A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Harris RS, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Neuberger MS (November 2002). "RNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 and some of its homologs can act as DNA ... "An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22". Genomics. 79 (3): 285-96. doi:10.1006/geno ... DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOBEC3C gene. A3C belong to the A3 family of ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q9NRW3 ( DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3C) at ...
"Mutational analysis of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme (APOBEC1). structure-function relationships of RNA editing and ... Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 also known as C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-1 is a protein that in ... Blanc V, Davidson NO (2011). "Mouse and other rodent models of C to U RNA editing". RNA and DNA Editing. Methods in Molecular ... "Novel role for RNA-binding protein CUGBP2 in mammalian RNA editing. CUGBP2 modulates C to U editing of apolipoprotein B mRNA by ...
"A left-handed RNA double helix bound by the Zalpha domain of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1". Structure. 15 (4): 395-404. doi: ... disease caused by variants affecting recognition of Z-DNA and Z-RNA by the Zα domain of the double-stranded RNA editing enzyme ... In 2007, the RNA version of Z-DNA, Z-RNA, was described as a transformed version of an A-RNA double helix into a left-handed ... "The solution structure of the Zα domain of the human RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 reveals a prepositioned binding surface for Z-DNA ...
... a Potential RNA Editing Enzyme". Cell. Elsevier BV. 102 (5): 553-563. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)00078-7. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID ... and does not reflect subsequent edits. (Audio help · More spoken articles) Media related to Tasuku Honjo at Wikimedia Commons ...
Keegan LP, Leroy A, Sproul D, O'Connell MA (Feb 2004). "Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs): RNA-editing enzymes". ... Melcher T, Maas S, Herb A, Sprengel R, Seeburg PH, Higuchi M (February 1996). "A mammalian RNA editing enzyme". Nature. 379 ( ... ADAR2 is an A-to-I RNA-editing enzyme that mostly acts on protein-coding substrates. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Double-stranded RNA-specific editase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADARB1 gene. This gene encodes the enzyme ...
Probable C->U-editing enzyme APOBEC-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOBEC2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Wedekind JE, Dance GS, Sowden MP, Smith HC (2003). "Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking ... 2001). "ARCD-1, an apobec-1-related cytidine deaminase, exerts a dominant negative effect on C to U RNA editing". Am. J. ... "Entrez Gene: APOBEC2 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 2". Human APOBEC2 genome location and ...
Micro-RNA[edit]. MicroRNA are small RNA fragments produced in the host cells thanks to a specific enzymatic mechanism. They ... MicroRNA attach to viral-RNA because they are complementary. Then the complex is recognised by an enzyme that destroys it. This ... References[edit]. *^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015.. ... Effect on host immunity[edit]. In the host, several mechanisms of the insect immune system can be triggered when the wasp lays ...
Kim YG, Lowenhaupt K, Maas S, Herbert A, Schwartz T, Rich A (2000). "The Zab domain of the human RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 ... "The Za domain of the editing enzyme dsRNA adenosine deaminase binds left-handed Z-RNA as well as Z-DNA". Proceedings of the ... Schwartz T, Rould MA, Lowenhaupt K, Herbert A, Rich A (1999). "Crystal structure of the Za domain of the human editing enzyme ... During this time he was a member of the RNA Tie Club, a social and discussion group which attacked the question of how DNA ...
"An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22". Genomics. 79 (3): 285-96. doi:10.1006/geno ... APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) is a human enzyme encoded by the APOBEC3G gene ... APOBEC3G interaction with host RNA 3. APOBEC3G interaction with viral RNA 4. Interaction of APOBEC3G with HIV-1 Gag proteins. ... CD1 is catalytically inactive, but very important for binding to DNA and RNA and is key to defining the 5'->3' processivity of ...
It is thought that the proteins may be RNA editing enzymes and have roles in growth or cell cycle control. This gene along with ... "An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22". Genomics. 79 (3): 285-96. doi:10.1006/geno ... Probable DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOBEC3B gene. This gene is a member ... Wedekind JE, Dance GS, Sowden MP, Smith HC (2003). "Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking ...
"An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22". Genomics. 79 (3): 285-96. doi:10.1006/geno ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SIAH1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SIAH1 gene. This gene encodes for a polypeptide ...
"An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22". Genomics. 79 (3): 285-96. doi:10.1006/geno ... Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A, also known as APOBEC3A, or A3A is a gene of the APOBEC3 ... Wedekind JE, Dance GS, Sowden MP, Smith HC (April 2003). "Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family ... Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine ...
RNA editing by APOBEC-1 requires homodimerisation and this complex interacts with RNA binding proteins to form the editosome. ... A mechanism of generating protein diversity is mRNA editing. Members of this family are C-to-U editing enzymes. The N-terminal ... Wedekind JE, Dance GS, Sowden MP, Smith HC (April 2003). "Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family ... APOBEC ("apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like") is a family of evolutionarily conserved cytidine ...
The induced glycolytic enzymes could potentially block cell apoptosis. RNA editing[edit]. The mRNA transcripts of the SDHB gene ... "Hypoxia-inducible C-to-U coding RNA editing downregulates SDHB in monocytes". PeerJ. 1: e152. doi:10.7717/peerj.152. PMC ... "Hypoxia-inducible C-to-U coding RNA editing downregulates SDHB in monocytes". PeerJ. 1: e152. doi:10.7717/peerj.152. PMC ... References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117118 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
"The APOBEC1 Paradigm for Mammilian Cytidine Deaminases that Edit DNA and RNA." DNA and RNA Modifications Enzymes: Structure, ... "RNA Editing". Gordon Research Conferences. Retrieved 1 June 2014. L Chan (22 May 1994). "Apolipoprotein B Messenger RNA editing ... In 2008, he edited a book for Wiley and Sons on RNA and DNA Editing that brought together the next generation of scientists ... of enzyme complexes to orchestrate the modification of select cytidines to uridines in a process known as C to U RNA Editing. ...
Science and technology[edit]. Biology and medicine[edit]. *Natural antisense transcript, an RNA transcript in a cell ... N-acetyltransferase, an enzyme; also NAT1, NAT2, etc.. *Nucleic acid test, for genetic material ... Other uses in science and technology[edit]. *Nat (unit), a logarithmic unit of information or entropy ... Other uses[edit]. *Nat (name), a given name or nickname, usually masculine, and also a surname ...
Primosomes gives RNA primers for DNA synthesis to strands. Notes[edit]. Phi X is regularly used as a positive control in DNA ... Nobel prize winner Arthur Kornberg used ΦX174 as a model to first prove that DNA synthesized in a test tube by purified enzymes ... References[edit]. *^ a b c Enterobacteria phage phiX174 sensu lato, complete genome. "Complete genome: accession NC_001422", ... External links[edit]. *. Goodsell, David (February 2000). "Bacteriophage phiX174". Molecule of the Month. RCSB-PDB.. ...
Kunzmann A, Brennicke A, Marchfelder A (January 1998). "5' end maturation and RNA editing have to precede tRNA 3' processing in ... The enzyme does not use a cofactor. Schiffer S, Rösch S, Marchfelder A (June 2002). "Assigning a function to a conserved group ... end processing of a long nuclear-retained noncoding RNA yields a tRNA-like cytoplasmic RNA". Cell. 135 (5): 919-32. doi:10.1016 ... TRNase Z (EC, 3 tRNase, tRNA 3 endonuclease, RNase Z, 3' tRNase) is an enzyme that, among other things, catalyses the ...
... of pre-miRNAs may be altered through nuclear RNA editing. Most commonly, enzymes known as adenosine deaminases acting on RNA ( ... of human miRNAs show RNA editing (IsomiRs), the site-specific modification of RNA sequences to yield products different from ... RNA. 9 (3): 277-9. doi:10.1261/rna.2183803. PMC 1370393. PMID 12592000. Science review of small RNA: Baulcombe D (September ... RNA editing can halt nuclear processing (for example, of pri-miR-142, leading to degradation by the ribonuclease Tudor-SN) and ...
RNA editing is a process which results in sequence variation in the RNA molecule, and is catalyzed by enzymes. These enzymes ... In addition to ADAR enzymes, CDAR enzymes exist and these convert cytosines in specific RNA molecules, to uracil. These enzymes ... RNA editing is extensively studied in relation to infectious diseases, because the editing process alters viral function. mRNA ... Three ADAR enzymes have been cloned, ADAR1, ADAR2 and ADAR3, although only the first two subtypes have been shown to have RNA ...
RNA polymerase[edit]. The first polymerase enzyme isolated from T. aquaticus in 1974 was a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase,[8] ... Enzymes from T. aquaticus[edit]. T. aquaticus has become famous as a source of thermostable enzymes, particularly the Taq DNA ... Other enzymes[edit]. The high optimum temperature for T. aquaticus allows researchers to study reactions under conditions for ... Taq I restriction enzyme[edit]. Further information: TaqI. Most molecular biologists probably became aware of T. aquaticus in ...
Trypanosoma cruzi also uses unique processes for gene expression, such as RNA editing, trans-splicing, and constitutive ... Cruzipain is part of clan CA, a group of papain-like enzymes. Clan CA is the most studied class of cysteine proteinases in ...
Double-stranded RNA-specific editase B2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADARB2 gene. RNA-editing deaminase-2 ( ... RED2, or ADARB2) is a member of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) adenosine deaminase family of RNA-editing enzymes. Adenosine ... ADAR3 has demonstrated no editing ability in vitro. It has been shown to suppress 5-HT2C RNA editing in vitro through a yet ... Mittaz L, Antonarakis SE, Higuchi M, Scott HS (Sep 1997). "Localization of a novel human RNA-editing deaminase (hRED2 or ADARB2 ...
... an RNA-editing enzyme. The z-alpha domain is a Z-DNA binding domain, and binding of this region to B-DNA has been shown to be ... "The solution structure of the Zalpha domain of the human RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 reveals a prepositioned binding surface for Z ... DRADA edits the mRNAs for the glutamate receptor subunits by site-selective adenosine deamination. The DRADA repeat is also ... Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (EC) converts multiple adenosines to inosines and creates I/U mismatched base ...
A stem loop hairpin structure mediates the RNA editing. ADAR2 is likely to be the preferred editing enzyme at the I/V site. ... ADAR2 enzyme is the major editing enzyme. The MFOLD programme predicted that the minimum region required for editing would form ... The pre-mRNA of this protein is subject to RNA editing. A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of adenosine deaminases ... RNA editing at this position occurs at a highly conserved ion conducting pore of the channel. This may affect the channels role ...
Eckmann CR, Neunteufl A, Pfaffstetter L, Jantsch MF (July 2001). "The human but not the Xenopus RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 has an ... RNA editing Potassium channel RNA editing signal ADARB1 Z-DNA GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000160710 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... "Enhancement of replication of RNA viruses by ADAR1 via RNA editing and inhibition of RNA-activated protein kinase". Journal of ... ADARs acting on RNA is one of the most common forms of RNA editing, and has both selective and non-selective activity. ADAR is ...
A stem loop hairpin structure mediates the RNA editing. ADAR2 is likely to be the preferred editing enzyme at the I/V site. ... RNA editing[edit]. The pre-mRNA of this protein is subject to RNA editing.[11] ... Type[edit]. A to I RNA editing is catalyzed by a family of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) that specifically ... ADAR2 enzyme is the major editing enzyme. The MFOLD programme predicted that the minimum region required for editing would form ...
... it modulates the post-transcriptional C-to-U RNA editing of apoB mRNA through binding either to the apoB mRNA-editing enzyme ... The hnRNPs are RNA-binding proteins and they complex with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). SYNCRIP is made up of an N- ... RNA. 26 (3): 290-305. doi:10.1261/rna.072959.119. PMC 7025501. PMID 31907208. Mourelatos Z, Abel L, Yong J, Kataoka N, Dreyfuss ... Kim JH, Paek KY, Ha SH, Cho S, Choi K, Kim CS, Ryu SH, Jang SK (September 2004). "A cellular RNA-binding protein enhances ...
RNA editing, alternative splicing, proteolytic processing, and post-translational modification Annotated entries undergo ... Annotation arising from the scientific literature includes, but is not limited to: Protein and gene names Function Enzyme- ...
RNA Oncoviruses[edit]. Brief history[edit]. In the 1960s, the replication process of RNA virus was believed to be similar to ... Single-stranded RNA replication involves RNA-dependent RNA synthesis which meant that virus-coding enzymes would make partial ... RNA viruses[edit]. Not all oncoviruses are DNA viruses. Some RNA viruses have also been associated such as the hepatitis C ... Classification[edit]. DNA viruses[edit]. *Human papilloma virus (HPV), a DNA virus, causes transformation in cells through ...
... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[6][23] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 17:42 (UTC). ... Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... The specific diagnosis of EVD is confirmed by isolating the virus, detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies ...
RNA editing in plastidsEdit. RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior ... The enzyme that carries out the phosphorylation is specific for chloroplast polypeptides, and ignores ones meant for ... DNA replicationEdit. Leading model of cpDNA replicationEdit. Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D loop mechanisms. ... Protein synthesisEdit. See also: Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA ...
Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank to the ... RNA editing. Octopuses and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic ... High levels of RNA editing do not appear to be present in more basal cephalopods or other molluscs.[118][119] ... More than 60% of RNA transcripts for coleoid brains are recoded by editing, compared to less than 1% for a human or fruit fly. ...
enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated ... LigandsEdit. AgonistsEdit. *Endogenous progestogens (e.g., progesterone). *Synthetic progestogens (e.g., norethisterone, ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ... ReferencesEdit. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000082175 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
Single-molecule RNA FISH[edit]. Single-molecule RNA FISH, also known as Stellaris® RNA FISH,[11] is a method of detecting and ... Preparation and hybridization process - RNA[edit]. Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ( ... doi:10.1261/rna.2701111. PMC 3096040. PMID 21518807.. *^ a b c Bernasconi, B.; Karamitopolou-Diamantiis, E.; Tornillo, L.; ... RNA Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization for the Simultaneous Detection of Immature and Mature Long Noncoding RNAs in Adherent ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ a b c d Oldstone, Michael (2009). Viruses, Plagues, and History: Past, Present and Future. Oxford University ... "An RNA Pseudoknot Is Required for Production of Yellow Fever Virus Subgenomic RNA by the Host Nuclease XRN1". Journal of ... Serologically, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the acute phase of the disease using specific IgM against yellow ... AsiaEdit. The main vector (A. aegypti) also occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, and Australia, but ...
See also[edit]. *Endospore staining. References[edit]. *^ Murray, Patrick R.; Ellen Jo Baron (2003). Manual of Clinical ... Finally, DNA repair enzymes contained within the endospore are able to repair damaged DNA during germination. ... and the sigma factor subunits of RNA polymerase. ... External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... Biotechnology[edit]. Bacillus subtilis spores are useful for the expression of recombinant proteins and in particular for the ...
