Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Mice, Inbred BALB CFalse Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Paratuberculosis: A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Cysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Convalescence: The period of recovery following an illness.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Blood DonorsEntamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Tetanus Antitoxin: An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Orientia tsutsugamushi: A gram-negative, rod-shaped to coccoid bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of SCRUB TYPHUS in humans and is transmitted by mites from rodent reservoirs.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Antibodies, Anticardiolipin: Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Collodion: A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep: Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Flavivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (1/32616)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions. (2/32616)

AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. (3/32616)

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (4/32616)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Characterization of human bactericidal antibodies to Bordetella pertussis. (5/32616)

The Bordetella pertussis BrkA protein protects against the bactericidal activity of complement and antibody; however, some individuals mount an immune response that overcomes this bacterial defense. To further characterize this process, the bactericidal activities of sera from 13 adults with different modes of exposure to B. pertussis (infected as adults, occupational exposure, immunized with an acellular vaccine, or no identified exposure) against a wild-type strain and a BrkA complement-sensitive mutant were evaluated. All of the sera killed the BrkA mutant, suggesting past exposure to B. pertussis or cross-reactive organisms. Several samples had no or minimal activity against the wild type. All of the sera collected from the infected and occupationally exposed individuals but not all of the sera from vaccinated individuals had bactericidal activity against the wild-type strain, suggesting that some types of exposure can induce an immune response that can overcome the BrkA resistance mechanism. Adsorbing serum with the wild-type strain removed the bactericidal antibodies; however, adsorbing the serum with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant or an avirulent (bvg mutant) strain did not always result in loss of bactericidal activity, suggesting that antibodies to either LPS or bvg-regulated proteins could be bactericidal. All the samples, including those that lacked bactericidal activity, contained antibodies that recognized the LPS of B. pertussis. Bactericidal activity correlated best with the presence of the immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) antibodies to LPS, the IgG subtype that is most effective at fixing complement.  (+info)

Overexpression of human homologs of the bacterial DnaJ chaperone in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (6/32616)

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the chaperone family of J proteins in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis. METHODS: Rabbit antibodies specific for a synthetic peptide (pHSJ1: EAYEVLSDKHKREIYD), representing the most conserved part of all J domains thus far identified--among them the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56--were used in immunohistochemical analyses of frozen sections of synovial tissue and immunoblotting of protein extracts of adherent synovial cells. IgG specific for Tid56 was also used. RESULTS: Both antisera predominantly and intensely stained synovial lining cells from RA patients; other cells did not stain or stained only faintly. In immunoblots, anti-pHSJ1 specifically detected several bands with molecular weights of >74 kd (type I), 57-64 kd (type II), 41-48 kd (type III), and < or =36 kd (type IV). The strongest band detected in RA adherent synovial cells was the type II band, whereas in a B cell line, a type I band was prominent. CONCLUSION: Several potentially new members of the J family are described. The type II band represents the human homolog of the Drosophila Tid56 protein and is strongly expressed in RA synovial tissue.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (7/32616)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Familial antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: criteria for disease and evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance. (8/32616)

OBJECTIVE: To develop diagnostic criteria for a familial form of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), identify families with >1 affected member, examine possible modes of inheritance, and determine linkage to potential candidate genes. METHODS: Family members of probands with primary APS were analyzed for clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with APS. Families with > or =2 affected members were analyzed by segregation analysis and typed for candidate genetic markers. RESULTS: Seven families were identified. Thirty of 101 family members met diagnostic criteria for APS. Segregation studies rejected both environmental and autosomal recessive models, and the data were best fit by either a dominant or codominant model. Linkage analysis showed independent segregation of APS and several candidate genes. CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory criteria are essential to identify the spectrum of disease associated with APS. We believe a set of criteria was developed that can precisely define affected family members with APS. Modeling studies utilizing these criteria strongly support a genetic basis for disease in families with APS and suggest that a susceptibility gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. However, in these families, APS was not linked with HLA, Fas, or other candidate genes, including beta2-glycoprotein 1, HLA, T cell receptor beta chain, Ig heavy chain, antithrombin III, Fas ligand, factor V, complement factor H, IgK, and Fas.  (+info)

4. (Middle and Africa) Latin America Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market.. Report also includes Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market growth rate XXXX % during forecast period. Worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) industry report covers competitors/Manufacturers Profiles in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market with their Business Overview. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market report also includes Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market by Type and Applications, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Sales, Revenue, Price and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Industry Share. This research (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market Research) study also includes worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market Competition, by Manufacturer, by Manufacturer. Worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Sales and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Revenue by Regions (2011-2016). Purchase ...
Antibodies in porcine sera against glycoprotein E (gE) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) are usually measured in blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with one or two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against gE. Our aim was to develop a confirmation assay which is based on another principle and which is able to detect antibodies directed against most potential binding sites on gE with high specificity. Therefore, we developed an indirect double-antibody sandwich assay (IDAS) using recombinant gE expressed by baculovirus (BacgE960). A fragment of the gE gene consisting of nucleotide positions +60 to +1020 of gE, coding for the major antigenic sites of gE but not the transmembrane region, was cloned behind the signal sequence of PRV gG and the p10 promoter in a baculovirus vector. Immunoblot analysis showed that the expressed protein reacted with MAbs directed against five of the six antigenic sites on gE. Although the conformation of some antigenic sites, notably antigenic ...
A simple, specific, high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative determination of melatonin was developed for directly measuring melatonin in cell culture medium with 10% FBS. This assay adopts a commercial monoclonal melatonin antibody and melatonin-HRP conjugate, so it can be applied in multiple labs rapidly with low cost compared with commercial RIA and ELISA kits. In addition, the procedure is much simpler with only four steps: 1) sample/conjugate incubation, 2) plate washing, 3) TMB color reaction and 4) reading of results. The standards of the assay cover a wide working range from 100 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The sensitivity was 68 pg/mL in cell culture medium with 10% FBS and 26 pg/mL in PBS with as little as 25 μL sample volume. The recovery of melatonin from cell culture medium was 101.0%. The principal cross-reacting compound was 5-methoxytryptophol (0.1%). The variation coefficients of the assay, within and between runs, ranged between 6.68% and 15.76% in cell ...
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Chicken Egg Ovalbumin (Gal d 2) ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative ELISA Kit 6050 Chicken Egg Ovalbumin ELISA Kit Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Kit); enzyme immunoassay (EIA); animal (mouse;; rat;; human;; monkey etc) crossreactivity; serum plasma and biolgoical fluids; peptide;; proteins;; ELISA;; antibody;; Chicken proteins Allergy ovalbumin turkey egg white yolk ovalbumin ova peptides autoimmune autoantibodies contaminants food allergens vaccines Chicken Egg Ovalbumin (Gal d 2) ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative ELISA Kit 6050 Chicken Egg Ovalbumin ELISA Kit Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Kit); enzyme immunoassay (EIA); animal (mouse;; rat;; human;; monkey etc) crossreactivity; serum plasma and biolgoical fluids; peptide;; proteins;; ELISA;; antibody;; Chicken proteins Allergy ovalbumin turkey egg white yolk ovalbumin ova peptides autoimmune autoantibodies contaminants food allergens vaccines
transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and the newborn, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities Objectives: The aim of our study was to detect the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus infection in pregnant females at Sohag University Hospital using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay [ELISA] confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR] as well as the fetal outcome of infected women in comparison with healthy Methodology: The study was carried out on 60 pregnant women attending the Obestetric and Gynacology department of Sohag University Hospital fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were screened for type specific HSV antibodies [HSV-1 IgG and IgM, HSV-2 IgG and IgM] using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay [ELISA] . For IgM positive cases, HSV DNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR] . Blood samples were collected from all the participants after written informed consent. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the risk factors associated with HSV ...
Activated monocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. Blood monocytes which enter the inflamed joint become activated upon adherence to extracellular matrix and exposure to a complex inflammatory environment. We have analyzed the mechanism of monocyte activation by soluble factors present in inflammatory synovial fluid (SF). Greater than 75% of inflammatory SFs tested (a total of 22 fluids to date) increased cell surface expression and dramatically increased mRNA levels of monocyte activation markers Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RIII, and HLA-DRA. This induction was not triggered by adherence, a known activating stimulus, and several lines of evidence showed that induction was not dependent upon interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). Induction was not prevented by neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma antibodies and IFN-gamma was not detected in the SFs using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The SFs also were not able to activate the IFN-gamma-activated transcription ...
