Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Keto-pyrans.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain germacrane and sesquiterpene LACTONES.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE, order Asterales, subclass Asteridae. It is a source of costus root oil and should not be confused with the genus COSTUS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
(S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
An aromatic perennial plant species that has been used to treat migraines, arthritis, and as a febrifuge. It contains TANNINS, volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), and sesquiterpene lactones, especially parthenolide.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO, which exhibits LUMINESCENCE. A. fischeri is found in a symbiotic relationship with the SQUID Euprymna scolopes.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Antibiotic pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, straight rods which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Most strains produce a yellow pigment. This organism is isolated from plant surfaces, seeds, soil, and water, as well as from animals and human wounds, blood, and urine. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the three ester bonds in a phosphotriester-containing compound.
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
Ergostane derivatives of 28 carbons with oxygens at C1, C22, and C26 positions and the side chain cyclized. They are found in WITHANIA plant genus and have cytotoxic and other effects.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain INULIN, alantol, helenin, alantic acid, and acrid resin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.
A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.
A plant genus of the family ACANTHACEAE. Members contain andrographolide and other DITERPENES and androechin, a CHALCONE.
A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE. It is the source of the antimalarial artemisinin (ANTIMALARIALS).
Anthelmintic isolated from the dried unexpanded flower heads of Artemisia maritima and other species of Artemisia found principally in Russian and Chinese Turkestan and the Southern Ural region. (From Merck, 11th ed.)
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The type species for the genus HAFNIA. It is distinguished from other biochemically similar bacteria by its lack of acid production on media containing sucrose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
Hair-like extensions on specialized epidermal surfaces of plants which protect against damage from insects, animals, light degradation and fungal infection. Trichomes may also occur on certain unicellular EUKARYOTES.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain withanolides. Withania somnifera is the source of ashwagandha and aswal.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE consisting of species that profusely produce pectinolytic enzymes in plant pathogenesis.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain 5-methyl-8-hydroxycoumarin. The common name of centaury is more often used for CENTAURIUM
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Some species of the CHRYSANTHEMUM and the old Pyrethrum genera have been reclassified to this genus. The common name of tansy usually refers to this but also forms part of the common name of other plants such as Tansy Ragwort (SENECIO) and Tansyaster (HAPLOPAPPUS).
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant species of the family APIACEAE. The stalks are a food source.
A cardiotonic cardiac glycoside found in STROPHANTHUS. The aglycone is STROPHANTHIN.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond. EC 6.2.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
... and limonin lactone hydrolase. Maier VP, Hasegawa S, Hera E (1969). "Limonin D-ring-lactone hydrolase. A new enzyme from Citrus ... the two substrates of this enzyme are limonoate D-ring-lactone and H2O, whereas its product is limonoate. This enzyme belongs ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is limonoate-D-ring-lactone lactonohydrolase. Other names in common use include ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction limonoate D-ring-lactone + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ...
... , a macrocyclic lactone of the milbemycin class, is a semisynthetic derivative of nemadectin, which is a fermentation ... toxins and enzymes. London: Academic Press. ISBN 9780123814487. Mounsey, Kate E.; Bernigaud, Charlotte; Chosidow, Olivier; ... Rugg, D; Buckingham, SD; Sattelle, DB; Jansson, RK (2010). "The insecticidal macrocyclic lactones". In Gilbert, GI; Gill, SS ( ... Lanusse, CE; Lifschitz, AL; Imperiale, FA (2013). "Chapter 42: Macrocyclic lactones: Endectocide compounds". In Riviere, JE; ...
... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-rhamnono-1,4-lactone and H2O, whereas its product is L-rhamnonate. This enzyme belongs ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-rhamnono-1,4-lactone lactonohydrolase. Other names in common use include L-rhamno ... This enzyme participates in fructose and mannose metabolism. Rigo LU, Marechal LR, Vieira MM, Veiga LA (1985). "Oxidative ... In enzymology, a L-rhamnono-1,4-lactonase (EC 3.1.1.65) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-rhamnono-1,4- ...
The "natural" substrates for PON1 appear to be lactones. However, PON1 has evolved to be a highly promiscuous enzyme capable of ... Polymorphisms in the PON1 gene significantly affect the catalytic ability of the enzyme. PON1 (paraoxonase 1) is also a major ... Getz GS, Reardon CA (Jun 2004). "Paraoxonase, a cardioprotective enzyme: continuing issues". Current Opinion in Lipidology. 15 ... form lactone-like structures that are PON substrates. PON1 also protects against bacterial infection by destroying the ...
... the two substrates of this enzyme are D-xylono-1,4-lactone and H2O, whereas its product is D-xylonate. This enzyme belongs to ... In enzymology, a xylono-1,4-lactonase (EC 3.1.1.68) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-xylono-1,4-lactone + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-xylono-1,4-lactone lactonohydrolase. Other names in common use include xylono-g- ... This enzyme participates in pentose and glucuronate interconversions. Buchert J, Viikari L (1988). "The role of xylonolactone ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 1,4-lactone hydroxyacylhydrolase. This enzyme is also called gamma-lactonase. This ... 4-lactone + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } a 4-hydroxyacid Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 1,4-lactone ... As of late 2007, three structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 2DG0, 2DG1, and 2DSO. In ... and properties of an enzyme in human blood and rat liver microsomes catalyzing the formation and hydrolysis of gamma-lactones. ...
6-lactone + NADPH + H+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-gulono-1,4-lactone and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are D ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-gulono-1,4-lactone:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include ... 3,6-lactone, NADPH, and H+. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group ... This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Suzuki K, Mano Y, Shimazono N (1960). "Conversion of L- ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-arabinono-1,4-lactone lactonohydrolase. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-arabinono-1,4-lactone and H2O, whereas its product is L-arabinonate. This enzyme ... In enzymology, a L-arabinonolactonase (EC 3.1.1.15) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-arabinono-1,4-lactone ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucurono-6,2-lactone lactonohydrolase. This enzyme is also called ... the two substrates of this enzyme are D-glucurono-6,2-lactone and H2O, whereas its product is D-glucuronate. This enzyme ... In enzymology, an uronolactonase (EC 3.1.1.19) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucurono-6,2-lactone + H2O ... This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Winkelman J, Lehninger AL (October 1958). "Aldono- and ...
... the two substrates of this enzyme are D-glucono-1,5-lactone and H2O, whereas its product is D-gluconate. This enzyme belongs to ... In enzymology, a gluconolactonase (EC 3.1.1.17) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction D-glucono-1,5-lactone + H2O ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-glucono-1,5-lactone lactonohydrolase. Other names in common use include lactonase ... This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: pentose phosphate pathway, ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, and caprolactam ...
LasI and RhlI are synthase enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone and N-(butyryl)- ... N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone prevents binding between N-(butryl)-homoserine lactone and its cognate regulator, RhlR. ... ExpI/ExpR are LuxI/LuxR homologs in E. carotovora believed to control secretion of these enzymes only when a high enough local ... This molecule is produced in the cytoplasm by the LuxI synthase enzyme and is secreted through the cell membrane into the ...
In its oxidized form (due to the production of a second lactone ring) is variegatorubin, similar to xerocomorubin. It was first ... It has strong antioxidant properties, and a nonspecific inhibitory effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes. A total synthesis was ...
GULO belongs to a family of sugar-1,4-lactone oxidases, which also contains the yeast enzyme D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase ( ... "Occurrence in humans and guinea pigs of the gene related to their missing enzyme L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase". Archives of ... "Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human nonfunctional gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the enzyme for L-ascorbic ... "Transgenic expression of L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase in medaka (Oryzias latipes), a teleost fish that lacks this enzyme ...
... acyl homoserine degrading enzyme, acyl-homoserine lactone acylase, AHL lactonase, AHL-degrading enzyme, AHL-inactivating enzyme ... Lactonase hydrolyzes the ester bond of the homoserine lactone ring of acylated homoserine lactones. In hydrolysing the lactone ... quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name N-acyl-L-homoserine-lactone ... N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase, N-acyl-homoserine lactone lactonase, N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone hydrolase, quorum- ...
In the third step, the lactone ring is formed by a cytochrome P450 enzyme using NADP+. With the butyloxy group on the C(8), the ... The first step is controlled by the enzyme germacrene B synthase. In the second step, the C(8) position is easily activated for ... It should also be noted, that several of these enzymes are P450s, therefore oxygen and NADPH are likely crucial to this ... In the fifth step, a P450 enzyme closes the 5 + 7 guaianolide structure. The ring closing is important, because it will proceed ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those glycosidases that hydrolyse O- and S-glycosyl compounds. ... It can be completely inhibited by the action of Glucono delta-lactone at 1 mM concentration. Petruccioli, M.; Brimer, L.; ... In enzymology, an amygdalin beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.117) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-amygdalin + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is amygdalin beta-D-glucohydrolase. Other names in common use include amygdalase, ...
