An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
The period of recovery following an illness.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A genus of large tapeworms.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A gram-negative, rod-shaped to coccoid bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of SCRUB TYPHUS in humans and is transmitted by mites from rodent reservoirs.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.
Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.

High-throughput screening of small molecules in miniaturized mammalian cell-based assays involving post-translational modifications. (1/32616)

BACKGROUND: Fully adapting a forward genetic approach to mammalian systems requires efficient methods to alter systematically gene products without prior knowledge of gene sequences, while allowing for the subsequent characterization of these alterations. Ideally, these methods would also allow function to be altered in a temporally controlled manner. RESULTS: We report the development of a miniaturized cell-based assay format that enables a genetic-like approach to understanding cellular pathways in mammalian systems using small molecules, rather than mutations, as the source of gene-product alterations. This whole-cell immunodetection assay can sensitively detect changes in specific cellular macromolecules in high-density arrays of mammalian cells. Furthermore, it is compatible with screening large numbers of small molecules in nanoliter to microliter culture volumes. We refer to this assay format as a 'cytoblot', and demonstrate the use of cytoblotting to monitor biosynthetic processes such as DNA synthesis, and post-translational processes such as acetylation and phosphorylation. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of these assays to natural-product screening through the identification of marine sponge extracts exhibiting genotype-specific inhibition of 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and suppression of the anti-proliferative effect of rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS: We show that cytoblots can be used for high-throughput screening of small molecules in cell-based assays. Together with small-molecule libraries, the cytoblot assay can be used to perform chemical genetic screens analogous to those used in classical genetics and thus should be applicable to understanding a wide variety of cellular processes, especially those involving post-transitional modifications.  (+info)

Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions. (2/32616)

AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. (3/32616)

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

Functional activities and epitope specificity of human and murine antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (Rmp) of Neisseria meningitidis. (4/32616)

Antibodies against the class 4 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Neisseria meningitidis have been purified from sera from vaccinees immunized with the Norwegian meningococcal group B outer membrane vesicle vaccine. The human sera and purified antibodies reacted strongly with the class 4 OMP in immunoblots, whereas experiments with whole bacteria showed only weak reactions, indicating that the antibodies mainly reacted with parts of the class 4 molecule that were not exposed. The purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibodies and the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were neither bactericidal nor opsonic against live meningococci. Three new MAbs against the class 4 OMP were generated and compared with other, previously described MAbs. Three linear epitopes in different regions of the class 4 OMP were identified by the reaction of MAbs with synthetic peptides. The MAbs showed no blocking effect on bactericidal activity of MAbs against other OMPs. However, one of the eight purified human anti-class 4 OMP antibody preparations, selected from immunoblot reactions among sera from 27 vaccinees, inhibited at high concentrations the bactericidal effect of a MAb against the class 1 OMP. However, these antibodies were not vaccine induced, as they were present also before vaccination. Therefore, this study gave no evidence that vaccination with a meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccine containing the class 4 OMP induces blocking antibodies. Our data indicated that the structure of class 4 OMP does not correspond to standard beta-barrel structures of integral OMPs and that no substantial portion of the OmpA-like C-terminal region of this protein is located at the surface of the outer membrane.  (+info)

Characterization of human bactericidal antibodies to Bordetella pertussis. (5/32616)

The Bordetella pertussis BrkA protein protects against the bactericidal activity of complement and antibody; however, some individuals mount an immune response that overcomes this bacterial defense. To further characterize this process, the bactericidal activities of sera from 13 adults with different modes of exposure to B. pertussis (infected as adults, occupational exposure, immunized with an acellular vaccine, or no identified exposure) against a wild-type strain and a BrkA complement-sensitive mutant were evaluated. All of the sera killed the BrkA mutant, suggesting past exposure to B. pertussis or cross-reactive organisms. Several samples had no or minimal activity against the wild type. All of the sera collected from the infected and occupationally exposed individuals but not all of the sera from vaccinated individuals had bactericidal activity against the wild-type strain, suggesting that some types of exposure can induce an immune response that can overcome the BrkA resistance mechanism. Adsorbing serum with the wild-type strain removed the bactericidal antibodies; however, adsorbing the serum with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant or an avirulent (bvg mutant) strain did not always result in loss of bactericidal activity, suggesting that antibodies to either LPS or bvg-regulated proteins could be bactericidal. All the samples, including those that lacked bactericidal activity, contained antibodies that recognized the LPS of B. pertussis. Bactericidal activity correlated best with the presence of the immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) antibodies to LPS, the IgG subtype that is most effective at fixing complement.  (+info)

Overexpression of human homologs of the bacterial DnaJ chaperone in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (6/32616)

OBJECTIVE: To study the expression of the chaperone family of J proteins in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis. METHODS: Rabbit antibodies specific for a synthetic peptide (pHSJ1: EAYEVLSDKHKREIYD), representing the most conserved part of all J domains thus far identified--among them the Drosophila tumor suppressor Tid56--were used in immunohistochemical analyses of frozen sections of synovial tissue and immunoblotting of protein extracts of adherent synovial cells. IgG specific for Tid56 was also used. RESULTS: Both antisera predominantly and intensely stained synovial lining cells from RA patients; other cells did not stain or stained only faintly. In immunoblots, anti-pHSJ1 specifically detected several bands with molecular weights of >74 kd (type I), 57-64 kd (type II), 41-48 kd (type III), and < or =36 kd (type IV). The strongest band detected in RA adherent synovial cells was the type II band, whereas in a B cell line, a type I band was prominent. CONCLUSION: Several potentially new members of the J family are described. The type II band represents the human homolog of the Drosophila Tid56 protein and is strongly expressed in RA synovial tissue.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (7/32616)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Familial antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: criteria for disease and evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance. (8/32616)

OBJECTIVE: To develop diagnostic criteria for a familial form of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), identify families with >1 affected member, examine possible modes of inheritance, and determine linkage to potential candidate genes. METHODS: Family members of probands with primary APS were analyzed for clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with APS. Families with > or =2 affected members were analyzed by segregation analysis and typed for candidate genetic markers. RESULTS: Seven families were identified. Thirty of 101 family members met diagnostic criteria for APS. Segregation studies rejected both environmental and autosomal recessive models, and the data were best fit by either a dominant or codominant model. Linkage analysis showed independent segregation of APS and several candidate genes. CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory criteria are essential to identify the spectrum of disease associated with APS. We believe a set of criteria was developed that can precisely define affected family members with APS. Modeling studies utilizing these criteria strongly support a genetic basis for disease in families with APS and suggest that a susceptibility gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. However, in these families, APS was not linked with HLA, Fas, or other candidate genes, including beta2-glycoprotein 1, HLA, T cell receptor beta chain, Ig heavy chain, antithrombin III, Fas ligand, factor V, complement factor H, IgK, and Fas.  (+info)

4. (Middle and Africa) Latin America Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market.. Report also includes Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market growth rate XXXX % during forecast period. Worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) industry report covers competitors/Manufacturers Profiles in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market with their Business Overview. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market report also includes Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market by Type and Applications, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Sales, Revenue, Price and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Industry Share. This research (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market Research) study also includes worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Market Competition, by Manufacturer, by Manufacturer. Worldwide Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Sales and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Revenue by Regions (2011-2016). Purchase ...
A novel double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure rabies antibodies in dogs. G and N protein was synthesized and found to be immunogenic in mice (3), suggesting that the chimeric peptide derived from rabies virus may be used as a diagnostic antigen for detecting rabies antibodies. Iressa Two recombinant plasmids, pGEX4T2/ep and pET32a/ep, were constructed through the in-frame fusion of a chimeric peptide (AVYTRIMMNGGRLKRPPDQLVNLHDFRSDEIEHLVVEE) representing rabies G (amino acids 253 to 275) and N (amino acids 404 to 418) proteins to the C-terminal coding sequence of glutathione = 400) and unvaccinated (= 100) dogs and equally prediluted with sample diluent buffer (phosphate-buffered saline buffer, pH 7.4, including 4% [wt/vol] polyethylene glycol 6000, 3% [wt/vol] NaCl, 0.05% [vol/vol] Tween 20), were added to the wells in duplicate. The negative sera (collected from unvaccinated dogs that tested negative by neutralization test) were added in ...
Antibodies in porcine sera against glycoprotein E (gE) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) are usually measured in blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with one or two murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against gE. Our aim was to develop a confirmation assay which is based on another principle and which is able to detect antibodies directed against most potential binding sites on gE with high specificity. Therefore, we developed an indirect double-antibody sandwich assay (IDAS) using recombinant gE expressed by baculovirus (BacgE960). A fragment of the gE gene consisting of nucleotide positions +60 to +1020 of gE, coding for the major antigenic sites of gE but not the transmembrane region, was cloned behind the signal sequence of PRV gG and the p10 promoter in a baculovirus vector. Immunoblot analysis showed that the expressed protein reacted with MAbs directed against five of the six antigenic sites on gE. Although the conformation of some antigenic sites, notably antigenic ...