Glucosidase II is an endoplasmic-reticulum-localized enzyme that cleaves the two internally alpha-1,3-linked glucosyl residues of the oligosaccharide Glc alpha 1----2Glc alpha 1----3Glc alpha 1----3Man5-9GlcNAc2 during the biosynthesis of asparagine-linked glycoproteins. We have purified this enzyme to homogeneity from the lactating bovine mammary gland. The enzyme is a high-mannose-type asparagine-linked glycoprotein with a molecular mass of approx. 290 kDa. Upon SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, the purified enzyme shows two subunits of 62 and 64 kDa, both of which are glycosylated. The pH optimum is between 6.6 and 7.0. Specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the bovine mammary enzyme also recognize a similar antigen in heart, liver and the mammary gland of bovine, guinea pig, rat and mouse. These antibodies were used to develop a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for glucosidase II. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious worldwide pathogen and the focus of numerous vaccine development projects. Currently the most widely accepted surrogate marker for evaluating the efficacy of a given vaccine is to utilize ELISA. Measurement of antibody concentration by ELISA without reduction in cross-reactive antibodies causes an overestimation of antibody concentration and therefore protection, this is most notable in the aged, an at risk group for this infection. We compared the immune response to the pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS) 4 and 14 of 20 young to 20 elderly adults. Pre-and post-vaccination IgG antibody concentrations and antibody avidity against PPS4 and PPS14 were measured using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) absorption protocols. All sera were pre-absorbed with either cell-wall polysaccharide (CPS), or CPS and serotype 22F polysaccharide. Pre- and post-vaccination IgG antibody concentrations for serotype 4, but not 14, were significantly lowered with the
A novel minicolumn chromatographic method to monitor the production of inclusion bodies during fermentation and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system allowing direct analysis of the particles with surface-displayed antigens are described. A 33-kDa protein containing 306 amino acids with three sulfur bridges produced as inclusion bodies was labeled with polyclonal antibodies against 15 amino acid (anti-A15) and 17 amino acid (anti-B17) residues at the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Labeled particles were bound to macroporous monolithic protein A-cryogel adsorbents inserted into the open-ended wells of a 96-well plate (referred to as protein A-cryogel minicolumn plate). The concept behind this application is that the binding degree of inclusion bodies from lysed fermentation broth to the cryogel minicolumns increases with an increase in their concentration during fermentation. The technique allowed us to monitor the increase in the production levels of the ...
Capralogics Inc. offers a variety of laboratory support services for: ELISA Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (ELISA) is a procedure that is used to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. It can be used to measure or track the
#elisa #procedures, #antibody #exploration, #indirect #elisa, #capture #elisa #ELISA Procedures Indirect ELISA Reagents and Equipment Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) tablet: 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl (Product No. P4417 ) and 0.1% sodium azide (Product No. S2002 ). Carbonate-Bicarbonate buffer capsule, pH 9.6 (Product No. C3041 ). Washing buffer (PBS-T): 10 mM…
in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2012), 64(7), 2260-7. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to identify new biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) by proteomics analysis and to develop specific immunoassays to detect and quantify them. METHODS: Proteomics analysis ... [more ▼]. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to identify new biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) by proteomics analysis and to develop specific immunoassays to detect and quantify them. METHODS: Proteomics analysis was performed in urine samples from 10 women (mean+/-SD age 76.0+/-5.0 years) undergoing knee replacement surgery due to severe OA and 5 healthy women (mean+/-SD age 25.6+/-2.6 years). Protein content was analyzed by 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. Protein spots that exhibited an OA:control abundance ratio of ,/=1.5 were identified by mass spectrometry. Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed and validated in serum obtained from 236 healthy subjects ages 20-64 years and from 76 patients with ...
Correlation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). The results of 53 samples tested by anti-Rpp25 ELISA and
Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plays a pivotal role in cardiac angiogenesis and is required for preventing the transition from compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to heart failure (HF). Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a homologue of the VEGF family, plays a key role in lymphangiogenesis. However, the relationship between VEGF-C and HF is unknown.. Methods and Results: We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 401 outpatients whose New York Heart Association functional classes were stable for at least 3 months. We performed echocardiography and calculated the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), VEGF-A, and VEGF-C were determined employing specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into three groups: those with systolic dysfunction (HF+; LVEF , 50%), those with LVH and a preserved systolic function ...
Field research in remote areas presents many challenges, often including a lack of facilities and resources for maintaining a cold chain to preserve samples at low temperatures until they can be assayed in a laboratory. Cold-chains are necessary for the storage and transport of many types of biological samples (e.g., blood, urine and saliva) in order to reduce degradation and inhibit bacterial and fungal growth. One alternative to a cold chain is to add sodium azide, a potent antimicrobial, to each biological sample. However, sodium azide is incompatible with commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits that use horseradish peroxidase, an enzyme inactivated by sodium azide. To address this problem, we tested and validated EIA protocols that use an alternative enzyme, alkaline phosphatase. These protocols can be used for the measurement of steroid hormones in salivary samples that have been preserved with sodium azide, thus eliminating the trouble and expense of maintaining a cold chain from the ...
Analysis of anti-arboviral IgG in patient sera by using the ELISA format has previously been reported (2). When inactivated antigens are applied as a coating directly onto a plate, nonspecific background reactions occur (7). To avoid this problem, IgG ELISAs have been developed as either indirect assays, in which purified virus is applied as a coating onto the microtiter plate (2), or antibody-capture methods, where the plates are coated with anti-human IgG (6). Both of these approaches have disadvantages associated with them. The use of purified live virus is undesirable, both from a safety standpoint and because the preparation of multiple purified viruses is impractical. The antibody-capture method employs inactivated viral antigen and is therefore convenient; however, the anti-human IgG captures all IgG present in the sera. IgG persists long after an infection, and therefore this method is likely to suffer from a lack of sensitivity due to competition from nonspecific IgG. Barry et al. (1) ...
Authors: Bobrowska-Korczak, Barbara , Skrajnowska, Dorota , Tokarz, Andrzej Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Backround: Epigenetic alterations have been identified as promising new targets for cancer prevention strategies as they occur early during carcinogenesis and represent potentially initiating events for cancer development. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of zinc and copper on the DNA methylation in rats whose breast adenocarcinoma was simultaneously induced with 7, 12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The reseach focused on the kinetics of alterations in urinary 5-MedC (5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine) at the early and late stages of carcinogenesis, as well as the influence of dietary factors on the process. Methods: The content of …5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine in the rats urine was determined by the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. The 5-MedC level was standardized by conversion to the creatinine level. Results: It was found that in the ...
Hyaluronan (HA) is widely detected in biological samples and its concentration is most commonly determined by the use of a labeled specific HA binding protein (aggrecan G1-IGD-G2, HABP), employing membrane blotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like methods. However, the detected signal intensity or the quantified value obtained by using these surface-based methods is related to the molecular mass (M) of HA, especially for HA in the low M range below ~150 kDa. At the same mass or mass concentration, higher M HA gives a higher signal than lower M HA. We have experimentally determined the quantitative relationship between the M of HA (in the range 20-150 kDa) and the relative signal intensity in comparison with a standard HA, in a sandwich ELISA-like assay. An M-dependent signal correction factor (SCF) was calculated and used to correct the signal intensity, so that the corrected concentration value would more accurately reflect the true HA concentration in solution. The ...
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric, 5 x 96 Tests. |p|The advent of biological products produced using animal components has created a need to ensure their removal prior to use.
Influenza B NCP Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric, 2 x 96 Tests. Influenza viruses can be divided into three classes, A, B, and C, largely based upon conserved antigenic differences in the internal nucleoprotein.
Background Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) DNA testing of genital samples principally from symptomatic persons provides information about active infection only, and is unlikely to represent true prevalence of current and past infection in the population. Serological tests applied to serum collections that are more representative of the general population can help understanding the pattern of the infection. We previously described an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the CT-specific antigen Pgp3. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using ROC curve analysis of data from 356 sera from CT-infected patients and 722 paediatric sera. The assay works particularly well in women, with a greater sensitivity (74%) than commercial assays (60%), and is suitable for use in seroprevalence studies. However, there is a need to confirm the specificity of samples reactive in the indirect Pgp3 ELISA and, to this end, we have developed a competitive Pgp3 ...
Sterigmatocystin (STG), a biosynthesis precursor of aflatoxin B1, is well known for its toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. STG derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel STG derivatives, based on which novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates were prepared. With the novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates, three sensitive and specific mAbs against STG, named VerA 3, VerA 4, and VerA 6, were prepared by semi-solid hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT) medium using a modified two-step screening procedure. They exhibited high affinity for STG and no cross-reactivity (CR) with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. Based on the most sensitive antibody VerA 3, an ultra-sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for STG in wheat, maize, and peanuts. Assays were performed in the STG-GA-BSA-coated (0.5 g mL(-1)) ELISA format, in which the ...
A partially purified 125I-labeled antibody directed against the murine major histocompatibility complex and injected i.v. pregnant females is selectively absorbed by the placenta when the fetus bears the appropriate targen antigen. The placenta specifically absorbs the antibody at both 13 days and 17 days of gestation, and the differential uptake is found as early as 2 hr after injection and as late as 12 hr. It is also seen in 13-day placentas that have had the fetus removed surgically, indicating that fetal circulation is not essential for the absorption to take place. Specificity controls eliminate the possibility that the differential uptake is due to Fc receptor binding or undefined effects of hybrid vigor. This increase in binding is not seen in the livers, spleens, kidneys, or lungs of the pregnant females. There is a slight decrease in radioactivity in the serum. These results indicate that the placenta is a paternal antigen-bearing immunoabsorbent that could serve as a barrier
False detections Using gel electrophoresis and DNA, a team of US researchers has developed a novel form of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA that is faster, more sensitive and less prone to false detections than existing versions. Termed a nanoswitch-linked immunosorbent assay NLISA, it could form the basis for quick, cheap and effective...
An HBsAb Quantitative ELISA test kit will allow you to test for the hepatitis B and assess antibody response levels to the HBsAg-vaccine. Buy online!