Function[edit]. Presenilins are postulated to regulate APP processing through their effects on gamma secretase, an enzyme that ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... Clinical significance[edit]. Beta-amyloid production[edit]. Transgenic mice that over-expressed mutant presenilin-1 show an ... References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000080815 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
This enzyme is part of the synthesis of DNA and RNA, and when methotrexate binds the enzyme, it renders it inactive, so it ... Equation[edit]. The Michaelis-Menten Model can be an invaluable tool to understanding enzyme kinetics. According to this model ... is modified to include binding of the inhibitor to the free enzyme:. EI. +. S. ⇌. k. 3. k. −. 3. E. +. S. +. I. ⇌. k. −. 1. k. ... Since the velocity is maximal when all the enzyme is bound as the enzyme-substrate complex, V. max. =. k. 2. [. E. ]. 0. {\ ...
View/Edit Human. View/Edit Mouse. RAD51 is a eukaryotic gene. The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein ... messenger RNA. [13]. Breast cancer (progesteron receptor negative). Over-expression. -. messenger RNA. [16]. ... References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000051180 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... Family[edit]. In mammals, seven recA-like genes have been identified: Rad51, Rad51L1/B, Rad51L2/C, Rad51L3/D, XRCC2, XRCC3, and ...
Amino acids[edit]. BMAA[edit]. The non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is ubiquitously produced by ... is toxic to liver and kidney tissue and is thought to inhibit protein synthesis and to covalently modify DNA and/or RNA. There ... UV protectants and specific inhibitors of enzymes.[16][17] ... References[edit]. *^ a b Stewart I, Seawright AA, Shaw GR (2008 ... Cyclic peptides[edit]. A peptide is a short polymer of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. They have the same chemical ...
EcologyEdit. HabitatsEdit. Archaea that grow in the hot water of the Morning Glory Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park ... Archaea were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... are a source of enzymes that function under these harsh conditions.[202][203] These enzymes have found many uses. For example, ... ReferencesEdit. *^ a b c Woese, C.R.; Kandler, O.; Wheelis, M.L. (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for ...
POLR3K: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10. *PRR35: encoding protein Proline rich 35 ... Genes[edit]. Number of genes[edit]. The following are some of the gene count estimates of human chromosome 16. Because ... ACSF3: encoding enzyme Acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3. *ACSM2B: encoding enzyme Acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ACSM2B, ... Associated traits[edit]. *Red hair. Cytogenetic band[edit]. @media all and (max-width:720px){.mw-parser-output .tmulti>. ...
Structure[edit]. Sequence and prevalence[edit]. Figure 2. Mechanism for transcription initiation at the TATA box. Transcription ... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... Additional factors, including the Mediator complex, transcriptional regulatory proteins, and nucleosome-modifying enzymes also ... History[edit]. Discovery[edit]. The TATA box was the first eukaryotic core promoter motif to be identified in 1978 by American ...
Arginine citrullination[edit]. Enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) hydrolyze the imine group of arginines and ... marked by a change in the phosphorylation states of the RNA polymerase II C terminal domain (CTD). The same enzyme that ... Chemistry of histone modifications[edit]. Lysine methylation[edit]. The addition of one, two, or many methyl groups to lysine ... Function [edit]. Compacting DNA strands[edit]. Histones act as spools around which DNA winds. This enables the compaction ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ a b c d e Fürtig, Boris; Richter, Christian; Wöhnert, Jens; Schwalbe, Harald (2003). "NMR Spectroscopy of ... such as DNA or RNA. It is useful for molecules of up to 100 nucleotides, and as of 2003, nearly half of all known RNA ... made with restriction enzymes, was reported 1981.[12] This work was also the first report of nucleic acid NMR spectra obtained ... HistoryEdit. Nucleic acid NMR studies were performed as early as 1971,[8] and focused on using the low-field imino proton ...
RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; genome structure; non-coding ... Contemporary research[edit]. This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by ... In 1973, Richard J. Roberts begins development and dissemination of a large library of restriction enzymes, basic tools for ... Notes and references[edit]. *^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of ...
Early life and education[edit]. Hall was born in Barnsley. He earned his BA in chemistry from Oxford University. He began his ... He used strains of E. Coli with mutated B-lactamase, an antibiotic resistance enzyme, and assayed their activity in the ... evidence of the importance of Ral was provided when cortical neurons were depleted of endogenous RalA and RalB isoforms by RNA ... Career and research[edit]. Hall's PhD was on the enzymology of B-lactamase, which led to his first paper being published in ...
Edit RNA polymerase (RNAP) in action. It is building a messenger RNA molecule from a DNA helix. Part of the enzyme was made ... Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... RNA polymerase IV synthesizes siRNA in plants.[5]. *RNA polymerase V synthesizes RNAs involved in siRNA-directed ... RNA polymerase. class of enzymes that synthesize RNA from a DNA template ...
View/Edit Human. View/Edit Mouse. Trifunctional enzyme subunit beta, mitochondrial (TP-beta) also known as 3-ketoacyl-CoA ... RNA binding. • acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase activity. • long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. ... References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138029 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... External links[edit]. *. Media related to HADHB at Wikimedia Commons. *HADHB+protein,+human at the US National Library of ...
Function[edit]. MT-TI is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid ... Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. *Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase. *Aldosterone synthase. *Frataxin ... "tRNA / transfer RNA". Learn Science at Scitable.. *^ "Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers". Genetics Home Reference. U.S ... Structure[edit]. The MT-TI gene is located on the p arm of the mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 69 base pairs.[2] ...
... or that may need to be edited at someone's earliest convenience. ... Restriction enzyme. *Rhabdomyosarcoma. *Richard Oribe Lumbreras ...
View/Edit Human. View/Edit Mouse. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 ... References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171450 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... External links[edit]. *Human CDK5R2 genome location and CDK5R2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Interactions[edit]. CDK5R2 has been shown to interact with Actinin, alpha 1.[7] ...
RNA) - ribosome - RNA - route of administration - RT-PCR - RTI - Ryan White C.A.R.E. act ... TEdit. T cells (T lymphocytes) - T lymphocyte proliferation assay - T lymphocytes - T suppressor cells - T4 cell - T4 cells (T- ... enzyme - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) - eosinophil - eosinophilic folliculitis - epidemic - epidemiological ... BEdit. B-cell lymphoma - B cells - B lymphocytes (B cells) - bactericidal - bacteriostatic - bacterium - baculovirus - baseline ...
See also[edit]. *Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. References[edit]. *^ "Peroxisome". Online DIctionary. Merriam- ... Peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes, such as D-amino acid oxidase and uric acid oxidase.[9] However the last enzyme is absent ... External links[edit]. Wikiversity has learning resources about Peroxisomes at The Department of Cell Biology ... History[edit]. Peroxisomes were identified as organelles by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in 1967[6] after they had ...
View/Edit Human. View/Edit Mouse. Acid alpha-glucosidase, also called α-1,4-glucosidase[5] and acid maltase,[6] is an enzyme ( ... and use of endonuclease digestion of PCR-amplified RNA to demonstrate lack of mRNA expression from the second allele". American ... References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171298 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... Function[edit]. This gene encodes lysosomal alpha-glucosidase, which is essential for the degradation of glycogen to glucose in ...
These inserts are transcribed by enzymes of the host into new RNA molecules that enter the cytosol. Next, some of these RNA ... Group VI viruses[edit]. All members of Group VI use virally encoded reverse transcriptase, an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, to ... RNA: consists of a dimer RNA. It has a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The RNA genome also has terminal ... Once inside the host cell's cytoplasm, the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome, ...
ReferencesEdit. *^ Southern, Edwin Mellor (5 November 1975). "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by ... A probe that hybridizes only to a single DNA segment that has not been cut by the restriction enzyme will produce a single band ... In some cases, the hybridization probe may be made from RNA, rather than DNA. To ensure the specificity of the binding of the ... ApplicationsEdit. Southern blotting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the ...
References[edit]. *^ Fogh J and Trempe G in Human Tumor Cells In Vitro (J. Fogh, ed.), Plenum, 1975, 115-141 ... RNA interference has been used to silence the expression of individual efflux transporters, either transiently[9] or long-term. ... and a number of enzymes and transporters that are characteristic of such enterocytes: peptidases, esterases, P-glycoprotein, ... Impact of Caco-2 Cells on the Medical Field[edit]. The considerable impact of the Caco-2 cell monolayer model can be measured ...
External links[edit]. *Twentieth Century Atheists on University of Cambridge's investigating atheism website[dead link] ... François Jacob (1920-2013): French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme ... an important milestone in understanding DNA and RNA.[272] ... See also[edit]. *Category:Atheists. *List of nonreligious Nobel ... Notes and references[edit]. *^ Scott Aaronson (January 16, 2007). "Long-awaited God post". Shtetl-Optimized - The Blog of Scott ...
Researchers have discovered that an isoform of the RNA editing enzyme, ADAR, is responsible for regulating genome stability of ... ADAR is the enzyme responsible for adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing. ADARs contain multiple double-stranded RNA (dsRNA ... March 12, 2021 -- Researchers have discovered that an isoform of the RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 ( ... RNA editing affects gene expression -- with disease implications. Researchers found that RNA editing events can have large ...
RNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 and some of its homologs can act as DNA mutators.. Harris RS1, Petersen-Mahrt SK, Neuberger MS. ... APOBEC1 is the catalytic component of an RNA editing complex but shows homology to activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID ...
Computer model showing the structure of the human Zalpha domain of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 (brown-orange, blue-purple) ... complexed with a synthetic Z-RNA (blue-green, yellow). - Stock Image C035/8333 ... Human Z-RNA editing enzyme complexed with Z-RNA (Z-ribonucleic acid). ... Caption: Human Z-RNA editing enzyme complexed with Z-RNA (Z-ribonucleic acid). Computer model showing the structure of the ...
Novel identifications of long noncoding RNA and retrotransposons as editing targets further expand the effects of A-to-I ... Besides editing, ADAR1 also interacts with other dsRNA-binding proteins in editing-independent manners. Elucidating the disease ... Furthermore, editing of noncoding sequences, like microRNAs, can regulate protein expression, while editing of Alu sequences ... Editing in both coding and noncoding sequences results in diseases ranging from cancers to neurological abnormalities. ...
Whereas ADAR regulates RNA stability in either an RNA editing-dependent or an RNA editing-independent manner, RNA binding is ... found that the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR supports the activity of FAK. In lung adenocarcinoma cells, ADAR bound to and edited FAK ... ADAR directly binds to and edits FAK RNA. To explore the functional ADAR-editing site(s) in FAK, we analyzed FAK RNA-seq data ... ADAR modulates gene expression in either an RNA editing-dependent or an RNA editing-independent manner. Reports suggest that ...
... a potential RNA editing enzyme Cell. 2000 Sep 1;102(5):553-63. doi: 10.1016/s0092-8674(00)00078-7. ...
... such as RNA editing, are worth exploring. Herein we show that the adenosine-toinosine editing enzyme ADAR1 undergoes gene ... Gene amplification-associated overexpression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 enhances human lung tumorigenesis. ... for ADAR1 as a lung cancer oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation that affects downstream RNA editing ... From a functional perspective, ADAR1 overexpression enhances the editing frequencies of target transcripts such as NEIL1 and ...
RNA editing enzyme and methods of use thereof US08457459 US5677428A (en) 1994-02-17. 1995-06-01. RNA editing enzyme and methods ... RNA editing enzyme and methods of use thereof US08555678 US5763174A (en) 1994-02-17. 1995-11-13. RNA editing enzyme and methods ... RNA editing enzyme and methods of use thereof US08457459 Expired - Lifetime US5677428A (en) 1994-02-17. 1995-06-01. RNA editing ... U. Kim et al, "Double-stranded RNA Adenosine Deaminase: A Potential Agent for RNA Editing?", in RNA Editing, R. Benne, Ed. ( ...
Background: Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-2 (ADAR2) enzyme catalyzes adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of mRNAs and ... Abstract 61: Deficiency of the RNA Editing Enzyme ADAR2 Impairs Inflammation, Neovascularization and Functional Recovery of ... Abstract 61: Deficiency of the RNA Editing Enzyme ADAR2 Impairs Inflammation, Neovascularization and Functional Recovery of ... Abstract 61: Deficiency of the RNA Editing Enzyme ADAR2 Impairs Inflammation, Neovascularization and Functional Recovery of ...
Endogenous double-stranded RNA is generated in human cells and leads to RNase L activation and consequent cell death unless ... 2014) The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 controls innate immune responses to RNA Cell Reports 9:1482-1494. ... 2011) Enhancement of replication of RNA viruses by ADAR1 via RNA editing and inhibition of RNA-activated protein kinase Journal ... Ribonuclease L mediates the cell-lethal phenotype of double-stranded RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 deficiency in a human cell line. ...
Gerber, AP and Keller, W (2001) RNA editing by base deamination: more enzymes, more targets, new mysteries. Trends Biochem Sci ... RNA, RNA Editing, Sequence Homology, Amino Acid, Substrate Specificity ... The recent identification of tRNA-specific adenosine deaminases (ADATs) has led to the suggestion that these enzymes, as well ... The posttranscriptional modification of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by base deamination can profoundly alter the ...
... ... The probe is derived from the Z-DNA binding domain of the human double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase 1 (ADAR1), named Z ... During our experiments, evidence suggested that the primary target of ZαADAR1 in vivo is RNA rather than DNA. Further studies ... Several binding sites were conserved between E. coli and human ribosomes, revealing that formation of Z-like RNA conformations ...
RNA as an enzyme[edit]. Further information: Ribozyme. RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, are found in todays DNA-based life and could ... Properties of RNA[edit]. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ... RNA can act as a ribozyme, a special type of enzyme. Because it can perform the tasks of both DNA and enzymes, RNA is believed ... Like DNA, RNA can store and replicate genetic information; like protein enzymes, RNA enzymes (ribozymes) can catalyze (start or ...
The mutation that causes Rett Syndrome can be corrected in the brains of mice using an RNA editing technique that repairs the ... To address these questions, the researchers packaged a mouse Mecp2 RNA guide and human editing enzyme "editase" in a viral ... As the RNA editing approach progresses through experimental steps, additional questions will need to be answered. "We need to ... They asked three questions: Is it possible to edit MeCP2 RNA in several different types of neurons in adult mice in vivo? If so ...
RNA Regulation of Enzyme Activity[edit]. Hentze and Priess assert that enzymes catalytic activity can be controlled by RNA ... Enzymes Regulating RNA Expression[edit]. Hentze and Preiss listed several biological cycles which demonstrate that enzymes bind ... 1 RNA, Enzyme, Metabolites *1.1 Enzymes Regulating RNA Expression *1.1.1 Cytosolic Aconitase ... RNA, Enzyme, Metabolites[edit]. It has been conventionally thought that eukaryotic cells have been able to evolve and adapt to ...
Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA. This A-to-I editing occurs not ... whereas the significance of Alu editing remains largely unknown. Certain microRNA (miRNA) precursors are also edited, leading ... Editing of coding sequences can result in the expression of functionally altered proteins that are not encoded in the genome, ... Primary microRNAs (miRNAs) are also edited, and ADAR1 directly interacts with Dicer, resulting in the modulation of miRNA ...