A simple, specific, high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative determination of melatonin was developed for directly measuring melatonin in cell culture medium with 10% FBS. This assay adopts a commercial monoclonal melatonin antibody and melatonin-HRP conjugate, so it can be applied in multiple labs rapidly with low cost compared with commercial RIA and ELISA kits. In addition, the procedure is much simpler with only four steps: 1) sample/conjugate incubation, 2) plate washing, 3) TMB color reaction and 4) reading of results. The standards of the assay cover a wide working range from 100 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The sensitivity was 68 pg/mL in cell culture medium with 10% FBS and 26 pg/mL in PBS with as little as 25 μL sample volume. The recovery of melatonin from cell culture medium was 101.0%. The principal cross-reacting compound was 5-methoxytryptophol (0.1%). The variation coefficients of the assay, within and between runs, ranged between 6.68% and 15.76% in cell ...
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for pantothenate has been developed. Antibodies induced in rabbits against bovine serum albumin-pantothenate conjugate were specifically purified by affinity chromatography. This process served to reduce the amount of endogenous pantothenate attached to the antibody, as well as to purify the antibody. The purified antibodies were covalently linked to alkaline phosphatase (Sigma type VII) with glutaraldehyde (0.05% aqueous solution). An immobilized pantothenate substrate was first obtained by attaching human serum albumin-pantothenate conjugate to the surface of polystyrene culture tubes by passive adsorption. The binding of the enzyme labelled antibody (E-AB} to this substrate is proportionately inhibited by free pantothenate as standards or as samples for analysis. The inhibition of E-AB immobilization was quantitated at 405 nm by the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate as indicated by the formation of p-nitrophenol. A standard curve was plotted on log
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AIDS was first recognized in the United States in the summer of 1981, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the unexplained occurrence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly P. carinii) pneumonia in five previously healthy homosexual men in Los Angeles and of Kaposis sarcoma (KS) with or without P. jirovecii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in 26 previously healthy homosexual men in New York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. The disease was soon recognized in male and female injection drug users; in hemophiliacs and blood transfusion recipients; among female sexual partners of men with AIDS; and among infants born to mothers with AIDS. In 1983, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was isolated from a patient with lymphadenopathy, and by 1984 it was demonstrated clearly to be the causative agent of AIDS. In 1985, a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed; this led to an appreciation of the scope and evolution of the HIV epidemic ...
double antibody sandwich elisa & double antibody sandwich elisa online Wholesalers - choose double antibody sandwich elisa from 2336 list of China double antibody sandwich elisa Manufacturers.
Chicken Egg Ovalbumin (Gal d 2) ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative ELISA Kit 6050 Chicken Egg Ovalbumin ELISA Kit Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Kit); enzyme immunoassay (EIA); animal (mouse;; rat;; human;; monkey etc) crossreactivity; serum plasma and biolgoical fluids; peptide;; proteins;; ELISA;; antibody;; Chicken proteins Allergy ovalbumin turkey egg white yolk ovalbumin ova peptides autoimmune autoantibodies contaminants food allergens vaccines Chicken Egg Ovalbumin (Gal d 2) ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative ELISA Kit 6050 Chicken Egg Ovalbumin ELISA Kit Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Kit); enzyme immunoassay (EIA); animal (mouse;; rat;; human;; monkey etc) crossreactivity; serum plasma and biolgoical fluids; peptide;; proteins;; ELISA;; antibody;; Chicken proteins Allergy ovalbumin turkey egg white yolk ovalbumin ova peptides autoimmune autoantibodies contaminants food allergens vaccines
transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy and the newborn, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities Objectives: The aim of our study was to detect the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus infection in pregnant females at Sohag University Hospital using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay [ELISA] confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR] as well as the fetal outcome of infected women in comparison with healthy Methodology: The study was carried out on 60 pregnant women attending the Obestetric and Gynacology department of Sohag University Hospital fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They were screened for type specific HSV antibodies [HSV-1 IgG and IgM, HSV-2 IgG and IgM] using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay [ELISA] . For IgM positive cases, HSV DNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR] . Blood samples were collected from all the participants after written informed consent. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the risk factors associated with HSV ...
Activated monocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis. Blood monocytes which enter the inflamed joint become activated upon adherence to extracellular matrix and exposure to a complex inflammatory environment. We have analyzed the mechanism of monocyte activation by soluble factors present in inflammatory synovial fluid (SF). Greater than 75% of inflammatory SFs tested (a total of 22 fluids to date) increased cell surface expression and dramatically increased mRNA levels of monocyte activation markers Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RIII, and HLA-DRA. This induction was not triggered by adherence, a known activating stimulus, and several lines of evidence showed that induction was not dependent upon interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). Induction was not prevented by neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma antibodies and IFN-gamma was not detected in the SFs using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The SFs also were not able to activate the IFN-gamma-activated transcription ...
Glucosidase II is an endoplasmic-reticulum-localized enzyme that cleaves the two internally alpha-1,3-linked glucosyl residues of the oligosaccharide Glc alpha 1----2Glc alpha 1----3Glc alpha 1----3Man5-9GlcNAc2 during the biosynthesis of asparagine-linked glycoproteins. We have purified this enzyme to homogeneity from the lactating bovine mammary gland. The enzyme is a high-mannose-type asparagine-linked glycoprotein with a molecular mass of approx. 290 kDa. Upon SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, the purified enzyme shows two subunits of 62 and 64 kDa, both of which are glycosylated. The pH optimum is between 6.6 and 7.0. Specific polyclonal antibodies raised against the bovine mammary enzyme also recognize a similar antigen in heart, liver and the mammary gland of bovine, guinea pig, rat and mouse. These antibodies were used to develop a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for glucosidase II. ...
Cytokines and chemokines are responsible for regulating inflammation and the immune response. Cytokine and chemokine release is typically measured by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) or Western blot analysis. To expedite the analysis of samples for multiple cytokines/chemokines …
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious worldwide pathogen and the focus of numerous vaccine development projects. Currently the most widely accepted surrogate marker for evaluating the efficacy of a given vaccine is to utilize ELISA. Measurement of antibody concentration by ELISA without reduction in cross-reactive antibodies causes an overestimation of antibody concentration and therefore protection, this is most notable in the aged, an at risk group for this infection. We compared the immune response to the pneumococcal polysaccharides (PPS) 4 and 14 of 20 young to 20 elderly adults. Pre-and post-vaccination IgG antibody concentrations and antibody avidity against PPS4 and PPS14 were measured using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) absorption protocols. All sera were pre-absorbed with either cell-wall polysaccharide (CPS), or CPS and serotype 22F polysaccharide. Pre- and post-vaccination IgG antibody concentrations for serotype 4, but not 14, were significantly lowered with the
Global ICA (Islet Cell Antibody) ELISA(Enzyme immunoassay) Assay Kit Market Report 2021 has complete details about market of ICA (Islet Cell Antibody) ELISA(Enzyme immunoassay) Assay Kit industry, ICA (Islet Cell Antibody) ELISA(Enzyme immunoassay) Assay Kit analysis and current trends. Global ICA (Islet Cell Antibody) ELISA(Enzyme immunoassay) Assay Kit Market Report 2021 Full Report: 2350 USD Multi License (Section): 4700 USD Section Price: As below Page: 115 Chart and Figure: 124 Publisher: BisReport Delivery Time: 24 hour At the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 disease began to spread around the world, millions of people world.
For therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide (LND), the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), a specific antibody was required for the development of a sensitive immunoassay system for the accurate determination of LND in plasma. In this study, a hapten of LND (N-glutaryl-LND) was synthesized by introducing the glutaryl moiety, as a spacer, into the primary aromatic amine site of the LND molecular structure. The structure of the hapten (G-LND) was confirmed by mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C spectrometric techniques. G-LND was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. LND-KLH conjugate was used as an immunogen. Four female 2-3 months old New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with an emulsion of LND-KLH with Freund`s adjuvant. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using LND-BSA immobilized
Lab Reagents Antibody Elisa Laboratories manufactures the antibody elisa test procedure reagents distributed by Genprice. The Antibody Elisa Test Procedure reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact antibody elisa. Other Antibody products are available in stock. Specificity: Antibody Category: Elisa Group: Test Procedure. Test Procedure information ...
Background: Commercially available ELISA kits are popular among investigators that quantify faecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) for stress assessment in animals. However, in faeces, these assays mainly detect immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites. Since different assays contain antibodies of different origin, the detection level and cross-reactivity towards different metabolites and other steroids differ considerably between assays. Thus, the validity of one assay for FCM quantification in stress assessment is not necessarily the same for another assay. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed to investigate corticosterone (CORT) in serum and FCM levels in faeces of laboratory mice, as quantified in four different ELISA kits (DRG EIA-4164, Demeditec DEV9922, Enzo ADI-900-097 and Cayman EIA kit 500655). Assay kits were chosen based on the origin of the antibody, detection level and variation in cross-reactivity. Results: As expected, all four assay kits could ...