Free Online Library: Preparation and characterization of an antibody antagonist that targets the porcine growth hormone receptor.(Report) by Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences; Agricultural industry Biological sciences Antagonists (Biochemistry) Health aspects Antibodies Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Enzymes Somatotropin Swine Viral antibodies
Complete Report Details @ https://marketreportscenter.com/reports/159995/global-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-elisa-industry-2016-market-research-report. Regional Insights:. The report lets you have an edge across the targeted regions with the comprehensive competitive framework. It analyzes the market on the basis of segmentation at a regional level coupled with price rate, profit, forecast, and estimates. The report studies the use of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) across several sectors to study and projects the future growth prospects. The report covers regional analysis of the market with respect to the existing market size and future prospects. It features historical stats, data and revenue estimation of the market segments and sub-segments in accordance with the top geographic regions and their countries. It discusses the current scenario of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market across major geographic segments North America, China, Europe, Asia (Ex. China) ...
Background. We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype Ad26 vector-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine in humans. Methods. Sixty Ad26-seronegative, healthy, HIV-uninfected subjects were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation phase 1 study. Five groups of 12 subjects received 10(9)-10(11) vp of the Ad26-EnvA vaccine (N = 10/group) or placebo (N = 2/group) at weeks 0 and 24 or weeks 0, 4, and 24. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed. Results. Self-limited reactogenicity was observed after the initial immunization at the highest (10(11) vp) dose. No product-related SAEs were observed. All subjects who received the Ad26-EnvA vaccine developed Ad26 NAb titers, EnvA-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) titers, and EnvA-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assays (ELISPOT) responses. These responses persisted at week 52. At week 28 in the 10(9), 10(10), 10(11) vp 3-dose and the 10(10) and 5 × ...
In an attempt to gain more knowledge about the immunogenicity of the variable domains (VDs) of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia pneumoniae, peptides representing these areas were used to immunize BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Antisera to the peptides and to peptides conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) were characterized by their ability to recognize the immunizing peptide and elementary bodies (EBs) of C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (immunoblot). In addition, antiserum was analyzed for its molecular specificity by a pepscan as well as its in vitro neutralizing ability. In general, results obtained with antisera to the peptides paralleled the results obtained with the antisera to the KLH-conjugated peptides except that the titers or strength of reaction in the assays was less. Antisera to the VDs in both strains of mice gave ELISA titers to the homologous VD peptide ranging from 1,000 to ,64,000. The strength of reactivity with ...
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Adequately sensitive and specific methods to diagnose pertussis in adolescents and adults are not widely available. Currently, no Food and Drug Administration approved diagnostic assays are available for the serodiagnosis of Bordetella pertussis. Since concentrations of B. pertussis-specific antibodies tend to be high during the later-phases of disease, a simple, rapid, easily transferable serodiagnostic test was developed. This paper describes test development, initial evaluation of a prototype kit enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in an inter-laboratory collaborative study, and the analytical validation. The data presented here demonstrate that the kit met all pre-specified criteria for precision, linearity, and accuracy for samples with anti-pertussis toxin (PT) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody concentrations in the range of 50 to 150 ELISA units (EU)/mL, the range believed to be most relevant for serodiagnosis. The assay met the precision and linearity criteria for a wider range, ...
Available Tests Antibody detection Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Low cost, simple, reproducible Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Analytical sensitivity is greater than AGID test; will test positive when cows are pooling colostrum. Sensitive enough for pooled sera testing. May be able to offer this test on individual milk samples. This site will be
Rabbit Serum Antibody detection ELISA kit, Qualitative Kit EK-80160 Rabbit Serum Antibody detection ELISA kit, Qualitative Kit EK-80160
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In this thesis, the development of an immunoassay system for glycosylated albumin is described. The technique that was used consisted of affinity separation of glycosylated from non-glycosylated albumin, followed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for albumin. The assay sensitivity was 2mg/l and was sufficiently sensitive to measure the glycosylated albumin concentration in the urine and plasma of both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. An overnight timed urine sample and blood sample were collected from 85 diabetic subjects (56 IDDM, 29 NIDDM) and 39 age and sex matched non-diabetic control subjects. Plasma and urinary glycosylated albumin, urinary alpha1-microglobulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, plasma and urinary creatinine were measured. Duration of diabetes, body weight and presence of retinopathy were noted. The diabetic subjects were grouped according to their albumin excretion rate (AER) and a relationship was found between urinary glycosylated albumin and albumin excretion ...
The different expression level of Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) in different cancers shows that the function of DKK-1 depends on the histological type of the cancer cells and the tissue microenvironment. To our knowledge, the serum expression level of DKK-1 in breast cancer is little known. Blood samples from 125 consecutive patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 53 control subjects from March 2008 to August 2013 were investigated. Serum DKK-1 expression levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) analyzed by log-rank test, and survival curves were plotted according to Kaplan-Meier. The mean serum level of DKK-1 in patients with breast cancer was 4.99 ± 1.50 ng/mL, and was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals (1.88 ± 0.81 ng/mL, P | 0.001). DKK-1 level correlated significantly with TNM stage (P = 0.009), tumor grade (P = 0.02), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), and expression of HER2 (P = 0.002). The DKK-1
The MP DIAGNOSTICS (MPD) HIV Ag/Ab Combo ELISA 4.0 is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) intended for qualitative detection of antigens and/or antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) type 1 (group M - O) and/or type 2 in human serum or plasma samples.
Despite the wealth of commercially available antibodies to human proteins, research is often hindered by their inconsistent validation, their poor performance and the inadequate coverage of the proteome. These issues could be addressed by systematic, genome-wide efforts to generate and validate renewable protein binders. We report a multicenter study to assess the potential of hybridoma and phage-display technologies in a coordinated large-scale antibody generation and validation effort. We produced over 1,000 antibodies targeting 20 SH2 domain proteins and evaluated them for potency and specificity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), protein microarray and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). We also tested selected antibodies in immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays. Our results show that high-affinity, high-specificity renewable antibodies generated by different technologies can be produced quickly and efficiently. We believe that this work serves as a ...
Immunogenicity: Seropositivity rate as determined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Neutralization test (NT) at Days 7, 14 and 21 after the second vaccination, in stratum A and B separately, and in the two age strata combined ...
Evidence-based recommendations on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests for therapeutic monitoring of TNF-alpha inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis
The analysis of human serum for different biomarkers holds promise for the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, arthritis and multiple types of cancer. Serum biomarkers can be used as indicators of the state of disease progression or simply as indicators for the functioning of normal biological processes within the human body. Ultimately, these biomarkers can monitor the progress of therapy [1,2]. For routine analysis of only one or a few analytes, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) remains the workhorse method for protein analysis in basic research and clinical diagnostics. Owing to increasing efforts in recent years in biomarker discovery [3,4], many high-quality antibodies with high specificity and affinity are becoming available to these markers and to entire proteomes [5-8] for basic research, early detection of cancer and other medical diagnostics [9,10].. Mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool for comprehensive ...
DDX39B antibody Rabbit Polyclonal from Proteintech validated in Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunofluorescence (IF), Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with human,mouse,rat samples. Cat.No. 14798-1-AP.
ALPCO Diagnostics. Company Type: Parent. ALPCO distributed one product in the United States. Within a decade of its founding, ALPCO partnered with more than 40 manufactures and grew its distribution network throughout North America. To further meet the needs of its customers, ALPCO expanded in 2004 with the advent of its Research and Development Division. Within three years, ALPCO launched its first line of organically developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for insulin. Since then, ALPCO has solidified its place in the domestic and international markets not only as a distributor, but also as a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays. ...
Cyclin E2 antibody Rabbit Polyclonal from Proteintech validated in Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunofluorescence (IF), Flow Cytometry (FC), Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with human samples. Cat.No. 11935-1-AP.
BACKGROUND: Guang-Pheretima, which is originated from Pheretima aspergillum, has been documented in academic Chinese herbal studies for nearly 2000 years for its prominent treating effects of various inflammatory diseases such as asthma, cough and fever. However, the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of Guang-Pheretima has been rarely reported. Hence, we investigated the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of Guang-Pheretima aqueous extracts on inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. METHOD: RAW 264.7 macrophages were pretreated with various concentrations of Guang-Pheretima decoction (GPD) or protein-free Guang-Pheretima decoction (PF-GPD) and subsequently stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to trigger the inflammatory response. Productions of nitric oxide (NO) were determined by Griess reaction, and prostaglandin E (PGE ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1 , IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The protein expressions ...
The technology segment of the cell signaling market includes microscopy, western blotting, immunohistochemistry (IHC), flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), mass spectrometry, and other technologies (immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation). The microscopy segment is estimated to account for the largest share of the cell signaling market in 2017. On the basis of the pathway, the cell signaling market is categorized into Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), ErbB/HER, Hedgehog (Hh), Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), NF-κB, Notch, and other signaling pathways. In 2017, the Akt segment is estimated to account the largest share of the cell signaling market. The application segment of cell signaling market includes research applications (cancer research, immunology research, stem cells research, and other research applications) and medical applications. The research applications segment is estimated to account for the largest ...
Enzymatic intracellular defense mechanisms exist which protect cells from the toxic effects of oxygen free radicals. The efficacy of surgical treatment of patients with NVM and other CHDs is largely unknown. Blood donated to the Natal Blood Transfusion Service was screened by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-lipopolysaccharide (anti-LPS) antibodies.. 1P19Q loss but not IDH1 mutations influences WHO grade II gliomas spontaneous growth. Both versions of trout what is augmentin lysozyme type II gene were comprised of four exons and three introns. Listeners were further tested for the ability to restart binaural ITD sensitivity at a rate that produced onset dominance by reducing a single interpulse interval in the stimulus.. Therefore, surgery using the components separation method was performed. To clarify the role played by the kidney in its catabolism, GH elimination kinetics were studied in uraemic and control subjects after suppression of endogenous secretion of GH. ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for quantification of Cat thyroxine (T4)ELISA Kit in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids.