... lactone (V) is formed. Decarboxylation is achieved by gently heating lactone in the presence of diluted acid (VI). Metabolic ... The CYP enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are active in the liver and are similar to the rodent CYP4B1. 4-IPO is thus metabolically ... These two enzymes are both part of several pathways involved in the drug metabolism. As both CYPs are mainly active in the ... In rodents it is CYP4B1 that activates 4-IPO [1], an enzyme of the CYP4 family, of which the CYP4B subfamily is involved in the ...
3-oxo-homoserine lactone into 3-hydroxy-homoserine lactone) which leads to a different host-microbe interaction. On one hand, a ... It was found that the genome of this strain encoded an inactivation enzyme with distinct motifs targeting the degradation of ... N-butanoylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). It has been documented that Aeromonas sobria ... In A. fischeri bioluminescence is regulated by AHLs (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) which is a product of the LuxI gene whose ...
The enzyme RuBisCO has been described as a "notoriously inefficient" enzyme, as it is inhibited by oxygen, has a very slow ... Ohta Y, Nishikimi M (October 1999). "Random nucleotide substitutions in primate nonfunctional gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone ... with oxygen acting as a competitive enzyme inhibitor. However, RuBisCO remains the key enzyme in carbon fixation, and plants ... Almost all animals and plants synthesize their own vitamin C, but humans cannot because the gene for this enzyme is defective ( ...
"Purification and characterization of a novel FMN-dependent enzyme Membrane-bound L-(+)-pantoyl lactone dehydrogenase from ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with other ... In enzymology, a (R)-pantolactone dehydrogenase (flavin) (EC 1.1.99.27) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (R)-pantolactone:acceptor oxidoreductase (flavin-containing). Other names in common ...
... may refer to: Springsure Airport Acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase, an enzyme This disambiguation page lists articles ...
The lactone ring in CPT is highly susceptible to hydrolysis. The open ring form is inactive and it must therefore be closed to ... CPT binds both to the enzyme and DNA with hydrogen bonds. The most important part of the structure is the E-ring which ... The lactone is bonded with two hydrogen bonds to the amino groups on arginine 364 (Arg364). The D-ring interacts with the +1 ... Enlargement of the lactone ring by one CH 2 unit also enhances its abilities, as in homocamptothecin. Substitution at position ...
4-lactone:oxygen 3-oxidoreductase. This enzyme is also called L-galactono-1,4-lactone oxidase. This enzyme participates in ... 4-lactone and O2, whereas its two products are L-ascorbic acid and H2O2. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, ... 4-lactone + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } L-ascorbate + H2O2 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-galactono ... In enzymology, a L-galactonolactone oxidase (EC 1.3.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-galactono-1, ...
G6PD converts G6P into 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone and is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway. Thus, ... 5-lactone + NADPH + H+ This enzyme participates in the pentose phosphate pathway (see image), a metabolic pathway that supplies ... Its purpose in the enzyme catalyzed reaction has been unclear for many years. For some time, it was thought that NADP+ binding ... The structural site has been shown to be important for maintaining the long term stability of the enzyme. More than 40 severe ...
This enzyme catalyses the oxidation of glucose by atmospheric oxygen to form D-glucono-δ-lactone and hydrogen peroxide. A ... 1) Catalysed by glucose oxidase Glucose + O2 → D-glucono-δ-lactone + H2O2 2) Catalysed by peroxidase H2O2 + Chromogen → ... Vegetable peroxidase and bacterial enzymes, including an Escherichia coli peroxidase, may also cause false-positive reactions. ... have enzymes that reduce the nitrate present in urine to nitrite. The test is a rapid screen for possible infections by enteric ...
... the two substrates of this enzyme are triacetate lactone and H2O, whereas its product is triacetate. This enzyme belongs to the ... In enzymology, a triacetate-lactonase (EC 3.1.1.38) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction triacetate lactone + H2O ... Other names in common use include triacetic lactone hydrolase, triacetic acid lactone hydrolase, TAL hydrolase, and triacetate ... III Properties of triacetic acid lactone hydrolase.]". Nippon Nogei Kagaku Kaishi. 42: 596-600. Biology portal v t e. ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ ... King HL Jr, Dyar RE, Wilken DR (Aug 10, 1974). "Ketopantoyl lactone and ketopantoic acid reductases: Characterization of the ... This enzyme participates in pantothenate and coa biosynthesis. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of ... In enzymology, a 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase (EC 1.1.1.169) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (R)-pantoate + ...
Aalbers, Friso S.; Fraaije, Marco W. (2017-09-15). "Coupled reactions by coupled enzymes: alcohol to lactone cascade with ... Aalbers FS, Fraaije MW (2017) Coupled reactions by coupled enzymes: alcohol to lactone cascade with alcohol dehydrogenase- ... Marco Wilhelmus Fraaije (born 7 December 1968) is a Dutch scientist whose research concerns enzymology of redox enzymes, enzyme ... Fraaije is active in the fields of enzyme engineering and biocatalysis. His research mainly deals with discovery, engineering ...
... is an enzyme with systematic name L-galactono-1,4-lactone:ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following ... "Isolation of a cDNA coding for L-galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid ... "Purification and properties of L-galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase, a key enzyme for ascorbic acid biosynthesis, from sweet ... Mapson, L.W.; Breslow, E. (1957). "Properties of partially purified L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase". Biochem. J. 65: 29. ...
l-Galactose reacts with the enzyme l-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but with lactone ... Vitamin C functions as a cofactor for the following enzymes: Three groups of enzymes (prolyl-3-hydroxylases, prolyl-4- ... "Isolation and sequence analysis of a complementary DNA encoding rat liver L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme for L- ... Two enzymes (ε-N-trimethyl-L-lysine hydroxylase and γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase) that are necessary for synthesis of carnitine ...
Resorcylic acid lactones (e.g., zearalanone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone, zeranol (α-zearalanol), taleranol ( ... Study of nitrogen substitution". Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry. 20 (2): 165-77. doi:10.1080/ ...
l-Galactose reacts with the enzyme l-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but with between ... Vitamin C functions as a cofactor for the following enzymes: *Three groups of enzymes (prolyl-3-hydroxylases, prolyl-4- ... "Isolation and sequence analysis of a complementary DNA encoding rat liver L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme for L- ... This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by converting it to water (H2O).[4][20] ...
Topoisomerase I is an enzyme that mediates reversible single-strand breaks in DNA during DNA replication. ... Lactones. *Nitrogen heterocycles. *Oxygen heterocycles. *Heterocyclic compounds (4 or more rings). *Isopropyl compounds ...
Enzyme treated starch - kıvam arttırıcı, bitkisel sakız. *Epazote (Chenopodium ambrosioides). *Epsom salts - mineral tuz, ... Glucono delta-lactone - acidity regulator. *Glucose oxidase - antioksidan. *Glucose syrup - tatlandırıcı. *Glutamat - ...
Treimer JF, Zenk MH (November 1979). "Purification and properties of strictosidine synthase, the key enzyme in indole alkaloid ... Mizukami H, Nordlöv H, Lee SL, Scott AI (August 1979). "Purification and properties of strictosidine synthetase (an enzyme ... In the first step of quinine biosynthesis, the enzyme strictosidine synthase catalyzes a stereoselective Pictet-Spengler ... Quinine may target malaria's purine nucleoside phosphorylase enzyme.[32] ...
2002). Macrocyclic lactones in antiparasitic therapy. Oxon, UK: CABI Pub. p. Preface. ISBN 978-0-85199-840-4. . Archived from ... Since drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 enzymes often also inhibit P-glycoprotein transport, the risk of increased absorption past the ... Ivermectin and other avermectins (insecticides most frequently used in home-use ant baits) are macrocyclic lactones derived ...
Patulin, penicillic acid and other carcinogenic lactones, p. 409-434. In A. Ciegler, S. Kadis and S. J. Ajl (ed.), Microbial ... Because Aspergillus niger is used widely in the production of enzymes and citric acid for human consumption, it is important to ... Zearalenone: Zearalenone (6-[10-hydroxy-6-oxo-trans-1-undecenyl]-B-resorcyclic acid lactone), a secondary metabolite from ... Organic chemists have attempted to classify them by their chemical structures (e.g., lactones, coumarins); biochemists ...