A novel minicolumn chromatographic method to monitor the production of inclusion bodies during fermentation and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system allowing direct analysis of the particles with surface-displayed antigens are described. A 33-kDa protein containing 306 amino acids with three sulfur bridges produced as inclusion bodies was labeled with polyclonal antibodies against 15 amino acid (anti-A15) and 17 amino acid (anti-B17) residues at the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein, respectively. Labeled particles were bound to macroporous monolithic protein A-cryogel adsorbents inserted into the open-ended wells of a 96-well plate (referred to as protein A-cryogel minicolumn plate). The concept behind this application is that the binding degree of inclusion bodies from lysed fermentation broth to the cryogel minicolumns increases with an increase in their concentration during fermentation. The technique allowed us to monitor the increase in the production levels of the ...
Capralogics Inc. offers a variety of laboratory support services for: ELISA Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (ELISA) is a procedure that is used to detect the presence of an antibody or an antigen in a sample. It can be used to measure or track the
Lab Reagents Antibody Elisa Laboratories manufactures the hiv antibody elisa reagents distributed by Genprice. The Hiv Antibody Elisa reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact antibody elisa. Other Hiv products are available in stock. Specificity: Hiv Category: Antibody Group: Elisa Elisa information ...
Lab Reagents Antibody Elisa Laboratories manufactures the jcv antibody elisa reagents distributed by Genprice. The Jcv Antibody Elisa reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact antibody elisa. Other Jcv products are available in stock. Specificity: Jcv Category: Antibody Group: Elisa Elisa information ...
Supplementary MaterialsTABLE?S1. stream technology by using independent sample and conjugate paths and a compact, portable reader, resulting in diagnostics with higher level of sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities. In this analysis, we have compared our standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to the DPP method in detecting acute phase plasma/serum anti-HlyE and anti-LPS IgA antibodies inside a cohort of individuals with culture-confirmed Typhi (serovar Typhi Patchouli alcohol proteome to identify promising antigens that can be used to develop a serodiagnostic assay that allows for accurate recognition of individuals with enteric fever (9,C13). The top candidate antigens have included Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hemolysin E (HlyE), cytolethal Patchouli alcohol distending toxin B (CdtB), flagellin, outer membrane protein A (OmpA), pathogenicity island effector proteins SipB and SipC, among others (9,C13). All these studies have recognized antibody reactions to LPS and/or ...
#elisa #procedures, #antibody #exploration, #indirect #elisa, #capture #elisa #ELISA Procedures Indirect ELISA Reagents and Equipment Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) tablet: 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl (Product No. P4417 ) and 0.1% sodium azide (Product No. S2002 ). Carbonate-Bicarbonate buffer capsule, pH 9.6 (Product No. C3041 ). Washing buffer (PBS-T): 10 mM…
This publication describes the synthesis, silane functionalization and use of magnetic Iron nanoparticles in combination with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to facilitate the hybrid technique of magnetic nanoparticles - ELISA for use in the capture of progesterone in numerous types of milk. The synthesis and functionalization of the magnetic nanoparticles were carried out in an automated Globe system (now replaced by the Syrris Orb Jacketed Reactor) to furnish nanoparticles with a mean size of 182.4nm and 292.8nm after functionalization.. Abstract: A highly sensitive magnetic nanoparticle enzyme immunoassay of progesterone was established using horseradish peroxidase as a label. The enzyme label was prepared by coupling of progesterone-3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime to horseradish peroxidase. The anti-progesterone antibody was immobilized on the amino modified magnetic nanoparticles by glutaraldehyde?. The typical standard curve for progesterone in the buffer by the magnetic ...
In this study we have determined the hepatitis C virus (HCV) serotype and genotype in a cohort of 96 HCV-infected hemophiliacs and have examined the relationship between HCV genotype and severity of chronic liver disease as determined by liver biopsy. HCV serotype was determined by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and genotype by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and HCV viral sequencing. The pattern of genotype distribution was quite unlike that of HCV-infected United Kingdom (UK) blood donors in that five of the six known HCV genotypes were represented, 50% were type 1, 13% type 2, and 18% type 3. An unexpected observation was the presence of HCV genotype 4 in four patients and type 5 in two patients. An additional feature was the presence of mixed infection, detected in 14% and 7% by serotype and genotype analysis, respectively. Liver biopsies were available from 51 patients. Cirrhosis was present in five of 27 (19%) of individuals with type 1, in 2 of 9 (22%) with
in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2012), 64(7), 2260-7. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to identify new biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) by proteomics analysis and to develop specific immunoassays to detect and quantify them. METHODS: Proteomics analysis ... [more ▼]. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to identify new biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) by proteomics analysis and to develop specific immunoassays to detect and quantify them. METHODS: Proteomics analysis was performed in urine samples from 10 women (mean+/-SD age 76.0+/-5.0 years) undergoing knee replacement surgery due to severe OA and 5 healthy women (mean+/-SD age 25.6+/-2.6 years). Protein content was analyzed by 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. Protein spots that exhibited an OA:control abundance ratio of ,/=1.5 were identified by mass spectrometry. Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed and validated in serum obtained from 236 healthy subjects ages 20-64 years and from 76 patients with ...
Correlation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). The results of 53 samples tested by anti-Rpp25 ELISA and
Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppresor drug that has been used in the treatment of several types of inflammatory diseases. In some of them the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation does not suitably account for the observed beneficial effect, suggesting that CsA could act on other types of cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of CsA on inflammatory cytokine secretion by U937 monocyte cells. Undifferentiated and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) differentiated U937 cells were incubated with different concentrations of CsA (200, 20 and 2 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of phorbol-myristateacetate (PMA). Interleukin-1g (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in supernatants using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At the highest concentration used (200 ng/mL) CsA decreased the basal and stimulated secretion of all the inflammatory cytokines studied in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, with the only exception
Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) plays a pivotal role in cardiac angiogenesis and is required for preventing the transition from compensatory left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) to heart failure (HF). Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), a homologue of the VEGF family, plays a key role in lymphangiogenesis. However, the relationship between VEGF-C and HF is unknown.. Methods and Results: We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 401 outpatients whose New York Heart Association functional classes were stable for at least 3 months. We performed echocardiography and calculated the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Serum levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), VEGF-A, and VEGF-C were determined employing specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients were divided into three groups: those with systolic dysfunction (HF+; LVEF , 50%), those with LVH and a preserved systolic function ...
Field research in remote areas presents many challenges, often including a lack of facilities and resources for maintaining a cold chain to preserve samples at low temperatures until they can be assayed in a laboratory. Cold-chains are necessary for the storage and transport of many types of biological samples (e.g., blood, urine and saliva) in order to reduce degradation and inhibit bacterial and fungal growth. One alternative to a cold chain is to add sodium azide, a potent antimicrobial, to each biological sample. However, sodium azide is incompatible with commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits that use horseradish peroxidase, an enzyme inactivated by sodium azide. To address this problem, we tested and validated EIA protocols that use an alternative enzyme, alkaline phosphatase. These protocols can be used for the measurement of steroid hormones in salivary samples that have been preserved with sodium azide, thus eliminating the trouble and expense of maintaining a cold chain from the ...
Analysis of anti-arboviral IgG in patient sera by using the ELISA format has previously been reported (2). When inactivated antigens are applied as a coating directly onto a plate, nonspecific background reactions occur (7). To avoid this problem, IgG ELISAs have been developed as either indirect assays, in which purified virus is applied as a coating onto the microtiter plate (2), or antibody-capture methods, where the plates are coated with anti-human IgG (6). Both of these approaches have disadvantages associated with them. The use of purified live virus is undesirable, both from a safety standpoint and because the preparation of multiple purified viruses is impractical. The antibody-capture method employs inactivated viral antigen and is therefore convenient; however, the anti-human IgG captures all IgG present in the sera. IgG persists long after an infection, and therefore this method is likely to suffer from a lack of sensitivity due to competition from nonspecific IgG. Barry et al. (1) ...
Authors: Bobrowska-Korczak, Barbara , Skrajnowska, Dorota , Tokarz, Andrzej Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Backround: Epigenetic alterations have been identified as promising new targets for cancer prevention strategies as they occur early during carcinogenesis and represent potentially initiating events for cancer development. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of zinc and copper on the DNA methylation in rats whose breast adenocarcinoma was simultaneously induced with 7, 12 dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). The reseach focused on the kinetics of alterations in urinary 5-MedC (5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine) at the early and late stages of carcinogenesis, as well as the influence of dietary factors on the process. Methods: The content of …5-methyl-2-deoxycytidine in the rats urine was determined by the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. The 5-MedC level was standardized by conversion to the creatinine level. Results: It was found that in the ...