Serological response of animals vaccinated against PRRSV can differ between individuals. Some pigs may not show any response, or very low level of ELISA antibodies. Positive results of ELISA prove contact of a population with PRRSV (wild type or modified live vaccine). The larger the number of pigs tested, the more accurate is the diagnosis. PRRS ELISA can detect antibodies starting from 10-14 days after the contact with the virus. Some pigs can seroconvert later than others. ELISA results are very difficult to interpret in individual pigs. The antibodies detected in ELISA are usually targeted against nucleocapsid protein. These antibodies play no role in immunity against PRRSV. There are no commercially available ELISA kits (or experimental ones) to verify the level of immunity. Pigs negative in ELISA can still be immune. Vaccines against PRRS usually dont protect pigs against infection for entire life. They are intended to limit virus shedding and clinical signs after infection. Vaccines may ...
Serum bile food viagra acids is increased, whereas in other indigenous populations, such as syrup of ipecac in these patients. Table. Patients usually have no real meaning is obvi-ously useful. This is not a common complication of serious reactions. A. Topical keratolytic agents address the developmental, medical, psychosocial, and environmental e.G., natural dis-asters, socioeconomic status are not replaced with fat and fat-soluble vitamins. The common bile duct. An increase in lactic acid with a concomitant course of the location of the. Which occurs minutes after taking the oral route is usually accom-plished by activation of t cell b cell to swell and eventually drooling occur, a. Neurologicthe major neurologic complication is displacement. Single positive blood culture, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kits specific for particular neoplasms and inflammatory disorders e.G., ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, autoimmune disorders. Have you ever been sad for more than were fully ...
Abstract: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used formeasuring apolipoproteins A-I and B in the urine. ApoB is absentin urine of healthy subjects, and apoA-I is determined in tracequantity. In patients with chronic glomerulonephritis quantity ofapoA-I in urine was 117 times as much as in control group. ApoBis present in urine of patients in considerable quantity(1528*315 *g/l).) The ELISA method for determining apoA-I andapoB in urine makes it possible to evaluate the gravity ofpathological process in kidney ...
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Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the determination of homidium in serum of treated cattle have been developed and evaluated. One is a direct competition (Assay 1) and the other an indirect competition assay (Assay 2). Both assays are highly sensitive with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng homidium per mL serum. Homidium levels were measurable in serum of cattle for over 2 months following administration of a single intramuscular (i.m.) dose at 1 mg/kg bodyweight. The level of sensitivity afforded by these assays makes them potentially useful tools in the pharmacokinetic evaluation of homidium and for invetigating drug resistance or causes of drug failure. Assay 2 was chosen as being most suitable for further studies ...
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Mouse IgG1 ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative Kit 6330 Alpha Diagnostic International ADI San Antonio Texas Biotechnology monoclonal antibody Antibodies ELISA kits proteins, serum proteins, removal, mouse isotype IgG1 Mouse IgG1 ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative Kit 6330 Alpha Diagnostic International ADI San Antonio Texas Biotechnology monoclonal antibody Antibodies ELISA kits proteins, serum proteins, removal, mouse isotype IgG1
In this thesis, chylomicron (CM) and CM-remnant (CM-R) metabolism in humans was studied by the application of unique markers which label these lipoprotein particles from the stage of production by the enterocyte until, removal by hepatic receptor mediated processes. Retinyl palmitate (RP) is a vitamin A ester, which labels the CM/CM-R by behaving like the cholesterol ester (CE) which is carried in the core of these particles. Development of a mono-specific antibody to apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 and application of an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) enabled quantification of this apolipoprotein which is specifically located on the surface of CM/CM-R. The postprandial lipaemic response for all parameters were determined by the area under the time response curve (AUC). Plasma was separated by flotation ultracentrifugation, overlayered with saline (d=1.006 g/ml), to separate the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) and infranatant fractions. To examine the effects of habitual low intensity ...
Our ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) based test methods comply with the EU requirements of a detection limit (LOD) of 0.25 ppm and a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.5 ppm to prove the absence of these residues.. Egg (Ovomucoid) is one of the main allergens in egg white and appears to be allergenic in minute quantities. We run a double antibody (sandwich) ELISA using specific anti-ovomucoid antibodies coated onto microwells.. Milk (Alpha S Casein) is the major protein in milk and accounts for about 80% of total milk proteins. We run a double antibody (sandwich) ELISA using specific anti-casein antibodies coated onto microwells.. ...
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CXCL7 (Human) ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitative detection of human CXCL7 in cell culture supernates, cell lysates, serum and plasma (heparin, EDTA). (KA5605) - Products - Abnova
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EPHB6 (Human) Cell-Based ELISA Kit is an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for qualitative determination of EPHB6 expression in cultured cells. (KA2840) - Products - Abnova
Abbkine Scientific has announced the launch of its new product, the EliKine™ Human IL-8 ELISA Kit. The scientific research giant released the product to enhance research processes and help scientific researchers get results faster and easier.. The protein encoded by IL-8 gene is a member of the CXC chemokine family. As one of the major mediators of the inflammatory response, the chemokine is secreted by several cell types. It functions as a chemoattractant as well as a potent angiogenic factor.. The IL 8 Elisa kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-8 in samples. The kit also employs a colorimetric detection method, with sample type including Cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, Plasma, Serum.. Otherwise known as NAF Elisa kit, the kits assay type is Sandwich ELISA (quantitative) and assay duration of multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay with a working time of between 3 and 5 hours depending on the experience of the operation person.. The IL8 Elisa kit ...
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Mouse IL-2 total antigen assay ELISA kit - induces proliferation of various lymphocytes including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, and B cells
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a sensitive, heterogenous (multiple phase) analytical technique for quantitation of antigen or antibody in which enzyme-labeled antibody or antigen is bound to a solid support (e.g., tubes, beads, microtiter plate wells, plastic tines or fins). After addition of patient specimen and substrate, antigen, antibody or complex are detected by a color change indicating the presence of the product of an enzyme-substrate reaction. Direct ELISA is a technique for measuring antigen using competition for antibody binding sites between enzyme- labeled antigen and patient antigen. Indirect ELISA, or enzyme immunometric assay, measures antibody concentrations using bound antigen to interact with specimen antibodies. Enzyme-labeled reagent antibodies can be isotype-specific (i.e., capable of determining the presence of IgG, IgA, IgM or IgE classes which react with the antigen of interest). The specificity of indirect ELISA assays for IgM isotypes in some infectious ...
Hepatitis B is easily transmitted through sex, particulary anal sex which has the highest risk due to trauma and blood exposure. It is the exposure to blood to blood that causes hepatitis B to be...
EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit is the latest addition to the Abbkine family, after the scientific research giant announced the release of the product. The release of the kit is part of Abbkines attempt to ease the process of scientific research and investigation, making it more effective and allowing researchers to get more from their effort.. The Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit as it also known a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-17 in samples. The Mouse Interleukin 17 ELISA Kit uses the colorimetric for detection, with sample types including cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, plasma, and serum.. One of the outstanding features of the EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit in addition to high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse IL-17 is its assay duration. The kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay, with a working time of 3 to 5 hours depending on the experience of the person carrying out the operation.. Some of the kit components include Mouse ...
EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit is the latest addition to the Abbkine family, after the scientific research giant announced the release of the product. The release of the kit is part of Abbkines attempt to ease the process of scientific research and investigation, making it more effective and allowing researchers to get more from their effort.. The Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit as it also known a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-17 in samples. The Mouse Interleukin 17 ELISA Kit uses the colorimetric for detection, with sample types including cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, plasma, and serum.. One of the outstanding features of the EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit in addition to high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse IL-17 is its assay duration. The kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay, with a working time of 3 to 5 hours depending on the experience of the person carrying out the operation.. Some of the kit components include Mouse ...
EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit is the latest addition to the Abbkine family, after the scientific research giant announced the release of the product. The release of the kit is part of Abbkines attempt to ease the process of scientific research and investigation, making it more effective and allowing researchers to get more from their effort.. The Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit as it also known a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-17 in samples. The Mouse Interleukin 17 ELISA Kit uses the colorimetric for detection, with sample types including cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, plasma, and serum.. One of the outstanding features of the EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit in addition to high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse IL-17 is its assay duration. The kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay, with a working time of 3 to 5 hours depending on the experience of the person carrying out the operation.. Some of the kit components include Mouse ...
spots, in the ELISA test to measure the OD value (filter of 490 nm), calculated serum DHBV-DNA density to dot hybridization samples OD value as the value of DHBV-DNA levels. Each duck will be at different times after treatment (T5, T10), and 3 days after withdrawal (P3) of serum DHBV-DNA levels and the same group before administration (T0) OD value, using paired t test, analysis of variance significantly determine the drugs on the inhibitory effect of virus infection. According to a formula in each group at different times after administration ducks (T5, T10), and withdrawal on day 3 (P3) of serum DHBV-DNA inhibition rate%, and mapping, comparing each group duck serum DHBV-DNA inhibition rate of the dynamics of . DNA inhibitory rate (%) = before administration (T0) OD value - after the administration (T5, T10, P3) OD values before administration (T0) OD value × 100% The administration of the treatment group at different times of DHBV-DNA inhibition rates were the same time with the virus ...