... enzymes (lactonase), neurotransmitters (butyrolactone, avermectins), antibiotics (macrolides like erythromycin; amphotericin B ... α-lactone = 3-membered ring, β-lactone = 4-membered, γ-lactone = 5-membered, etc. The other suffix used to denote a lactone is ... Lactones with three- or four-membered rings (α-lactones and β-lactones) are very reactive, making their isolation difficult. ... The most stable structure for lactones are the 5-membered γ-lactones and 6-membered δ-lactones because, as in all organic ...
In the Fétizon oxidation, silver carbonate on celite acts as an oxidising agent to form lactones from diols. It is also ... Silver ions interfere with enzymes in the bacteria that transport nutrients, form structures, and synthesise cell walls; these ...
UFH binds to the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III (AT), causing a conformational change that results in its activation.[83] ... "Preparation and Physicochemical and Pharmacokinetic Characterization of Ginkgo Lactone Nanosuspensions for Antiplatelet ...
Resorcylic acid lactones (e.g., zearalanone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone, zeranol (α-zearalanol), taleranol ( ... The enzymes involved in these metabolic processes are 5α- and 5β-reductase as well as 3α- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ( ... Korhonen T, Turpeinen M, Tolonen A, Laine K, Pelkonen O (2008). "Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved ... 1, 34), a synthetic 19-nor-17α-ethynyl testosterone derivative, which also undergoes enzyme-mediated 5α-reduction and exerts ...
Brengio SD, Belmonte SA, Guerreiro E, Giordano OS, Pietrobon EO, Sosa MA (April 2000). "The sesquiterpene lactone ... and inhibitors of enzymes involved in trypanothione metabolism.[73] Hopefully, new drug targets may be revealed following the ... the sesquiterpene lactone dehydroleucodine (DhL), which affects the growth of cultured epimastigote-phase Trypanosoma cruzi,[72 ...
Enzyme activity is also regulated by a substrate-dependent polymorphism that occurs at position 192. There are two known ... it is likely that lactones are the main substrate (although there is a relatively high level of variation in substrate ... The study of this family of enzymes has been something of interest for a number of years now;[when?] however, the lack of ... Additionally, this enzyme active site employs two Histadine residues (His115 and 134) involved in proton transfers, a glutamic ...
The drug is cleared by hepatic metabolism using cytochrome P450 enzymes. Metabolites are excreted in the bile and urine.[35] ...
Resorcylic acid lactones (e.g., zearalanone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone, zeranol (α-zearalanol), taleranol ( ... hydroxylation of estradiol and estrone by cytochrome P450 enzymes (e.g., CYP3A4) mainly in the liver.[16][17] Estriol is ...
Inhibition of the enzyme decreases de novo cholesterol synthesis, increasing expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors ( ... such as atorvastatin lactone and p-hydroxyatorvastatin. Atorvastatin and its active metabolites may be monitored in potentially ... Like all statins, atorvastatin works by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme found in liver tissue that plays a key role in ... Persistent liver enzyme abnormalities occurred in 0.7% of patients who received atorvastatin in clinical trials. It is ...
... the mechanism of stereospecificity of enzymic reactions in general but also to the structure of the active site of the enzyme.[ ...
... using enzymes specific to glucose, is less susceptible to this kind of error. The two most common employed enzymes are glucose ... D-glucono-1,5-lactone. +. H. 2. O. 2. {\displaystyle \mathrm {Glucose} +\mathrm {O} _{2}{\xrightarrow[{\mathrm {Oxidation} }]{\ ... enzymes modify glucose by adding phosphate or other groups to it. ... mathrm {glucose\ oxidase} }}{\textrm {D-glucono-1,5-lactone}}+\mathrm {H_{2}O_{2}} }. ...
Resorcylic acid lactones (e.g., zearalanone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone, zeranol (α-zearalanol), taleranol ( ... enzymes and metabolic transformations also being involved.[55] ...
Drugs and other substances influencing the activity of the liver enzyme CYP3A4, including grapefruit juice, can either increase ...
It also inhibits CYP2C9, so may interact with medications metabolised by these enzymes (e.g. lomitapide, warfarin).[2] ...
Resorcylic acid lactones (e.g., zearalanone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone, zeranol (α-zearalanol), taleranol ( ... Cells Through Suppression of Steady-State Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Levels of the Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme". ...
In animals, L-lactate is constantly produced from pyruvate via the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a process of ... Two molecules of lactic acid can be dehydrated to the lactone lactide. In the presence of catalysts lactide polymerize to ... Some causes of this are metabolism in red blood cells that lack mitochondria, and limitations resulting from the enzyme ...
Methanol - Caused by the demethylation of pectins in the must by enzymes of the yeast. More commonly found in red wines than ... Various esters, ketones, lactones, phenols and acetals.[2]. Lees[edit]. The lees left over from the secondary fermentation of ... Nicotinic acid - involved in the synthesis of Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a co-enzyme that is important in ... Similarly, though potentially to a much smaller extent, other varieties could be influenced by hydrolytic enzymes working on ...
2-oxo-L-threo-hexono-1,4-lactone-2,3-enediol. or. (R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-((S)- 1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2(5H)-one ... ng kanilang sariling bitamina C sa pamamagitan ng sekwensiya ng apat na pinapatakbo ng enzyme na mga hakbang na kumokonberte sa ...
The γ-lactone was synthesized using Yamada methodology starting with glutamic acid. Lactone opening was done using lithium ... Inhibition of this enzyme could lead to accumulation of HMG CoA, a water-soluble intermediate that is, then, capable of being ... Lovastatin is a prodrug, an inactive lactone in its native form, the gamma-lactone closed ring form in which it is administered ... A major rate-limiting step in the pathway is at the level of the microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG CoA to ...
It is a macrolide lactone and acts by inhibiting calcineurin. The drug is used primarily in liver and kidney transplantations, ... which is a key enzyme in the de novo guanosine nucleotide synthesis. In contrast to other human cell types, lymphocytes B and T ... Sirolimus (rapamycin, trade name Rapamune) is a macrolide lactone, produced by the actinomycete bacterium Streptomyces ... lysosomal enzymes, cytokines, tissue plasminogen activator, chemokines, etc.) from neutrophils, macrophages, and mastocytes. ...
Removal of this enzyme resulted in the sta6 mutant, which showed increased lipid content. After 18 hours of growth in nitrogen ... Mascal, M.; Dutta, S.; Gandarias, I. (2014). "Hydrodeoxygenation of the Angelica Lactone Dimer, a Cellulose-Based Feedstock: ... The enzyme ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is vital in starch production, but has no connection to lipid synthesis. ... Current research in genetic engineering includes either the introduction or removal of enzymes. In 2007 Oswald et al. ...
In this pathway, cysteine is first oxidized to its sulfinic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase. Cysteine ... "Opinion on Caffeine, Taurine and D-Glucurono - g -Lactone as constituents of so-called 'energy' drinks". Directorate-General ... Prematurely born infants are believed to lack the enzymes needed to convert cystathionine to cysteine, and may, therefore, ... The cystathionine is then converted to hypotaurine by the sequential action of three enzymes: cystathionine gamma-lyase, ...
The enzyme was classified as HSL-acylase which hydrolyzes an amide bond between an acyl-side chain and a homoserine lactone and ... Y. H. Dong, J. L. Xu, X. Z. Li, and L. H. Zhang, "AiiA, an enzyme that inactivates the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing ... Endophytic Actinomycetes: A Novel Source of Potential Acyl Homoserine Lactone Degrading Enzymes. Surang Chankhamhaengdecha,1,2, ... Effect of LPC029 HSL-Degrading Enzyme on Pathogenicity. In vitro efficacy of HSL-degrading enzyme from LPC029 to quench QS- ...
... of Lactonase Enzyme from Bacillus weihenstephanensis Isolate P65 with Potential Activity against Acyl Homoserine Lactone Signal ... of Lactonase Enzyme from Bacillus weihenstephanensis Isolate P65 with Potential Activity against Acyl Homoserine Lactone Signal ...
The enzyme did not impose any detrimental effects on cell growth, suggesting a lower potential for the target bacterium to ... Specifically, two novel AHL enzymes, AiiAS1-5 and EstS1-5 from Altererythrobacter sp. S1-5, both contain signal peptides and ... Specifically, two novel AHL enzymes, AiiAS1-5 and EstS1-5 from Altererythrobacter sp. S1-5, both contain signal peptides and ... Overall, this study suggested that some QQ enzymes obtained from the bacteria that inhabit saline environments under high ...