CRISPR Tool Doubles Number of Pathogenic Mutations Targetable by RNA Editing. Critical Cancer Growth and Remodeling Enzyme ... Bioprocessors monitor host-cell proteins (HCPs) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an old technique that lacks ...
"Patterns of developmental expression of the RNA editing enzyme rADAR2",. abstract = "To date, two structurally related RNA- ... Patterns of developmental expression of the RNA editing enzyme rADAR2. M. C. Paupard, M. A. OConnell, A. P. Gerber, R. Suzanne ... Patterns of developmental expression of the RNA editing enzyme rADAR2. / Paupard, M. C.; OConnell, M. A.; Gerber, A. P.; Zukin ... Paupard, MC, OConnell, MA, Gerber, AP & Zukin, RS 1999, Patterns of developmental expression of the RNA editing enzyme rADAR2 ...
Cis- and trans-regulations of pre-mRNA splicing by RNA editing enzymes influence cancer development *Sze Jing Tang ... Rights & permissionsfor article ,i,Cis,/i,- and ,i,trans,/i,-regulations of pre-mRNA splicing by RNA editing enzymes influence ...
Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA -1) is an essential protein required for cell survival and embryonic development. Knockout of ... Study the roles of RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 in the regulation of cell death Wang, Qingde University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, ... Study the roles of RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 in the regulation of cell death. Wang, Qingde / University of Pittsburgh. $227,250 ... Study the roles of RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 in the regulation of cell death. Wang, Qingde / University of Pittsburgh. $186,285 ...
... and inhibitors of the enzyme help mice with difficult-to-treat cancers live longer. ... UC San Diego researchers discovered that people with an inactive RNA-editing enzyme respond better to cancer immunotherapy, ... People with inactive RNA-editing enzyme respond better to immunotherapy; inhibitors of the enzyme help mice with difficult-to- ... To do that, we used CRISPR gene editing to remove the ALKBH5 enzyme in mouse tumor cells, and waited to see what would happen. ...
RNA Editing for Specific C to U Exchange), that expands CRISPRs RNA editing capabilities. ... including by targeting DNA with the enzymes Cas9 and Cas12 and targeting RNA with the enzyme Cas13. This collection offers ... New CRISPR platform expands RNA editing capabilities The new system, dubbed RESCUE, allows RNA edits to be made that were not ... Expanding the reach of RNA editing to new targets. The previously developed REPAIR platform used the RNA-targeting CRISPR/Cas13 ...
Differentially expressed RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 and ADAR2 in HCC. A to I RNA editing is a post-transcriptional modification ... sequencing errors and actual differences between RNA and DNA (eg, RNA editing and polyadenylation). RNA editing is broadly ... C) One example of the UTP14C gene with multiple edits. The RNA editing sites identified from the RNA-Seq data are highlighted ... Due to the diverse impact of RNA editing on gene expression and function, it is possible that the misregulation of RNA editing ...
Interestingly, IFN-α induces gene expression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1-1 (ADAR1a-p150) and alters overall RNA editing ... Longitudinal analysis of RNA editing and ADAR enzymes in blood. Transcript levels of the family of ADAR and PDE8A enzymes were ... A-I RNA editing activity on the phosphodiesterase 8A (PDE8A) gene, a previously identified RNA editing hotspot in the context ... As observed for the RNA editing level on the B site of the PDE8A intron 9, the RNA editing activity response to IFN-α was ...
Micro-RNA[edit]. MicroRNA are small RNA fragments produced in the host cells thanks to a specific enzymatic mechanism. They ... MicroRNA attach to viral-RNA because they are complementary. Then the complex is recognised by an enzyme that destroys it. This ... References[edit]. *^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015.. ... Effect on host immunity[edit]. In the host, several mechanisms of the insect immune system can be triggered when the wasp lays ...
Online Cover This week features a Research Article that describes how an RNA editing enzyme promotes the progression of some ... Cover story: Metastatic edits to FAK Editing of FAK mRNA by the enzyme ADAR in lung adenocarcinoma cells promotes migration and ... The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR promotes lung adenocarcinoma migration and invasion by stabilizing FAK ... Editing of FAK mRNA by the enzyme ADAR in lung adenocarcinoma cells promotes migration and invasion. ...
In this review we describe the mechanisms of RNA editing and focus on target mRNAs of editing that are functionally relevant to ... In this review we describe the mechanisms of RNA editing and focus on target mRNAs of editing that are functionally relevant to ... or influence the fate of an RNA. A to I editing is most abundant in the central nervous system. Here, targets for this type of ... or influence the fate of an RNA. A to I editing is most abundant in the central nervous system. Here, targets for this type of ...
Researchers have invented two new techniques that expand the ability of human beings to edit the genetic code of living things ... Its normally a protein that recognizes RNA and destroys RNA by cutting RNA, says Zhang. (Bacteria use CRISPR enzymes to cut ... "Its normally a protein that recognizes RNA and destroys RNA by cutting RNA," says Zhang. (Bacteria use CRISPR enzymes to cut ... the editing enzyme is very large) and precision, since edits occur at sites neighboring the desired position. As for the RNA ...
Human coding RNA editing is generally nonadaptive Guixia Xu and Jianzhi Zhang ... Examining how enzymes self-organize in a membrane Thomas C. Pochapsky. PNAS March 11, 2014 111 (10) 3659-3660; https://doi.org/ ...
Furthermore, we generated a new molecular C-to-U RNA editing sensor tool that detects Apobec-1- dependent RNA editing in HEPG2 ... Furthermore, we generated a new molecular C-to-U RNA editing sensor tool that detects Apobec-1- dependent RNA editing in HEPG2 ... we were able to identify C-to-U RNA editing-competent neurons and expression of C-to-U RNA-edited GlyR protein in neurons. ... we were able to identify C-to-U RNA editing-competent neurons and expression of C-to-U RNA-edited GlyR protein in neurons. ...
  • In lung adenocarcinoma cells, ADAR bound to and edited FAK mRNA in a manner that improved its stability, thus increasing the abundance of FAK protein and enhancing the migration of these cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Molecular analyses revealed that ADAR posttranscriptionally increased FAK protein abundance by binding to the FAK transcript and editing a specific intronic site that resulted in the increased stabilization of FAK mRNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • Herein we show that the adenosine-toinosine editing enzyme ADAR1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small cancer cell lines and primary tumors in association with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. (csic.es)
  • These three enzymes regulate mRNA translation by binding to areas in the 5' untranslated regions. (wikibooks.org)
  • These mRNA modifications are deposited, removed and interpreted by enzymes called writers, erasers and readers. (ucsd.edu)
  • 2017 ). The formation of pre-mRNA double-stranded stem loops during transcription constitutes the prime substrate of the ADAR enzymes. (springer.com)
  • Thus, also editing in non-translated regions of an mRNA may have profound impact on the fate of the affected RNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • ADAR RNA editing enzymes are high-affinity dsRNA-binding proteins that deaminate adenosines to inosines in pre-mRNA hairpins and also exert editing-independent effects. (stanford.edu)
  • Intrinsic restriction activity by apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 against the mobility of autonomous retrotransposons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vif serves to neutralize the human antiviral proteins apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G [A3G]) and A3F. (asm.org)
  • Methylation is involved in many steps of RNA biology and occurs in diverse RNA species such as transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer-messenger RNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), microRNA (miRNA) and viral RNA. (deepdyve.com)
  • Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) is an ubiquitous enzyme in metazoa that edits pre-mRNA changing adenosine to inosine in regions of double-stranded RNA. (nih.gov)
  • The human RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 (double-stranded RNA deaminase I) deaminates adenine in pre-mRNA to yield inosine, which codes as guanine. (nih.gov)
  • RNA interference ( RNAi ) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs are the direct products of genes, and these small RNAs can direct enzyme complexes to degrade messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules and thus decrease their activity by preventing translation, via post-transcriptional gene silencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme adenosine deaminase catalyzes the site specific deamination of the pre-mRNA, producing an inosine at that point. (madsci.org)
  • The immunoprecipitated material also contains gRNA-specific endoribonuclease, terminal uridylyltransferase, and RNA ligase activities as well as gRNA and both edited and unedited mRNA. (asm.org)
  • The edited mRNA sequence is specified by trans -acting small RNA molecules called gRNAs, which are complementary to their edited cognate mRNAs ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • A 5- to 15-nucleotide (nt) region at the 5′ end of gRNAs is complementary to the sequence of its cognate preedited mRNA that is immediately 3′ to the region that will be edited. (asm.org)
  • The siRNA can form a molecular complex with proteins that first strip away the sense strand of RNA, making the antisense inhibitory RNA (iRNA) available for base pairing with messenger RNA (mRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • Diagram showing how the anti-sense RNA (the yellow strand in this diagram) of the RISC complex targets destruction of complementary mRNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • The active site of the enzyme that cuts the mRNA has the amino acids Asp-Asp-His (DDH) at the active site [7] . (wikiversity.org)
  • Cytidine deamination was discovered as a mechanism of editing mRNA transcripts in eukaryotes (RNA editing) ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • APOBEC1 edits apo B mRNA at a specific site by deaminating cytidine-6666 to uridine, thus converting a glutamine codon 2153 (CAA) into a premature stop codon (UAA), producing a truncated form of apo B (apo B-48) ( 1 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A-to-I pre-mRNA editing in Drosophila is primarily involved in adult nervous system function and integrity. (uniprot.org)
  • in some cases the majority of nucleotides in an mRNA sequence may result from editing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the RNA modifications are found on transfer-RNA and ribosomal-RNA, but also eukaryotic mRNA has been shown to be modified with multiple different modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain modifications like 2'O-methylated nucleotides has been associated with cells ability to distinguish own mRNA from foreign RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, proteins known as "apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzymes, catalytic polypeptide-like" (APOBECs) target viral genome via DNA intermediates to interfere with reverse transcription. (scienceboard.net)
  • APOBECs are apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzymes that deaminate cytosines to uracils on single-stranded nucleic acids (ssDNA and ssRNA). (scienceboard.net)
  • There are different types of RNA, each of which plays a specific role, including specifying the amino acid sequence of proteins (performed by messenger RNAs, or mRNAs), organizing and catalyzing the synthesis of proteins (ribosomal RNAs or rRNAs), translating codons in the mRNA into amino acids (transfer RNAs or tRNAs) and directing many of the RNA processing steps (performed by small RNAs in the nucleus, called snRNAs and snoRNAs). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prokaryotes, which lack a nucleus, can translate an mRNA as soon as it is transcribed by RNA polymerase. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The editing by A1 is highly precise and specifically converts C to U at position 6666 of the apolipoprotein B mRNA substrate ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Along with APOBEC1 complementation factor (ACF), these two proteins constitute the minimal required components necessary for the editing of apolipoprotein B mRNA in vitro ( 37 ). (asm.org)
  • APOBEC3C (Apolipoprotein B MRNA Editing Enzyme Catalytic Subunit 3C) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This copy, which consists of a single strand of RNA, is called messenger RNA, or "mRNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • Turnover of mRNA may be regulated by temperature-sensitive RNA structures. (biologists.org)
  • In animals, these responses might include regulation of translation of stress-induced proteins, alternative splicing of messenger RNA precursors, differential expression of allelic proteins, modulation of activities of small non-coding RNAs, regulation of mRNA turnover and control of RNA editing. (biologists.org)
  • Transcription is the process of copying DNA into RNA , usually mRNA . (rug.nl)
  • Bacterial transcription is the process in which a segment of bacterial DNA is copied into a newly synthesized strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) with use of the enzyme RNA polymerase . (rug.nl)
  • When an adenosine in NEIL1 messenger RNA gets deaminated to form inosine, the mRNA is subsequently translated to place an arginine instead of a lysine in the portion of NEIL1 that recognizes oxidized DNA bases. (acs.org)
  • Because production of the RNA deamination enzyme is induced by an inflammatory response, the researchers propose that editing of the mRNA of NEIL1 may be a way that cells provide themselves with a broader range of DNA repair in response to the oxidative stress of inflammation. (acs.org)
  • Faithful editing of a tomato-specific mRNA editing site in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. (mpg.de)
  • March 12, 2021 -- Researchers have discovered that an isoform of the RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is responsible for regulating genome stability of telomeres at chromosomal ends. (scienceboard.net)
  • This underscores the importance of ADAR1-mediated A-to-I editing activity in the maintenance of telomere stability. (scienceboard.net)
  • Then, exploiting the replication protein A 32 kDa subunit (RPA32) as a marker for R-loops, the researchers showed that ADAR1 depletion resulted in significantly increased formation of the RNA-DNA hybrids, specifically in telomeric repeat regions. (scienceboard.net)
  • The researchers found that ADAR1 depletion resulted in the accumulation of RNA and DNA strands of RNA-DNA hybrids of canonical and variant telomere repeats associated with those that are found in cancer cells. (scienceboard.net)
  • Computer model showing the structure of the human Zalpha domain of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 (brown-orange, blue-purple) complexed with a synthetic Z-RNA (blue-green, yellow). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Among the three types of mammalian ADARs, ADAR1 has long been recognized as an essential enzyme for normal development. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides editing, ADAR1 also interacts with other dsRNA-binding proteins in editing-independent manners. (mdpi.com)
  • Elucidating the disease-specific patterns of editing and/or ADAR1 expression may be useful in making diagnoses and prognoses. (mdpi.com)
  • From a functional perspective, ADAR1 overexpression enhances the editing frequencies of target transcripts such as NEIL1 and miR-381. (csic.es)
  • Overall, our results indicate a role for ADAR1 as a lung cancer oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation that affects downstream RNA editing patterns and patient prognosis. (csic.es)
  • ADAR1 isoforms are adenosine deaminases that edit and destabilize double-stranded RNA reducing its immunostimulatory activities. (elifesciences.org)
  • Adenosine deaminase acting on dsRNA (ADAR1) isoforms neutralize the immunostimulatory activity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by converting adenosine to inosine (i.e. (elifesciences.org)
  • ADAR1 alters the RNA coding sequence, because I is read as G, and it also destabilizes dsRNA because A:U base pairs are disrupted than I:U mismatches. (elifesciences.org)
  • The probe is derived from the Z-DNA binding domain of the human double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase 1 (ADAR1), named ZαADAR1. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote the efficacy of miRNA processing and RNA interference (RNAi) in developing embryos. (nature.com)
  • Conversely, recent studies indicate that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote miRNA processing, revealing a new function of ADAR1 in the regulation of RNA interference. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Cellular localization of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) and ADAR2. (nature.com)
  • To date, two structurally related RNA-editing enzymes with adenosine deaminase activity have been identified in mammalian tissue: ADAR1 and ADAR2 [Bass B. I. et al. (elsevier.com)
  • ADAR1 (Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA -1) is an essential protein required for cell survival and embryonic development. (grantome.com)
  • Due to the differentially expressed ADAR1 and ADAR2 in tumours, the altered gene specific editing activities, which was reflected by the hyper-editing of FLNB (filamin B, β) and the hypo-editing of COPA (coatomer protein complex, subunit α), are closely associated with HCC pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
  • Interestingly, IFN-α induces gene expression of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1-1 (ADAR1a-p150) and alters overall RNA editing activity. (springer.com)
  • ADAR1 Enzyme Associated Wit. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Thirty to 50 percent of multiple myeloma patients have extra copies of the gene that encodes the enzyme ADAR1. (nursingcenter.com)
  • The enzyme at the center of this study, ADAR1, is normally expressed during fetal development to help blood cells form. (nursingcenter.com)
  • ADAR1 edits the sequence of RNA. (nursingcenter.com)
