Ligase Chain Reaction: A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Urethra: A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Taq Polymerase: A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Branched DNA Signal Amplification Assay: A molecular probe technique that utilizes branched DNA (bDNA) as a means to amplify the hybridization signal. One end of the bDNA molecule is designed to bind a specific target, while the other end of the bDNA molecule contains many branches of DNA that are designed to bind a probe used for signal detection.Ethylmercury Compounds: Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Liquid-Liquid Extraction: The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.ItalyGermanyForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.JapanEurope
... the Fok I method and a modified form of ligase chain reaction for gene synthesis. Additionally, several PCR assembly approaches ... the synthesis step relies on a set of thermostable DNA ligase and polymerase enzymes. To date, several methods for gene ... Currently based on solid-phase DNA synthesis, it differs from molecular cloning and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that the ... The chain grows in the 3' to 5' direction, which is backwards relative to biosynthesis. At the end, all the protecting groups ...
The number of copies of the gene is then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Simultaneously, the same restriction ... Restriction enzymes are used to excise the gene of interest (the insert) from the parent. The insert is purified in order to ... The insert and the destination vector are then mixed together with DNA ligase. A typical molar ratio of insert genes to ... Cloning Molecular cloning Polymerase chain reaction TA cloning Williams, Steven A.; et al. (2006). Laboratory Investigations in ...
... by using polymerase chain reaction that employs the polymerase enzyme), and read-out. Recent experimental research succeeded in ... by restriction enzymes and ligases), extraction of strands containing a certain subsequence (by using Watson-Crick ... These protein complexes may act as catalysts for other chemical reactions, or may chemically modify each other. Such ...
... an enzyme in the leucocyanidin biosynthesis pathway Ligase chain reaction, a method for DNA amplification similar to the ... polymerase chain reaction Locus Control Region, a phrase used in epigenetics in molecular biology Low copy repeats LifeWay ...
... "made important contributions to this field by building different RNA chains with the help of enzymes. Using these enzymes, he ... using polymerase and ligase enzymes that link pieces of DNA together, as well as methods that anticipated the invention of ... polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These custom-designed pieces of artificial genes are widely used in biology labs for ... In 1960 Khorana accepted a position as co-director of the Institute for Enzyme Research at the Institute for Enzyme Research at ...
For each of the two DNA strands, two partial probes are ligated to form the actual one; thus, LCR uses two enzymes: a DNA ... The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. While the better-known PCR carries out the amplification by ... Wiedmann, M; Wilson, WJ; Czajka, J; Luo, J; Barany, F; Batt, CA (Feb 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR)--overview and ... Wiedmann, M (February 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR) -- Overview and applications". PCR Methods and Applications. 3: S51- ...
DNA ligases, that join broken DNA together, had been discovered earlier in 1967 and by combining the two enzymes it was ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, allowed small sections of DNA to be amplified and aided ... Another technique to isolate genes of known sequences involves polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is a powerful tool that can ... This is usually accomplished using restriction enzymes (enzymes that cut DNA). A partial restriction digest cuts only some of ...
... a long-chain-fatty-acid-luciferin-component ligase (EC 6.2.1.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + an ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is long-chain-fatty-acid:protein ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme is also called acyl ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. ... Evidence for an enzyme complex". J. Biol. Chem. 257 (12): 6908-15. PMID 7085612. Wall L; Meighen EA (1986). "Subunit structure ...
DNA ligases, that join broken DNA together, had been discovered earlier in 1967 and by combining the two enzymes it was ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), developed by Kary Mullis in 1983, allowed small sections of DNA to be amplified and aided ... In 1972 Paul Berg used restriction enzymes and DNA ligases to create the first recombinant DNA molecules. He combined DNA from ... Together they found a restriction enzyme that cut the pSC101 plasmid at a single point and were able to insert and ligate a ...
... ligase (EC 6.2.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + an acid + [acyl-carrier-protein] ⇌ {\displaystyle ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is long-chain-fatty-acid:[acyl-carrier-protein] ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. ... This enzyme participates in fatty acid metabolism. Ray TK, Cronan JE (1976). "Activation of long chain fatty acids with acyl ...
Using a second enzyme, DNA ligase, fragments generated by restriction enzymes could be joined in new combinations, termed ... Molecular cloning is similar to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that it permits the replication of DNA sequence. The ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are often used for amplification of specific DNA or RNA (RT-PCR) sequences prior to ... DNA ligase) that covalently links the ends together. This joining reaction is often termed ligation. The resulting DNA mixture ...