4-lactone and L-xylono-1,4-lactone can also act as substrates but D-glucono-1,5-lactone, L-arabinono-1,4-lactone ... 5-lactone, L-arabinono-1,4-lactone, D-galactono-1,4-lactone and D-gulono-1,4-lactone cannot. With L-galactono-1,4-lactone as ... A flavoprotein (FAD). L-Galactono-1,4-lactone, L-gulono-1,4-lactone and L-xylono-1,4-lactone can also act as substrates but D- ... Applications Enzymes for Industrial Use Enzymes for Research & Diagnostic Use Biological Functions Cellulases Chitinases ...
The enzyme is found in the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which produces N-(4-coumaroyl)-L-homoserine lactone as a ... All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to 2.3.1.-. All ENZYME / UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries corresponding to ... View entry in original ENZYME format View entry in raw text format (no links). All UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries referenced in ... 4-coumaroyl-CoA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine <=> CoA + S-methyl-5-thioadenosine + N-(4-coumaroyl)-L-homoserine lactone. ...
L-Galactono-gamma-lactone dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.2.3; GLDase), an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of L- ... Isolation of a cDNA coding for L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid in ... "Isolation of a cDNA Coding for L-galactono-γ-lactone Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme Involved in the Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid in ... "Isolation of a cDNA Coding for L-galactono-γ-lactone Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme Involved in the Biosynthesis of Ascorbic Acid in ...
Is very specific for the L-gulono-1,4-lactone substrate, since it can not oxidize L-galactono-1,4-lactone, D-glucurono-3,6- ... lactone, D-glucuronate, D-arabinose, or D-xylose. ... Enzyme and pathway databases. UniPathwayi. UPA00132. BioCyci. ... 4-lactone to L-xylo-hexulonolactone which spontaneously isomerizes to L-ascorbate. Can use both cytochrome c and phenazine ... "Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses a functional enzyme for the synthesis of vitamin C, L-gulono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase.". ...
Enzyme and pathway databases. UniPathway: a resource for the exploration and annotation of metabolic pathways ... IPR010031. FAD_lactone_oxidase. IPR006094. Oxid_FAD_bind_N. IPR006093. Oxy_OxRdtase_FAD_BS. IPR030654. Sugar_lactone_oxidase. ... IPR010031. FAD_lactone_oxidase. IPR006094. Oxid_FAD_bind_N. IPR006093. Oxy_OxRdtase_FAD_BS. IPR030654. Sugar_lactone_oxidase. ... D-arabinono-1,4-lactone + O2 = dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone + H2O2. ...
Induction of these specific enzymes thus appears to be essential for growth of S. cerevisiae on Δgl. ... was found to be associated with a specific coordinate induction of the synthesis of two enzymes of the oxidative pentose ... was found to have recovered normal dehydrogenase activity and the ability to synthesize the three enzymes when induced by Δgl. ... continued to remain deficient in induction of the three enzymes and also failed to grow on Δgl. Induction of 6-phosphogluconate ...
... a monoglyceride and a lactone monomer, as well as medical devices and compositions containing such polymers. ... Enzyme containing coated granules. WO1999029303A1. Dec 11, 1998. Jun 17, 1999. Samyang Corporation. Biodegradable mixed ... Suitable lactone-derived repeating units may be generated from the following monomers, including but not limited to lactone ... The alkyd polyester prepolymer is reacted with one or more lactone monomers to form the alkyd-lactone copolymers of the present ...
ABSTRACT Enzymes that cleave ATP to activate carboxylic acids play essential roles in primary and secondary metabolism in all ... Global analysis of adenylate-forming enzymes reveals β-lactone biosynthesis pathway in pathogenicNocardia. ... ABSTRACT Enzymes that cleave ATP to activate carboxylic acids play essential roles in primary and secondary metabolism in all ... Class I adenylate-forming enzymes share a conserved structural fold but act on a wide range of substrates to catalyze reactions ...
After introducing a spiro-δ-lactone at C17 and an oxirane at C3, an aminolysis of the oxirane with L-isoleucine methyl ester ... The other three compounds were generated from this keto-lactone by reducing the ketone at C3, or by introducing one or two ... the protecting groups hydrolysed and the alcohols oxidized to give the corresponding 3-keto-17-spiro-lactone derivative. ... enzyme inhibitor. 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. By following authors. Guy Bertrand Djigoué. ...
IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological propertiesConcentrationsLinksReferencesenzymes (3) Show 3 ... 6-Phosphonoglucono-D-lactone. Description. 6-phosphoglucono-delta-lactone (d-6PGL) is the immediate product of the Glucose-6- ... D-Gluconate, δ-lactone, 6-(dihydrogen phosphate). Generator. D-Gluconic acid, delta-lactone, 6-(dihydrogen phosphoric acid). ... 6-(Dihydrogen phosphate)-(9ci)-D-gluconic acid delta-lactone. HMDB. 6-(Dihydrogen phosphate)-D-gluconic acid delta-lactone. ...
DNA manipulation.Restriction enzymes, T4 DNA ligase, and other DNA-modifying enzymes were purchased from Takara Bio. All DNA ... l-homoserine lactone, N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, and an N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone with a single unsaturated ... l-homoserine lactone (C10-AHL) and N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C12-AHL) were purchased from Sigma. ... l-homoserine lactone, and N-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone with a single unsaturated bond in its acyl chain. ...
... which is reported to be an inhibitor for the wild-type enzyme, as well as others that are not substrates of the starting ... and it has been observed that the level of disorder correlates with the width of the enzyme specificity spectrum. This finding ... demonstrates a large increase in catalytic efficiencies over the wild-type enzyme, with increases of 2,210-fold, 163-fold, 58- ... The redesign of enzyme active sites to alter their function or specificity is a difficult yet appealing challenge. Here we used ...
ENZYMES AND PROTEINS. Acylhomoserine Lactone Synthase Activity of the Vibrio fischeri AinS Protein. Brian L. Hanzelka, Matthew ... LuxI is a Vibrio fischeri enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone from an acyl-acyl ... We conclude that AinS is an acylhomoserine lactone synthase and that it represents a second family of such enzymes. ... The LuxI family of acyl-HSL synthases constitutes a group of enzymes from different species. These enzymes require S- ...
Enzyme Inhibitors. *Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents. *Immunologic Factors. *Immunosuppressive Agents. *Lactones. *Macrocyclic ...
Acyl-homoserine lactone acylase from Ralstonia strain XJ12B represents a novel and potent class of quorum-quenching enzymes. ... l-homoserine lactone, the structural analogue of the natural AHL 3-oxo-C6-homoserine lactone (69) (Fig. 1C). The reporter ... BpiB05, a novel metagenome-derived hydrolase acting on N-acylhomoserine lactones. J Biotechnol 155:86-94. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec ... BpiB05, a novel metagenome-derived hydrolase acting on N-acylhomoserine lactones. J Biotechnol 155:86-94. doi:10.1016/j.jbiotec ...
L-homoserine lactone from Tocris Bioscience. Bacterial quorum sensing autoinducer; immunomodulator. ... Keywords: N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone supplier, OdDHL, quorum, sensing, ... Reviews for N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review N ... Have you used N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone?. Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.. $50/€35/£30/$50CAN/¥ ...
Encapsulated enzyme breaker and method for use in treating subterranean formations. US5607905 *. Mar 15, 1994. Mar 4, 1997. ... a lactone; a poly(ε-caprolactone); a poly(hydroxybutyrate); an anhydride; a poly(anhydride); a poly(amino acid); an esterase ... If desired, the delayed-release acid components also may comprise an esterase enzyme (e.g., proteinase-K), or a derivative ... In certain embodiments of the present invention, the esterase enzyme or its derivative may be encapsulated by means known in ...
Enzyme Inhibitors * HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins * Lactams, Macrocyclic * Lactones * Macrolides * Molecular Chaperones ...
... is a multi-functional enzyme involved in several aspects of lipid metabolism. Limited tryptic digestion of HSL led to selective ... Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry * Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology * Lactones / chemistry * Lactones / metabolism * Molecular ... Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a multi-functional enzyme involved in several aspects of lipid metabolism. Limited tryptic ...
The most efficient enzyme in the screening procedure was lipase B from Candida antarctica. Its application on a preparative ... Resolution of lactone 5d with bulky 1,3-benzodioxol ring provided products with significantly lower optical purity (ee = 89% ... The elaborated methods give access to both enantiomers of trans-β-aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones 5a-d with the defined absolute ... An alternative method for the production of optically active trans-β-aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones 5a-d was lipase-catalyzed ...