  • By swapping out just one RNA building block for another, ADAR1 alters the carefully orchestrated system cells use to control which genes are turned on or off at which times. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Together, these signals activate ADAR1, which edits specific RNA in a way that stabilizes a gene that can make cancer stem cells more aggressive. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Writing in the January 3 issue of Cancer Cell , researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report that detection of "copy editing" by a stem cell enzyme called ADAR1, which is active in more than 20 tumor types, may provide a kind of molecular radar for early detection of malignancies and represent a new therapeutic target for preventing cancer cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. (ucsd.edu)
  • A research team led by senior author Catriona Jamieson, MD, PhD, deputy director of the Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center and deputy director of the UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, found that the normal functions of the ADAR1 enzyme are hijacked by pre-malignant cells, leading to a cascade of molecular consequences that promote malignant transformation, dormant cancer stem cell generation and resistance to treatment. (ucsd.edu)
  • We were able to illuminate the abilities of ADAR1 to 'hyper-mutate' tumor suppressor RNAs in leukemia and, at the same time, edit the microRNA aimed at targeting the tumor suppressor RNA. (ucsd.edu)
  • show that the in vivo targets of the principal editing enzyme, ADAR1, are long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) structures in noncoding portions of cellular mRNAs. (sciencemag.org)
  • ADAR1-directed editing of these cellular targets is critical to avoid activation of an immune response to dsRNA in the cytoplasm, because dsRNA is also a marker of viral infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition to RNA editing, additional functions have been proposed for ADAR1. (sciencemag.org)
  • To determine the specific role of RNA editing by ADAR1, we generated mice with an editing-deficient knock-in mutation ( Adar1 E861A , where E861A denotes Glu 861 →Ala 861 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Adar1 E861A/E861A embryos died at ~E13.5 (embryonic day 13.5), with activated interferon and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-sensing pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • A-to-I editing of endogenous dsRNA is the essential function of ADAR1, preventing the activation of the cytosolic dsRNA response by endogenous transcripts. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, loss of Adar RNA editing activity leads to innate immune induction, indicating that Drosophila Adar, despite being the homolog of mammalian ADAR2, also has functions similar to mammalian ADAR1. (stanford.edu)
  • We also demonstrated overexpression and activity of CREB in metastatic melanoma cells.CREB regulates CYR-61 and ADAR1 (involved in RNA editing), thus, contributing to melanoma metastasis. (mdanderson.org)
  • We have recently reported that metastaticmelanoma cell lines and tumor specimens do not express the ADAR1 enzyme. (mdanderson.org)
  • ADAR1 is involved in A-to-I RNA editing of mRNAs and miRs (Nemlich et. (mdanderson.org)
  • Cell Biology (2015) , we identified3 miRs undergoing A-to-I editing in the non-metastatic melanoma cells, but not in the metastatic cells that do not express ADAR1. (mdanderson.org)
  • Background Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a co-transcriptional/post-transcriptional modification of double-stranded RNA, catalysed by one of two active adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), ADAR1 and ADAR2. (bmj.com)
  • The Crystal Structure of the Z[beta] Domain of the RNA-editing Enzyme ADAR1 Reveals Distinct Conserved Surfaces Among Z-domains. (cathdb.info)
  • Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR1), a suppressor of double-stranded RNA-triggered innate immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • Editing of Cellular Self-RNAs by Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1 Suppresses Innate Immune Stress Responses. (nih.gov)
  • Endogenous double-stranded RNA is generated in human cells and leads to RNase L activation and consequent cell death unless neutralized by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA1 (ADAR1). (elifesciences.org)
  • ADAR1 edits the sequence of RNA, a type of genetic material related to DNA. (ucsd.edu)
  • The scientists suspected that ADAR1 normally prevents inflammation by altering the cell's RNA so it does not trip sensors meant for viruses. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By eliminating ADAR1 in human cells , research associate Hachung Chung and her colleagues found that the protein does indeed prevent cellular RNA from triggering false alarms in vulnerable neuron-generating cells-a finding that provides clues about the origins of neurological damage seen in patients with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The team also found that ADAR1 enables cells to continue functioning during inflammation, by preventing activation of an RNA sensor that acts like a kill switch by turning off cells' ability to maintain themselves and grow. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Human ADAR1 Prevents Endogenous RNA from Triggering Translational Shutdown, Cell (2018). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Large-scale, genome-wide studies report that RNA binding proteins are altered in cancers, but it is unclear how these proteins control tumor progression. (sciencemag.org)
  • This invention relates generally to the production of proteins via genetic engineering techniques, and more specifically relates to the cloning and use of a novel RNA editing enzyme. (google.com)
  • The posttranscriptional modification of messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) by base deamination can profoundly alter the physiological function of the encoded proteins. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • If the RNA world existed, it was probably followed by an age characterized by the evolution of ribonucleoproteins ( RNP world ), [2] which in turn ushered in the era of DNA and longer proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAPDH is an enzyme that demonstrates several instances where these proteins regulate RNA expression. (wikibooks.org)
  • They are another example of proteins that are known to bind to RNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although there is not conclusive evidence, Hentze and Preiss also suggest that noncoding RNAs could regulate enzymatic activity by directly binding to those proteins. (wikibooks.org)
  • Editing of coding sequences can result in the expression of functionally altered proteins that are not encoded in the genome, whereas the significance of Alu editing remains largely unknown. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Deamination of adenosine to inosine by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) proteins. (nature.com)
  • Expanded targeting by RESCUE means that sites regulating activity and function of many proteins through post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, and methylation can now be more readily targeted for editing. (eurekalert.org)
  • Catalytic deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) on RNA molecules is a fundamental cellular mechanism that directly impacts expression and function of a large set of proteins. (springer.com)
  • Finally, inosines in RNA can change the base-pairing propensity of an RNA and therefore alter their folding and change their signature for RNA-binding proteins ( Nishikura, 1992 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A second discovery, published in Science, uses a new CRISPR enzyme to edit not only DNA but also RNA, the chemical messenger that living things use to turn DNA code into the proteins that are the building blocks of living bodies. (forbes.com)
  • Typical PPR proteins are targeted to chloroplasts or mitochondria, bind organellar transcripts, and influence their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unlike other PPR proteins, however, GUN1 does not appear to bind RNAs ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Francis Crick and Leslie Orgel proposed the idea that RNA once did the work of DNA and proteins in 1968. (wikibooks.org)
  • RNA is the ribosome's tool for synthesizing proteins and catalyzing the formation of peptide bonds. (wikibooks.org)
  • One may ask, if RNA was the precursor of DNA and proteins, how did this evolution occur? (wikibooks.org)
  • Cech and Altman showed in the early 1980s that RNA is more than simply a humble bearer of genetic information between DNA and proteins. (newscientist.com)
  • RNA had been observed to play a role in catalysis, a role that biochemists had hitherto attributed exclusively to proteins. (newscientist.com)
  • Expression of APOBEC3 proteins can lead to their encapsidation into progeny virions through recruitment to substrate viral or transposon capsid structures, and this appears to involve interactions with both Gag (or Gag-like) proteins and RNA ( 6 , 12 , 14 , 28 , 43 , 54 , 63 ). (asm.org)
  • Following reverse transcription of the retroelement genomic RNA into single-stranded DNA, the APOBEC proteins can deaminate cytidines to uridines, causing deleterious mutations that result in the loss of genetic integrity and protein function, a process that is commonly referred to as hypermutation ( 19 , 30 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • RNA, as everyone knows, helps change genes into proteins that can be utilized. (i4u.com)
  • Once the commanding codes are delivered to the RNA on a chemical level, the proteins get going in their formation throughout the body. (i4u.com)
  • Methylation can occur in varieties of biomolecules including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA) and proteins. (deepdyve.com)
  • RNA is the intermediate molecule, which links genetic information contained in genes to its expression in functional proteins. (deepdyve.com)
  • Using RNA sequencing, ribosome profiling, and proteomics data from human tissues and cell lines, we provide evidence for the translational activities of Alu exons and the presence of Alu exon derived peptides in human proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The catalytic domain of an RNA-editing enzyme is fused with RNA-binding proteins. (the-scientist.com)
  • This discovery has quickly resulted in the widespread use of artificial interfering RNAs as an important laboratory research technique for altering the amount of specific proteins inside cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • Several proteins (colored ovals) are required for efficient RNA interference. (wikiversity.org)
  • Editing can lead to nonsynonymous mutations, such as premature stop codons, in critical proteins (e.g., reverse transcriptase) necessary for virus replication and infectivity, severely impairing the next round of infection ( 54 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • Site-specific RNA editing of transcripts encoding these proteins results in amino acid substitutions which consequently alters their functional activities. (genecards.org)
  • Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. (genecards.org)
  • It is thought that the proteins may be RNA editing enzymes and have roles in growth or cell cycle control. (genecards.org)
  • The proteins targeted by editing are basically the machinery that allow nervous systems to function on a timescale of milliseconds, which is not a demand placed on every organ," said Reenan. (innovations-report.com)
  • So far, the researchers have noticed A-to-I RNA editing in only nervous systems and specifically in genes encoding proteins necessary for sending fast electrical and chemical signals. (innovations-report.com)
  • RNA thermometers (RNATs) present in non-coding regions of certain mRNAs of pathogenic bacteria enable rapid upregulation of translation of virulence proteins when the temperature of the bacterium rises after entering a mammalian host. (biologists.org)
  • The higher-order structures of proteins and RNA are readily perturbed by changes in temperature, threatening the 'balancing act' so critical for function. (biologists.org)
  • [1] Transcription is carried out by RNA polymerase but its specificity is controlled by sequence-specific DNA binding proteins called transcription factors . (rug.nl)
  • RNA-editing reactions can alter nucleotides and change the protein-coding properties of RNA molecules, and they are known to alter the function of some nervous system proteins. (acs.org)
  • The study authors concluded that these genetically unique creatures have traded traditional DNA evolution for the ability to fine-tune their own proteins through RNA editing. (icr.org)
  • ADAR is the enzyme responsible for adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing. (scienceboard.net)
  • found that the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR supports the activity of FAK. (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that the RNA-editing protein ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on double-stranded RNA) acted as a facilitator of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) progression through its ability to stabilize transcripts encoding focal adhesion kinase (FAK). (sciencemag.org)
  • Nishikura, K. Functions and regulation of RNA editing by ADAR deaminases. (nature.com)
  • The roles of the double stranded RNA specific ADAR (Adenosine DeAminase that act on RNA) family members (ADARs) and the altered gene specific editing patterns were investigated in clinical specimens, cell models and mice. (bmj.com)
  • In humans, the most frequent type of editing is the conversion of A to I, which is catalysed by the dsRNA specific ADAR family of RNA editing enzymes. (bmj.com)
  • We also monitored gene expression levels of the ADAR enzymes and the PDE8A gene during treatment by qPCR. (springer.com)
  • Deamination is brought about by the action of specific editing enzymes, termed ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA). (springer.com)
  • Adenosine deamination by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADAR) seemingly only affects metazoan nuclear encoded RNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adenosine deaminases are a family of three enzymes encoded by the ADAR genes, which stand for adenosine deaminase acting on RNA. (ucsd.edu)
  • One result of detection of malignant RNA editing could be exposing dormant cancer stem cells that often escape therapies that target dividing cells, which leads to therapeutic resistance and disease relapse, and also highlight ADAR as a potentially tractable target for cancer stem cell elimination," said Jamieson. (ucsd.edu)
  • This RNA "editing" is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is a highly prevalent posttranscriptional modification of RNA, mediated by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) enzymes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Li Lab is primarily interested in RNA editing mediated by ADAR enzymes. (stanford.edu)
  • The other major direction of the lab is to develop technologies to harness endogenous ADAR enzymes for site-specific transcriptome engineering. (stanford.edu)
  • Learning cis-regulatory principles of ADAR-based RNA editing from CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis. (stanford.edu)
  • Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing catalyzed by ADAR enzymes occurs in double-stranded RNAs. (stanford.edu)
  • Adar RNA editing-dependent and -independent effects are required for brain and innate immune functions in Drosophila. (stanford.edu)
  • The catalytically inactive protein, when expressed at a higher than physiological level, can rescue neurodegeneration in Adar mutants, suggesting also editing-independent effects. (stanford.edu)
  • The "master list" totals 3,581 sites in which the enzyme ADAR might swap an "A" nucleotide for a "G" in an RNA molecule. (eurekalert.org)
  • They compared the sequenced RNA of a population of fruit flies to their sequenced DNA and to the RNA of another population of flies engineered to lack the ADAR editing enzyme. (eurekalert.org)
  • ADAR (Adenosine Deaminase, RNA Specific) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • HealthDay)-Amplification of the inflammation-responsive RNA editase adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR)1 gene is associated with reduced survival in multiple myeloma (MM), according to a study published online Dec. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (mdpi.com)
  • Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-2 (ADAR2) enzyme catalyzes adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing of mRNAs and microRNAs and controls brain development. (ahajournals.org)
  • Wagner, R. W., Smith, J. E., Cooperman, B. S. & Nishikura, K. A double-stranded RNA unwinding activity introduces structural alterations by means of adenosine to inosine conversions in mammalian cells and Xenopus eggs. (nature.com)
  • RESCUE builds on REPAIR, a technology developed by Zhang's team that changes adenine bases into inosine in RNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • The previously developed REPAIR platform used the RNA-targeting CRISPR/Cas13 to direct the active domain of an RNA editor, ADAR2, to specific RNA transcripts where it could convert the nucleotide base adenine to inosine, or letters A to I. Zhang and colleagues took the REPAIR fusion, and evolved it in the lab until it could change cytosine to uridine, or C to U. (eurekalert.org)
  • Design By utilising large scale transcriptome sequencing of three paired HCC clinical specimens and their adjacent non-tumour (NT) tissue counterparts at depth, we discovered an average of 20 007 inferred A to I (adenosine to inosine) RNA editing events in transcripts. (bmj.com)
  • Deamination type editing, on the other hand, changes the identity of a base by deaminating cytidine to uracil or adenosine to inosine, respectively ( Carter, 1995 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • They took advantage of the fact that a simple chemical change can turn adenine (A) into a chemical called inosine, which the body treats just like guanine (G). They pressured bacteria to evolve a new enzyme that could change adenine to inosine, and could be paired with the most common CRISPR enzyme, Cas9, to make genetic edits. (forbes.com)
  • There are two different types of enzymatic deamination which lead either to the conversion of adenosine to inosine (A-to-I RNA editing) or of cytidine to uridine (C-to-U RNA editing). (frontiersin.org)
  • The RNA-targeting, CRISPR-based tool, REPAIR currently swaps out the RNA base adenosine for inosine. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Adenosine bases in messenger RNA (mRNAs) can be enzymatically modified and changed into inosine bases. (sciencemag.org)