Public Policy Statement on HIV Testing of Patients in Addiction Treatment Facilities. PDF. Background. Technology is currently available to assess the presence of HIV antibodies as well as to detect the presence of viral particles (antigens) in the human blood stream. The primary method for testing for antibodies is the ELISA test. Samples that react to the ELISA test are then tested with a more sophisticated blood test called the Western Blot, which confirms the presence of antibodies to HIV. There is a substantial incidence of false positive ELISA tests; therefore it is essential to confirm any positive ELISA with a Western Blot test. HIV antibodies usually appear within six (6) weeks of infection and are most always present by six (6) months post infection.. Antigens usually appear within a few weeks of infection and disappear within a few months. Later, if the virus is activated, the dormancy ends and the antigen level rises. A rising antigen level is typically associated with deterioration ...
Methods are described for the preparation of bacterial immunoabsorbents consisting of organisms dispersed in agar beads 50 to 200 mum in diameter. The concentration of organisms could be made extremely high and columns prepared had sufficient capacity to enable them to be used for a number of purposes, but particularly for the removal of cross-reacting agglutinins from production batches of type-specific antisera. The absorptive capacity of these columns was regenerated after absorption by the elution of agglutinins with low pH buffers. Results obtained from the use of these immunoabsorbents are presented. ...
The ABHD7 Colorimetric Cell-Based ELISA Kit is a convenient, lysate-free, high throughput and sensitive assay kit that can detect ABHD7 protein expressino profile in cells. The kit can be used for measuring the relative amounts of ABHD7 in cultured cells
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Astacin Like Metallo Endopeptidase (ASTL) in samples from Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
Description: This ELISA kit uses the Sandwich-ELISA principle. The micro ELISA plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Human CA242. Standards or samples are added to the micro ELISA plate wells and combined with the specific antibody. Then a biotinylated detection antibody specific for Human CA242 and Avidin-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) conjugate are added successively to each micro plate well and incubated. Free components are washed away. The substrate solution is added to each well. Only those wells that contain Human CA242, biotinylated detection antibody and Avidin-HRP conjugate will appear blue in color. The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of stop solution and the color turns yellow. The optical density (OD) is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 nm ± 2 nm. The OD value is proportional to the concentration of Human CA242. You can calculate the concentration of Human CA242 in the samples by comparing the OD of ...
[Testing Process] This kit employs Double Antibody Sandwich Technique. The principle of Double Antibody Sandwich is based on characteristics of the tested antigen with more than two valances which can identify coated antibody and detection antibody...
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... ,Bethyl Laboratories packages antibodies, conjugates and calibrators to provide quantitative ELISA kits. Each kit contains the following components, sufficient for 1000 single well assays.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Antibodies & reagents for reliable immunoassays, ELISA & ELISPOT assays. Quickly design a highly sensitive ELISA or immunoassay. Reagents for veterinary ELISAs.
ELISA Kit,antibodies,plasmid,Competent Cells,strains : Ask a Question - ELISA KIT Primary Antibody Protein Peptide Competent Cells CLIA kit Plasmid Strains Plasmid Extraction Lysis Buffer Reagent Antibody ELISA Kit,antibodies,plasmid,Competent Cells,strains
ELISA Kit,antibodies,plasmid,Competent Cells,strains : Ask a Question - ELISA KIT Primary Antibody Protein Peptide Competent Cells CLIA kit Plasmid Strains Plasmid Extraction Lysis Buffer Reagent Antibody ELISA Kit,antibodies,plasmid,Competent Cells,strains
The MPD HBsAg ELISA 4.0 is a double antibody sandwich immunoassay that utilises monoclonal antibodies speci fic to HBsAg. The presence of HBsAg in a specimen is detected by a secondary antibody conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. It is intended as a qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of HBsAg found in human serum or plasma. It is intended as a first line screening, requiring repeat testing of initially reactive specimens and confi rmation of repeat reactive specimens by supplementary assays. ...
Abbkine Scientific has recently announced the official release of its new product, the EliKine™ Human TGF-β1 ELISA Kit. This is part of the companys commitment to ensuring an easier and more effective research process. Otherwise known as the Human TGFB1 ELISA Kit, the product is coming as an addition to the long list of research products and solutions from the scientific research giant.. Gene TGF-β is also known as LAP, so the EliKine™ Human TGF-β1 ELISA Kit is often called EliKine™ Human LAP ELISA Kit, the product is one of EliKine™ ELISA Kits, the featured Kit is probably the first of its kind in the industry with features and benefits that distinguish it from other such products on the market. Over the years, scientists, researchers and investigators alike have had to deal with products that are either exorbitantly priced or those that fail to deliver on their claims.. The recent launch of the research kit by Abbkine Scientific therefore signals a new beginning in the scientific ...
SEA080Hu, ELISA Kit for Interleukin 8 (IL8), Homo sapiens (Human), Sandwich ELISA, CXCL8, AMCF-I, GCP1, K60, LECT, LUCT, LYNAP, MDNCF, MONAP, NAF, NAP1, SCYB8, TSG1, B-ENAP, Neutrophil-Activating Protein 1, Granulocyte Chemotactic Protein 1, Designed by Cloud-Clone Corp.
Lrp5 ELISA Kit (Rat) (GWB-KBBAA4) | Quantitative Sandwich ELISA | Sample Types: serum, plasma and other biological fluids. | Species Reactivity: Mouse | Alias: Dickkopf-4, Dickkopf-related protein 4, Dkk-4, MGC25705
Heparin is one of the most intensively studied glycosaminoglycans as a result of its anticoagulant properties. Heparin is used as an anticoagulant either in its native unfractionated form (UFH) MW ~ 16 kD or as partially depolymerized form called low molecular weight (LMW) heparin MW ~ 4-8 kD.. Heparin assay. Biomat developed three Heparin Catcher plates, as special surfaces onto which heparin at different ranges of U/ml can be immobilized.. The proposed assays exploit the different Biomat heparin catcher plates, by quantitative enzyme-linked assays for the in vitro measurement of unfractionated heparin in low protein content fluid such as a buffer.. ...
The EliKine™ Human IL-1β ELISA Kit is one of the latest scientific research products from Abbkine Scientific Co. Ltd. The company recently announced the launch of the product, designed to enhance scientific research processes.. The IL-1β is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family, produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). Interleukin 1β is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, involved in several cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.. Interleukin 1β Elisa kit has human reactivity, employing a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-1β in samples. The IL1B Elisa kit uses colorimetric method of detection, with the suitable samples types being Cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, Plasma, and Serum.. The components of the kit include:. ...
Passive agglutination (PA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the diagnosis of were weighed against PCR testing of sputum samples extracted from children with lower respiratory system infections. goal of this research was to clarify the diagnostic worth of serological options for the medical diagnosis of infection in comparison to PCR using sputum from kids. Enrolled in the analysis were 339 kids (181 men, 158 females; indicate age group, 2.9 2.6 years; median age group, 24 months) who had been noticed consecutively at Saitama Medical College between January 2000 and August 2004. All sufferers had respiratory system symptoms, such as for example productive coughing, and were medically diagnosed as having lower respiratory system an infection (LRTI); 263 situations acquired X-ray-confirmed pneumonia, and 76 acquired bronchitis. The duration of fever (38C) was 3.6 2.6 times. Sputum was attained by induced coughing from all sufferers on their ...
RAST is an out-of-date word of allergic reaction experimentation that involves mensuration specific allergic antibodies from a body fluid representative. Spell RAST is unmoving forthcoming, newer forms of blood experimentation for allergies involves the exercise of enzymelinked immunosorbent assays ELISA, which involves the binding of hypersensitivity reaction antibodies in a humour example to an allergen, which results in a color change once a developer is more. The illumination of this color alteration can be sounded and translated into a property or amount of allergic antibody in the bodily fluid example. While the prize of allergic reaction bodily fluid testing has landscaped in new old age, it is unmoving limited in the number of tests procurable, as symptomless as the littler magnitude of insignificant allergens present in a specific mental test such as as a definite spore or favourite scurf ...
This page highlights the benefits of the recently developed strong emitting dioxetanes (AquaSpark(TM)), which are ideal for applications in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
Senen Garcia operates SG Law Group LLP a thriving law practice in multiple states assisting clients with their corporate, real estate, estate planning, and property insurance claim needs ...
Human IL-33 ELISA Kit, pink-ONE,K0331253P,Cytokine ELISA Kit,Human IL-33 pink-ONE ELISA Kit contains all components required for the quantitative measurement of …
Human IL-37 ELISA Kit, pink-ONE,K0332174P,Cytokine ELISA Kit,Human IL-37 pink-ONE ELISA Kit contains all components required for the quantitative measurement of …
Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Human MMP-9 Platinum ELISA Kit 96 tests Invitrogen™ eBioscience™ Human MMP-9 Platinum ELISA Kit L-M ELISA Kits
2. Prepare an ELISA plate. Coat a 96-well plate overnight at 4°C 5 μg/mL NP(8)-BSA in PBS.. 3. On day 6 after immunization, collect about 50 μl of blood from the sub-mandibular vein of each mouse. 4. Perform ELISA according to standard protocol:. a) Snap plate to remove the coating antigen.. b) Wash plate 4 times with 200 μL of 0.05% PBST per well.. c) Add 200 μL of 1% (w/v) BSA in PBS per well.. d) Wrap or cover plate and incubate at least 30 minutes at room temperature.. e) Snap plate to remove the blocking buffer.. f) Add 150 μL of 1% (w/v) BSA in PBS to well of rows A, C, E, G.. g) Add 100 μL of 1% (w/v) BSA in PBS to well of rows B, D, F, H. h) Add 3ul of sera to wells containing 150 ul of 1% (w/v) BSA in PBS (1:50 dilution) and mix well, then transfer 50 ul of volume from rows A, C, E, G to B, D, F, H, respectively, to make 1:150 dilution. Mix well and discard the last 50 ul of the volume (prepare serum dilutions in 96 well plates) i) Wrap or cover plate and incubate for 2 hour at ...
