. ... Multi-Enzyme Synthesis of Glycoconjugates. Multimodular Synthases as Tools of the Synthetic Chemist. Modifying the ...
... induces biotransformation enzymes in rat kidney and lung.. Stiborová M1, Dracínská H, Martínková M, Mizerovská J, Hudecek J, ... NQO1 is the enzyme that reduces 3-NBA to N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA) and CYP1A enzymes oxidize 3-ABA to the same ...
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Cytochrome P-450 3A enzymes are responsible for biotransformation of FK506 and rapamycin in man and rat.. M Sattler, F P ... Cytochrome P-450 3A enzymes are responsible for biotransformation of FK506 and rapamycin in man and rat.. M Sattler, F P ... Cytochrome P-450 3A enzymes are responsible for biotransformation of FK506 and rapamycin in man and rat.. M Sattler, F P ... Cytochrome P-450 3A enzymes are responsible for biotransformation of FK506 and rapamycin in man and rat. ...
mirro, thein, molecular, biotransformation, image, prospects, enzymes, basic, enantiocomplementary, classification, ... Enantiocomplementary enzymes exist as the solution to this problem in nature. These enzyme pairs, which catalyze the same ... Why Enantiocomplementary Enzymes Exist Nature may create enantiocomplementary enzymes to confer an evolutionary advantage, but ... Discovery of New Enantiocomplementary Enzyme Pairs in Nature Figure 5. The flavin-containing enzymes vanillyl-alcohol oxidase ( ...
Immobilization of Lipases by Adsorption on Hydrophobic Supports: Modulation of Enzyme Properties in Biotransformations in ... Zhang Y, He S, Simpson BK (2018) Enzymes in food bioprocessing - novel food enzymes, applications, and related techniques. Curr ... Modulation of Enzyme Properties in Biotransformations in Anhydrous Media. In: Guisan J., Bolivar J., López-Gallego F., Rocha- ... Effect of immobilization rate and enzyme crowding on enzyme stability under different conditions. The case of lipase from ...
Sanvoisin, Jonathan (1993) Biotransformations using lipase enzymes in organic solvents. Doctoral thesis, Durham University. ... This was attributed to the ability of the hydrophilic solvents to strip the hydrated water from the enzyme surface thus ... A series of alcohols were presented to the enzyme and a pattern emerged with substrates containing an acetylene functionality ... A series of heterocyclic alcohols were presented to the enzyme and it was observed that the order of reaction was thiophene , ...
In contrast to adsorption of mycotoxins by clays, microbial and/or enzymatic biotransformation is highly specific and ... Enzymes against mycotoxins: How does it work? Adsorption of aflatoxin to binders has been used to make contaminated feed more ... a process called biotransformation. This microbial and/ or enzymatic biotransformation, in contrast to mycotoxin adsorption by ... In vivo efficacy of the enzyme was also confirmed by improving the relative liver weight (Figure 2). ...
... reduction of its azo group by azoreductase enzyme (b) dimerization of the hydrazo compound followed by (c) degradation of ... the parent molecule into lower molecular weight aromatic phenols and sulfonic acids as the final products of biotransformation ... Enzyme Microb. Technol. 2006, 39, 32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]. *Zee, F.P. Anaerobic Azo Dye Reduction. Ph.D. Thesis, ... The structure of dimer 2, one of the products of biotransformation was confirmed by CID of its molecular ion at m/z 742 (Figure ...
Transcripts encoding enzymes involved in estrogen (biotrans)formation. Savolainen-Peltonen et al. (2014) observed no ... Analysis of transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in E2 (biotrans)formation and regulation thereof was performed ... Only recently, we described quantitative estrogen profiles and transcript levels of enzymes involved in E2 (biotrans)formation ... Current knowledge on (biotrans)formation of E2 in breast GLT and ADT of women without breast cancer based on recently published ...
The terms metabolism and biotransformation are used interchangeably in this book. As described in Chap. 2, metabolism is a ... Drug metabolizing enzyme. DBE. Double bond equivalent. GSH. Glutathione. GST. Glutathione S-transferase ... The terms metabolism and biotransformation are used interchangeably in this book. As described in Chap. 2, metabolism is a ... Khojasteh S.C., Wong H., Hop C.E.C.A. (2011) Biotransformation and Bioactivation. In: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics ...
2.1.2 Biotransformation No information was available. 2.1.3 Effects on enzymes and other biochemical parameters No information ...