  • It destabilizes double-stranded RNA through conversion of adenosine to inosine. (cathdb.info)
  • The diversity of RNA editing phenomena includes nucleobase modifications such as cytidine (C) to uridine (U) and adenosine (A) to inosine (I) deaminations, as well as non-template nucleotide additions and insertions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminases that target double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and convert adenosine to inosine by deamination, thereby rendering RNA unstable. (scienceboard.net)
  • Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) referred to as A-to-I RNA editing (PubMed:7972084, PubMed:7565688, PubMed:12618436). (genecards.org)
  • There, an enzyme converts adenosine to the nucleoside inosine by a process called "A-to-I" RNA editing. (innovations-report.com)
  • Identification of the chloroplast adenosine-to-inosine tRNA editing enzyme. (mpg.de)
  • The team, publishing this time in the journal Cell , confirmed that the enzyme in these high-paced RNA-editing cephalopods replaces adenine with inosine. (icr.org)
  • ADAR1p150 is mostly active in the cytoplasm where it regulates dsRNA-sensing mechanisms and editing the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) dsRNAs to suppress activation of melanoma-differentiation-associated protein 5, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, and interferon (MDA5-MAVS-IFN) signaling. (scienceboard.net)
  • APOBEC1 is the catalytic component of an RNA editing complex but shows homology to activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a protein whose function is to potentiate diversification of immunoglobulin gene DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, editing of noncoding sequences, like microRNAs, can regulate protein expression, while editing of Alu sequences can affect translational efficiency and editing of proximal sequences. (mdpi.com)
  • like protein enzymes , RNA enzymes ( ribozymes ) can catalyze (start or accelerate) chemical reactions that are critical for life . (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] Protein enzymes may have come to replace RNA-based ribozymes as biocatalysts because their greater abundance and diversity of monomers makes them more versatile. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the challenges in studying abiogenesis is that the system of reproduction and metabolism utilized by all extant life involves three distinct types of interdependent macromolecules ( DNA , RNA , and protein ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology recoded enough RNA to restore half of the normal protein in three different kinds of neurons in the Rett mouse, demonstrating that programmable RNA editing can be utilized to repair mutations in mouse models of neurological disease. (genengnews.com)
  • The research is published in Cell Reports in a paper titled, " In Vivo Repair of a Protein Underlying a Neurological Disorder by Programmable RNA Editing . (genengnews.com)
  • The idea behind the strategy used in this new study is to produce a healthy MeCP2 protein by repairing the genetic error in the RNA. (genengnews.com)
  • Does editing restore MeCP2 protein function? (genengnews.com)
  • The injected editase repaired about half of the RNA produced by the mutant MeCP2 gene in each of three types of neurons located in different regions of the hippocampus and MeCP2 protein function was equally repaired in the neurons. (genengnews.com)
  • However, cytosolic aconitase can also act as an RNA-binding protein (labeled IRP1) when the cytosolic aconitase loses its iron sulfur cluster. (wikibooks.org)
  • [1] The evidence for this activity is shown though the enzyme IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), which is a yeast mitocondrial protein that is NAD+ specific. (wikibooks.org)
  • Hentze and Priess assert that metabolites play the role of balancing RNA and enzymatic activity either directly or allosterically (binding a molecule to the active site of a protein). (wikibooks.org)
  • Protein-coding sequences of a limited number of genes, such as glutamate receptor GRIA2 and serotonin receptor HTR2C , are edited, resulting in dramatic alterations of protein functions. (nature.com)
  • This A-to-I editing occurs not only in protein-coding regions of mRNAs, but also frequently in non-coding regions that contain inverted Alu repeats. (nature.com)
  • ADAR2 also acts at pre- messenger RNA encoding the serotonin 5HT-2C receptor to alter G-protein coupling. (elsevier.com)
  • To demonstrate this, the team showed that in human cells, RESCUE can target specific sites in the RNA encoding β-catenin, that are known to be phosphorylated on the protein product, leading to a temporary increase in β-catenin activation and cell growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • Editing in coding regions of mRNAs can therefore lead to a codon exchange and the subsequent translation of a protein that differs from the genomically encoded version. (frontiersin.org)
  • It's normally a protein that recognizes RNA and destroys RNA by cutting RNA,' says Zhang. (forbes.com)
  • It is therefore necessary to develop tools that allow identification of neuron types that express RNA-edited GlyR protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using this sensor combined with NH 4 application, we were able to identify C-to-U RNA editing-competent neurons and expression of C-to-U RNA-edited GlyR protein in neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bioinformatic analysis of 1,000 Genome Project Phase 3 allele frequencies coding for human Apobec-1 80M and 80I variants showed differences between populations, and the results revealed a preference of the 80I variant to generate RNA-edited GlyR protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Together, these results demonstrate Apobec-1-dependent expression of RNA-edited GlyR protein in neurons and identify the APOBEC1 80I/M-coding alleles as new genetic risk factors for iTLE patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is proposed that RNA preceded the current genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ), and led the evolution of the DNA → RNA → protein world. (wikibooks.org)
  • This enzyme is a molecule built from a protein and an RNA. (newscientist.com)
  • The team focused on studies of the maturation of an RNA molecule found in ribosomes, cellular bodies where protein synthesis takes place. (newscientist.com)
  • They combined the enzyme with the protein ADAR2, which switches A to I in RNA transcripts, and then improved the tool to cut down on off-target effects. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • RNA polymerase II is a specific RNA polymerase that usually is the key part of the catalysis process that produces each RNA from the DNA gene or isoform to ultimately make a protein. (wikiversity.org)
  • Using a programmable enzyme, Zhang's team converted pathogenic cytosine into uridine, which in turn changed the instructions RNA provided for, say, protein synthesis. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Exogenous dsRNA initiates RNAi by activating the ribonuclease protein Dicer, [8] which binds and cleaves double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in plants, or short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in humans, to produce double-stranded fragments of 20-25 base pairs with a 2-nucleotide overhang at the 3' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Alu exon derived peptide may fine tune the overall editing activity and, in limited cases, the site selectivity of ADARB1 protein products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a mitochondrial fraction enriched for in vitro RNA editing activity, we produced several monoclonal antibodies that are specific for a 21-kDa guide RNA (gRNA) binding protein initially identified by UV cross-linking. (asm.org)
  • These studies indicate that the 21-kDa protein associates with the ribonucleoprotein complex (or complexes) that catalyze RNA editing. (asm.org)
  • The protein-containing complex was named "RNA-induced silencing complex", RISC. (wikiversity.org)
  • In other cases, the protein-coding RNA sense strand might be produced by a virus and the antisense RNA strand produced by the host cell. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA interference can be used to selectively reduce the level of expression of a specific protein. (wikiversity.org)
  • Has A-to-I RNA editing activity on extended dsRNA: edits RNA-binding protein Rnp4F. (uniprot.org)
  • Messenger RNA degradation alters protein trafficking to control transcription. (elifesciences.org)
  • RNA editing in mRNAs effectively alters the amino acid sequence of the encoded protein so that it differs from that predicted by the genomic DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helps scientists in genome editing protein manufacturing, high throughput guide RNA synthesis capacity. (thomasnet.com)
  • Some internal modifications, particularly of tRNAs and rRNAs, are necessary for these RNAs to carry out their functions in protein synthesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Furthermore, RNA editing in the 3'-untranslated region has been shown to be the alteration that most frequently leads to changes in RNA stability, RNA localization and protein translation. (asbmb.org)
  • Other researchers later discovered that the Apobec-1 biochemical function requires a cofactor, and two different essential cofactors were discovered - Apobec-1 complementation factor, or A1cf, and RNA binding motif protein 47, or Rbm47. (asbmb.org)
  • RNA-editing alterations also have been reported in cancers and neurological disorders, and Davidson's lab is pursuing the profiling of DNA, RNA and protein levels in cancer tissues to substantiate further the diagnostic potential of RNA editing. (asbmb.org)
  • AID is a type of apolipoprotein B messenger RNA-editing enzyme catalytic (APOBEC) polypeptide (protein). (sciencephoto.com)
  • and RNA structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. (genecards.org)
  • Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer-associated protein (BLCAP), neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate (GRIA2) and serotonin (HTR2C) and GABA receptor (GABRA3). (genecards.org)
  • Divergent pathways for protein enzyme‐dependent tRNA splicing. (els.net)
  • For that purpose they used a gene-editing technique based on injecting non-viable embryos with a complex, which consists of a protective DNA element obtained from bacteria and a specific protein. (rt.com)
  • Geneticist Robert Reenan and fellow researchers used comparative genomics to discover a telltale signature of genes that are recoded as DNA is converted to RNA during the protein-making process. (innovations-report.com)
  • The amino acid sequence of a plastid protein is developmentally regulated by RNA editing. (mpg.de)
  • Unlike other animals that edit only a small fraction of the RNA that spells out protein sequences, squid cells edit their RNA by the bushel. (icr.org)
  • The processed RNA produces a protein unlike what would have emerged if the RNA had remained unaltered. (icr.org)
  • They deduced between "80 and 130 thousand editing sites in protein-coding regions. (icr.org)
  • DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOBEC3C gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides the common right-handed B- or A- structures, the alternate Z-conformation, which is left-handed, can be formed in both DNA and RNA molecules. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Those modifications led to more efficient sequences of RNA molecules. (wikibooks.org)
  • They regulate gene expression by modifying nucleotides within double stranded RNA molecules, serving as fundamental editors in the development of new stem cells. (ucsd.edu)
  • Two molecules of this subunit are present in each RNA polymerase II. (wikiversity.org)
  • Map DNA molecules using restriction enzymes. (dnalc.org)
  • Two types of small ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA ( siRNA ) - are central to RNA interference. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RNAi pathway is found in many eukaryotes , including animals, and is initiated by the enzyme Dicer , which cleaves long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules into short double-stranded fragments of ~21 nucleotide siRNAs . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by short double-stranded RNA molecules in a cell's cytoplasm, where they interact with the catalytic RISC component argonaute . (wikipedia.org)
  • or it may modify base pairing in RNA molecules to create alternative secondary structures that could alter RNA stability. (jimmunol.org)
  • The new list of editing sites could therefore help thousands of researchers studying the RNA molecules that are transcribed from DNA, the so-called "transcriptome," by providing reliable information about the thousands of editing changes that can occur. (eurekalert.org)
  • In vertebrates, editing is rare and usually consists of a small number of changes to the sequence of the affected molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify diverse post-transcriptional modifications of RNA molecules and determine the transcriptome-wide landscape of RNA modifications by means of next generation RNA sequencing, recently many studies have developed conventional or specialised sequencing methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, mass spectrometry allows the investigation of modification dynamics by labeling RNA molecules with stable (non-radioactive) heavy isotopes in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further detailed studies revealed that APOBEC molecules are packaged into HIV-1 virions in virus producer cells via a specific interaction with Gag and viral RNA and then exert their deaminase activity in subsequent target cells on a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) intermediate synthesized by reverse transcriptase ( 3 , 28 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • A team of researchers from Israel and the U.S. are searching for animals that can edit their own RNA molecules. (icr.org)
  • ADARs contain multiple double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains and a separate catalytic domain. (scienceboard.net)
  • Proviral effects are due in part to editing of viral RNAs ( Wong and Lazinski, 2002 ) and/or to destabilizing dsRNA resulting in suppression of dsRNA-signaling through MDA5 and MAVS to type I IFN genes ( Figure 1 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • OAS isoforms (OAS1, OAS2, OAS3) are IFN inducible enzymes that sense dsRNA and produce 2',5'-oligoadenylates (2-5A) which activate RNase L to degrade viral and host single-stranded RNAs leading to apoptosis and inhibition of virus growth ( Silverman and Weiss, 2014 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • We co-discovered that the major function of RNA editing is to label endogenous dsRNAs as 'self' to avoid being recognized as 'non-self' by MDA5, a host innate immune dsRNA sensor, leading us to pursue therapeutic applications in cancer, autoimmune diseases, and viral infection. (stanford.edu)
  • [6] When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is imported directly into the cytoplasm and cleaved to short fragments by Dicer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initiating dsRNA can also be endogenous (originating in the cell), as in pre-microRNAs expressed from RNA-coding genes in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal function of RNA interference inside cells depends on the production of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • [18] [19] In March 2020, astronomer Tomonori Totani presented a statistical approach for explaining how an initial active RNA molecule might have been produced randomly in the universe sometime since the Big Bang . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] One version of the hypothesis is that a different type of nucleic acid , termed pre-RNA , was the first one to emerge as a self-reproducing molecule, to be replaced by RNA only later. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also developed small molecule inhibitors of ALKBH5 and they had a similar effect as genetic removal of the enzyme. (ucsd.edu)
  • This proposes that there may be a pre-RNA molecule that used RNA or by change created RNA as a side product. (wikibooks.org)
  • In the 1970s, Cech was studying the splicing of RNA in a single-celled organism, Tetrahymena thermophila , when he discovered that an unprocessed RNA molecule could splice itself. (wikibooks.org)
  • These nucleotides sequenced spontaneously and randomly, eventually forming an RNA molecule (or a similar molecule) with catalytic characteristics. (wikibooks.org)
  • Therefore, this points to the fact that RNA is multifunctional, and can act as a synthesizer, transporter, messenger, and ribosome molecule. (wikibooks.org)
  • Since DNA is a more stable molecule than RNA, it makes sense for DNA to adapt to the environment and take over this job of RNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • Not only that, many biologists now suspect that RNA was the first kind of information-carrying molecule to have emerged at the origin of life itself. (newscientist.com)
  • Altman found that the enzyme lost this function unless both parts of the molecule were present. (newscientist.com)
  • The most well-studied outcome is post-transcriptional gene silencing, which occurs when the guide strand pairs with a complementary sequence in a messenger RNA molecule and induces cleavage by Argonaute 2 (Ago2), the catalytic component of the RISC . (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes that allow the cell (or a scientist) to precisely edit other DNA or its sister molecule, RNA. (nytimes.com)
  • The researchers used the tried-and-true, decades-old Sanger method of sequencing to double-check all the candidate editing sites that they had found using the high-throughput technology called single molecule sequencing. (eurekalert.org)
  • RNA editing (also RNA modification) is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA editing may include the insertion, deletion, and base substitution of nucleotides within the RNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modification of RNA nucleotides can occur at the ends of an RNA molecule or at internal positions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Modification of the ends can protect the RNA from degradation by exoribonucleases and can also act as a signal to guide the transport of the molecule to a particular subcellular compartment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The enzyme works its way into the DNA and can be used to alter the molecule from the inside. (rt.com)