The enzyme is biotin-dependent. The product of the reaction is (S)-methylmalonyl CoA. Propionyl CoA is the end product of ... ATP + propionyl-CoA + HCO3− <=> ADP + phosphate + (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA It has been classified both as a ligase and a lyase. ... metabolism of odd-chain fatty acids, and is also a metabolite of most methyl-branched fatty acids. It is also the main ... The native enzyme to biotin ratio has been determined to be one mole native enzyme to 4 moles biotin. The N1 of biotin is ...
The tagging reaction is catalyzed by enzymes called ubiquitin ligases. Once a protein is tagged with a single ubiquitin ... resulting in different types of polyubiquitin chains.[54] Chains in which each additional ubiquitin is linked to lysine 48 of ... ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2). In the last step, a member of a highly diverse class of enzymes known as ubiquitin ligases ( ... Enzymes that help such reactions are called proteases. Proteasomes are part of a major mechanism by which cells regulate the ...
In contrast to similar techniques such as polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction, this method involves RNA ... single-tube nucleic acid amplification system utilizing two enzymes, RNA polymerase and reverse transcriptase, to rapidly ...
Reactions are catalyzed by a type III PKS enzyme. These enzyme do not use ACPSs, but instead employ coenzyme A esters and have ... a single active site to perform the necessary series of reactions, e.g. chain extension, condensation, and cyclization. Chain ... CoA-ligase, E5, chalcone synthase (naringenin-chalcone synthase), E6, chalcone isomerase, E7, Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, E8, ... The flavonoids are products from a cinnamoyl-CoA starter unit, with chain extension using three molecules of malonyl-CoA. ...
... , also known as xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid-ligase (XM-ligase), is an enzyme (EC 6.2.1.2) that ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-sulfur bonds as acid-thiol ligases. This enzyme ... 3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase, xenobiotic/medium-chain fatty acid ligase, and short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. ACSM1 ACSM2A ...
Insert the fragments of DNA into vectors that were cut with the same restriction enzyme. Use the enzyme DNA ligase to seal the ... Another method of screening is with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some libraries are stored as pools of clones and screening ... The fragments are then inserted into the vector using DNA ligase. Next, the vector DNA can be taken up by a host organism - ... Any insert of the genome derived from a restriction enzyme should have an equal chance of being in the library compared to any ...
Kary Mullis,சிறிய DNA துண்டுகளை விரைவில் பெருக்கம் செய்ய உதவும் 'பாலிமரேஸ் சங்கிலித்தொடர் வினையை' ( polymerase chain reaction ( ... Restriction enzyme-கள் மரபியல் பண்புகளைத் தரும் வேதிப்பொருட்களை (genetic material) பல துண்டுகளாக வெட்ட உதவுவதன் மூலம் ... 1972 - DNA துண்டுகளை ஒட்ட உதவும் DNA லைகேஸ் ( DNA ligase ) முதன்முதலில் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகிறது.. 1973 - Stanley Cohen-ம் Herbert ... 1970 - முதல் restriction enzyme-ஐ அமெரிக்க நுண்ணுயிரியலாளர் டேனியல் நேதன்ஸ் (Daniel Nathans) கண்டுபிடித்தார். ...
... it has been most frequently used in RCA reactions. Different from polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RCA can be conducted at a ... T4 DNA ligase) or template-free ligation using special DNA ligases (i.e., CircLigase). 2. Primer-induced single-strand DNA ... Enzymes and Ribozymes". Viruses. 1 (2): 317-334. doi:10.3390/v1020317. Ali, M. Monsur; Li, Feng; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhang, ... Different from conventional DNA amplification techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RCA is an isothermal nucleic ...
It is one of two most widely used methods, along with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), used to direct the replication of any ... The DNA segments can be combined by using a variety of methods, such as restriction enzyme/ligase cloning or Gibson assembly. ... The DNA test looks for the presence of HIV genetic material using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ... This microbiologically produced recombinant enzyme, identical structurally to the calf derived enzyme, costs less and is ...
The ligase activity of this enzyme requires ATP. Lipoic acid is cofactor for at least five enzyme systems. Two of these are in ... 2-Oxoacid dehydrogenase transfer reactions occur by a similar mechanism in: the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex the α- ... ketoglutarate dehydrogenase or 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex the branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase (BCDH) complex the ... Free lipoate can be used by some organisms as an enzyme called lipoate protein ligase that attaches it covalently to the ...
Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is ... These reactions are performed by fatty acid synthase II (FASII), which in general contain multiple enzymes that act as one ... The decarboxylation reactions occur before malate is formed in the cycle. Only plants possess the enzymes to convert acetyl-CoA ... This forms a cyclopentane ring in roughly the middle of the fatty acid chain. The reaction also adds 4 oxygen atoms derived ...
This is then followed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) without primers- DNA fragments with sufficient overlapping ... Restriction enzymes that cut in similar places are used to digest members of the gene family DNA fragments are joined together ... with DNA ligase Large numbers of hybrids that can be tested for unique properties are produced Different members of the gene ... The primers may have additional sequences added to their 5' ends, such as sequences for restriction enzyme recognition sites ...
This biotinylation reaction requires ATP and is catalyzed by holocarboxylase synthetase. In bacteria, biotin is attached to ... It is made from two precursors, alanine and pimeloyl-CoA via three enzymes. 8-Amino-7-oxopelargonic acid synthase is a ... branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and gluconeogenesis. It covalently attaches to the epsilon-amino group of specific lysine ... biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) by biotin protein ligase (BirA in E. coli). The attachment of biotin to various ...
... allows for growth selection of the recombinant cells with proper insertion location verified using polymerase chain reaction ( ... this process can assemble and clone multiple inserts into any vector and requires no restriction enzyme digestion, ligation, or ... and multi-step recombination processes using endonucleases and ligases. Therefore, λ-red recombination is more specific in ... "λ Gam protein inhibits the helicase and χ-stimulated recombination activities of Escherichia coli RecBCD enzyme". Journal of ...
"E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular set of substrates, causing their ubiquitination. A CT scan ... The branched-chain amino acids or BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) are critical to this process, in addition to lysine ... Particular enzymes in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway allow ubiquitination to be directed to some proteins but not others - ... or by inflammatory reactions in the body directed against muscle (the myopathies). Muscle atrophy can be opposed by the ...
1997) Urinary inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction and testing of multiple specimens may ... The tubes were cooled to 42°C, and 25 μl of enzyme reagent was added and the mixture was incubated for 1 h at 42°C. Twenty ... 1997) Sensitivity of ligase chain reaction assay of urine from pregnant women for Chlamydia trachomatis. Lancet 349:329-330. ... 1997) False-negative results of a ligase chain reaction assay to detect Chlamydia trachomatis due to inhibitors in urine. Eur. ...
Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Plays an ... section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.,p>,a href=/help/ ... help/chain target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>ChainiPRO_0000193115. 1 - 697. Long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 6Add BLAST. 697. ... long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct ...
Multi-zone polymerase/ligase chain reaction. WO2000046595A1 *. 2 Feb 2000. 10 Aug 2000. Aclara Biosciences, Inc.. Multichannel ... The product of the enzyme reaction is preferably a luminescent product, or a fluorescent or non-fluorescent dye, any of which ... These methods include ligase chain reaction (LCR) , nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) and Q-beta-replicase ... Another method for achieving the reεult of an amplification of nucleic acids is known as the ligase chain reaction (LCR) . This ...
DNA-helix-passing reactionLigase- joins two polynucleotide chains together ... Vitamins- act as cofactors for enzymes. Cofactors- binds to active site of enzyme, can be bound for lifetime of the enzymes or ... maximum reaction rate at an infinite substrate concentration (where all enzyme is bound to substrate) ... prevent strands from re-associating and protect them from enzymes that cleave single stranded DNA •Topoisomerases 1- enzymes ...
Comparison among performances of a ligase chain reaction-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays in detecting Chlamydia ... Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by ligase chain reaction compared with polymerase chain reaction and cell culture in ... Ligase chain reaction for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urogenital swabs.J. Clin. Microbiol. 33 1995 3111 3114 ... Ligase chain reaction to detect Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the cervix.J. Clin. Microbiol. 32 1994 2540 2543 ...
Ampligase Enzyme & Buffer contain: Ampligase DNA Ligase and 10X Reaction Buffer (25 μl Buffer for each 50 U enzyme). ... Ligation amplification (Ligase Chain Reaction, LCR)1-7. *Repeat Expansion Detection (RED)7 ... Ampligase DNA Ligase Kit contains: Ampligase DNA Ligase, 10X Reaction Buffer, and Control DNA. ... Ampligase® Thermostable DNA Ligase. Highly thermostable DNA ligase for applications where ligation at high temperature is ...