In the present study, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system was evaluated for the first time for direct identification of pathogenic bacteria in a large panel of positive BACTEC 9240 blood culture bottles. This test system allows identification of the bacteria within ca. 4.5 to 6 h, including DNA isolation, PCR amplification, and detection by reverse hybridization. Therefore, in contrast to conventional culture and biochemical identification techniques, which usually take 1 to 2 days, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system generates results much quicker.. Concerning pure cultures of bacteria, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system had a very high sensitivity, ranging from 96.6 to 100% for the various test modules (Table 1 and 2). The specificities of the different modules were also high and exceeded 97.5% in all assays but one. The test module for the detection of E. coli cross-reacted with B. fragilis, M. morganii, and one isolate of E. cloacae and therefore had a specificity of only 92.5%. ...
In countries with a high NPC incidence, such as Indonesia, screening for early-stage disease is very important, since most patients currently come to the hospital at stage III or IV, with the consequences of therapy failure and a low survival rate posing considerable health care problems. Detection of EBV-related serological abnormalities, such as elevated EBV IgA levels, may provide a timely diagnosis of protracted early-stage NPC, as revealed in recent studies (2, 15). The availability of affordable yet accurate serological tests, which can be automated for large-scale applications, will be of benefit to cancer screening programs in developing countries. The IgA ELISA using defined and distinct EBV antigen may fulfill the criteria for such a screening approach, in particular when combined with simple sampling, such as dried blood collection, as shown by us recently (9). In that study, sera from well-defined groups of NPC patients and regional healthy individuals were used to evaluate the ...
Hyaluronan (HA) is widely detected in biological samples and its concentration is most commonly determined by the use of a labeled specific HA binding protein (aggrecan G1-IGD-G2, HABP), employing membrane blotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-like methods. However, the detected signal intensity or the quantified value obtained by using these surface-based methods is related to the molecular mass (M) of HA, especially for HA in the low M range below ~150 kDa. At the same mass or mass concentration, higher M HA gives a higher signal than lower M HA. We have experimentally determined the quantitative relationship between the M of HA (in the range 20-150 kDa) and the relative signal intensity in comparison with a standard HA, in a sandwich ELISA-like assay. An M-dependent signal correction factor (SCF) was calculated and used to correct the signal intensity, so that the corrected concentration value would more accurately reflect the true HA concentration in solution. The ...
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric, 5 x 96 Tests. |p|The advent of biological products produced using animal components has created a need to ensure their removal prior to use.
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a major pathogen in laboratory mice that usually leads to fatal diseases, such as hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, and respiratory disease. MHV has a high infection rate, and it needs to be detected as soon as possible to prevent its spread to other facilities. However, MHV detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) often gives false positives; thus, it is very important that the results are confirmed as true positives in the early infection stage or distinguished as false positives with more accurate, reliable methods. Under microbiological screening, MHV ELISA-positive mice were found in four GFP-tagging transgenic mice. To verify the detection of the MHV antigen directly, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed, and the mice were determined to be MHV negative. Additional serum antibody-based screening was conducted with three different ELISA kits, and multiplexed fluorometric immunoassay (MFIA) was performed ...
Influenza B NCP Antigen Capture ELISA - Photometric, 2 x 96 Tests. Influenza viruses can be divided into three classes, A, B, and C, largely based upon conserved antigenic differences in the internal nucleoprotein.
The symptoms mentioned above are the mild symptoms for COVID-19, which begins mild and gradually develops into something severe. Some recover from these symptoms without hospitalization. However, others become critically ill and have difficulty in breathing.. The most vulnerable people who can contract the disease are the elderly and people who have underlying medical problems. These medical problems include heart problems, lung problems, diabetes, and cancer. However, those with mild symptoms can transmit the disease to other people.. Coronavirus COVID-19 IgM ELISA Assay Kit. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a biochemistry assay that detects proteins, peptides, hormones, and antigens from test samples. Detection is achieved by assessing the conjugated enzyme activity. The most crucial element in detection is the antigen-antibody interaction. ELISA assay uses the microplate-based enzyme immunoassay technique.. The pathogenic strains developed by coronaviruses cause respiratory ...
Background Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) DNA testing of genital samples principally from symptomatic persons provides information about active infection only, and is unlikely to represent true prevalence of current and past infection in the population. Serological tests applied to serum collections that are more representative of the general population can help understanding the pattern of the infection. We previously described an indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the CT-specific antigen Pgp3. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using ROC curve analysis of data from 356 sera from CT-infected patients and 722 paediatric sera. The assay works particularly well in women, with a greater sensitivity (74%) than commercial assays (60%), and is suitable for use in seroprevalence studies. However, there is a need to confirm the specificity of samples reactive in the indirect Pgp3 ELISA and, to this end, we have developed a competitive Pgp3 ...
Sterigmatocystin (STG), a biosynthesis precursor of aflatoxin B1, is well known for its toxic and carcinogenic effects in humans and animals. STG derivatives and protein conjugates are needed for generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). This work describes a reliable and fast synthesis of novel STG derivatives, based on which novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates were prepared. With the novel STG bovine serum albumin conjugates, three sensitive and specific mAbs against STG, named VerA 3, VerA 4, and VerA 6, were prepared by semi-solid hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine (HAT) medium using a modified two-step screening procedure. They exhibited high affinity for STG and no cross-reactivity (CR) with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. Based on the most sensitive antibody VerA 3, an ultra-sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for STG in wheat, maize, and peanuts. Assays were performed in the STG-GA-BSA-coated (0.5 g mL(-1)) ELISA format, in which the ...
A partially purified 125I-labeled antibody directed against the murine major histocompatibility complex and injected i.v. pregnant females is selectively absorbed by the placenta when the fetus bears the appropriate targen antigen. The placenta specifically absorbs the antibody at both 13 days and 17 days of gestation, and the differential uptake is found as early as 2 hr after injection and as late as 12 hr. It is also seen in 13-day placentas that have had the fetus removed surgically, indicating that fetal circulation is not essential for the absorption to take place. Specificity controls eliminate the possibility that the differential uptake is due to Fc receptor binding or undefined effects of hybrid vigor. This increase in binding is not seen in the livers, spleens, kidneys, or lungs of the pregnant females. There is a slight decrease in radioactivity in the serum. These results indicate that the placenta is a paternal antigen-bearing immunoabsorbent that could serve as a barrier
False detections Using gel electrophoresis and DNA, a team of US researchers has developed a novel form of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA that is faster, more sensitive and less prone to false detections than existing versions. Termed a nanoswitch-linked immunosorbent assay NLISA, it could form the basis for quick, cheap and effective...
An HBsAb Quantitative ELISA test kit will allow you to test for the hepatitis B and assess antibody response levels to the HBsAg-vaccine. Buy online!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of a Commercial Antigen-Capture ELISA with Enrichment Culture for Detection of Salmonella from Fecal Samples. AU - Pelton, Jeffrey A.. AU - Dilling, George W.. AU - Smith, Bradford. AU - Jang, Spencer. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1177/104063879400600421. DO - 10.1177/104063879400600421. M3 - Article. C2 - 7858036. AN - SCOPUS:0028523033. VL - 6. SP - 501. EP - 502. JO - Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. JF - Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. SN - 1040-6387. IS - 4. ER - ...
Free Online Library: Preparation and characterization of an antibody antagonist that targets the porcine growth hormone receptor.(Report) by Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences; Agricultural industry Biological sciences Antagonists (Biochemistry) Health aspects Antibodies Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay Enzymes Somatotropin Swine Viral antibodies
Complete Report Details @ Regional Insights:. The report lets you have an edge across the targeted regions with the comprehensive competitive framework. It analyzes the market on the basis of segmentation at a regional level coupled with price rate, profit, forecast, and estimates. The report studies the use of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) across several sectors to study and projects the future growth prospects. The report covers regional analysis of the market with respect to the existing market size and future prospects. It features historical stats, data and revenue estimation of the market segments and sub-segments in accordance with the top geographic regions and their countries. It discusses the current scenario of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) market across major geographic segments North America, China, Europe, Asia (Ex. China) ...
Investigators at Kaiser Permanente in Seattle WA Vaccines and Infectious Diseases are recruiting subjects age 18 to 55 years in a phase I, open-label, dose ranging clinical trial of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)-1273 vaccine that encodes the full-length prefusion stabilized spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2-virus infection, the cause of pandemic COVID-19.1 Forty-five subjects enrolled into one of three cohorts will test the safety and reactions of a 2-dose vaccination schedule of mRNA-1273, given 28 days apart, across 3 dosages in healthy adults; and secondarily, the vaccines immunogenicity as measured by Immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following a 2-dose vaccination schedule of mRNA-1273 at Day 57. If you are interested in participating in this trial contact: call: 206-287-2061 or email [email protected] Refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): ...
"Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". British Society for Immunology. Atmar, Robert L. (2014), "Immunological Detection ... Commons category link from Wikidata, Articles with GND identifiers, Articles with J9U identifiers, Articles with LCCN ...
Reen DJ (1994). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Basic Protein and Peptide Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology ... The resulting cross-linking plays a role in activating other parts of the immune system. The structures of CDRs have been ... BAU (binding antibody unit, often as BAU/mL) is a measurement unit defined by the WHO for the comparison of assays detecting ... Edelman went on to discover that antibodies are composed of disulfide bond-linked heavy and light chains. Around the same time ...