Biotransformation[edit]. n-Hexane is biotransformed to 2-hexanol and further to 2,5-hexanediol in the body. The conversion is ... catalyzed by the enzyme cytochrome P450 utilizing oxygen from air. The pathway is called omega oxidation. 2,5-Hexanediol may be ...
Our site doesnt host any file or offering download for any book. All of the download are provided by our adversiser. For copyright & DMCA report, please send email to ΑDC.DΜCΑ@ΟUΤLΟΟK.CΟΜ ...
... for phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and su… ... Modulatory Effect of Urtica Dioica L. (Urticaceae) Leaf Extract on Biotransformation Enzyme Systems, Antioxidant Enzymes, ... for phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and sulfhydryl groups in the ...
Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 26: 76-85. doi:10.1080/10242420701806652. Nakayama A, Yamamoto K, Tabata S (August 2001). " ... "glycogen debranching enzyme" usually refers to the glucosidase enzyme. In some literature, an enzyme capable only of ... This enzyme has a molecular mass of 73.6 kDa, and is coded for by the gene glgX. Activity of the two enzymes is not always ... Glycogen debranching enzyme is the only known eukaryotic enzyme that contains multiple catalytic sites and is active as a ...
... At find-more-books.com you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and ... In Microbial Enzymes and Biotransformations, leading experts in enzyme manipulation describe in detail their cutting-edge ... Books, Science and Nature, Microbial Enzymes and Biotransformations Books>Science and Nature Leading experts in enzyme ... to covalently immobilize enzymes, to microencapsulate enzymes and cells, and to manufacture enzymes for human health, nutrition ...
book Multi Step Enzyme Catalysis: Biotransformations and Chemoenzymatic : This land lost perchance explore. *Sitemap ... Book Multi Step Enzyme Catalysis: Biotransformations And Chemoenzymatic Synthesis. by Pete 3 ... Book Multi Step Enzyme Catalysis: Biotransformations And Chemoenzymatic Synthesis. Atlanta freelance copywriter, marketing ... 34 Essay towards a new book Multi Step Enzyme Catalysis: Biotransformations of the Earth, 1695. 36 yards of the Deluge, ...
Biotransformation enzymes in olfactory signal termination. Lancet , D. / Lazard , D. / Zupko , K. / Poria , Y. / Khen , M. / ... Regulation of gene expression of drug-metabolizing phase II enzymes. Friling , R.S. / Bergelson , S. / Pinkus , R. / Daniel , V ... Catalytic mechanisms of amine-N-dealkylation and N-oxygenation by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Guengerich , F.P. / Seto , Y. / ... Roles in genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes in humans. Kawajiri , K. / Watanabe , J. / Hayashi , S.-I. ...
Biotransformation. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism. Epoxy Compounds / metabolism. Glutathione / metabolism*. Liver ... 0/Epoxy Compounds; 0/Pyrazoles; 0/Styrenes; 60-80-0/Antipyrine; 70-18-8/Glutathione; 9035-51-2/Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System ...
The effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of bis(2- methoxyethyl)ether (111966) (diglyme) was studied in rats. Male ... NIOSH-Author; Organic-solvents; Glycols; In-vivo-studies; Laboratory-animals; Biotransformation; Enzyme-activity; Urinalysis; ... The effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of bis(2- methoxyethyl)ether (111966) (diglyme) was studied in rats. Male ... The role of enzyme induction on metabolite formation of bis(2- methoxyethyl) ether in the rat.. ...
... expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analyzing enzymatic ... expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analysing enzymatic ... Enzymes with little or no activity were used without further dilution (0.6-3.3 mg/mL). Active enzymes were used in appropriate ... Whole Cell Biotransformations. The pETDuet1_EcPPTaseHTNcCAR vectors carrying the wild-type and the 34 mutant genes were ...
... used beta-glucosidase enzyme producing microorganisms in Indonesia for ginseng active compound biotransformation ... UNAIR FST lecturer uses beta-glucosidase enzyme in microorganisms for ginseng biotransformation. ... used beta-glucosidase enzyme producing microorganisms in Indonesia for ginseng active compound biotransformation. ... Both of these enzymes can convert to F2, "he said. From this research, Gerry hoped to find a strong isolate of beta-glucosidase ...
We therefore studied the simultaneous occurrence of several genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes in women who had ... RESULTS: There was a significant association with the number of genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, pointing at ... Susceptibility to pre-eclampsia is associated with multiple genetic polymorphisms in maternal biotransformation enzymes.. ... Women withthe simultaneous occurrence of two or more genetic polymorphisms in the above-mentioned biotransformation enzymes, ...