Also involved in the degradation of cholesterol via the degradation of the side chains of C-24 branched-chain sterols. ... Catalyzes the activation of long-chain fatty acids as acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA), which are then transferred to the ... multifunctional polyketide synthase (PKS) type III for further chain extension. ... the chemical reaction it catalyzes. This information usually correlates with the presence of an EC (Enzyme Commission) number ...
... medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase. Reaction: ATP + a medium-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + a medium-chain acyl-CoA. ... Systematic name: long-chain-fatty-acid:[acyl-carrier protein] ligase (AMP-forming). Comments: The enzyme ligates long chain ... EC 6.2.1.1 acetate CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.2 medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.3 long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase. EC 6.2.1.4 ... Accepted name: long-chain-fatty-acid protein ligase. Reaction: ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + [protein]-L-cysteine = AMP + ...
For each of the two DNA strands, two partial probes are ligated to form the actual one; thus, LCR uses two enzymes: a DNA ... The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a method of DNA amplification. While the better-known PCR carries out the amplification by ... Wiedmann, M; Wilson, WJ; Czajka, J; Luo, J; Barany, F; Batt, CA (Feb 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR)--overview and ... Wiedmann, M (February 1994). "Ligase chain reaction (LCR) -- Overview and applications". PCR Methods and Applications. 3: S51- ...
Our first enzyme for this application is a DNA ligase which we began marketing to customers in 2018. ... and polymerase chain reaction ("PCR/qPCR") for in vitro molecular diagnostic and genomic research applications. ... Performance Enzymes. We initially commercialized our CodeEvolver® protein engineering technology platform and products in the ... We also use our technology to develop enzymes for customers using NGS and PCR/qPCR for in vitro molecular diagnostic and ...
This reaction is mediated by E3 ligase enzymes; ubiquitin molecules are connected to the initial ubiquitin, generating ... ubiquitin ligating enzyme (E3), and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUB). Ubiquitin, an 8.5 kD protein 76-amino acid chain found in ... It is a chain reaction whereby an H atom is abstracted from lipids in cell membranes by free radical species, resulting in cell ... The UPP is comprised of ubiquitin, the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2), ...
DNA Ligase - molecular glue that puts pieces of DNA together *Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)- molecular copy machine. Makes ... What are restriction enzymes? *Bacterial enzymes - used to cut bacteriophage DNA (viruses that invade bacteria). ... Polymerase Chain Reaction *Makes many copies of one piece of DNA by repeating replication ... Nasal spray that carries normal enzyme gene. Body makes enzyme and patient breathes normally. Regular treatments necessary ...
Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins were added as new descriptors. ... Proteins and Enzymes: A total of 65 new enzyme classes have been added to the category of Enzymes. Several new major enzyme ... and Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes. ... studies to determine the margin of safety or the reactions ... categories include: DNA Repair Enzymes, Metalloexopeptidases, Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors, Proprotein ...
DNA polymerase in PCR (polymerase chain reaction). 1. Plasmid specific DNA degradation ... So I dont need a ligase enzyme, is that possible?. Edit: I think the plasmid will be nicked at 2 position with this method but ... T4 DNA ligase, Exonuclease (type unspecified), and T4 DNA polymerase are three distinctly different enzymes (and could not be ... Can I use just a primer and PCR to join the cutted plasmid like this ? without using any further enzyme like ligase. ...
... ligase chain reaction (LCR, EP-A-0 320 308) or NASBA (EP-A-329 822). However, all of these techniques utilize enzymes for ... one would stop the reaction after a defined reaction time. Such stopping the reaction can be made by changing the pH such that ... This can be accomplished in one of several ways, for example polymerase chain reaction (PCR, as it is described in U.S. Pat. No ... The secondary probe can be added at any time to the reaction mixture or even to one of the reagents of the reaction. In a first ...
Polymerase Chain Reaction. Robotics. Temperature Cyclers. PCR Variations. Immuno-PCR. QC-PCR. DAP-PCR. Ligase Chain Reaction. ... Enzyme Immunoassay Interpretation. Specific, Sensitivity, and Predictive Value of Enzyme Immunoassays. Competition Assays. ... Poloymerase Chain Reactions. c. Drugs and Vaccines. 16. Coronaviruses. a. Background. b. Diagnostic Tests. c. Vaccines and ... Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. In Situ PCR. Needed Improvements. Viral Load/Drug Resistance Testing. Genotype and ...