  • RNA polymerase works by catalyzing the nucleophilic attack of 3' OH of RNA to the alpha phosphate of a complimentary NTP molecule to create a growing strand of RNA from the template strand of DNA. (rug.nl)
  • The researchers reported that RNA of genes other than Mecp2 also were inadvertently edited, known as off-target effects. (genengnews.com)
  • A-to-I RNA editing occurs at over a hundred million genomic sites, located in a majority of human genes. (nature.com)
  • CRISPR technology comprises a growing family of tools that can manipulate genes and their expression, including by targeting DNA with the enzymes Cas9 and Cas12 and targeting RNA with the enzyme Cas13. (eurekalert.org)
  • The profound alterations of the transcriptome and proteome introduced by RNA editing may thus help to solve a long lasting biological paradigm, namely, how biological complexity can be achieved with an almost constant number of genes: editing-induced alterations of splice patterns and coding potential of mRNAs may, together with alternative splicing, contribute to the formation of a complex proteome from a limited number of genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • One, published in Nature , allows the editing of single-letter DNA misspellings in genes, a major cause of illness, to be accomplished far more easily and efficiently. (forbes.com)
  • Similar results were found in genomic editing of other genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • They had just discovered that virtually all genes from higher organisms carried 'inert', non-coding regions - introns - that had to be removed when the RNA message was formed. (newscientist.com)
  • CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing has proved useful in blocking specific genes to correct mutations, but it makes permanent changes to the genome. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Rich Roberts and Phil Sharp explain restriction enzymes, electrophoresis, and split genes. (dnalc.org)
  • 2018) The functions of the edited miRs are different from the WT forms as they recognize and regulate differentset of genes. (mdanderson.org)
  • Base pair-complementary RNA strands (ssRNA) can be produced by transcription of both template DNA strands of some genes (Figure 1). (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA editing modifies transcripts in many organisms and thus contributes to expanding the number of gene products without the generation of new genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Given the diverse impact of AID on Ig genes, the question has emerged of whether AID is an RNA-editing enzyme ( 8 ) like APOBEC1, or whether it might directly deaminate dC to dU in the DNA ( 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • But in the early days of RNA editing research, the catalog of these sites was determined completely by chance - people working on genes of interest would discover a site. (eurekalert.org)
  • The ability to edit genes in living organisms offers the opportunity to treat a plethora of inherited diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Meanwhile, the director of the US National Institutes for Health (NIH) said the agency would not fund such editing of human embryo genes. (rt.com)
  • The system's advantage over other methods is in that it can also target several genes at the same time, working its way through tens of thousands of so-called 'guide' RNA sequences that lead them to the weapon to its DNA targets. (rt.com)
  • The phylogenetic signatures are identical sequences of genetic coding found in each species studied, serving as markers corresponding to specific genes targeted for A-to-I RNA editing. (innovations-report.com)
  • It is unknown how many RNA transcripts for genes are recoded in the human genome because this process occurs on the copies rather than the original. (innovations-report.com)
  • They found a signature in genomic DNA in genes shared between species where RNA transcription products are destined to be edited by the enzyme adenosine deaminase. (innovations-report.com)
  • The signature reliably identifies genes that are recoded during transcription, providing scientists with a means to predict the occurrence of editing. (innovations-report.com)
  • With the knowledge of the signature and that A-to-I RNA editing occurs primarily in nervous systems, scientists can now more closely examine how recoding affects expression by nervous systemspecific genes, including those responsible for epilepsy and Parkinson Disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • Technological advances in RNA generation (both by in vitro transcription and by chemical synthesis) along with advances in molecular biological approaches (to identify, clone and express modifying enzyme genes) have been predominantly responsible for the renewed activity in RNA modification and editing research. (asmscience.org)
  • Immunoglobulin (Ig) affinity maturation requires the enzyme AID, which converts cytosines (C) in Ig genes into uracils (U). This alone produces C:G to T:A transition mutations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RNA editing by base deamination: more enzymes, more targets, new mysteries. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Deamination type editing has been found in all kingdoms of life. (frontiersin.org)
  • The host defense properties of cytidine deamination require two distinct but homologous cytidine deaminases-activation-induced cytidine deaminase and apolipoprotein B-editing cytidine deaminase, subunit 3G. (jimmunol.org)
  • They found that a substantial fraction of the mutations in all strains could be derived from enzymatic deamination with a high level of cytosine to uracil mutations that is compatible with APOBEC-mediated editing. (scienceboard.net)
  • In 1994, Davidson's team showed that one mechanism of RNA editing is the deamination of cytosine to uracil, which is catalyzed by the Apobec family, including Apobec-1. (asbmb.org)
  • AID catalyses the breakdown (deamination) of the amino acid cytidine in RNA (yribonucleic acid), changing it to uridine. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for RNA editing by site-specific deamination of adenosines. (genecards.org)
  • To do that, we used CRISPR gene editing to remove the ALKBH5 enzyme in mouse tumor cells, and waited to see what would happen. (ucsd.edu)
  • The CRISPR family enzyme Cas13 at work. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, some cell types, such as neurons, are difficult to edit using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated editing, and new strategies are needed to treat devastating diseases that affect the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • By developing this new enzyme and combining it with the programmability and precision of CRISPR, we were able to fill a critical gap in the toolbox," says Zhang, the James and Patricia Poitras Professor of Neuroscience at MIT. (eurekalert.org)
  • The techniques both build on the discovery of CRISPR, a bacterial immune system that biologists have hacked into a gene-editing tool. (forbes.com)
  • Researchers working in the lab of Feng Zhang were looking for a way to use CRISPR in cells in the brain, which don't divide and therefore can't be edited just by making cuts and waiting for the cell to fix the damage during replication. (forbes.com)
  • Working with Eugene Koonin at the National Institutes of Health, they found a CRISPR enzyme called Cas13. (forbes.com)
  • Bacteria use CRISPR enzymes to cut and destroy viruses. (forbes.com)
  • The paper shows that editing of the RNA with CRISPR is possible. (forbes.com)
  • The DNA editing paper is indeed interesting because it expands the kinds of targeted changes that can be made in DNA without introducing breaks,' said Jennifer Doudna, a UC Berkeley professor who is widely credited with co-discovering CRISPR. (forbes.com)
  • An alternative to transgenic engineering, Crispr is a gene-editing technique that's applied to selective breeding. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • A team from the Broad Institute has devised a CRISPR-based system that targets RNA in a way that makes reversible changes to DNA possible. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • CRISPR-Cas9 employs Cas9 enzymes, which target and cut DNA. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The RNA-targeted CRISPR managed to clear the majority of clumps and errant RNA sequences in models of Huntington's and a type of ALS. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • We apply a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated saturation mutagenesis approach to generate libraries of mutations near three natural editing substrates at their endogenous genomic loci. (stanford.edu)
  • The CRISPR enzyme Cas13 (pink), part of the RESCUE platform, uses a special guide (red) to target RNAs (blue) in the cell. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • CRISPR editing of DNA uses the enzyme Cas9 to snip DNA at specific locations. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • They fine-tuned the technology to avoid off-target editing, a major concern that has slowed down the development of CRISPR for use in people. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • By developing this new enzyme and combining it with the programmability and precision of CRISPR, we were able to fill a critical gap in the toolbox. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • CRISPR/Cas9-Enabled Multiplex Genome Editing and Its Application. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is being said that CRISPR gene-editing technology may spell the end of many ailments such as Huntington's Disease. (i4u.com)
  • The experts have become adept at using CRISPR gene-editing technology and so the cures for many diseases may lie not very far off in the future. (i4u.com)
  • A recent CRISPR formed from mouth bacteria is being utilized to make the lysis of RNA a possibility. (i4u.com)
  • This RNA part of CRISPR technology was pioneered at MIT. (i4u.com)
  • To open the CRISPR world to RNA manipulation is like allowing modern day miracles to occur on a rapid basis. (i4u.com)
  • In nature, the gene-editing tool Crispr protects bacteria against viruses. (nytimes.com)
  • In an experiment, Canadian researchers were able to use a Crispr-associated enzyme to kill S. enterica, which is the source of many food-borne illnesses. (nytimes.com)
  • Desperate to find new medicines against pathogenic microorganisms, scientists are turning to Crispr, the gene-editing tool. (nytimes.com)
  • Crispr has typically been considered for macroscopic tasks: altering mosquitoes so they can't spread malaria, editing tomatoes so they are more flavorful and curing certain genetic diseases in humans . (nytimes.com)
  • Then, using Crispr-associated enzymes, it can disarm the virus and prevent the infection from spreading. (nytimes.com)
  • In their recent study, Dr. Edgell and his colleagues successfully used a Crispr-associated enzyme called Cas9 to eliminate a species of Salmonella. (nytimes.com)
  • To the plasmid the scientists added the encoded instructions for Crispr enzymes that would target Salmonella DNA. (nytimes.com)
  • Scientists have developed a new gene editing tool called SATI that is safer than CRISPR. (news-medical.net)
  • "Any scientist with molecular biology skills and knowledge of how to work with [embryos] is going to be able to do this," Jennifer Doudna, a biologist at the University of California, Berkeley, recently told MIT Tech Review, which reported that Doudna co-discovered how to edit genetic code using CRISPR in 2012. (rt.com)
  • Cancer cells create tumor-specific transcripts through dysregulation of posttranscriptional processes such as alternative splicing, 3′ processing, and RNA editing ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Alu editing in these transcripts is likely to affect many cellular processes. (nature.com)
  • Zhang and his team, including first co-authors Omar Abudayyeh and Jonathan Gootenberg (both now McGovern Fellows), made use of a deactivated Cas13 to guide RESCUE to targeted cytosine bases on RNA transcripts, and used a novel, evolved, programmable enzyme to convert unwanted cytosine into uridine -- thereby directing a change in the RNA instructions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Single strand RNA transcripts: ssRNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • During viral infection, ADARs act directly through hypermutation of viral RNA or indirectly through host transcripts that modulate cellular responses. (scienceboard.net)
  • All of these types of RNAs begin as primary transcripts copied from DNA by one of the RNA polymerases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Almost all RNAs have extra sequences at one or both ends of the primary transcripts that must be removed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ribosomal RNAs are synthesized as long primary transcripts that contain several different rRNAs separated by spacer regions (see figure). (encyclopedia.com)
  • A rapid new assay to detect RNA editing reveals antipsychotic-induced changes in serotonin-2C transcripts Sodhi, M. S. (loyolamedicine.org)
  • 2015. The majority of transcripts in the squid nervous system are extensively recoded by A-to-I RNA editing . (icr.org)
  • The recent identification of tRNA-specific adenosine deaminases (ADATs) has led to the suggestion that these enzymes, as well as the cytidine and adenosine deaminases acting on pre-mRNAs (CDARs and ADARs), belong to a superfamily of RNA-dependent deaminases. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • A-to-I RNA editing is catalysed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). (nature.com)
  • Figure 5: Regulation of RNA interference (RNAi) by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). (nature.com)
  • RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA converts adenosines to inosines in coding and non-coding regions of mRNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • One such mechanism is RNA and DNA editing mediated by endogenous deaminases. (scienceboard.net)
  • The human apolipoprotein B-editing catalytic polypeptide (ABOBEC) family is a group of zinc-dependent DNA and RNA cytidine deaminases and consists of AID, APOBEC1 (A1), APOBEC2 (A2), seven APOBEC3s (APOBEC3A [A3A] to A3H), and APOBEC4 (A4). (asm.org)
  • However, in plants, most siRNAs are generated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [1] . (wikiversity.org)
  • The RNA, which mimics a strand of the targeted gene's DNA sequence, and a restriction enzyme (Cas9), which can sever DNA, are introduced into a cell. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The RNA also binds to the Cas9 enzyme, which cuts the DNA at the targeted location. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The Cas9 enzyme cuts across both strands of the DNA at the desired spot within the genome. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Cas9, gRNA expression vectors, and homologous recombination vector were transfected into breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using genome editing. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Several other research groups are working on RNA-editing technologies, including a team at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), which used an RNA-targeted Cas9 system in lab models of myotonic dystrophy two years ago. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • This machinery is copied and altered to create specific gene-editing complexes, which include the wonder enzyme Cas9. (rt.com)
  • The combination is attached to an RNA guide that takes the gene-editing complex to its target, telling Cas9 where to operate. (rt.com)
  • RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consisting of all 12 subunits. (wikiversity.org)
  • The eukaryotic core RNA polymerase II was first purified using transcription assays. (wikiversity.org)
  • DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLR2A gene. (wikiversity.org)
  • RPB1 is the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. (wikiversity.org)
  • In combination with several other polymerase subunits, it forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • RPB2 (POLR2B) is the second largest subunit which in combination with at least two other polymerase subunits forms a structure within the polymerase that maintains contact in the active site of the enzyme between the DNA template and the newly synthesized RNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • RNA polymerase II subunit B4 (RPB4) encoded by the POLR2D gene [7] is the fourth largest subunit and may have a stress protective role. (wikiversity.org)
  • RPB3 is involved in RNA polymerase II assembly. (wikiversity.org)
  • The turnover number for RNA polymerase II is 0.16 s -1 subject to concentration. (wikiversity.org)
  • [13] RNA polymerase II switches between inactivated and activated states by translocating back and forth along the DNA. (wikiversity.org)
  • The number of single-nucleotide variants that the researchers observed in the samples were comparable with mutation rates observed in coronaviruses and commonly associated to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). (scienceboard.net)
  • RNA polymerase is composed of a core and a holoenzyme structure. (rug.nl)
  • The sigma factor functions in aiding in promoter recognition, correct placement of RNA polymerase, and beginning unwinding at the start site. (rug.nl)
  • [3] Additionally, RNA polymerase contains a core Mg+ ion that assists the enzyme with its catalytic properties. (rug.nl)
  • Furthermore, RNA polymerase also displays exonuclease activities, meaning that if improper base pairing is detected, it can cut out the incorrect bases and replace them with the proper, correct one. (rug.nl)
  • Initiation of transcription requires two sites in DNA: a promoter that forms a recognition and binding site for the RNA polymerase, and the actual start site. (rug.nl)
  • RNA polymerase is made up of 4 or 5 subunits, depending on which form it is in. (rug.nl)
  • When all 5 subunits are present in RNA polymerase, it is in its active form and referred to as the holoenzyme. (rug.nl)
  • When the σ subunit detaches, it is in polymerase core enzyme form (also called core polymerase). (rug.nl)
  • [5] Generally, this nucleotide sequence consists of about twelve base pairs and aids in contributing to the stability of RNA polymerase so it is able to continue along the strand of DNA. (rug.nl)
  • the more similar the promoter region is to the consensus sequence, the tighter RNA polymerase will be able to bind. (rug.nl)
  • Otherwise, RNA does not remain in a helical ring, as does DNA, since the chain of nucleotides would be easily broken apart. (wikibooks.org)
  • They ultimately found 77 different variables that helped them to distinguish real editing sites from nucleotides that were conclusively not editing sites. (eurekalert.org)