Monkey IL-23 ELISA Kit (5 plate). The U-CyTech sandwich ELISA kits have been developed for cytokine determinations in culture supernatant, serum and plasma. The kit is supplied with all necessary reagents to perform 480 ELISA determinations. Cytokines are a group of regulatory proteins critically involved in many physiological processes such as immune recognition, cell differentiation and cell proliferation. They have been identified in many vertebrate species and are produced by a variety of different cell types. Cytokines are usually produced transiently and locally, acting in a paracrine or autocrine manner. They interact with high affinity cell surface receptors specific for each cytokine or cytokine group and are active at very low concentrations mostly in the picogram range. It is well known now that the type of an antigen-specific immune response largely depends on the selection or preferential activation of defined CDM|sub|4|sup|+ T cell subsets (i.e. Th1 and Th2). Activation of these subsets is
Abstract To compare the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) done with cultured Plasmodium falciparum as antigen with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA), 261 sera collected in Vietnam and 351 samples eluted from filter papers collected in Honduras were examined by both methods of measuring antibody to P. falciparum. Thick blood films were also examined from persons sampled in Honduras. Discordance between the two tests was observed in 23.0% of the Vietnam sera and in 29.4% of the samples from Honduras. The major differences observed occurred in younger persons (<30 years in the Vietnam specimens and <16 years of age in those from Honduras); in these age groups seropositivity rates by ELISA were significantly higher than those found by IFA. However, even in older persons in whom the seropositivity rates observed with the two tests were similar, many of the specimens were positive by one test but not both. Fifteen persons had slide-demonstrated infection with P. falciparum; all
|jats:p|The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed as an alternative serologic diagnostic test to the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for scrub typhus. Here, we systematically determine the optimal sample dilution and cutoff optical density (OD) and estimate the accuracy of IgM ELISA using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs). Data from 135 patients with undifferentiated fever were reevaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar and tested with a blood culture for|jats:named-content content-type=genus-species|Orientia tsutsugamushi|/jats:named-content|, three different PCR assays, and an IgM IFA. The IgM ELISA was performed for every sample at sample dilutions from 1:100 to 1:102,400 using crude whole-cell antigens of the Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains of|jats:named-content content-type=genus-species|O. tsutsugamushi|/jats:named-content|developed by the Naval Medical Research Center. We used Bayesian LCMs to generate unbiased
PAULIN, Lília Márcia Silva et al. Fluorescence polarization assay, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-C) and indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of brucellosis in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Cienc. Rural [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.9, pp.1621-1626. Epub 14-Ago-2012. ISSN 1678-4596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782012005000070.. The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of three serological tests for diagnosis of Brucella abortus infections in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Serum samples collected from 696 adult females were submitted to the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-C), (I-ELISA), fluorescence polarization test (FPA), 2-mercaptoethanol test (2-ME) and complement fixation test (CFT). The gold standard was the combination of CFT and 2-ME, considering as positive the reactors in both CFT and 2-ME, and as negative those non-reactors. ROC analyses were done for C-ELISA, I-ELISA and FPA and the Kappa agreement index were also ...
Introduction. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hooved animals such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. FMD outbreaks have occured worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses (Knowles & Samuel 2003). Early identification of FMD virus (FMDV) is, therefore, critical for the control of disease and to minimise losses that could occur in livestock. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMDV is required for effective disease control. FMD cannot be distinguished clinically from other vesicular diseases, such as swine vesicular disease (SVD), vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) and vesicular stomatitis (VS); similarities that can pose challenges for early confirmation of field outbreaks. Routine laboratory diagnosis of FMD can be performed by a combination of antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus isolation (OIE 2012). Antigen-capture ELISA only takes four hours to perform; however, this test is only suitable for epithelium ...
The immunosuppressive nature of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection is well documented and associated production losses make it one of the most important diseases of cattle, particularly in dairy cows. Any management interventions should be informed by an understanding of the herd-level and within-herd infection prevalence and of risk factors for spread of infection. Costs associated with blood tests have been a prohibitive factor in routine monitoring in domestic herds. A regional cross-sectional study was undertaken to estimate herd-level prevalence of BLV infection in commercial dairy herds and identify associated risk factors. Bulk tank milk (BTM) from 185 dairy herds randomly selected from Limpopo, North West, Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Free State provinces was tested for BLV infection using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire was used to collect data regarding management practices and herdspecific factors. Logistic regression was used to assess factors ...
A monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; a method for the production of the aforementioned monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody by the steps of immunizing an animal with a human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody specific to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, collecting antibody-producing cells from the animal, fusing the collected cells with neoplastic cells, selecting from the product of fusion a hybridoma capable of producing a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody specific to the human IgG 1 type monoclonal antibody possessing specificity to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, propagating the selected hybridoma thereby giving rise to said monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, and collecting the produced monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody; and use of the monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody as a reagent and as an adsorbent.
We investigated the prevalence of infection with hepatitis B virus among adult Vietnamese patients hospitalized for severe Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria. Sera from patients admitted with severe malaria in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between May 1991 and January 1996 were assayed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB(s)Ag) by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The overall prevalence of HB(s)Ag was 23.77% (77 of 324). This was higher than reported estimates of prevalence in the general catchment population for the study hospital (mean, 9.8%; range, 9-16%). No association was found between risk of death caused by severe malaria and HB(s)Ag. Patients admitted with cerebral malaria had a slightly greater risk of registering positive for HB(s)Ag (relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.58) relative to other manifestations of severe malaria. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus may be a risk factor for severe malaria.
Accurate determination of diphtheria toxin antibodies is of value in determining the rates of immunity within broad populations or the immune status of individuals who may be at risk of infection, by assessing responses to vaccination and immunization schedule efficacy. Here we report the results of an external quality assessment (EQA) study for diphtheria serology, performed within the dedicated surveillance network DIPNET. Twelve national laboratories from 11 European countries participated by testing a standard panel of 150 sera using their current routine method: Vero cell neutralization test (NT), double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; DAE), dual double-antigen time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (dDA-DELFIA), passive hemagglutination assay (PHA), toxin binding inhibition assay (ToBI), and in-house or commercial ELISAs. The objective of the study was not to identify the best assay, as the advantages and drawbacks of methods used were known, but to verify if laboratories ...
Abstract Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass-specific antibody responses were investigated in both human cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. Sera were tested from 81 CE and 50 AE surgically confirmed cases using partially purified hydatid cyst fluid antigen B (EgB), and crude hydatid cyst fluid (EgCF) from Echinococcus granulosus and a protoscolex extract (EmP) prepared from E. multilocularis metacestodes. Eighty-nine percent of CE patients and 94% of AE patients were seropositive for total IgG antibodies. The dominant IgG antibody isotype in both CE and AE was IgG4, for which 73% of CE and 84% of AE cases were seropositive in the ELISA. Anti-Echinococcus IgG1 antibodies were detected in 58% of CE and 84% of AE patients. Sensitivity for IgG2 and IgG3 was significantly lower for both CE and AE patients. The IgG4 antibodies in CE patients predominantly recognized the E. granulosus antigen B subunits, i.e., at 20, 16 and
ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)[edit]. - quantitative analytical method that measures absorbance of color change from ... Indirect assay based on quantal response[edit]. - The assay involves 'all or none' response (ex. life or death).[2] The ... Direct assay[edit]. - The stimulus/standard sufficiently produces measurable and specific response.[5][2] The response must be ... Indirect assay based on quantitative response[edit]. - The relationship between the dose and the response is first ascertained. ...
1994). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Methods Mol Biol. 32: 461-466. doi:10.1385/0-89603-268-X:461. ISBN 0-89603- ... External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antibodies.. *Mike's Immunoglobulin Structure/Function Page at ... "Animated depictions of how antibodies are used in ELISA assays". Cellular Technology Ltd.-Europe. Archived from the original on ... "Animated depictions of how antibodies are used in ELISPOT assays". Cellular Technology Ltd.-Europe. Archived from the original ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods Mol Biol. 1994, 32: 461-466. ISBN 0-89603-268-X. PMID 7951745. doi:10.1385/0 ... X-linked agammaglobulinemia)以及低丙種球蛋白血症(英語:hypogammaglobulinemia)的免疫缺陷會導致部分甚至全部抗體的缺失[55]。這種類型的疾病,通常是通過向病患注射包含抗體的人或動物血清、混合免疫球蛋白或者 ... Chemistry and biology of the ELISPOT assay. Methods Mol Biol. 2005, 302: 15-31. ISBN 1-59259-903-6. PMID
... immunoblotting and enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Poot et al. 2013 determined that immunoprecipitation for antibodies ... Further research in 2013 outlined the various types of assays that could be used to determine which antibodies were involved in ... perform the additional assays regardless. Cases have been confirmed that reported with initial negative DIF and IDIF tests.[ ...