Polymerase Chain Reaction. Robotics. Temperature Cyclers. PCR Variations. Immuno-PCR. QC-PCR. DAP-PCR. Ligase Chain Reaction. ... b. Enzyme Immunoassays (EIA). Overview. ELISA. Dot Immunobinding Assays. Capillary Immunoassays. Particle-Membrane Capture ... Enzyme Amplification. c. Fluorescent Immunoassays. Fluorescence Polarization. Time-Resolved Pulse Fluorescence. d. Luminescence ...
... polymerase chain reaction (the experimental embodiment set forth in Mullis, K. B., 1987, U.S. Pat. No.4,683,202) ligase chain ... The protein may be conjugated to enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase or to other reagents such ... 11.1.6. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA was analyzed (FIG. 11) at 0 h and 24 h after LPS injection (2.25 mg/kg) by competitive ... Reagents for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), reverse transcription (RT), and other molecular biology techniques were purchased ...
... ligase chain reaction, and PCR assays for verification of chlamydial enzyme immunoassay results for populations with a low to ... Role of polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Int J STD AIDS 1997;8: ... test uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR); the Abbott LCx® (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois) test uses ligase chain ... Sensitivity of the ligase chain reaction assay for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in vaginal swabs from women who are infected ...
... enzyme encoded by CDC34 (UBC3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the G1 to S transition of the cell cycle. CDC34 ... Ligases / metabolism* * Molecular Sequence Data * Mutagenesis * Oligodeoxyribonucleotides * Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods ... The ubiquitin conjugating (E2) enzyme encoded by CDC34 (UBC3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the G1 to S ... We found that a construct encoding a chimeric RAD6-CDC34 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, in which the 21 residue acidic carboxyl- ...
... ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, and ubiquitin-ligase E3 (1). The substrate conjugated to the ubiquitin chain is then ... The enzymatic reaction (ubiquitylation) is driven by an ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1, ... UBA domains bind tightly to multiubiquitin chains, with a preference for chains linked via lysine 48 of ubiquitin (11, 49). ... Because a tetraubiquitin chain is thought to comprise the minimal signal for targeting substrates to the proteasome for ...
Polymerase Chain Reaction. - Temperature Cyclers. - PCR Variations. - Immuno-PCR. - QC-PCR. - DAP-PCR. - Ligase Chain Reaction ... b. Enzyme Immunoassays (EIA). - Overview. - ELISA. - Dot Immunobinding Assays. - Capillary Immunoassays. - Particle-Membrane ... Enzyme Amplification. c. Fluorescent Immunoassays. - Fluorescence Polarization. - Time-Resolved Pulse Fluorescence. d. ...
... ligase chain reactions, polymerase chain reactions, and enzyme-linked immunoassays.. Treatment. Erythromycin, azithromycin, or ...
... the Fok I method and a modified form of ligase chain reaction for gene synthesis. Additionally, several PCR assembly approaches ... the synthesis step relies on a set of thermostable DNA ligase and polymerase enzymes. To date, several methods for gene ... Currently based on solid-phase DNA synthesis, it differs from molecular cloning and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that the ... The chain grows in the 3 to 5 direction, which is backwards relative to biosynthesis. At the end, all the protecting groups ...
... many RING finger proteins stimulate substrate-independent assembly of multiubiquitin chains in simple reaction mixes containing ... Some other RING finger E3 ligases do form stable complexes with their cognate E2 enzymes in the absence of other factors, and ... The activities and perhaps the specificities of E2 enzymes are controlled by one of many E3 ubiquitin ligases, which may ... In vitro ubiquitin E3 ligase assays.E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme was purified from HeLa cell S100 extracts by ubiquitin ...