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705159 Enzyme Catalysis Enantiocomplementary Enzymes: Classification, Molecular Basis for Their Enantiopreference, and Prospects for Mirror-Image Biotransformations Paul F. Mugford, Ulrike G. Wagner, Yun Jiang, Kurt Faber,* and Romas J. Kazlauskas* asymmetric synthesis · biotransformations · enantioselectivity · protein engineering · protein structures One often-cited weakness of biocatalysis is the lack of mirror-image enzymes for the formation of either enantiomer of a product in asymmetric synthesis. (docme.ru)
  • From research that has been done and published in Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology (Scopus, Q2), according to Gerry, the results showed that enzyme that can convert Major Ginsenoside was from isolates obtained from slaughterhouses and oil spilled area. (unair.ac.id)
  • Together with phosphorylases, debranching enzymes mobilize glucose reserves from glycogen deposits in the muscles and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotransformation of some pyrazole derivatives to glutathione conjugates in rat liver subcellular fractions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Summary The effects of two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt given orally for 14 days) of an ethanol-water (80%-20%) extract of Urtica dioica L. and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were investigated, for phase I and phase II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and sulfhydryl groups in the liver of Swiss albino mice (8-9 weeks old). (apple.com)
  • Influence of probiotics on rat liver biotransformation enzymes. (nel.edu)
  • Amongst others, it is severely influenced by the properties and inter-individual variability of the enzymes and transporters of the drug detoxification system of the liver. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The model comprises kinetics for transport processes and metabolic enzymes as well as population liver expression data allowing us to assess the impact of inter-individual variability of concentrations of key proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Medicines that are ingested by the mouth are taken through a special blood vessel coming from the digestive tract to the liver, where significant amounts can be killed by metabolic enzymes known as the "first pass effect" Alternatives paths of entering drugs to the body go through he liver, which will go into the bloodstream directly or through the skin or lungs. (wikibooks.org)
  • These biotransformations occur in the liver are done by the enzymes. (wikibooks.org)
  • After the liver enzymes are completed on the medicine, the now inactive drug goes trough the final stage of the body known as excretion. (wikibooks.org)
  • The liver performs many essential functions, including the production of bile, regulation of plasma proteins and glucose, and biotransformation of drugs and toxins. (aappublications.org)
  • That's a good idea, because transaminases are one of those enzyme classes that do something that we organic chemists generally can't usually do very well - in this case, change a ketone to a chiral amino group in one step. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in these broad-substrate enzymes for the production of chiral synthons used in the preparation of a wide range of biologically active chemicals and pharmaceuticals, including inositol phosphates, prostaglandins, and antitumor agents (for reviews, see references 5 , 7 , 24 , 35 , and 46 ). (asm.org)
  • A balance between Phase I and II enzymes is generally necessary to promote the efficient detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics, thereby protecting the body from injury caused by exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • To assess the contributions of the α and β subunits of the oxygenase to substrate specificity, hybrid dioxygenase enzymes were formed by coexpressing genes from two compatible plasmids in Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • Genes encoding CYP enzymes, and the enzymes themselves, are designated with the root symbol CYP for the superfamily , followed by a number indicating the gene family , a capital letter indicating the subfamily, and another numeral for the individual gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study was conducted to examine if crude enzymes (E) produced from Aspergillus niger by solid state fermentation could bio-transform carbohydrates, proteins, inositol phosphate (InsP) and saponins in soybean meal (SBM) under low moisture conditions. (chalmers.se)
  • This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. (nih.gov)
  • These enzymes are grouped into six classes: hydrolases (including proteases, amylases and lipases that break down the main nutrients - fats, carbohydrates and proteins), isomerases, ligases, lyases , oxidoreductases and transferases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Proteins and Enzymes for Biotechnological Applications. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Proteins and Enzymes for Biotechnological Applications are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICPEBA 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Proteins and Enzymes for Biotechnological Applications . (waset.org)
  • Primary emphasis is on the structure, function, and chemistry of proteins, and the molecular mechanisms of action and regulation of enzymes. (duq.edu)
  • In enzyme kinetics, the reaction rate is measured and the effects of varying the conditions of the reaction are investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • When enzymes bind multiple substrates, such as dihydrofolate reductase (shown right), enzyme kinetics can also show the sequence in which these substrates bind and the sequence in which products are released. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among recombinant rat and human CYP enzymes tested in this study, rat CYP3A2 and human CYP3A4/5, followed by CYP1A1 of both organisms were the most effective enzymes converting 3-ABA. (nel.edu)