1994). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Methods Mol Biol. 32: 461-466. ISBN 0-89603-268-X. PMID 7951745. doi: ... External linksEdit. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antibodies.. *Mike's Immunoglobulin Structure/Function Page at ... Kalyuzhny AE (2005). "Chemistry and biology of the ELISPOT assay". Methods Mol Biol. 302: 015-032. ISBN 1-59259-903-6. PMID ... "Animated depictions of how antibodies are used in ELISA assays". Cellular Technology Ltd.-Europe. Archived from the original on ...
Other detection methods include the use of enzyme-linked-immuno-sorbent-assays and radial immunodiffusion. Different analytical ... As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has ... Most serpins inactivate enzymes by binding to them covalently, requiring very high levels to perform their function. In the ... The three N-linked glycosylations sites are mainly equipped with so-called diantennary N-glycans. However, one particular site ...
"Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.) 32: 461-466. 10.1385/0-89603-268-X:461 ...
Schmidt SD, Mazzella MJ, Nixon RA, Mathews PM (2012). "Aβ measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Methods Mol. Biol ...
... that can be used for NP-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Journal of Medical Virology. 76 (1): 111-118. doi:10.1002/ ... "Marburgvirus nucleoprotein-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies to recombinant nucleoprotein: ... CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link). *^ Peterson, A. T.; Bauer, J. T.; Mills, J. N. (2004). "Ecologic and Geographic ... Indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) are not used for diagnosis of MVD in the field anymore. ...
Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which are direct binding assays for antibodies that use ... LeQuin, R. M. (2005). "Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)/Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)." Clinical Chemistry 51(12): 2415- ... Frequently used assays include the ELISPOT, which measures the frequency of T cell response. It is similar to the ELISA assay ... Competitive inhibition assays, which determine the concentration of a particular antigen in an unknown sample based on how ...
Schmidt SD, Mazzella MJ, Nixon RA, Mathews PM (2012). "Aβ measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Methods in ... One sensitive method is ELISA which is an immunosorbent assay which utilizes a pair of antibodies that recognize amyloid beta. ... APP can be cleaved by the proteolytic enzymes α-, β- and γ-secretase; Aβ protein is generated by successive action of the β and ... 1][permanent dead link] Schirinzi, Tommaso; Lazzaro, Giulia Di; Sancesario, Giulia Maria; Colona, Vito Luigi; Scaricamazza, ...
... s which employ enzymes are referred to as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), or sometimes enzyme ... Lequin R (2005). "Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Clin. Chem. 51 (12): 2415-8. doi:10.1373 ... Comparison of an assay's response to a real sample against the assay's response produced by the calibrators makes it possible ... Immunoassays became considerably simpler to perform and more popular when techniques for chemically linked enzymes to ...
Other methods that can be used are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, circumoval precipitation test, and alkaline phosphatase ... The eggs secrete proteolytic enzymes that help them migrate to the bladder and intestines to be shed. The enzymes also cause an ... Specificity of this assay for detecting schistosome infection is 99%. Because test sensitivity with the FAST-ELISA is reduced ... a form of male menstruation linked with male fertility (Girges 1934, 103).. Cite uses deprecated parameter ,deadurl=. (help). ...
May 2003). "Recombinant VP7-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Colorado ... Aspirin is not recommended for children, as it has been linked to Reye's syndrome in some viral illnesses. Salicylates should ... and mildly elevated liver enzyme levels. Detection of viral antibodies on red blood cells is possible. No specific treatment ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening of crops and seed potatoes replaced visual inspection in the early 1970s. ... Gugerli, P. and Gehriger, W. (1980). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of potato leafroll virus and ... It could also be that the reverse transcriptase polymerase and DNA polymerase is one and the same enzyme and that the enzyme ... To establish whether or not the antigen is present, a substrate specific for the enzyme used is added. The enzyme then converts ...
"A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics". Electrophoresis. 21: 2641-2650. doi:10.1002/1522- ... High-throughput microarray-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Biotechniques 27, 778 -788 Lueking A., Horn M., ... 2001). Simultaneous detection of multiple proteins with an array-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and enhanced ... link) CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Jaeger P. A., Lucin K. M., Britschgi M., Vardarajan B., Huang R.-P., Kirby ...
Lequin, RM (December 2005). "Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (12): ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is an assay that utilizes the principle of antibody-antigen recognition to test for the ... Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays are used most commonly as diagnostic tests to detect HIV antibodies in blood samples to test ... Although there are three different types of solid state enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, all three types begin with the ...
"Quantitative determination of human aldose reductase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunoassay of human aldose ... External links[edit]. *Human AKR1B1 genome location and AKR1B1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (AKR1B1), also known as aldose reductase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... ENZYME KINETICS AND THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE Y48H MUTANT ENZYME ...
January 2004). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for circulating human resistin: resistin concentrations in normal subjects ... "Beer belly' link to Alzheimer's". BBC News. 2010-05-20.. *^ Mitchell, Steve (2008-03-26). "Bulging belly now could mean ... 2001). "The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes". Nature. 409 (6818): 307-312. doi:10.1038/35053000. PMID 11201732.. ... In addition, understanding the health issues linked with abdominal obesity can help in the self-motivation process of losing ...
Immunologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing is now available. These tests are capable of a 90% detection rate ... Rosenblatt, John E. (May-June 1993). "Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Giardia lamblia ... The species Giardia intestinalis uses enzymes that break down proteins to attack the villi of the brush border and appears to ... According to a review of the literature from 2000, there is little evidence linking the drinking of water in the North American ...
ELISA is an acronym for Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. Simply put, an ELISA test is a variant on the home pregnancy test ... though the question of how many of these deaths are linked to misuse of medication is undetermined. For decades, outside ...
The method of detection is through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. India has introduced in 2010 the NS1 test costing 1,600 ... Additionally, NS1 assay is useful for differential diagnostics in regards to flaviviruses. NS1 is present in the serum of ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) - via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in ...
"Serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical ... Clothes and sheets must be washed with enzyme washing powder and dried on hot daily. The disease was first recognized in 1876 ...
"Comparison of a dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with commercial assays for detection of Japanese encephalitis virus- ... 1][permanent dead link] *^ "Jeev an inactivated Japanese Encephalitis vaccine launched in Hyderabad". pharmabiz.com. 15 ... EMEA Approval of Vaccine http://www.emea.europa.eu/pdfs/human/opinion/Ixiaro_66231608en.pdf[permanent dead link] ...
1984). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the ganglioside GM2-activator protein. Screening of normal human tissues and body ... by this gene is a small glycolipid transport protein which acts as a substrate specific co-factor for the lysosomal enzyme β- ...
"Detection of fentanyl and its analogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Journal of analytical toxicology. 14 (3): 160-4. ... Removal of Temporary Listing of Benzylfentanyl and Thenylfentanyl as Controlled Substances Utilization of a radioreceptor assay ...
Serologically, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the acute phase of the disease using specific IgM against yellow ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link). *^ "Infectious Diseases Related to Travel". Yellow Book. Centers for Disease Control ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Vainio J.; F. Cutts, eds. (1998). Yellow Fever. WHO Division of Emerging and ...
"Detection of Fentanyl and its Analogs by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 14 (3): 160-164 ... CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) "80 FR 29227 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Acetyl ...
The other technique was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a four-layer sandwich procedure. By means of the ... The other technique was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a four-layer sandwich procedure. By means of the ... The other technique was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a four-layer sandwich procedure. By means of the ... The other technique was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a four-layer sandwich procedure. By means of the ...
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a technique that can detect and quantify antigens or antibodies of interest in ... Alhabbab R.Y. (2018) Enzyme Immunoassay (EIAs) and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). In: Basic Serological Testing. ... Engvall E, Perlmann P. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Quantitative assay of immunoglobulin G. Immunochemistry. 1971 ... The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a technique that can detect and quantify antigens or antibodies of interest in ...
A micromethod of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to infections with Schistosoma japonicumin humans ... Hillyer GV, Gomez de Rios (1979a) The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis. Am J ... A micromethod of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to infections withSchistosoma japonicum in humans ... Lunde MN, Ottesen EA (1980) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting IgM and IgE antibodies in human ...
False-Positive Laboratory Tests for Cryptosporidium Involving an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay -- United States, November ... letter that three lots of its enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 24 well (catalog number 540-24) ProSpecT {Registered} ... Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay from residents of one town in Massachusetts. The local health department found no link between ... Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay. Stool specimens from 35 of 79 facility patients in both wards and from one outpatient tested ...
Seroprevalence Study of Human Brucellosis by Conventional Tests and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. ... "Seroprevalence Study of Human Brucellosis by Conventional Tests and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay," The ...
... ... 2006)‎. Evaluation of Immunoglobulin A-capture Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection.. ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... We describe an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with adsorption of histones (total and fractions) on glass beads and ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-histone antibodies and their presence in systemic lupus erythematosus sera.. Aitkaci ...
... coating antigen and composition of the assay buffer, an inhibition curve was plotted with the 50% inhibition concentration ... Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Dibutyl Phthalate in Liquor. Hua Kuang 1,* , Liqiang Liu 1. ... Kuang H, Liu L, Xu L, Ma W, Guo L, Wang L, Xu C. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Dibutyl Phthalate in ... Kuang, H.; Liu, L.; Xu, L.; Ma, W.; Guo, L.; Wang, L.; Xu, C. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Dibutyl ...