  • Dublin, Aug. 21, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets ( http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/rx2936/molecular_biology ) has announced the addition of the "Global Molecular Biology Enzymes, Kits, & Reagents (Cloning, Epigenetics, PCR, Restriction Digestion, Sequencing) Market - Forecast to 2018" report to their offering. (cnbc.com)
  • For the purposes of this report the global molecular biology enzymes, kits and reagents market is segmented by application, end users, products, and geographies. (cnbc.com)
  • Molecular biology enzymes, kits and reagents find applications in a large number of fields of life science research. (cnbc.com)
  • The product segments included in this report are enzymes, and kits & reagents. (cnbc.com)
  • As this segment of the world population is more susceptible to chronic diseases, research into these ailments will become more significant, driving the growth of the molecular biology enzymes, kits & reagents market. (cnbc.com)
  • A combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches were used to calculate the market sizes and growth rates of the global molecular biology enzymes, kits and reagents market and its sub-segments. (cnbc.com)
  • This research offers actual historical market size (2012 - 2015) and forecast (2016 - 2022) of the global molecular biology kits and reagents and enzymes market in the U.S. dollars. (psmarketresearch.com)
  • Struggle with understanding genetic engineering, restriction enzyme function, bacterial transformations, reagents or any other basic molecular biology laboratory topic. (study.com)
  • Name the reagents used in polymerase chain reactions. (study.com)
  • One unit of Ampligase DNA Ligase is equivalent to at least 15 of the "cohesive end units" or "nick ligation units" defined elsewhere. (lucigen.com)
  • this is to avoid this 3' end being involved in any additional, unwanted ligation reactions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Cohesive End Unit) One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme required to give 50% ligation of the 12-base pair cohesive ends of 1 µg of BstEII-digested λ DNA in a total reaction volume of 50 µl in 15 minutes at 45°C. (neb.com)
  • T4 DNA ligase, Exonuclease (type unspecified), and T4 DNA polymerase are three distinctly different enzymes (and could not be substituted for each other). (stackexchange.com)
  • However, replication is a relatively complex process ( see previous notes on this ), requiring the regulated actions of over half a dozen different enzymes - technically challenging to pull off in the laboratory. (ubc.ca)
  • 9. The method of claim 6, wherein the amount of labeled probes is provided in the reaction mixture in or after step (a), and the amount of the labeled probes in the reaction mixture is more than the amount of probe molecule B which contains the nucleobase sequence B2 in the reaction mixture available for detecting in step (b). (google.com)
  • Methods used to characterize these enzymes, including isoelectric focusing and nucleotide sequence analysis, are time-consuming, expensive, or both. (asm.org)
  • A germination-specific amidase of bacilli is a major spore-lytic enzyme that is synthesized with a putative signal sequence and hydrolyses spore cortex in situ. (asm.org)
  • Immunoelectron microscopy with anti-SleB antiserum and a colloidal gold-immunoglobulin G complex showed that the enzymes from both Bacillus species are located just inside the spore coat layer in the dormant spore, and in the dormant spore, the amidases appear exist in a mature form lacking a signal sequence. (asm.org)
  • After incubation at 45°C for 15 minutes, the reaction is terminated by addition of stop dye (50% glycerol, 50 mM EDTA and bromophenol blue), heated at 70°C for 10 minutes and then loaded on a 0.7% agarose gel. (neb.com)
  • The catalytic core structure shows two different conformations: an open active site, as also seen in another member of this enzyme family [the peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating (and α-amidating) monooxygenase], and a closed active site structure, in which the two copper-binding sites are only 4 to 5 Å apart, in what might be a coupled binuclear copper site. (sciencemag.org)
  • They are all multidomain enzymes with a common catalytic core fused to different types of domains. (sciencemag.org)
  • Glutamate-cysteine ligase is composed of a catalytic subunit ( Gclc ) and a modifier subunit ( Gclm ). (hindawi.com)
  • The Ribonucleotide AMP is a common component of many coenzymes (typically acting as the site which binds the enzyme rather than a catalytic function). (sunyorange.edu)
  • We now report that both full-length ICP0 and its isolated RING finger domain induce the accumulation of polyubiquitin chains in vitro in the presence of E1 and the E2 enzymes UbcH5a and UbcH6. (asm.org)
  • Polyubiquitin chains linked by lysine 48 are recognized in a synergistic manner by both p97 and an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin-binding site at the NH 2 terminus of Ufd1. (rupress.org)
  • [ 1 ] The main function of the proteasome is to degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis , a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds . (princeton.edu)
  • The word enzyme was used later to refer to nonliving substances such as pepsin , and the word ferment used to refer to chemical activity produced by living organisms. (chemeurope.com)
  • More specifically, methods and compositions useful for identifying individuals that may be at risk for an adverse drug reaction. (lens.org)