Konaklieva MI, Plotkin BJ (2005) Lactones: generic inhibitors of enzymes? Mini Rev Med Chem 5:73-95 ... Identification of dehydrocostus lactone and 4-hydroxy-β-thujone as auxin polar transport inhibitors. *Junichi Ueda. 1. , ... Sun CM, Syu W Jr, Don MJ, Lu JJ, Lee GH (2003) Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from the root of Saussurea lappa. J Nat Prod 66 ... Ueda, J., Toda, Y., Kato, K. et al. Identification of dehydrocostus lactone and 4-hydroxy-β-thujone as auxin polar transport ...
... capable of enantioselectively hydrolyzing chiral lactones to optically pure hydroxy acids, was newly isolated from soil samples ... pantoyl lactone from a racemic mixture of pantoyl lactone. Enzyme Microb Technol 9:411-416 ... Glänzer BI, Faber K, Griengl H (1988) Microbial resolution of O-acetyl pantoyl lactone. Enzyme Microb Technol 10:689-690 ... Shimizu S, Kataoka M, Honda K, Sakamoto K (2001) Lactone-ring-cleaving enzymes of microorganisms: their diversity and ...
The enzyme gluconolactonase (E.C. 3.1.1.17) has been isolated from porcine liver; it was found to catalyze the hydrolysis of ... GLUCONO DELTA-LACTONE EXPLANATION Glucono delta-lactone (GDL) was evaluated for acceptable daily intake at the tenth and ... Eyles, R. & Lewis, H.B. (1943). The utilization of d-glucono-delta-lactone by the organism of the young white rat. J. Nutr., 26 ... The initial deficit in the oxidation of gluconate compared to that of the lactone, caused by a lag period of 7 and 4 hours, ...
In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of ... In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of ... PARP, a DNA-repair enzyme, serves as a substrate for caspase 3 (Mullen, 2004). We next examined PARP degradation following EM23 ... 2008). Further cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from Elephantopus mollis KUNTH. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 56, 231-233. doi: ...
... and sesquiterpene lactones enriched fraction (SL) of Taraxacum officinale roots was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride ( ... Zimmerman, H. J., Seef L. B. (1970) Enzymes in hepatic disease. In: Goodley, E. L. (ed.), Diagnostic Enzymology. Philadelphia, ... Compositae Taraxacum officinale carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity sesquiterpene lactones This is a preview of subscription ... Siyuan, Z., Yen-Kim, W., Choon-Nam, O., Han-Ming, S. (2005) Anti-cancer potential of sesquiterpene lactones: Bioactivity and ...
Enzyme activities at different stages of plant biomass decomposition in three species of fungus-growing termites. Publication: ... homoserine lactone.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal article - Annual report year: 2005 ... homoserine lactone, and the presence of this molecule in culture supernatants from a nonbioluminescent strain of P. phosphoreum ... and can be quorum regulated by N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). We extracted a molecule that induced a bacterial AHL ...
... a key enzyme for biosynthesis of ascorbic acid, from extant species of primitive fish groups ... Isolation and characterization of cDNA sequences of L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, ... Most advanced teleosts lack L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO), a key enzyme required for the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid ... Isolation and characterization of cDNA sequences of L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of ascorbic ...
  • These systems employ two distinct acyl-HSL signaling molecules, N -3-oxododecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC12HSL) and N -butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4HSL), which are produced and sensed by the products of the lasI/lasR and rhlI/rhlR gene pairs, respectively ( 11 , 22 , 25 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are an important class of signaling molecules involved in bacterial QS and in many pathogenic bacteria infection and host colonization are AHL-dependent. (proteopedia.org)
  • The AHL signaling molecules are subject to inactivation mainly by hydrolases (Enzyme Commission class number EC 3) (i.e. (proteopedia.org)
  • A number of gram-negative bacteria regulate gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner by quorum sensing via N -acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). (asm.org)
  • Gluconacetobacter intermedius NCI1051, a gram-negative acetic acid bacterium, produces three different AHLs, N -decanoyl- l -homoserine lactone, N -dodecanoyl- l -homoserine lactone, and an N -dodecanoyl- l -homoserine lactone with a single unsaturated bond in its acyl chain, as determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (asm.org)
  • Many gram-negative bacteria use N -acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum sensors to regulate gene expression in concert with cell density ( 7 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Intraspecific communication of Gram-negative bacteria is based on the production and perception of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) synthesized by LuxI homologs. (asm.org)
  • Bioluminescence is a common phenotype in marine bacteria, such As Vibrio and Photobacterium species, and can be quorum regulated by N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). (dtu.dk)
  • Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by a number of bacterial species and are used by them to regulate the expression of virulence genes in a process known as quorum-sensing. (genome.jp)
  • Waters, Milford, MA, USA) is proposed for the determination of five derivatives of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) that play a biological role as signal molecules of several gram-negative bacteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Development of an extraction method and LC-MS analysis for N-acylated-l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) in wastewater treatment biofilms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although AHLs are probably not the native substrate of this metagenome-derived enzyme, its expression in P. aeruginosa PAO1 resulted in significantly reduced pyocyanin production, decreased motility, poor biofilm formation and absent paralysis of Caenorhabditis elegans. (proteopedia.org)
  • Using the radish hypocotyl bioassay and physicochemical analyses, dehydrocostus lactone (decahydro-3,6,9-tris-methylene-azulenol(4,5-b)furan-2(3H)-one) and 4-hydroxy-β-thujone (4-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one) were successfully identified as auxin polar transport inhibitors from Saussurea costus and Arctium lappa , and Artemisia absinthium , respectively. (springer.com)
  • lactone 7-had a structure that was different from all other known inhibitors of ClpP. (phys.org)
  • Interestingly, the inhibitors of MTA/SAH nucleosidase are very effective against the Lyme disease causing spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which uniquely expresses three homologous functional enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • To study these enzymes my laboratory employs organic synthesis to produce enzyme inhibitors, biochemistry to measure the effects of the inhibitors and probe enzyme mechanism, molecular biology to probe the effects of changes in protein sequence on enzyme properties, and biophysics via spectroscopy and crystallography to study the structure and physical properties of the enzymes. (shsu.edu)
  • It then explores anti-diabetic plants from specific regions before looking more closely at the background, isolation, and synthesis of key therapeutic compounds and their derivatives, including Mangiferin, Resveratrol, natural saponins, and alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitors. (indigo.ca)
  • see the Perspective by Patel and Kaufmann ) used high-throughput screening to identify inhibitors that target the offending bacterial enzyme, β-glucuronidase, without killing the bacteria or affecting orthologous mammalian enzymes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Potent bacterial β-glucuronidase inhibitors were identified by high-throughput screening and shown to have no effect on the orthologous mammalian enzyme. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inhibitors were highly effective against the enzyme target in living aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, but did not kill the bacteria or harm mammalian cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The second reporter strain (AI1-QQ.1) contained the Vibrio fischeri luxI promoter fused to the ccdB gene to detect interference with acyl-homoserine lactones. (asm.org)
  • Identification and Quantification of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones Involved in Bacterial. (deepdyve.com)
  • Tholey, Andreas 2017-08-30 00:00:00 N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) are small signal molecules involved in the quorum sensing of many gram-negative bacteria, and play an important role in biofilm formation and pathogenesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on D-glucono-Δ-lactone (Δgl) was found to be associated with a specific coordinate induction of the synthesis of two enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconolactonase - together with that of a third enzyme, gluconokinase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • LuxI is a Vibrio fischeri enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of N -(3-oxohexanoyl)- l -homoserine lactone from an acyl-acyl carrier protein and S -adenosylmethionine. (asm.org)
  • Another V. fischeri gene, ainS , directs the synthesis of N -octanoylhomoserine lactone. (asm.org)
  • The luxM gene is required for the synthesis of N -(3-hydroxybutyryl)- l -homoserine lactone. (asm.org)
  • Enzymes can sometimes be misappropriated as catalysts to obtain intermediate compounds through enantioselective synthesis for the production of drugs. (mpg.de)
  • SAM is also essential for synthesis of polyamines, N-acylhomoserine lactone (autoinducer-1), and production of vitamins and other biomolecules formed by SAM radical reactions. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of this enzyme by certain substrate analogues also limits synthesis of autoinducers and hence causes reduction in biofilm formation and may attenuate virulence. (nih.gov)
  • Four pathways involving SAM: (I) methylation of macromolecules, (II) reactions producing different metabolites by SAM radical enzymes, (III) polyamine (including spermidine) synthesis, and (IV) autoinducer-1 (N-acylhomoserine lactone) synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • This critical amino acid is also produced as a byproduct by SAM radical enzyme reactions during synthesis of vitamins and other metabolites. (nih.gov)