  • Diltiazem is metabolized by and acts as an inhibitor of the CYP3A4 enzyme. (nextbio.com)
  • This enzyme has a molecular mass of 73.6 kDa, and is coded for by the gene glgX. (wikipedia.org)
  • To be able to produce large amounts of enzyme, the beta-glucosidase coding gene from these isolates is cloned and transferred to bacteria that can grow fast and are easily controlled for their growth, such as Escherichia coli. (unair.ac.id)
  • We evaluated the role of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and gene variants of biotransformation enzymes from bloodspots and buccal cells in a California population-based case-control (86 cases of spina bifida and 208 non-malformed controls) study. (cdc.gov)
  • These analyses show positive interactions between air pollution exposure during early pregnancy and gene variants associated with metabolizing enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • Notable examples include nerve damage among individuals homozygous for some variants of the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene ("slow acetylators") given isoniazid as an antituberculosis therapy, hemolytic anemia among glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient patients given aminoquinoline antimalarial drugs, and varied rates of biotransformation of debrisoquine, an antihypertensive drug, due to genetic variation at the CYP2D6 locus. (cdc.gov)
  • Genomic and functional characterization of the oas gene family encoding O-acetylserine (thiol) lyases , enzymes catalyzing the final step in cysteine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, some gene or enzyme names for CYPs may differ from this nomenclature, denoting the catalytic activity and the name of the compound used as substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first comprehensive coverage of this unique and interdisciplinary field provides a complete overview, covering such topics as chemoenzymatic synthesis, microbial production of DNA building blocks, asymmetric transformations by coupled enzymes and much more. (wiley.com)
  • This dynamic gut ecosystem consists of many unique features, such as microniches, pH gradients, and dynamic microbe-tissue interactions of relevance for microbial biotransformations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On the contrary, the enzyme adsorbed on octadecyl supports loses the regioselectivity and allows the complete ethanolysis of oils (e.g., biodiesel synthesis). (springer.com)
  • The synthesis of ester derivatives of naringin using a range of hydrolytic enzymes has been studied. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The two complementary sections are useful, and the book can be recommended to a broad readership as an introductory guide for the use of enzymes in asymmetric organic synthesis. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In the present work attempts were made to derivatise an aminoglycoside by acylating it with the amino acid vinyl esters, using hydrolytic enzymes. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • Among the depolymerases, polygalacturonase is the major enzyme with a hydrolytic function and lyases (or transeleminases) which cleaves glycosidic bonds forming unsaturated product[DELTA](4,5-D-galacturonate) through transelimination reaction . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 1987, he was invited to direct the Institute for Enzyme Technology at Braunschweig Technical University and the Division of Enzyme Technology and Chemistry of Natural Products at the 'Gesellschaft für biotechnologische Forschung' (GBF) in Braunschweig (Germany). (wiley.com)
  • enzyme chemistry. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Because the text covers a wide span of topics and resesarch interest, it is recommended as a learning tool fo rgraudate students in biochemistry and organic chemistry entering the field and as a guide to professionals aready enjoying the power of enzymes. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Inducers and inhibitors of CYPs and rat and human recombinant CYPs were used to characterize the enzymes participating in 3-ABA oxidation. (nel.edu)
  • Indra R, Pompach P, Vavrova K, Jaklova K, Heger Z, Adam V, Eckschlager T, Kopeckova K, Arlt VM, Stiborova M: Cytochrome P450 and flavin-containing monooxygenase enzymes are resposible for differential oxidation of anti-thyroid-cancer drug vandetanib by human and rat hepatic microsomal systems. (cuni.cz)
  • The application of recombinant DNA technology to industrial fermentation and the production of enzymes over the last 20 years has produced a host of useful chemical and biochemical substances. (find-more-books.com)
  • Olysio blocks the effect of proteases which are enzymes that HCV needs for making new viruses , leading to reduced numbers of HCV in the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • This course describes drug absorption, distribution, biotransformation and elimination in animals and human beings, and emphasizes factors which modify drug behaviour. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The term "P450" is derived from the spectrophotometric peak at the wavelength of the absorption maximum of the enzyme (450 nm ) when it is in the reduced state and complexed with carbon monoxide . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main difference between ribozymes and enzymes is that RNA catalysts are composed of nucleotides, whereas enzymes are composed of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus is on synthetically useful enzymes for which an X-ray crystal structure is available for at least one of the enzymes in the pair. (docme.ru)