Engvall, E (1972-11-22). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Elisa". The Journal of Immunology. 109 (1): 129-135. ISSN 0022- ... LFTs operate on the same principles of affinity chromatography as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In essence, ... Lateral Flow Assays, also known as Lateral Flow Immunochromatographic Assays [...] The technology is based on a series of ... A lateral flow test (LFT), is an assay also known as a lateral flow device (LFD), lateral flow immunochromatographic assay, or ...
"Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Elisa: III. Quantitation of Specific Antibodies by Enzyme-Labeled Anti-Immunoglobulin in ... The molecular assay can be run alone or alongside the Simplexa COVID-19 Direct kit, allowing for differential diagnosis of SARS ... "DiaSorin releases assay for rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 variants". Archived from the original on 2021-05-22. "Press Kit ... "Diasorin receives FDA clearance for the Simplexa™ flu a/b & rsv direct gen II assay: a partner to run with the Simplexa™ covid- ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Wang, Chen; Wu, Jie; Zong, Chen; Xu, Jie; Ju, Huang-Xian (January 2012). " ...
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). (2005) Clinical Chemistry 51:2415-2418 Engvall E, Perlmann P. (1971) Enzyme-linked ... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, univ., Diss. Stockholm : Univ.,Stockholm, 1975; LIBRIS record Lequin RM., Enzyme Immunoassay ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) uses antibodies to detect proteins and other different immunogens. Eva Engvall was ... Proceedings: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-a new technique for sero-diagnosis of trichinosis. Parasitology 1974;69: ...
Schmidt SD, Mazzella MJ, Nixon RA, Mathews PM (2012). "Aβ measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Amyloid Proteins. ... One sensitive method is ELISA which is an immunosorbent assay which utilizes a pair of antibodies that recognize amyloid beta. ... APP can be cleaved by the proteolytic enzymes α-, β- and γ-secretase; Aβ protein is generated by successive action of the β and ... Shen Y, Joachimiak A, Rosner MR, Tang WJ (October 2006). "Structures of human insulin-degrading enzyme reveal a new substrate ...
It can also be achieved through indirect immunofluorescence assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also detects ... Webarchive template wayback links, All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links from October 2022, ... The outbreak may have been linked to the drinking water supply from Llyn Cwellyn, but this is not yet confirmed. As a result, ... The source of one of the outbreaks had been linked to the agricultural community. At least 13 people were treated for ...
... s which employ enzymes are referred to as enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), of which enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays ( ... Lequin R (2005). "Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Clin. Chem. 51 (12): 2415-8. doi:10.1373 ... Comparison of an assay's response to a real sample against the assay's response produced by the calibrators makes it possible ... Immunoassays became considerably simpler to perform and more popular when techniques for chemically linked enzymes to ...
ELISA is an acronym for Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays. Hefle earned two patents for analytical methods on aflatoxin ... detection and her research led to the development of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for detecting any ...
"A microarray enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for autoimmune diagnostics". Electrophoresis. 21 (13): 2641-2650. doi:10.1002/ ... "High-throughput microarray-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". BioTechniques. 27 (4): 778-788. doi:10.2144/ ... 2001). Simultaneous detection of multiple proteins with an array-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and enhanced ... Their first product in development was an assay, termed "immunosorbent cytometry", which could be employed to monitor the ...
Lequin, RM (December 2005). "Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Clinical Chemistry. 51 (12): ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is an assay that utilizes the principle of antibody-antigen recognition to test for the ... Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays are used most commonly as diagnostic tests to detect HIV antibodies in blood samples to test ... Although there are three different types of solid state enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, all three types begin with the ...
Plasma Omentin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. They divided the subjects into 4 groups according ...
ELISA is an acronym for Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay. Simply put, an ELISA test is a variant on the home pregnancy test ... though the question of how many of these deaths are linked to misuse of medication is undetermined. For decades, outside ...
The method of detection is through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. India has introduced in 2010 the NS1 test costing 1,600 ... Serological tests such as an immunoglobulin M antibody capture-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) and viral RNA ... Additionally, NS1 assay is useful for differential diagnostics in regards to flaviviruses. NS1 is present in the serum of ...
Hair samples are analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In ELISA, an antigen must be immobilized to a solid ... surface and then complexed with an antibody that is linked to an enzyme. Bone marrow can be used for testing but that depends ...
Carroll SM, Karthigasu KT, Grove DI (1981). "Serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". ... link) Segarra-Newnham M (December 2007). "Manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis infection". The ...
Immunochemical techniques include: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting (e.g., Western blot assay), precipitation ... It also include immune responses and determination of immune materials/products by immunochemical assays. In addition, ... and agglutination reactions, immunoelectrophoresis, immunophenotyping, immunochromatographic assay and cyflometry. One of the ...
"Quantitative determination of human aldose reductase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunoassay of human aldose ... Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (AKR1B1), also known as aldose reductase, is an enzyme that is encoded by the AKR1B1 ... The way it binds NADPH differs from other nucleotide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes. The active site pocket of human ... It is a reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent enzyme catalyzing the reduction of various ...
1984). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the ganglioside GM2-activator protein. Screening of normal human tissues and body ... by this gene is a small glycolipid transport protein which acts as a substrate specific co-factor for the lysosomal enzyme β- ...
"Aptamers as a replacement for antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Biosensors & Bioelectronics. 64: 392-403. doi: ... where aptamers act as probes in assays, imaging methods, diagnostic assays, and biosensors. In therapeutic applications and ... If multiple aptamers are combined into a single assay, they can measure large numbers of different proteins in a sample. They ... Aptamers have been used to create hot start functions in PCR enzymes to prevent non-specific amplification during the setup and ...
This is done using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) method. Now polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA probes ...
"Detection of fentanyl and its analogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 14 (3): 160-4. ... Removal of Temporary Listing of Benzylfentanyl and Thenylfentanyl as Controlled Substances Utilization of a radioreceptor assay ...
The antigenicities were measured through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results claimed that the ... doi:10.17306/J.AFS.2017.0512.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Hao, Pei; Zheng, Huajun; Yu, Yao ... assay for quantifying Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as well as Streptococcus thermophilus in cow's milk cheese. ... "Development of a time-effective and highly specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the ...
"Detection of fentanyl and its analogs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 14 (3): 160-4. ...
Immunologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing may be used for diagnosis. These tests are capable of a 90% ... Rosenblatt JE, Sloan LM, Schneider SK (May-June 1993). "Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of ... Although the evidence linking the drinking of water in the North American wilderness and giardiasis has been questioned, a ... The attachment of trophozoites causes villous flattening and inhibition of enzymes that break down disaccharide sugars in the ...
L. R. Briggs; C. O. Miles; J. M. Fitzgerald; K. M. Ross; I. Garthwaite; N. R. Towers (2004). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ... The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique used for the analysis of YTXs is a recently developed method by Briggs ... The assay is commercially available, and is a rapid technique for the analysis of YTXs in shellfish, algal cells, and culture ... The MBA, however, still has many drawbacks; The method is a nonspecific assay- it is unable to differentiate between YTX and ...
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used for decades to detect and quantitatively measure proteins in ... Techniques include western blot, immunohistochemical staining, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or mass spectrometry. ... "Myocardial Infarction". (Retrieved 29 November 2006) Introduction to Antibodies - Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). ( ... A molecule that fits the active site of an enzyme, but cannot be released by the enzyme, inactivates the enzyme. This is the ...
The earliest immunoassays were radioimmunoassays and then enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). More, recently, in 2020 ... α-Amanitin has an unusually strong and specific attraction to the enzyme RNA polymerase II. Upon ingestion and uptake by liver ... As early as the 1980s, antibody-based assays (immunoassays) were developed for amanitin (but more often recognize amatoxins as ... Enzyme inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, Sulfoxides, Experimental cancer drugs). ...
Serologic testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA) can be made afterward. Treatment consists of ... Elevated liver enzymes, leukopenia, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia, which leads to hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis (which ... Alkhurma haemorrhagic fever - European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (Webarchive template archiveis links, Articles ... though camels and sheep have been linked to be the natural hosts of this virus. There appears to be more than one possible ...
Schmidt SD, Mazzella MJ, Nixon RA, Mathews PM (2012). "Aβ measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". Amyloid Proteins. ... One sensitive method is ELISA which is an immunosorbent assay which utilizes a pair of antibodies that recognize amyloid beta.[ ... APP can be cleaved by the proteolytic enzymes α-, β- and γ-secretase; Aβ protein is generated by successive action of the β and ... Studies comparing synthetic to recombinant Aβ42 in assays measuring rate of fibrillation, fibril homogeneity, and cellular ...
e.g. Enzyme-linked immunoassay or EIA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.. Detection method or technologyEdit. Depending on the ... Secretion assays. *Apoptosis assays such as the DNA laddering assay, the Nicoletti assay, caspase activity assays, and Annexin ... Enzyme assay: Enzymes may be tested by their highly repeating activity on a large number of substrates when loss of a substrate ... For assays of various metals, see metallurgical assay. For the French commune in the Indre-et-Loire department, see Assay, ...