  • Lactone synthesis activity in a site-directed mutant of an extradiol catechol dioxygenase enzyme. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Special methods are normally required for the laboratory synthesis of small-ring lactones as well as those that contain rings larger than six-membered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many methods in ester synthesis can also be applied to that of lactones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one industrial synthesis of oxandrolone the key lactone-forming step is an organic reduction - esterification. (wikipedia.org)
  • IDEALS @ Illinois: Design and Synthesis of Enzyme Activated Irreversible Inactivators for Proteases. (illinois.edu)
  • Strategies directed toward the synthesis of halo-enol lactones have been investigated. (illinois.edu)
  • Several other routes, such as Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of (beta)-halocycloenones and dehydration of (alpha)-haloketone acids were also developed for the synthesis of halo-enol lactones. (illinois.edu)
  • p-coumaryl-homoserine lactone synthase. (expasy.org)
  • We conclude that AinS is an acylhomoserine lactone synthase and that it represents a second family of such enzymes. (asm.org)
  • EC 2.3.1.184 , acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase). (kegg.jp)
  • Most advanced teleosts lack L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO), a key enzyme required for the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. (canada.ca)
  • MAOIs inhibit the actions of monoamine oxidase type A and B, the enzyme group responsible for breaking down monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. (amazonaws.com)
  • A process for the preparation of a phenolic resin which comprises reacting a phenol with a peroxidase or an oxidase enzyme and a peroxide in an organic solvent containing medium to generate phenolic radicals which react to form a phenolic resin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Class I adenylate-forming enzymes share a conserved structural fold but act on a wide range of substrates to catalyze reactions involved in bioluminescence, nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, fatty acid activation, and β-lactone formation. (edu.au)
  • Despite their metabolic importance, the substrates and catalytic functions of the vast majority of adenylate-forming enzymes are unknown without tools available to accurately predict them. (edu.au)
  • Interestingly, the best mutants are also capable of degrading fensulfothion, which is reported to be an inhibitor for the wild-type enzyme, as well as others that are not substrates of the starting template or previously reported W263 mutants. (nature.com)
  • These enzymes require S -adenosylmethionine (SAM) and an acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) as substrates ( 6 , 10 , 11 , 15 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • In enzymology, a limonin-D-ring-lactonase (EC 3.1.1.36) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction limonoate D-ring-lactone + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } limonoate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are limonoate D-ring-lactone and H2O, whereas its product is limonoate. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enzyme becomes more versatile: With the help of genetic modifications, Max Planck chemists have altered this monoxygenase in such a way that it converts numerous substrates. (mpg.de)
  • By using enzyme tests and mass spectrometric studies using special 13C-labelled substrates (metabolite profiling), the scientists demonstrated that the new inhibitor primarily blocks the enzymes Pks13 and Ag85. (eurekalert.org)
  • Esterase and lactonase activity has also been observed from these enzymes and though the physiologically relevant substrates for these enzymes are unknown, it is likely that lactones are the main substrate (although there is a relatively high level of variation in substrate specificity among these enzymes). (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the lack of identifying specific natural substrates and numerous physiological roles has made it difficult in determining mechanisms of action for the diverse number of reactions catalyzed by this enzyme family. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the proposed mechanism outlines the hydrolysis of 5-membered ring lactone substrates by serum Paraoxonase-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes use haem to oxidise their substrates, using protons derived from NADH or NADPH to split the oxygen so a single atom can be added to a substrate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • D-arabinono-1,4-lactone + O 2 = dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone + H 2 O 2 . (uniprot.org)
  • This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone from D-arabinose. (uniprot.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone from D-arabinose , the pathway D-erythroascorbate biosynthesis and in Cofactor biosynthesis . (uniprot.org)
  • Several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria employ N -acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing (QS) system to control their virulence traits. (hindawi.com)
  • In Gram-negative bacteria, QS is often mediated by N -acyl-L-homoserine lactone (HSL) signal molecules [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The QQ enzymes (QQEs) have been reported from several Gram-positive bacteria including Arthrobacter sp. (hindawi.com)
  • In the search for QQE-producing bacteria, actinomycetes are of great interest since they possess an ability to produce and secrete various extracellular hydrolytic enzymes [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Overall, this study suggested that some QQ enzymes obtained from the bacteria that inhabit saline environments under high temperatures have potential applications in the mitigation of microbe-associated problems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Acylhomoserine lactones, which serve as quorum-sensing signals in gram-negative bacteria, are produced by members of the LuxI family of synthases. (asm.org)
  • Quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria is often mediated by diffusible acylhomoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal molecules. (asm.org)
  • This subclass covers the production of compounds or compositions by biochemical transformation of matter performed by using enzymes or microorganisms, wherein microorganisms are defined as any single-celled organisms, including bacteria, fungi, yeast or microalgae, or plant or mammalian cells in the form of cell cultures. (uspto.gov)
  • β-lactone 7, a small molecule that inhibits the ClpP enzyme in bacteria, may be important in development of new anti-bacterial drugs. (phys.org)
  • lactones inhibit the ClpP protein in other bacteria, suggesting that they might do the same in M. tuberculosis . (phys.org)
  • lactone 7 and the other compounds were killing the bacteria by reacting with and inhibiting ClpP, as the team expected. (phys.org)
  • The team from the Technical University of Munich (Gemany), the Harvard T.H. Chang School of Public Health, Harvard Medical School, and Texas A&M University (all USA) tested a broad palette of different β-lactones for antimycobacterial activity and hit a bullseye: Compound "EZ120" inhibits the biosynthesis of the mycomembrane and kills off the bacteria. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results indicate that inhibition of this enzyme can affect growth of different bacteria by affecting different mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • We sought to target these enzymes without killing the commensal bacteria essential for human health. (sciencemag.org)
  • They used a group of compounds called beta-lactones, which have been shown to inhibit ClpP in other bacteria. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Wencewicz lab was able to leapfrog the whole process, using genetics to zero in on the biosynthetic machinery that bacteria use to make obafluorin and then to reconstruct that multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process in the lab. (phys.org)
  • If you can inhibit the function of the enzyme with a small molecule, then you can kill the bacterium," Sello said. (phys.org)
  • Thus, drugs may be designed to inhibit undesirable enzyme activities in essential microbial symbiotes to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy. (sciencemag.org)
  • But oxygen is different from nitrogen, and so they have a different palette of bioactivities and inhibit a different set of target enzymes. (phys.org)
  • The ß-lactones inhibit a large class of enzymes called the serine hydrolases. (phys.org)
  • lactones with a kind of chemical handle that allowed them to retrieve any proteins with which the molecules had reacted. (phys.org)
  • lactones in a culture of M. smegmatis (the tuberculosis stand-in), the researchers were able to show that they did in fact bind to the two proteins that construct the ClpP enzyme. (phys.org)
  • Jason Sello, PhD , of Brown University, and colleagues targeted ClpP peptidase -- a cellular enzyme that disposes of unnecessary proteins. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The linker is expected to serves a dual purpose: 1) The fusion product seeds the formation of multimeric proteins required for enzymatic function, and 2) The linker spatially localizes the two enzymes to aid channeling. (igem.org)
  • The gnd1 mutation, responsible for an approximately 80% loss of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity and the inability of the cells to grow on Δgl, completely abolished the induction of all three enzymes, while the gnd2 mutation affected this only partially. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • One class of gnd1 revertants, selected for growth on Δgl, was found to have recovered normal dehydrogenase activity and the ability to synthesize the three enzymes when induced by Δgl. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In contrast, glucose-positive revertants of gnd1 , with restored constitutive dehydrogenase activity, continued to remain deficient in induction of the three enzymes and also failed to grow on Δgl. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 6-phosphoglucono-delta-lactone (d-6PGL) is the immediate product of the Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), the first enzyme of the hexose monophosphate pathway. (hmdb.ca)
  • 6-Phosphogluconolactonase is the second enzyme of the oxidative branch and catalyzes the hydrolysis of 6-phosphogluconolactones, the products of glucose 6-phosphate oxidation by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. (hmdb.ca)
  • Two membrane-bound enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, catalyze the oxidation of ethanol. (asm.org)