  • and modifying RNA nucleotides either at the ends of an RNA or within the body of the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The removal of individual nucleotides from the ends of the RNA strand is carried out by any of several ribonucleases (enzymes that cut RNA), called exoribonucleases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Editing in both coding and noncoding sequences results in diseases ranging from cancers to neurological abnormalities. (mdpi.com)
  • During the editing process, adenosines that reside in the coding sequence (e.g. 5-HT2c receptor, glutamate receptor) or in non-repetitive intronic sequences (e.g. phosphodiesterase subtype 8A/PDE8A) are deaminated. (springer.com)
  • 1997 ), the editing process of the intronic sequences has been proposed to influence both RNA splicing pattern and formation of different isoforms of microRNAs, known to actively modulate gene expression (Kawahara et al. (springer.com)
  • A team from UC San Diego is also working to correct mistakes in RNA to treat a group of diseases that are caused by too many repeats in RNA sequences, causing the RNA to clump together in cells. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Restriction enzymes, found naturally in bacteria, can be used to cut DNA fragment at specific sequences, while another enzyme, DNA ligase, can attach or rejoin DNA fragments with complementary ends. (dnalc.org)
  • RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons . (wikipedia.org)
  • By comparing these three sequences they were able to see the A-to-G changes that could not be attributed to anomalies in DNA (i.e., mutations, or single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and that never occurred in flies incapable of editing. (eurekalert.org)
  • RNA splicing is similar to trimming in that it removes extra RNA sequences, but it is different because the sequence is removed from the middle of an RNA and the two flanking pieces are joined together again (see figure). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Being able to predict editing sites is a revolutionary discovery that will greatly increase the value of existing genome sequences," said Molecular Biologist Joanne Tornow, a program director with the NSF s Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences. (innovations-report.com)
  • All ADARs share common modular organisation of domain structures that comprise a double-stranded RNA-binding domain (dsRBD) necessary for target binding and a catalytic domain conveying deaminase activity (Gallo et al. (springer.com)
  • The Zalpha domain of human double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase 1 binds specifically to left-handed Z-DNA and stabilizes the Z-conformation. (nih.gov)
  • In this paper, I shall review the functions and regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase and apolipoprotein B-editing cytidine deaminase, subunit 3G, and speculate about the basis for site specificity vis-à-vis generalized mutagenesis. (jimmunol.org)
  • One well-studied type of C-to-U RNA editing is catalyzed by the apolipoprotein (apo) 3 B RNA-editing cytidine deaminase (APOBEC)1. (jimmunol.org)
  • dADAR, a Drosophila double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase is highly developmentally regulated and is itself a target for RNA editing. (uniprot.org)
  • Double-stranded RNA adenine deaminase. (cathdb.info)
  • May 19, 2020 -- Two human deaminase enzymes that edit viral RNA inside cells could have implications for the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 and the spread of the infection, according to a study published in Science Advances on May 18. (scienceboard.net)
  • The findings of this paper were somewhat surprising, since A1cf was discovered as necessary for the deaminase Apobec-1 to act on RNA, and it was originally thought to be the Apobec-1 cofactor," Davidson said. (asbmb.org)
  • Computer model of the enzyme, activation-induced (cytidine) deaminase (AID). (sciencephoto.com)
  • GAPDH is an enzyme that has been shown to bind to several different types of RNA including, mRNAs, tRNA,s rRNA, and viral RNAs. (wikibooks.org)
  • A form of RNA known as transfer RNA (tRNA) is responsible for delivering free amino acids to the ribosome and growing peptide chain. (wikibooks.org)
  • tRNA modification enzymes exhibit different mechanisms for recognition of specific tRNA species to be modified. (els.net)
  • Alfonzo JD, Blanc V, Estevez AM, Rubio MA and Simpson L (1999) C to U editing of the anticodon of imported mitochondrial tRNA(Trp) allows decoding of the UGA stop codon in Leishmania tarentolae. (els.net)
  • Bullerwell CE and Gray MW (2005) In vitro characterization of a tRNA editing activity in the mitochondria of Spizellomyces punctatus, a Chytridiomycete fungus. (els.net)
  • Genome-wide screening has identified numerous A-to-I editing sites in inverted Alu repeats located in non-coding regions of mRNAs. (nature.com)
  • Targeting disease-linked mutations in RNA, which is relatively short-lived, would avoid making permanent changes to the genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists "edit" a plant's genome to get desired traits. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • REPAIR can fix mutations without tampering with the genome, and because RNA naturally degrades, it's a potentially reversible fix," said co-first author David Cox, a graduate student in Zhang's lab. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Characteristics of Genome Editing Mutations in Cereal Crops. (semanticscholar.org)
  • With the right expertise in molecular biology, one could start a basic laboratory to modify human embryos using a genome-editing computer technique all for a couple thousand dollars, according to a new report. (rt.com)
  • The ability to edit a genome makes it possible to discover the biological mechanisms underlying human biology. (rt.com)
  • there (was) no way to predict where an RNA editing site would occur from genome sequence," said Reenan. (innovations-report.com)
  • The literal genome is not the final word and, for whatever reason, this mechanism (A-to-I editing) is almost exclusive to the nervous system," Reenan said. (innovations-report.com)
  • Genome editing stands to change the trajectory of human civilization, with massive implications for treatments of any genetic disease and potential for even broader improvements in human health. (hpcwire.com)
  • Now, chemists from the University of California San Diego have applied supercomputing in their quest to make genome editing more viable. (hpcwire.com)
  • By gathering atomistic insights into the process, we may be able to learn the rules of the evolutionary game and try to get ahead of natural evolution - try to convert more RNA-editing enzymes into DNA-editing enzymes, which can become novel genome editors. (hpcwire.com)
  • Put another way, this study revealed "an unanticipated genome rigidity required to maintain the extensive transcriptome recoding [RNA editing]. (icr.org)
  • There is a need to discover new potential actionable genetic lesions, to which end, non-conventional cancer pathways, such as RNA editing, are worth exploring. (csic.es)
  • What's more, patients with melanoma respond better to immunotherapy if they have natural genetic mutations that inactivate the same enzyme. (ucsd.edu)
  • Researchers have invented two new techniques that expand the ability of human beings to edit the genetic code of living things, potentially paving the way for new medical and agricultural applications. (forbes.com)
  • She says the new technique could be very useful in making genetic edits without causing re-arrangements of the DNA, a problem with current techniques. (forbes.com)
  • The second technique makes it possible to edit a whole other species of genetic chemical: RNA. (forbes.com)
  • It's possible that life started as RNA, and some viruses, like HIV, use the chemical as their genetic material. (forbes.com)
  • The RNA World Hypothesis speculates that the origin of life began with ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) because of its ability to serve both as a storage for genetic information and enzymatic activity. (wikibooks.org)
  • 1. According to the Genetic Takeover Hypothesis, an earlier form of life on earth used RNA as its only genetic component. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2. The first form of life on earth used RNA as its only genetic component. (wikibooks.org)
  • The book, The Genetic Code, written in 1967 by Carl Woese, was the first published material that supported RNA World Hypothesis [2] . (wikibooks.org)
  • Jamieson characterized RNA editing as tweaking basic genetic blueprints, not fundamentally rewriting them. (ucsd.edu)
  • The discovery of enzymes that could cut and paste DNA made genetic engineering possible. (dnalc.org)
  • New tools for editing genetic code offer hope for new treatments for inherited diseases, some cancers, and even stubborn viral infections. (news-medical.net)
  • California state officials have passed the first law to prohibit genetic biohacking in an effort to regulate at-home gene editing. (news-medical.net)
  • Pseudouridylation of nonsense codons suppresses translation termination both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that RNA modification may provide a new way to expand the genetic code. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lastly, the researchers speculated that genetic variations of the APOBEC gene that result in a deletion polymorphism of the APOBEC enzyme (common in the Chinese population) could play a role in the spread of coronavirus infections. (scienceboard.net)
  • Davidson's lab now is using the genetic tools from this study to illuminate further the role of RNA editing during development, where it is implicated in regulation of growth. (asbmb.org)
  • These cells appear to confuse their own RNA for the genetic material of viruses, a mistake that can make them send out false infection alarms. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Genetic modification has received heightened scrutiny recently following last week's announcement that Chinese researchers had, for the first time, successfully edited human embryos' genomes. (rt.com)
  • Last week, the Sun Yat-Sen University research team said it attempted to cure a gene defect that causes beta-thalassemia (a genetic blood disorder that could lead to severe anemia, poor growth, skeletal abnormalities and even death) by editing the germ line. (rt.com)
  • Some experts say the gene editing could help defeat genetic diseases even before birth. (rt.com)
  • The researchers are hopeful that this research will help researchers narrow in on the most promising mechanisms for forcing that DNA-editing evolution, pushing genetic editing forward. (hpcwire.com)
  • In light of the ultra high-tech ability of these animals to optimize their own vital genetic material using precise RNA re-coding molecular machines and procedures, these researchers should wonder if it evolved at all. (icr.org)
  • This process can be so extensive that most of the coding sequence, as well as the initiation and termination codons, results from RNA editing ( 1 , 11 , 27 , 28 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Stimulates both the release and infectivity of HIV-1 viral particles by an editing-dependent mechanism where it associates with viral RNAs and edits adenosines in the 5UTR and the Rev and Tat coding sequence. (genecards.org)
  • RNA methylation and diseases: experimental results, databases, Web servers and computational models Chen, Xing;Sun, Ya-Zhou;Liu, Hui;Zhang, Lin;Li, Jian-Qiang;Meng, Jia 2017-11-18 00:00:00 Abstract Ribonucleic acid (RNA) methylation is a type of posttranscriptional modifications occurring in all kingdoms of life. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conclusions These findings highlight the fact that the differentially expressed ADARs in tumours, which are responsible for an A to I editing imbalance, has great prognostic value and diagnostic potential for HCC. (bmj.com)
  • Besides mRNAs, also primary and precursor miRNAs can be targets for RNA editing by ADARs. (frontiersin.org)
  • In all organisms editing by ADARs is most abundant in the nervous system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Athanasiadis, A., Rich, A. & Maas, S. Widespread A-to-I RNA editing of Alu-containing mRNAs in the human transcriptome. (nature.com)
  • In this review we describe the mechanisms of RNA editing and focus on target mRNAs of editing that are functionally relevant to normal and aberrant CNS activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Editing of pri- and pre-miRNAs can alter their processing but also their base-pairing potential with target mRNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, editing of miRNAs can indirectly change the abundance and translatability of their target mRNAs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Editing of mRNAs was originally believed to be a rare event. (frontiersin.org)
  • RNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria produces mature mRNAs by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that specifically insert or delete uridylates in association with a macromolecular complex. (asm.org)
  • RNA editing produces mature mRNAs in the mitochondria of trypanosomatids by guide RNA (gRNA)-directed posttranscriptional insertion and deletion of uridylates (U's) ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • The mRNAs for components of respiratory complex I are preferentially edited in the mammalian stage of the life cycle, where the trypanosomes lack cytochromes, rely on glycolysis for energy production, and utilize complex I and alternate oxidase for terminal respiration. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the invertebrate stage predominantly utilizes cytochrome-mediated oxidative phosphorylation for energy generation while editing cytochrome mRNAs only in this stage. (asm.org)
  • An siRNA can be processed to the single strand anti-sense RNA and used to target mRNAs for destruction. (wikiversity.org)
  • A-to-I editing of pre-mRNAs acts predominantly through nervous system targets to affect adult nervous system integrity, function and behavior. (uniprot.org)
  • However, thanks to the development of new analysis tools, the field of RNA nucleotide methylation is emerging. (deepdyve.com)
  • These enzymes alter the basic nucleotide building blocks (amino groups) from their nucleobase components. (scienceboard.net)
  • To assess whether RNA editing may be involved in the response to SARS-CoV-2 infections, Italian researchers analyzed single-nucleotide variants in RNA sequencing datasets from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids extracted from the lungs of COVID-19 patients. (scienceboard.net)
  • As a strategy to restore the normal function of MECP2, the single-base RNA editing approach of swapping out A and G could address about 40% of all known mutations that cause Rett syndrome, Sinnamon said. (genengnews.com)
  • The team took the new platform into human cells, showing that they could target natural RNAs in the cell as well as 24 clinically relevant mutations in synthetic RNAs. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this study, we have discovered an unexpected role for GUN1 in plastid RNA editing, as gun1 mutations affect RNA-editing efficiency at multiple sites in plastids during retrograde signaling. (pnas.org)
  • The team tested their tool against RNA mutations that cause Fanconi anemia and X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, finding that the system repaired the mutations. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The researchers showed they could use RESCUE to target natural RNAs in cells, as well as "24 clinically relevant mutations in synthetic RNAs," they said in a statement . (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Mutations underlying Episodic Ataxia type-1 antagonize Kv1.1 RNA editing. (mbl.edu)
  • To better understand if RNA editing could be the cause of mutations acquired through evolution, the researchers also compared the genomes from SARS-CoV-2 to MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. (scienceboard.net)
  • The constraints required to preserve thousands of recoding sites reduce the accumulation of mutations at positions in the proximity of an editing site, slowing down the rate of conventional, DNA-level evolution. (icr.org)
  • The genomic landscape and clinical relevance of A-to-I RNA editing in human cancers. (nature.com)
  • DNA complements the RNA sequence and stores genomic information. (wikibooks.org)
  • Moreover, transcription can be inhibited via the pre-transcriptional silencing mechanism of RNA interference, through which an enzyme complex catalyzes DNA methylation at genomic positions complementary to complexed siRNA or miRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytosine to uracil changes leading to stop codons were overrepresented in transcriptomic data but were not present in the genomic data, suggesting an antiviral role in the editing enzyme. (scienceboard.net)
  • "Research using genomic editing technologies can and are being funded by NIH," Francis Collins said Wednesday. (rt.com)
  • In rodents, ADAR2 undergoes alternative RNA splicing, giving rise to two splice variants that differ by the presence or absence of a 10-amino-acid insert in the carboxy-terminal catalytic domain. (elsevier.com)
  • In summary, our study shows that ADAR2 messenger RNA expression is regulated in a cell-specific manner throughout development. (elsevier.com)
  • At early ages, ADAR2 messenger RNA is expressed only within (and restricted to) the thalamic nuclei. (elsevier.com)
  • RESCUE can be guided to any RNA of choice, then perform a C-to-U edit through the evolved ADAR2 component of the platform. (eurekalert.org)
  • ADARB1 encodes the enzyme ADAR2 that is highly expressed in the brain and essential to modulate the function of glutamate and serotonin receptors. (bmj.com)
  • Impaired ADAR2 editing causes early onset progressive epilepsy and premature death in mice. (bmj.com)
  • The antiviral effects are due to hyper-editing and mutagenesis of viral RNAs ( Samuel, 2011 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • To address these questions, the researchers packaged a mouse Mecp2 RNA guide and human editing enzyme "editase" in a viral vector and introduced it directly into the hippocampus, the brain structure associated with learning and memory. (genengnews.com)
  • With regard to APOBEC-mediated RNA editing, the researchers suggested that because this type of editing is almost undetectable in human tissues, it could be effective against viral species, including SARS-CoV-2. (scienceboard.net)
  • Can edit both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites (hyper-editing) or at specific sites (site-specific editing). (genecards.org)