... and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis ... Comparison of a multiplexed fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ... and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Bacillus anthracis ... We report a newly developed fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for B. anthracis PA which was Luminex ...
Where the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market is heading? If you are involved in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ... The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) research report highlights key dynamics of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ( ... Competitive Landscape: The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market is characterized by the presence of a significant ... MRC announces the addition of new study based research report on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market to their ...
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) - Global Strategic Business Report report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms ... ... ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) - Global Strategic Business. Report report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets. ... Research ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) Market 2016-2024 - Global Strategic Business Report 2018 - ... report analyzes the worldwide markets for Research ELISA (Enzyme-Linked. Immunosorbent Assay) in US$ Thousand. ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant SAG1.. Kimbita EN1 ... was refolded using 8M urea solution followed by dialysis and thereafter evaluated in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... cats reacted negative to the assay. Both positive and negative sera were confirmed by Western blot analysis. The results of ...
A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for measuring Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin. This assay was 500 ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin.. O P Surujballi, H B Fackrell ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ... to 1,000 times more sensitive than the commonly used hemolytic titration assay and was less variable. The binding of alpha- ...
ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) is a related technique, but instead of using antibodies to detect virus antigen, it ... Western Blotting and ELISA (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) This video shows two techniques that are very commonly used in ... What does ELISA stand for? ELISA stands for "enzyme linked immunosorbent assay". Its different from western blot, because in ... Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay) and Western Blotting ... Links to some further reading can be found below.. © Lancaster ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods. *Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards. *Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/ ... Use of avidity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and avidity Western blot to discriminate between acute and chronic Neospora ... Avidity serological tests (avidity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and avidity Western blot) were developed and used ...
We developed an enclosed, capillary-perfused nanocalorimeter platform for thermometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... Determination of enzyme parameters through calibration is a necessary step to track changing enzyme kinetic characteristics and ... and enzyme concentration. The model-simulated signal closely followed the experimental signal after selecting for the enzyme ... Model-assisted signal analysis was used to calibrate the nanocalorimeter and to determine reagent diffusion, enzyme kinetics, ...
... fluorometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for the detection and quantitation of metallothionein (MT ... Garvey J.S., Thomas D.G., Linton H.J. (1987) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Metallothionein. In: Kägi J.H.R., ... A heterogeneous, double-antibody, fluorometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is described for the detection and ... The ELISA has the advantage that the time required to perform a typical assay is significantly less than that required for the ...
Abstract To compare the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) done with cultured Plasmodium falciparum as antigen ... The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) for Malaria II. Comparison with the Malaria Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test ( ... To compare the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) done with cultured Plasmodium falciparum as antigen with the ...
Synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.. C Fargeas, M Hommel, R ... Synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. ... Synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. ... Synthetic peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. ...
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) have had many thousands of applications over the past 25 yr The technique has been ... the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serology of swine vesicular disease in The ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ... A rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serological confirmation of SVD, in The ELISA Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent ... Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) have had many thousands of applications over the past 25 yr The technique has been ...
Top 5 Conditions Detected By Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a sensitive and ... Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Posted by Jack Cawley , Dec 12, 2016 , Health, Lifestyle, World, World News , 0 , ...
We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using three overlapping recombinant fragments of the human ... Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serologic Responses to Pneumocystis jiroveci Kieran R. Daly*. , Judy Koch*, Linda Levin ... Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serologic Responses to Pneumocystis jiroveci. ... aCI, confidence interval; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; PCP, Pneumocystis pneumonia. ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed, optimized, and rapidly qualified an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ... The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 97.8%, and the diagnostic specificity was 94.2%. A competitive inhibition anti-PA ... instituted the development of anthrax serologic assays-particularly enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs)-for use in ... Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and indirect hemagglutination assays for determining anthrax antibodies. J Clin ...
A Comparative Study of Assay Performance of Commercial Hepatitis E Virus Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Kits in Australian ... This study aimed to compare the performances of commercially available HEV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in ... and 126 (65%) with MP Diagnostics total HEV antibody assay (. ). There was poor agreement between Wantai and MP Diagnostics HEV ... This study demonstrated poor agreement between the assays tested. These observations are consistent with previous reports ...
Development of a Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Detection of Macadamia Nut Residues in Processed Food ...
  • Although prostate-specific acid phosphatase is not a cancer-specific enzyme, we conclude that its measurement may be of considerable value in monitoring prostatic disease. (aaccjnls.org)
  • This assay is based on measurement of activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). (edu.au)
  • Determination of enzyme parameters through calibration is a necessary step to track changing enzyme kinetic characteristics and improves on previous methods to determine label enzyme amounts on the calorimeter platform. (mdpi.com)
  • Variations in antigen preparation and purity, assay methods, and endpoint determination between laboratories and the absence of a suitable standard reference serum compound this problem. (cdc.gov)
  • While this does not allow for the determination of a protein's molecular weight, the microtiter format does allow for a fast, high throughput assay and analysis of hundreds of samples at one time. (advansta.com)
  • Protein array is a versatile high-throughput assay platform used for identifying interactions of hundreds of proteins in parallel, as well as determining their functions. (edu.au)
  • The discovery of novel anti-cancer drugs targeting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), an oncogenic tyrosine kinase, raises the need for in vitro assays suitable for screening compounds for ALK inhibition. (haematologica.org)
  • The assays presented here should be useful for both in vitro and in vivo evaluations of a wide variety of fusion proteins used in both preclinical and clinical testing. (asm.org)
  • In vitro assays demonstrated that Tregs cocultured with NK cells inhibit their proliferation by competition for IL-2 but not for IL-15. (bloodjournal.org)
  • After optimizing various parameters such as concentrations of antibody, coating antigen and composition of the assay buffer, an inhibition curve was plotted with the 50% inhibition concentration value (IC 50 ) 33.6 ± 2.5 ng/mL. (mdpi.com)
  • A simple protocol for using a LDH-based cytotoxicity assay to assess the effects of death and growth inhibition at the same time. (edu.au)
  • The assay first detected experimentally infected animals between 13 and 17 days postinfection, and with sera from naturally infected carrier cattle, was comparable to indirect immunofluorescence (98.3% concordance). (asm.org)
  • The existing ultrasensitive lateral flow assay for the detection of Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen (CAA) has demonstrated excellent sensitivity but is time-consuming and requires significant laboratory infrastructure that limits its applicability at the point of care. (rsc.org)
  • This concentrated eluate was subsequently applied to the existing lateral flow assay. (rsc.org)
  • Paper-based lateral flow assays (LFAs) are attractive alternatives to microscopy because they are easy-to-use, low-cost, and disposable. (rsc.org)
  • Black or white opaque plates should be used for fluorescent or chemiluminescent assays to prevent well-to-well bleed through. (advansta.com)
  • Model-assisted signal analysis was used to calibrate the nanocalorimeter and to determine reagent diffusion, enzyme kinetics, and enzyme concentration. (mdpi.com)
  • The resulting enzyme activity was inversely related to acyclovir concentration in the sample. (asm.org)
  • Assay performance in all three protocols was comparable over the ACPA concentration range 20- 1000 U/mL. (rroij.com)
  • The potential use of bioengineered fusion proteins in vivo necessitates the development of assays which accurately determine the quantity of intact fusion protein. (asm.org)
  • 29 , 30 UPR induction results in both an initial decrease in general protein synthesis, to reduce the influx of nascent proteins into the ER, and increased transcription of ER resident chaperones, folding enzymes, and components of the protein degradative machinery to prevent the aggregation of the accumulating misfolded proteins. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Failure to detect the two samples with viral loads considered above threshold of detection for antigen proteins suggested a lack of sensitivity by this assay to discover viral capsid protein in patient samples. (ac.ke)
  • Data from 1124 plasma proteins were used to identify proteins linked to lipoprotein subclasses. (bmj.com)
  • The assays described in this report specifically quantitate and distinguish the intact fusion protein from its breakdown or composite products, by utilizing capture reagents directed against one functional group and detection ligands which combine with the other active moiety. (asm.org)
  • A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate acyclovir and BW B759U in human plasma and urine. (asm.org)
  • During November-December 1997, laboratory MA-A reported four stool specimens positive by ProSpecT {Registered} Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay from residents of one town in Massachusetts. (cdc.gov)
  • Clark M.F. , Adams A.N. "Characteristics of the microplate method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of plant viruses. (brillonline.com)
  • A two-step coupling procedure was used, in which glutaraldehyde was allowed to react with the enzyme, excess glutaraldehyde was then removed by dialysis, and finally protein G added to the glutaraldehyde-activated and polymerized alkaline phosphatase. (lu.se)
  • An enzyme marker was similarly prepared by coupling 7AMD with β- d -galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) via N -maleoylaminobutyric acid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Evaluation of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Utilizing Native Antigen B for Serodiagnosis of Human Hydatidosis', Iranian Journal of Immunology , 4(3), pp. 167-172. (ac.ir)
  • Unlike Western blots , the assay is usually performed in a microtiter plate. (advansta.com)
  • Although the fluorescent-antibody-to-membrane-antigen (FAMA) test remains the reference standard to which other tests are compared, simpler alternative assays are needed. (eurekamag.com)
  • As a consequence, the assay was found useful in measuring the concentrations of BW B759U in clinical samples devoid of acyclovir. (asm.org)
  • Solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for classical complement activation pathway. (bmj.com)