  • 3. An electrode according to claim 2 wherein said isolated pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase module of an enzyme is the Iλ subcomplex of bovine mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. An electrode according to claim 1 wherein said isolated pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase module of an enzyme is chemically or physically modified such that the pyridine nucleotide dehydrogenase activity is retained. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. An electrode according to claim 1 wherein the dehydrogenase module of an enzyme has been obtained by expression of subunits of said module in a recombinant host cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Serum activities of the hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were used as biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here we report on the identification and structural characterization of the first NADP-dependent short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) involved in inactivation of N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(12)-HSL) and derived from a metagenome library. (proteopedia.org)
  • section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes. (uniprot.org)
  • A simple immobilization of the crude lactonase with glutaraldehyde cross-linking led to a stable and easy-to-handle biocatalyst for catalytic resolution of chiral lactones. (springer.com)
  • Thus, a longstanding challenge in the field of biologically mediated catalysis has been to develop enzymes with new catalytic functions 3 . (nature.com)
  • Here we describe a method for achieving catalytic promiscuity that uses the photoexcited state of nicotinamide co-factors (molecules that assist enzyme-mediated catalysis). (nature.com)
  • Screening of 10 cDNA-expressed recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes showed that only UGT1A4 exhibited catalytic activity with respect to the formation of the glucuronide of posaconazole. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Unlike other thioesterase enzymes, the obafluorin thioesterase includes a rare catalytic amino acid that generates a reactive thioester intermediate. (phys.org)
  • The catalytic mercury induced lactonization of acetylenic acids has been studied, and shown to proceed via a mercuronium intermediate, to give enol lactones in good yield. (illinois.edu)
  • Degradation of acyl-HSL signal molecules by quorum quenching enzyme (QQE) results in a loss of pathogenicity in QS-dependent organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Masarra Mohammed Sakr, Khaled Mohamed Anwar Aboshanab, Mohammad Mabrouk Aboulwafa, and Nadia Abdel-Haleem Hassouna, "Characterization and Complete Sequence of Lactonase Enzyme from Bacillus weihenstephanensis Isolate P65 with Potential Activity against Acyl Homoserine Lactone Signal Molecules," BioMed Research International , vol. 2013, Article ID 192589, 10 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Out of 34 isolates, two interfered with acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling, five interfered with AI-2 QS signaling, and 10 were demonstrated to interfere with both signal molecules. (asm.org)
  • The present invention is directed to biodegradable, biocompatible polymers that are the reaction product of a polybasic acid or derivative thereof, a monoglyceride and a lactone monomer, as well as medical devices and compositions containing such polymers. (google.com)
  • 1. A composition, comprising: a synthetic, biodegradable, biocompatible polymer comprising the reaction product of a polybasic acid or derivative thereof, a monoglyceride and a lactone monomer. (google.com)
  • 8. The composition of claim 1 wherein said polymer comprises the reaction product of said monoglyceride, said lactone monomer, and at least two of said polybasic acids or derivatives thereof selected from the group consisting of succinic acid, succinic anhydride, malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, diglycolic acid and diglycolic anhydride. (google.com)
  • 9. The composition of claim 1 wherein said polymer comprises the reaction product of said polybasic acid or derivative thereof, said lactone monomer, and at least two monoglycerides selected from the group consisting of monostearoyl glycerol, monopalmitoyl glycerol, monomyrisitoyl glycerol, monocaproyl glycerol, monodecanoyl glycerol, monolauroyl glycerol, monolinoleoyl glycerol and monooleoyl glycerol. (google.com)
  • Kataoka M, Shimizu S, Sakamoto K (1995) Lactonohydrolase-catalyzed optical resolution of pantoyl lactone: selection of a potent enzyme producer and optimization of culture and reaction conditions for practical resolution. (springer.com)
  • This process often fails, however, as the enzyme is incapable of recognising an enantiomer form: only one of two enantiomers should arise in the chemical reaction as, in most cases, only one displays the desired biological activity. (mpg.de)
  • Prior to this, they had already structurally modified or designed enzymes enantioselectively by causing random mutations in the active centre where the reaction occurs. (mpg.de)
  • They have now developed a fundamentally different strategy, however: the enzyme is altered at a site that is not involved in the actual reaction. (mpg.de)
  • The investigation of time-resolved mechanisms of enzymatic reaction with accurate quantum-mechanics method is a holy grail of computational chemistry, and we now develop an efficient method, environment-perturbed transition-state sampling, to study single-molecule trajectories in enzymes and calculate activation barriers. (pnas.org)
  • We now elucidate in detail the mechanism of the reaction and show how the SpnF enzyme dynamically controls product formation. (pnas.org)
  • Like straight-chained esters, the hydrolysis-condensation reaction of lactones is a reversible reaction, with an equilibrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the equilibrium constant of the hydrolysis reaction of the lactone is lower than that of the straight-chained ester i.e. the products (hydroxyacids) are less favored in the case of the lactones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muconolactone D-isomerase catalyzes an energetically unfavourable reaction, while 3-oxodipate-enol lactone hydrolase catalyzes a very energetically favourable reaction. (igem.org)
  • By introducing channeling between these two enzymes, the energetically unfavourable product of the mucanolactone D-isomerase-catalyzed reaction would be converted to the product of 3-oxodipate-enol lactone hydrolase before mucanolactone D-isomerase converts the energetically unfavourable product back into the energetically favourable substrate. (igem.org)
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a superfamily of haem-containing mono-oxygenases that are found in all kingdoms of life, and which show extraordinary diversity in their reaction chemistry. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The enzyme is found in the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which produces N-(4-coumaroyl)-L-homoserine lactone as a quorum- sensing signal. (expasy.org)
  • The enzyme, found in the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum, does not accept isovaleryl-[acyl-carrier protein] as acyl donor (cf. (kegg.jp)
  • Enzymes and intermediates of the pentose phosphate pathway in liver hepatomas. (europa.eu)
  • In order to identify enzymes in the catechol degradation pathway (ortho cleavage) that benefit from the introduction of metabolic channelling, we performed in silico analyses with software developed in our lab (Sanford et al. (igem.org)
  • Preliminary results from our simulations suggests that the 3rd (muconolactone D-isomerase) and 4th (3-oxodipate-enol lactone hydrolase) enzymes in the pathway would benefit most from channelling (Figure 1). (igem.org)
  • The five enzymes in the catechol degradation pathway not naturally present in E. coli will be introduced into E. coli as BioBrick parts. (igem.org)
  • The latter will contain pathway 'holes' corresponding to all combinations of sequential pairs of enzymes, with complementary fusion pairs. (igem.org)
  • In addition, a survival assay will be used to determine the threshold for catechol exposure for non recombinant E. coli and to evaluate the effect that the recombinantly-expressed enzymes in the catechol pathway will have on E. coli survival. (igem.org)
  • Enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) is a key enzyme of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) pathway and validated antimicrobial target. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several of the halo-enol lactones inhibited (alpha)-chymotrypsin, and this inhibition was shown to be irreversible and to proceed by an enzyme mediated suicide inactivation pathway. (illinois.edu)
  • Glänzer BI, Faber K, Griengl H (1988) Microbial resolution of O -acetyl pantoyl lactone. (springer.com)
  • Searching for the presence and activity of the enzymes as well as linking structure and function of microbial communities allows to develop a fundamental understanding of the processes, leading to methane production. (intechopen.com)
  • GLDase), an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid was purified 1693-fold from a mitochondrial extract of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea, var. (ugent.be)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of HMG‑CoA to mevalonate, which is an early and rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. (drugs.com)
  • Mevacor is a specific inhibitor of HMG‑CoA reductase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of HMG‑CoA to mevalonate. (drugs.com)
  • The substrate specificity of the partially purified lactonase was also examined using several useful lactones, among which α-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone was the best substrate, with 448-fold higher lactonase activity as compared to γ-butyrolactone. (springer.com)
  • The exact mechanism is still a subject of further research and it is suggested that the His115 residue is not necessary for the lactonase and arylesterase activity of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under irradiation with visible light, the nicotinamide-dependent enzyme known as ketoreductase can be transformed from a carbonyl reductase into an initiator of radical species and a chiral source of hydrogen atoms. (nature.com)
  • Lovastatin is hydrolyzed to the active beta-hydroxyacid form, which competitively inhibits 3-hydroxyl-3-methylgutarylcoenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. (cancer.gov)
  • The unique enzyme enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) of Plasmodium commits the final reduction step during the fatty acid elongation process, therefore representing an excellent target for the development of novel antiplasmodial agents (Surolia and Surolia, 2001). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inhibiting activities of the secondary metabolites of Phlomis brunneogaleata against parasitic protozoa and plasmodial enoyl-ACP reductase , a crucial enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Lovastatin is a lactone which is readily hydrolyzed in vivo to the corresponding β‑hydroxyacid, a strong inhibitor of HMG‑CoA reductase. (drugs.com)