  • Its viral RNA substrates include: hepatitis C virus (HCV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), measles virus (MV), hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (genecards.org)
  • Can enhance viral replication of HDV via A-to-I editing at a site designated as amber/W, thereby changing an UAG amber stop codon to an UIG tryptophan (W) codon that permits synthesis of the large delta antigen (L-HDAg) which has a key role in the assembly of viral particles. (genecards.org)
  • Retrograde signaling and posttranscriptional RNA editing are important regulatory processes for chloroplast development and function in flowering plants. (pnas.org)
  • We discovered that in the nucleus, ADAR1p110 oversees a similar mechanism to ADAR1p150, the better-known cytoplasmic variant, but the editing process in this case targets particular nucleic acid structures called R-loops when formed at the chromosome ends," said Kazuko Nishikura, PhD, professor in the Gene Expression & Regulation Program of the Wistar Institute Cancer Center, in a statement. (scienceboard.net)
  • Researchers found that RNA editing events can have large downstream effects that influence gene expression and subsequent phenotypic manifestations of. (scienceboard.net)
  • By combining the data of A-I RNA editing and gene expression, we generated an algorithm that allowed discrimination between the group of patients who developed a treatment-emergent depression and those who did not. (springer.com)
  • Lacing insect food with microbes encoding double-stranded RNAs can suppress insect gene expression. (the-scientist.com)
  • RNA interference was discovered as a mechanism used by cells for regulating gene expression . (wikiversity.org)
  • However, it was only in 1998 that experiments were described showing the unexpected power of double stranded RNA to block gene expression [6] . (wikiversity.org)
  • The secondary and tertiary orders of RNA structure are crucial for a suite of RNA-related functions, including regulation of translation, gene expression and RNA turnover. (biologists.org)
  • Design of simple synthetic RNA thermometers for temperature-controlled gene expression in Escherichia coli. (mpg.de)
  • With its "guide" sequence, RNA locates and binds to its paired DNA sequence. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The scientists created a deactivated version of the Cas13 enzyme, PspCas13b, which binds precisely to a stretch of RNA, but does not cut it. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Once the σ-factor binds, the remaining core enzyme subunits attach to the site. (rug.nl)
  • It binds to a certain three-dimensional RNA structure like a can opener latching onto the top lip of a can of green beans. (icr.org)
  • The antibodies cause a supershift of previously identified gRNA-specific ribonucleoprotein complexes and immunoprecipitate in vitro RNA editing activities that insert and delete uridylates. (asm.org)
  • In vitro RNA editing assays showed that the p. (bmj.com)
  • The discovery that AID mutates dC residues in Escherichia coli DNA ( 14 ) and in ssDNA in vitro ( 15 , 16 , 17 ) suggests that AID may mutate ssDNA and not RNA in B cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Certain microRNA (miRNA) precursors are also edited, leading to reduced expression or altered function of mature miRNAs. (nature.com)
  • Figure 4: Regulation of microRNA (miRNA) processing, expression and selectivity by RNA editing. (nature.com)
  • RNA editing is a widespread post-transcriptional process contributing to greater cellular transcriptome diversity in eukaryotes. (bmj.com)
  • These observations point to an important role of RNA methylation in cellular process and call for this area to be further studied from both theory and application of biomedicine. (deepdyve.com)
  • We will briefly examine each of these and then discuss how they are applied to the various types of cellular RNAs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Human Z-RNA editing enzyme complexed with Z-RNA (Z-ribonucleic acid). (sciencephoto.com)
  • This method, called NAIL-MS (nucleic acid isotope labeling coupled mass spectrometry), enables a variety of approaches to investigate RNA modification dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, RNA editing may be an important mechanism for fine-tuning of the physiological and pharmacological properties of transmitter receptors of the central nervous system. (elsevier.com)
  • Lentiviral delivery of designed shRNAs and the mechanism of RNA interference in mammalian cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enhances the replication of MV, VSV and HIV-1 through an editing-independent mechanism via suppression of EIF2AK2/PKR activation and function. (genecards.org)
  • Novel identifications of long noncoding RNA and retrotransposons as editing targets further expand the effects of A-to-I editing. (mdpi.com)
  • RESCUE targets one of the four main "bases" of RNA, cytosine. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Essential for adaptation to environmental stresses, such as oxygen deprivation, and for the prevention of premature neuronal degeneration, through the editing of ion channels as targets. (uniprot.org)
  • These data clearly demonstrate that, through the editing of ion channels as targets, dADAR , for which there are mammalian homologues, is essential for adaptation to altered environmental stresses such as O 2 deprivation and for the prevention of premature neuronal degeneration. (jci.org)
  • Selectively targets single-stranded DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single-or double-stranded RNA. (genecards.org)
  • Cas13 (pink), is at the heart of the RESCUE platform, where it uses a special guide (red) to target RNAs in the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • The REPAIR system is based on Cas13, an enzyme that does the same, but for RNA. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Zhang's team used a deactivated form of a different enzyme, Cas13, to target RNA. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Principles governing A-to-I RNA editing in the breast cancer transcriptome. (nature.com)
  • Widespread RNA editing of embedded Alu elements in the human transcriptome. (nature.com)
  • Systematic identification of abundant A-to-I editing sites in the human transcriptome. (nature.com)
  • In human cancers, aberrant post-transcriptional modifications, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, may lead to tumour specific transcriptome diversity. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, RNA processing refers to any modification made to RNA between its transcription and its final function in the cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Inosines are interpreted as guanosines and hence, this type of editing can change codons, alter splice patterns, or influence the fate of an RNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Courtesy of Nick Davidson RNA editing can create heterogeneity in genetically identical cells by mediating amino acid substitutions, alternative isoform creation and modification of stop codons. (asbmb.org)
  • RNA methylation classification RNA methylation occurs in all species of organisms. (deepdyve.com)
  • It occurs in all living organisms and is one of the most evolutionarily conserved properties of RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA editing occurs in the cell nucleus and cytosol, as well as within mitochondria and plastids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased cortical expression of an RNA editing enzyme occurs in major depressive suicide victims Simmons, M. (loyolamedicine.org)
  • RNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 and some of its homologs can act as DNA mutators. (nih.gov)
  • The findings, published in Nature Communications on March 12, suggest that the enzyme is required for the proliferation of cancer cells and may be a potential therapeutic target for some cancers. (scienceboard.net)
  • Online Cover This week features a Research Article that describes how an RNA editing enzyme promotes the progression of some lung cancers by stabilizing the RNA that encodes the cell migration-associated kinase FAK. (sciencemag.org)
  • The enzyme, however, is also activated in cancers as diverse as liver, breast and leukemia. (ucsd.edu)
  • The enzyme's RNA-editing activity boosts cancer stem cells - a special population of cells that can self-renew, giving rise to cancer, increasing recurrence and allowing some cancers to resist treatment. (ucsd.edu)
  • In this 16-week longitudinal study, a small cohort of patients was clinically evaluated using standard assessment methods prior to and during antiviral therapy and blood samples were collected to analyse RNA editing modifications. (springer.com)
  • Extensive studies to assess the antiviral nature of these APOBEC enzymes have been performed across a broad range of retroviruses and hepatitis B virus (HBV) ( 7 , 35 , 36 , 42 , 43 , 50 , 56 , 58 ). (asm.org)
  • Exhibits either a proviral (HDV, MV, VSV and HIV-1) or an antiviral effect (HCV) and this can be editing-dependent (HDV and HCV), editing-independent (VSV and MV) or both (HIV-1). (genecards.org)
  • Each siRNA is unwound into two single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs), the passenger strand and the guide strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, the idea that dynamic RNA methylation plays active roles in gene regulation has been intensively studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • Together, these data have established the regulatory roles of Alu exons in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism including translation and degradation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, functional experiments have revealed many novel functional roles of RNA modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • All RNAs are originally transcribed from DNA by RNA polymerases, which are specialized enzyme complexes, but most RNAs must be further modified or processed before they can carry out their roles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Whereas the roles of temperature-sensitive RNA structures similar to RNATs in Eukarya and Archaea are largely unknown, there would appear to be a potential for all taxa to adaptively regulate their thermal physiology through exploitation of RNA-based thermosensory responses akin to those of bacteria. (biologists.org)
  • Because almost all work on the thermosensory roles of RNA has been performed with bacteria, animal physiologists may be unfamiliar with the potentials of these mechanisms for fostering evolutionary adaptation and acclimatization to temperature. (biologists.org)
  • In 2017, Sinnamon and Mandel reported their first success with the RNA approach, efficiently repairing the Rett mouse mutant RNA in developing neurons in culture. (genengnews.com)
  • RESCUE builds on another system developed at the Broad called RNA Editing for Programmable A to I Replacement (REPAIR), which Zhang's team reported in 2017. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • I hope that this Commentary inspires exciting new questions that can be tested in the near future as new ways of studying RNA secondary and tertiary structure are developed (for a review of methods, see Ignatova and Narberhaus, 2017 ). (biologists.org)
  • Adenine in double-stranded RNA + H(2)O = hypoxanthine in double-stranded RNA + NH(3). (cathdb.info)
  • This is an example of how metabolism and the resulting metabolites can regulate interactions between enzymes and RNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • Stage-specific RNA editing appears to regulate mitochondrial respiration in the different life stages of African trypanosomes ( 9 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • In addition, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recently identified as a relatively large class of ncRNAs, which are widespread and abundant in a variety of eukaryotic organisms and involved in multiple biological processes [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This eukaryotic enzyme is involved in RNA editing. (cathdb.info)
  • RNA editing is a site specific, post transcriptional modification of RNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many of these methods are based on specific capture of the RNA species containing the specific modification, for example through antibody binding coupled with sequencing of the captured reads. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009) MODOMICS: a database of RNA modification pathways. (els.net)
  • In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA . (asmscience.org)
  • The researchers found that RNase H2, but not RNase H1, is critical for resolving telomeric R-loops by digesting RNA strands of mismatched RNA-DNA hybrids. (scienceboard.net)
  • UC San Diego researchers found that when the enzyme ALKBH5 is inhibited during cancer immunotherapy, metabolites in the tumor microenvironment change is such a way that fewer immune-suppressing cells accumulate, making the treatment more effective at shrinking tumors. (ucsd.edu)
  • He created the plants using gene editing, a technology-based on a natural process -that allows researchers to cut out certain bits of DNA in order to control traits. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Using molecular dynamics simulations, the researchers focused on an RNA-editing enzyme called "TadA" that evolves into a DNA- editing enzyme. (hpcwire.com)
  • So in an effort to find out what makes TadA tick, the researchers used their simulations to delve into the process that transforms TadA into a DNA-editing enzyme at an extremely granular level. (hpcwire.com)
  • Specifically, the researchers examined the relationship between amino acid changes in the enzyme and its DNA-editing abilities. (hpcwire.com)
  • The researchers examined representatives from each one to reveal that the squid, octopus and a cuttlefish make extensive internal RNA edits, while the nautiluses and snails they examined do not. (icr.org)
  • Newly transcribed RNA usually dissociates from its template DNA strand but occasionally forms a stable RNA-DNA hybrid, called an R-loop. (scienceboard.net)
  • The passenger strand is degraded and the guide strand is incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). (wikipedia.org)
  • The sense and antisense RNA strands form double strand RNA (Figure 2, top) that is processed to small (about 20 base pairs long) inhibitory RNA (siRNA). (wikiversity.org)
  • An entire section of RNA sequence can be removed by cleavage in the middle of an RNA strand. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By the third postnatal week, expression of the editase enzyme is more widely distributed throughout the olfactory bulb, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, thalamus, inferior colliculus and the molecular cell layer of the cerebellum. (elsevier.com)
  • MORF2 overexpression causes widespread RNA-editing changes and a strong genomes uncoupled ( gun ) molecular phenotype similar to gun1 . (pnas.org)
  • The phrase "RNA World Hypothesis" was then coined later in 1986 by Harvard molecular biologist and Nobel Prize laureate Walter Gilbert as he commented on the recent observations of the catalytic properties of RNA [3] . (wikibooks.org)
  • This will transform the way we think about RNA and its place in the world of molecular biology. (newscientist.com)
  • The molecular function of enzymes involved in RNA methylation has also been uncovered. (deepdyve.com)
  • RNA-editing processes show great molecular diversity, and some appear to be evolutionarily recent acquisitions that arose independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overarching goal of our study is to understand how evolution works in general-how evolutionary changes at the molecular level can train an existing enzyme to do something completely novel,"Rallapalli said. (hpcwire.com)
  • Deletion of the RNA-editing enzyme Apobec-1 in this model drastically reduces the number of polyps in the intestine. (asbmb.org)
  • In many cases, the editing-induced amino acid exchanges alter the properties of the receptors and channels. (frontiersin.org)
  • That's where Kartik came in and provided us with an atomistic understanding of how particular amino acid changes in TadA enable this enzyme to do its chemistry on DNA. (hpcwire.com)
  • Figure 3: Editing of Alu double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and its consequences. (nature.com)
  • In the case of the RNA editing enzyme ADARB1, which contains an Alu exon peptide in its catalytic domain, RNA sequencing analyses of A-to-I editing demonstrate that both the Alu exon skipping and inclusion isoforms encode active enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It can affect the activity, localization as well as stability of RNAs, and has been linked with human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of R-loops can be prevented through the degradation of RNA strands in the RNA-DNA hybrid by RNase H1 and RNase H2, as well as unwinding of the hybrids by helicases. (scienceboard.net)
  • RNA interference requires that two base pair-complementary strands of RNA to come together to form double stranded RNA [2] . (wikiversity.org)
  • [1] Currently, there is evidence to show that there are interactions among the RNA, enzymes, and metabolites in gene regulation. (wikibooks.org)
  • An example of an enzyme that can affect regulation of RNA expression is cytosolic aconitase. (wikibooks.org)
  • In addition to increasing our knowledge of the regulation of plant organellar RNA editing under stress conditions, this research uncovers a possible link between retrograde signaling and plastid RNA editing. (pnas.org)
  • Our study uncovers a role for GUN1 in the regulation of RNA-editing efficiency in damaged chloroplasts and suggests that MORF2 is involved in retrograde signaling. (pnas.org)
  • Despite a compelling need towards predictive understanding of natural and engineered editing events, how the RNA sequence and structure determine the editing efficiency and specificity (i.e., cis-regulation) is poorly understood. (stanford.edu)
  • Dynamic landscape and regulation of RNA editing in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • A recent paper by Davidson and colleagues, published in RNA Journal, deepens our understanding of tissue-specific regulation of programmed alteration of RNA, known as RNA editing, in the intestine and the liver. (asbmb.org)
  • The second group of modified nucleosides consists of more "complex" modifications (e.g., multiple modifications and hypermodifications), involving a multi-enzyme pathway or, as is the case with queuine and archaeosine, involving biosynthetic precursors synthesized by other enzymes for this purpose alone. (asmscience.org)
  • Infectivity could be restored to levels comparable to those observed for control cells if A1 expression was silenced by specific A1 short hairpin RNAs (shRNA). (asm.org)