Assessment of the A and B toxins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for toxin A or B (or both) has a sensitivity of ... Cytotoxicity assay[edit]. C. difficile toxins have a cytopathic effect in cell culture, and neutralization of any effect ... External links[edit]. *Pseudomembranous colitis at Curlie. *Updated guidance on the management and treatment of Clostridium ... "C. difficile linked to 26th death in Ontario". CBC News. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 ...
Reen DJ (1994). "Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)". Basic Protein and Peptide Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology ... "Animated depictions of how antibodies are used in ELISA assays". Cellular Technology Ltd.-Europe. Archived from the original on ... BAU (binding antibody unit, often as BAU/mL) is a measurement unit defined by the WHO for the comparison of assays detecting ... "Animated depictions of how antibodies are used in ELISPOT assays". Cellular Technology Ltd.-Europe. Archived from the original ...
... and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), among others, have been used to test for aflatoxin B1 contamination in foods. ... These enzymes use both molecular oxygen and two NADPH's to dehydrate one of the hydroxyl groups on the anthraquinone and open ... Most of the enzymes have not been characterized and there may be several more intermediates that are still unknown. However, ... Averantin is converted to averufin via a two different enzymes, a hydroxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. This will oxygenate ...
Other detection methods include the use of enzyme-linked-immuno-sorbent-assays and radial immunodiffusion. Different analytical ... Most serpins inactivate enzymes by binding to them covalently. These enzymes are released locally in relatively low ... As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has ... The three N-linked glycosylations sites are mainly equipped with so-called diantennary N-glycans. However, one particular site ...
Another common way used to detect GVA is double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA/ELISA) with ... Immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) is the most commonly used detection method. ISEM is a process where tissue is ...
... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to detect anti-cardiolipin antibodies or anti-apolipoprotein antibodies.[citation needed] ... Anti-cardiolipin antibodies can be detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunological test, which ... Antiphospholipid syndrome is diagnosed using either liquid-phase coagulation assays to detect lupus anticoagulant or solid ... Antiphospholipid Syndrome Explained - (Webarchive template wayback links, All articles with bare URLs for citations ...
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Western blotting are two different ways that the purified antigen (or multiple ... A ligand binding assay (LBA) is an assay, or an analytic procedure, which relies on the binding of ligand molecules to ... Filter assays are a solid phase ligand binding assay that use filters to measure the affinity between two molecules. In a ... Retrieved 2022-08-05.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Davenport AP, Russel FD (1996). "Radioligand Binding Assays: ...
Confirmation of Lyme disease is done through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by confirmation using Western ...
Ki-1 antigen and detection of the antigen in cell culture supernatants and in serum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay". ...
MASI uses the competitive ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method for the screening of histamine in scombroid species ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are easy to perform, provide a more objective interpretation of the results, and ... 2003a;1:318-327 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of equine antibodies specific to Sarcocystis neurona surface ... The first assay developed for detection of antibodies against S. neurona and the diagnosis of EPM was the immunoblot test, also ... All of the SnSAGs are not equally useful in serological assays due to antigenic diversity found in the different strains of S. ...
... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which detects the presence of free FeLV particles that are found in the bloodstream ... Reverse transcription: The viral core then enters the cytoplasm of the target cell where the enzyme, reverse transcriptase, ... GaLV belongs to the retrovirus family which utilises an enzyme called reverse transcriptase in viral replication. Retroviruses ... This is confirmed within hybrizidation assay which evidenced the lack of proviral genome within uninfected gibbons. Furthermore ...
Laboratory methods to measure specific IgE antibodies for allergy testing include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, or ... Commons category link is on Wikidata, Articles with Curlie links, Articles with BNE identifiers, Articles with BNF identifiers ... Cross-linking of the IgE and Fc receptors occurs when more than one IgE-receptor complex interacts with the same allergenic ... Lactose intolerance, a common reaction to milk, is not a form of allergy at all, but due to the absence of an enzyme in the ...
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be used as the technique to detect walnuts residues with great sensitivity ... EnzymeLinked Immunosorbent Assay technique containing high susceptibility and specificity is reliable method to investigate ... "Reliable Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Determination of Walnut Proteins in Processed Foods". Journal of ... "Reliable Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Determination of Walnut Proteins in Processed Foods". Journal of ...
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), direct fluorescein tests (DFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are ... link) World Health Organization (2012). "Global incidence and prevalence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections - ...
Western blot (immunoblot assay) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are two other methods used to detect proteins (or ... Types C and D are the only influenza viruses to express the enzyme esterase. This enzyme is similar to the enzyme neuraminidase ... Wagaman PC, Spence HA, O'Callaghan RJ (May 1989). "Detection of influenza C virus by using an in situ esterase assay". J. Clin ... Because only Influenza viruses C and D produce esterase, In Situ Esterase Assays provide a quick and inexpensive method of ...
C. fetus can be diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction assays, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and vaginal mucus ... agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Campylobacter spp. in general possess membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ... "Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Campylobacter fetus in bovine ... assays, enzyme linked immune sorbent assays (ELISA), and vaginal mucus agglutination test (VMAT). Diagnosis depends on ...
Indonesia Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Seasonal abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes and their association with ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a useful tool that can differentiate between similar strains of barley stripe ... The control program involved assaying seedlings for presence of the virus, and only seed foundations determined to be BSMV-free ...
... on the Basis of a Novel Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Utilizing hMPV Fusion Protein Expressed in Recombinant Vesicular ... Determined with a New Recombinant Fusion Protein Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 20 (10): ... All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links from February 2022, Articles with short description, ...[dead link] "Moderna to Present Data from Two of Its Prophylactic mRNA Vaccines ...
"Development of sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Cronobacter muytjensii (formerly called ...
The standard test for Sendai virus detection is the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), however, MFI (Multiplex ... This assay evaluates the final dilution that may cause a viral infection in 50% of inoculated eggs. This EID50 assay is used to ... unlike the hemagglutination assay) and its fairly early detection (unlike the immunofluorescence assay). In a natural setting, ... Thus, these enzymes are also potential biomarkers of SeV-oncolytic infectivity The fusion protein (F) of SeV is synthesized as ...
... brings provide additional insight into kinetics on top of commonly used endpoint methods like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ... Assay configuration in BLI can, in stable conditions, allow for recovery of samples. Assay configuration in SPR allows for ... As a result, BLI can also be used to investigate allosteric effects on enzyme conformational changes. BLI and SPR are both ... Where the traditional Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) method can be used, BLI can act as a suitable substitute if ...
... followed by the identification of positive clones by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. These selected phages are then ... Designer Enzymes' Created By Chemists Have Defense And Medical Uses". ScienceDaily. March 20, 2008. [Enzyme reactors at "Enzyme ... This enzyme catalyzes the removal of uracil residues from DNA creating single base pair gaps. The USER enzyme treated fragments ... Advances in semi-rational enzyme engineering and de novo enzyme design provide researchers with powerful and effective new ...
False-Positive Laboratory Tests for Cryptosporidium Involving an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay -- United States, November ... letter that three lots of its enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 24 well (catalog number 540-24) ProSpecT {Registered} ... Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay from residents of one town in Massachusetts. The local health department found no link between ... Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay. Stool specimens from 35 of 79 facility patients in both wards and from one outpatient tested ...
Reversed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of specific anti-Plasmodium falciparum immunoglobulin M antibodies / M ... Browsing by Subject "Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V ... HIV assays : operational characteristics. Report 16, Rapid assays  World Health Organization; UNAIDS (‎World Health ... Anti-trypanosoma cruzi assays: operational characteristics, report 1  World Health Organization (‎World Health Organization, ...
... ... 2006)‎. Evaluation of Immunoglobulin A-capture Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection.. ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) include direct, indirect, and capture (sandwich) detection formats for identifying ... The ELISpot Assay Enables Functional Analysis of Cellular Immunology. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot ) assay ... Enzyme Activity Assays. Enzyme activity assay reagents and protocols for investigating the specific activity of an enzyme in an ... Measure and compare the activity of proteases with this non-specific protease activity assay using casein. Use this assay as a ...
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serologic Responses to Pneumocystis jiroveci Kieran R. Daly*. , Judy Koch*, Linda Levin ... aCI, confidence interval; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; PCP, Pneumocystis pneumonia.. bOdds ratios were obtained by ... Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serologic Responses to Pneumocystis jiroveci. ... Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly ...
Detection of Giardia lamblia antigen in stool specimens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ... enzyme immunoassay, counter-immunoelectrophoresis and radio-immune precipitation assay. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For the ELISA test a 1:10 dilution of fresh or thawed patient stool specimen was prepared. ... The use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) methods for diagnosis of Giardia ...
... and an Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB) Assay in Peru published on May 1992 by The American Society of Tropical ... Immunodiagnosis of Human Cysticercosis (Taenia solium): a Field Comparison of an Antibody-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ( ... We compared results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) ... a Field Comparison of an Antibody-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), an Antigen-ELISA, and an Enzyme-Linked ...
Evaluation of a broad-ranging and convenient enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the lysate of infected cells with five ... Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Recombinant 56-kDa Type-Specific Antigens Derived from Multiple Orientia ... Antibodies, BacterialAntigens, BacterialEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent AssayFluorescent Antibody Technique, IndirectHumans ... Evaluation of a broad-ranging and convenient enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the lysate of infected cells with five ...
Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kits,Bioamine ELISA Kits ... BROWSE BY CATEGORY > Cell Biology > Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kits > Bioamine ELISA Kits ... Cayman Chemical Company manufactures quality biochemical reagents, assay kits, enzymes & antibodies for the advancement of ... 1998 - 2022 BiosciRegister TERMS OF USE , PRIVACY , EDIT LISTING , CONTACT US , LINK TO US ...
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Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to an indirect immunofluorescence assay for the detection of antibodies to ... Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, an immunofluorescence assay and a hemagglutination inhibition assay for ... Evaluation of Vircell Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay for Detection of Antibodies ... Evaluation of Vircell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies ...
Public Health Laboratory Service IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detecting rubella specific IgM. ... Public Health Laboratory Service IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detecting rubella specific IgM. ... selected for the evaluation of the Public Health Laboratory Services IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ... If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance ...
... α single molecule array digital Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) assay. This system enables the quantification of ... α single molecule array digital Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) assay. This system enables the quantification of ... α single molecule array digital Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) assay. This system enables the quantification of ... α single molecule array digital Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) assay. This system enables the quantification of ...
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid diagnosis of marine Vibrio sp. In: Journal of the Ocean University of ... An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid diagnosis of marine Vibrio sp. Journal of the Ocean University of ... An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid diagnosis of marine Vibrio sp. / Zhang, X H; Robertson, Peter Alexander ... Zhang, X. H., Robertson, P. A., Austin, B., & Xu, H. S. (1997). An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay]. abbr. ELISA. See: cytokine assays. For further ...
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RAW264.7 cells (2 × 105 cells) seeded in a 24-well plate were preincubated with ... Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Get shareable link. Sorry, a shareable link is not ... Luciferase assay was performed using the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System (Promega)42. ... C) IKK activity was analyzed by in vitro kinase assay and the relative IKK activity was shown in the graph. (D) Nuclear ...
Article in PDF How to Cite Citation Manager Readers Comments (0) Audio Visual Article Statistics Link to PUBMED Print this ...
Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the measurement of vitamin K-dependent protein S: The ... Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the measurement of vitamin K-dependent protein S : The ... Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the measurement of vitamin K-dependent protein S : The ... Dive into the research topics of Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the measurement of ...
Validation of high throughput screening of human sera for detection of anti-PA IgG by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA ... Title : Validation of high throughput screening of human sera for detection of anti-PA IgG by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed, optimized, and rapidly qualified an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ... Specific, Sensitive, and Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Human Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Anthrax Toxin ...
T2 - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites (Journal of ... N2 - The article Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites, ... AB - The article Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites, ... The article Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative/qualitative analysis of plant secondary metabolites, written ...
Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.. Authors: Das, A. Goyal, Renu. Saxena, Sonal. Singh, N P ... Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 2005 Oct; 103( ... Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: ...
Specific, Sensitive, and Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Human Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Anthrax Toxin ... Specific, Sensitive, and Quantitative Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Human Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Anthrax Toxin ... Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly ... Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. *The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ...
Detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay of Antibodies to West Nile virus in Birds Gregory D. Ebel*. , Alan P. Dupuis*, ... aELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; P/N, positive/negative ratio; PRNT, plaque-reduction neutralization tests; SLEV, St ... Detection by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay of Antibodies to West Nile virus in Birds. ... Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly ...
... of the Panbio dengue virus nonstructural 1 antigen detection and immunoglobulin M antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays ... of the Panbio dengue virus nonstructural 1 antigen detection and immunoglobulin M antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays ...
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serologic diagnosis is also available. The ELISA ...
Results of search for su:{Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... The development of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis / Rosemary M. M. ... HIV assays : operational characteristics. Report 16, Rapid assays. by World Health Organization , UNAIDS. ... HIV assays : operational characteristics (Phase I). Report 13: Urine specimens, oral fluid (saliva) specimens. by World Health ...
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for determination of alliinase ... Second and third screenings were carried out using M2 and M3 onion bulbs based on the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA ... from which 197 bulbs were obtained and analyzed for alliinase protein by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Eighteen ... Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Get shareable link. Sorry, a shareable link is not ...
Evaluation of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diaminoatrazine analysis of water samples in comparison to gas chro ... Visual display of the Evaluation of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diaminoatrazine analysis of water samples in ...
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the gold standard method for detecting and quantifying antigens and antibodies ... BoTest™ Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) Detection Assays. BioSentinel, Inc.. BioSentinels BoTest™ Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) ... While simplicity of the assay is a key advantage, the inability to detect multiple parameters simultaneously (multiplex) is a ... Home > Biological > Technology > Immunological > Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). #dnn_mriBreadcrumbs_pnlMain p { ...
  • The fundamental molecular components of an ELISA typically include the use of antibody conjugated to an enzyme, an immobilized molecule(s) of interest, and a detection substrate. (
  • This article offers 4 popular ELISA protocols: Sandwich ELISA protocol, Phosphorylation Assay Procedure, EIA Assay Procedure, & Cell-based Assay Procedure. (
  • RÉSUMÉ L'objectif de cette étude réalisée en Iraq était de définir la sensibilité et la spécificité d'un test ELISA commercial pour la détection de l'antigène de Giardia lamblia dans les selles. (
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects excretory and secretory products of the organism is available now [3]. (
  • Although micro-indirect immunofluorescent assay (micro-IFA) is the standard method for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is considered to be more objective, by providing digitized results as opposed to being subject to the judgment of the evaluator as in micro-IFA. (
  • Evaluation of paired patient sera against the five serotypes showed that the accuracy of ELISA relative to micro-IFA was 87.4 and 79.5% for immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG assays, respectively, at the optimized cut-off value. (
  • Further evaluation of patient sera against the expected serotype of the infecting strain showed that the accuracy of ELISA compared to micro-IFA increased to 100 and 97.4% in the IgM and IgG assays, respectively. (
  • The main aim of this protocol is to describe the development and validation of an interferon (IFN)-α single molecule array digital Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) assay. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serologic diagnosis is also available. (
  • The development of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA for diagnosis of human schistosomiasis / Rosemary M. M. Mwendapole. (
  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the gold standard method for detecting and quantifying antigens and antibodies. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assays are serological tests that examine for the presence or adsence of antibody in human serum directed against the pathogen being tested. (
  • Frequencies of autoantibodies to Sm, nRNP, Ro (SSA) and La (SSB) were determined by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) and/or enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 106 whites and 60 blacks with systemic lupus erythematosus. (
  • 1999), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods (Trochimowicz et al. (
  • Direct ELISA - Enzyme conjugated antibody binds to antigen on a surface. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted to measure the serum FcγRIIb levels in 119 HBV-infected patients and 24 healthy controls. (
  • One of the most straightforward applications of immunological detection is the ELISA or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunochromatography (ICG) strip test, and immunomagnetic bead separation (IMBS) system based on a monoclonal antibody were individually developed for the detection and isolation of Listeria monocytogenes in meat samples. (
  • The ELISA-IMBS and ICG-IMBS provide a more rapid assay than the individual ELISA and the ICG strip test and are appropriate for rapid and qualitative detection of L. monocytogenes (or Listeria species) in meat samples. (
  • Diagnosis of toxocariasis is made using an Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay, or ELISA test. (
  • The ELISA platform (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) has become a tool that is widely used in biological research and medical diagnosis since it. (
  • Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • The IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) is the key method used to diagnosis WNV in clinical settings. (
  • receptor function in response to AM, AM(2)/intermedin and CGRP was measured in a cAMP assay and cell surface expression was determined by ELISA. (
  • The electrode fabricated by the researchers detected COVID-19 antibodies in serum in about five minutes with 88.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity, outperforming even the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, the current gold-standard clinical diagnostic tool. (
  • ARBK1 Colorimetric Cell-Based ELISA is an appropriate, lysatefree, high throughput and high sensitivity assay kit that can check ARBK1protein and its expression profile in cells. (
  • The binding affinities of specific phage particles were assessed using biopanning assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • Total of 278 samples were tested by using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) method. (
  • All assessments were carried out with modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) targeting reactivity to a cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP). (
  • Anti-SARS-CoV-2-S IgG titers have been quantified utilizing SERION enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) agile SARS-CoV-2 IgG. (
  • This type of test, known as an "enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay," or ELISA , uses antibodies to detect the presence of specific proteins. (
  • ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays Code 90320007 SNOMED,Mouse or mice from the Mus musculus species are used for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies or mabs and as research model for humans in your lab. (
  • Typically performed in multi-well microtiter plates, ELISAs are a molecular biology assay commonly used for the detection and quantification of diverse molecules, including peptides, proteins, and antibodies. (
  • Cayman Chemical Company manufactures quality biochemical reagents, assay kits, enzymes & antibodies for the advancement of human and veterinary health care. (
  • Oxford Biomedical Research (OBR) develops, manufactures and markets assay kits, recombinant proteins and antibodies for biomedical research and drug discovery. (
  • 5.Wash the wells so that excess unbound enzyme-linked antibodies are removed. (
  • Comparison of a new immunochromatographic test to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection of immunoglobulin m antibodies to hepatitis e virus in human sera. (
  • Choosing proper antibodies must thus be performed in order to avoid these issues as well as crossreactivity between antibodies within the assay. (
  • In most cases, sandwich assays are more specific because the assay requires 2 antibodies to recognize the target of interest. (
  • In the simplest system, the bound antigen is probed with antibodies that carry covalently attached enzyme molecules. (
  • Afoid freezing and especially freeze-thaw cycles as such cycles may denaturate the peptide chains in the antibodies, standards and enzymes, thus reducing the activity and sensitivity of the kit. (
  • ELISAs that use direct detection methods require an immobilized antigen that is bound directly to the surface of an assay plate or indirectly by a capture antibody, followed by an antigen-specific primary antibody conjugated to an enzyme, and the detection substrate. (
  • Indirect detection benefits from increased immunoreactivity with the target antigen as the conjugated enzyme element is only present on the secondary antibody. (
  • In addition to direct and indirect detection methods, capture or "sandwich" assays use an additional antigen-capturing antibody that is first attached to the microplate surface, followed by the use of both a primary and an enzyme-conjugated secondary antibody, similar to the indirect method previously described. (
  • Public Health Laboratory Service IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detecting rubella specific IgM. (
  • A total of 468 sera were selected for the evaluation of the Public Health Laboratory Service's IgM antibody capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit (MACELISA) for detecting rubella specific IgM. (
  • The assay exhibited a similar ability and comparable specificity to MACRIA for detecting rubella specific IgM antibody. (
  • Following this step, different parameters such as assay configuration, detector antibody concentration, and buffer composition can be modified until optimum sensitivity is achieved. (
  • Analysis of an in-house oblique enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of feline panleukopenia VP2 subunit antigen compared to hemagglutination inhibition assay to watch tiger antibody ranges by Bayesian strategy Background: Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is an etiologic pathogen of feline panleukopenia that infects all members of Felidae together with tigers (Panthera tigris). (
  • The antibody enzyme conjugate reacts with the substrate to produce a colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent signal. (
  • Clinical application evaluation of a fourth-generation HIV antigen antibody combination screening assay. (
  • An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. (
  • the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. (
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Carbonic Anhydrase IV (CA4) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (
  • Here, we developed an IFN-α single molecule array assay with a limit of detection of 0.69 fg/mL using high-affinity autoantibodies isolated from patients with biallelic mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein causing autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1/autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APS1/APECED). (
  • BioSentinel's BoTest™ Botulinum Neurotoxin (BoNT) Detection Assays detect BoNT serotypes A and E (B. (
  • Single Molecule Protein Detection with Attomolar Sensitivity Utilizing Droplet Digital Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Many proteins are current at low concentrations in organic samples, and subsequently, methods for ultrasensitive protein detection are mandatory. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • Primary splenic tubercular abscess in an immunocompromised patient-rapid diagnosis by line probe assay. (
  • 6.Apply a substrate, such as chromogen, which is converted by the enzyme to elicit a chromogenic or fluorescent signal. (
  • including immunofluorescent assay, enzyme immunoassay, counter-immunoelectrophoresis and radio-immune precipitation assay. (
  • Comparability of Industrial ELISAKits, a Prototype Multiplex Electrochemoluminescent Assay, and a Multiplex Bead-Primarily based Immunoassay for Detecting a Urine-Primarily based Bladder-Most cancers-Related Diagnostic Signature. (
  • In conclusion, 3 months of regular training in winter induced prominent changes in cytokines, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and antioxidative enzyme activity. (
  • Blood samples were collected and serum p53 concentrations were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. (
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for quantification of Mouse IL-6 in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (
  • Ten of 15 (66.7%) laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. (
  • Where this calculated value is below the MDC of the assay, the MDC was selected as the default reactivity threshold. (
  • During November-December 1997, laboratory MA-A reported four stool specimens positive by ProSpecT {Registered} Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay from residents of one town in Massachusetts. (
  • Such assays can detect molecules of interest at the pg/mL level and are critical for both basic research and disease research application needs. (
  • The Public Health Laboratory Service MACELISA can be recommended if, as for all assays that detect rubella specific IgM, all the available clinical and serological data are taken into account when the results are interpreted. (
  • While simplicity of the assay is a key advantage, the inability to detect multiple parameters simultaneously (multiplex) is a significant disadvantage. (
  • O157:H7 (O157 STEC) and tested with an assay that detects Shiga toxins to detect non-O157 STEC. (
  • Analysis of two fast antigen checks to detect SARS-CoV-2 in a hospital setting Profitable containment methods for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic will rely upon dependable diagnostic assays. (
  • Evaluation of Immunoglobulin A-capture Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection. (
  • Congenital Zika virus infection has been linked to increased rates of microcephaly and a unique pattern of birth defects among infants. (
  • Nous recommandons l'utilisation de la méthode immunoenzymatique dans les études épidémiologiques en Iraq, ainsi que pour confirmer le diagnostic chez les patients présentant des symptômes cliniques caractéristiques de la giardiase mais dont les résultats par microscopie directe sont négatifs. (
  • Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays utilizing virus-like particles containing mutations of conserved residues on envelope protein can distinguish three flavivirus infections. (
  • We evaluated cytokine secretion and PBMC activation by cell proliferation assay, immunophenotyping and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • and capillary density in the heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry assay. (
  • The greatest advantage of in silico methods is that they are usually faster and cheaper than classical tests, whilst also reducing the number of animals to in vivo assays [15]. (
  • Spectrophotometric methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for parameters' determination. (
  • These include normal to mildly increased leukocyte counts, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased liver enzyme levels, and prolonged coagulation parameters. (
  • Liver enzymes should be obtained to look for elevated hepatic transaminase levels (ie, aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), an elevated alkaline phosphatase level, and hyperbilirubinemia. (
  • A uniform quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Coxsackievirus A16 antigen in vaccine Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), considered one of main etiological brokers of hand, foot and mouth illness (HFMD), causes outbreaks of the illness in younger youngsters everywhere in the world. (
  • Based on a controlled clinical trial, the efficacy of two doses of vaccine (360 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units) administered 1 month apart in preventing hepatitis A in children was estimated to be 94% (95% confidence interval=79%-99%) (3). (
  • Development of IgM-capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue using Beta-propiolactone-inactivated Dengue Viral Antigens. (
  • Research suggests that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are linked to the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. (
  • Troubleshoot and optimize ELISAs using this guide that includes solutions to some of the most common sources of problems for assay development. (
  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot ) assay enables visualization of multiple secretory products from a single responding cell. (
  • Infected cells were treated with radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer and applied to sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (
  • Based on the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, activated human PBMC showed high cytolytic efficiency towards human breast tumor cells. (
  • Growing evidence indicates that inflammation in brain cells is linked with depressive behaviors, and proBDNF seems to activate the immune system," says Prof. Xin-Fu Zhou of the University of South Australia in Adelaide. (
  • Compared to MS, SS caused a significantly greater decrease in cellular viability, measured via MTT assay, along with greater damage to the nuclear DNA (comet assay) and damage to the cellular membrane LDH release, especially at the 24 h time point. (
  • Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay and SYTOX green staining. (
  • These results are essential in the healthcare sector to keep away from COVID-19-linked personnel shortages and keep public healthcare capability. (
  • Measure and compare the activity of proteases with this non-specific protease activity assay using casein. (
  • The specific steps of this assay are outlined below. (
  • The new test has a good agreement of 97.2% with a kappa value of 0.943 when compared with a reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • for a complete test mix, please click the sidebar link to access the Interface Map. (
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Chromogranin A . Clinical Chemistry , 35 , 1934-1938. (
  • Unlike existing low-pungency onions, onions in which the function of enzymes involved in the LF forming reactions are suppressed should not exert tear-inducing property and pungency, irrespective of their moisture content. (
  • You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. (
  • Research models are routinely used in the biomedical field when we are talking about assays. (
  • Rush, J. S., Hasbold, J. & Hodgkin, P. D. Cross-linking surface Ig delays CD40 ligand- and IL-4-induced B cell Ig class switching and reveals evidence for independent regulation of B cell proliferation and differentiation. (
  • Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for vitellogenin of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii). (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for vitellogenin of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii). (
  • The local health department found no link between cases, and testing of the town's water supply was negative for Cryptosporidium. (
  • [3] Claiming the immunocompetent status in the case in question based on the negative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) as Juneja and Jhamb [1] stated is questionable. (
  • 9 ZIKV has been linked to clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders that WHO declared on 1 February 2016 to constitute a public health emergency of international concern. (