  • botrytis) to apparent homogeneity with an overall yield of 1.1%, The purification procedure consisted of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, gel filtration, and fast protein liquid chromatography, The enzyme had a molecular mass of 56 kDa estimated by gel filtration chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed a pH optimum for activity between pH 8.0 and 8.5, with an apparent K-m of 3.3 mM for L-galactono-gamma-lactone. (ugent.be)
  • To gain insights about whether AinS and LuxM represent a second family of acylhomoserine lactone synthases, we have purified AinS as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion protein. (asm.org)
  • Histone deacetylases (also known as HDACs) are a group of enzymes that remove acetyl groups (O=C-CH3) from a ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone protein, so that the histones can wrap more tightly around the DNA during chromatin packing. (biovision.com)
  • UPS comprises of a complicated cascade of events starting from recognition of a damaged/aberrant (folded improperly or non-functional) protein followed by tagging of the recognized substrate protein with Ubiquitin (an 8.5 kDa protein) by a system of enzymes (Ubiquitin-activating, -conjugating and -ligating enzymes also known as E1, E2 and E3 respectively) ultimately culminating in the degradation/lysis of the protein by the 26S proteasome. (biovision.com)
  • Hexanoyl Acyl carrier protein (ACP) donates theAcyl group to SAM to form N-acylhomoserine lactone. (nih.gov)
  • This allows for the assessment of potential channeling effects by selectively inducing the fusion protein relative to the induction of redundant copies of the same un-fused enzymes. (igem.org)
  • NRPSs are essentially a series of enzymes strung together into one large protein with many domains, each of which carries out one step in peptide assembly. (phys.org)
  • This is because although the enthalpies of the hydrolysis of esters and lactones are about the same, the entropy of the hydrolysis of lactones is less than the entropy of straight-chained esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Straight-chained esters give two products upon hydrolysis, making the entropy change more favorable than in the case of lactones which give only a single product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The beta-lactam ring couples three carbons and a nitrogen, whereas the beta-lactone ring consists of three carbons and an oxygen. (phys.org)
  • Moxidectin, a macrocyclic lactone of the milbemycin class, is a semisynthetic derivative of nemadectin, which is a fermentation product of the bacterium Streptomyces cyanogriseus subsp. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the current study, we report that EM23, a natural sesquiterpene lactone isolated from EM, inhibits the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cells and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) HL-60 cells by inducing apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • GAO1 is required for the biosynthesis of germacrene-derived sesquiterpene lactones, which are characteristic natural products in members of the Asteraceae [ PMID: 20351109 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A fungus strain ECU2002, capable of enantioselectively hydrolyzing chiral lactones to optically pure hydroxy acids, was newly isolated from soil samples through two steps of screening and identified as Fusarium proliferatum (Matsushima) Nirenberg. (springer.com)
  • Thin-layer chromatographic profiles of cod extracts and P. phosphoreum culture supernatants identified a molecule similar in relative mobility (R-f value) and shape to N-(3-hydroxyoctanoyl)homoserine lactone, and the presence of this molecule in culture supernatants from a nonbioluminescent strain of P. phosphoreum was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray high-resolution mass spectrometry. (dtu.dk)
  • The most stable structure for lactones are the 5-membered γ-lactones and 6-membered δ-lactones because, as in all organic cycles, 5 and 6 membered rings minimize the strain of bond angles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test strain with the fusion of enzymes 3 and 4 will be of prime interest, while the other test strains will be used validate the predictions made by Cell++. (igem.org)
  • Organisms produce many different cytochrome P450 enzymes (at least 58 in humans), which together with alternative splicing can provide a wide array of enzymes with different substrate and tissue specificities. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In a series of laboratory experiments , the researchers have shown that it is possible to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis by inhibiting ClpP, a cellular enzyme that is not targeted by any antibacterial drug on the market. (phys.org)
  • Our findings indicate that chemical inhibition of the essential ClpP enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a viable strategy in anti-tuberculosis drug development. (phys.org)
  • Researchers have discovered a possible new approach to combating tuberculosis that involves targeting an enzyme essential for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Enzymes are extraordinary molecules that can accelerate chemical reactions, including those that spontaneously occur extremely slowly, and can make them happen many times per second 1 . (nature.com)
  • Our method will find great application in the design of enzymes to control selectivity, particularly for reactions involving ambimodal transition states. (pnas.org)
  • The inevitable use of trivial names to describe enzyme reactions may have produced entries which are readily understood only by experts in that field. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The reactions of lactones are similar to those of esters, as exemplified by gamma-lactone in the following sections: Heating a lactone with a base (sodium hydroxide) will hydrolyse the lactone to its parent compound, the straight chained bifunctional compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • LPC029 HSL-acylase showed broad substrate specificity from C 6 - to C 12 -HSL in which C 10 HSL is the most favorable substrate for this enzyme. (hindawi.com)
  • The LuxI family of acyl-HSL synthases constitutes a group of enzymes from different species. (asm.org)
  • Paraoxonases have been found to perform a number of biological functions, though the primary role of this group of enzymes is still a topic of speculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This modification alters the overall structure of the enzyme in such a way that it can now convert a larger number of different chemical compounds. (mpg.de)
  • The enzymes involved here are often enantiomers, two deceptively similar compounds that differ like a right and left hand. (mpg.de)
  • Enantioselectively produced lactones are highly-prized intermediate compounds in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. (mpg.de)
  • A gene encoding an enzyme with acyl-HSL acylase activity, pvdQ (PA2385), was identified, but it was not required for acyl-HSL utilization. (asm.org)
  • However, these enzymes either have no gene associated with them, or have no sequence associated with their gene. (ecocyc.org)
  • It turned out that the combination of a bat and yeast gene worked the best to achieve 10-12 carbon lactones. (dtu.dk)
  • The Wencewicz lab identified the gene cluster in Pseudomonas fluorescent that makes the NRPS and made the five enzymes the genes encoded. (phys.org)
  • Post-treatment with ETO and SL significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the lower levels of hepatic enzyme markers, such as serum transaminase (ALT, AST), ALP and total bilirubin. (springer.com)
  • Liver enzyme abnormalities and monitoring: Persistent elevations in hepatic transaminase can occur. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we identified a substrate for the enzyme in cauliflower extract, which co-eluted with L-galactono-gamma-lactone by high-performance liquid chromatography, suggesting that this compound is a naturally occurring precursor of L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis in vivo. (ugent.be)
  • The name lactone derives from the ring compound called lactide, which is formed from the dehydration of 2-hydroxypropanoic acid (lactic acid) CH3-CH(OH)-COOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Propiolactone is a lactone compound with a four-membered ring. (drugbank.ca)
  • Other names in common use include limonin-D-ring-lactone hydrolase, and limonin lactone hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limonin D-ring-lactone hydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme oxidises a substrate molecule, a ketone to be more precise, inserting an oxygen atom at a precisely defined site. (mpg.de)
  • Lactones are usually named according to the precursor acid molecule (aceto = 2 carbon atoms, propio = 3, butyro = 4, valero = 5, capro = 6, etc.), with a -lactone suffix and a Greek letter prefix that specifies the number of carbon atoms in the heterocycle - that is, the distance between the relevant -OH and the -COOH groups along said backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • An internal dehydration within the same molecule of lactic acid would have produced alpha-propiolactone, a lactone with a 3-membered ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • JUVISYNC Tablets contain sitagliptin phosphate, an orally-active inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase -4 (DPP-4) enzyme, and simvastatin, a lipid -lowering agent that is derived synthetically from a fermentation product of Aspergillus terreus. (rxlist.com)
  • Identification of unsaturated N-acylhomoserine lactones in bacterial isolates of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-hybrid linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • α-lactones can be detected as transient species in mass spectrometry experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • carotovora that controls extracellular enzymes, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, and pathogenicity in soft-rotting Erwinia spp. (usda.gov)
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Coal Research have now constructed an enzyme that converts numerous molecules enantioselectively with the help of directed evolution. (mpg.de)
  • The following list previously appeared in Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The genes that encode for these enzymes have a number of different polymorphisms, which created additional interest in the study of this enzyme group and its potential ethnic variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the study was to prepare a systematized list of the selected enzymes responsible for the key pathways of anaerobic digestion based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database resource. (intechopen.com)
  • Paraoxonases are a family of mammalian enzymes with aryldialkylphosphatase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ABSTRACT Enzymes that cleave ATP to activate carboxylic acids play essential roles in primary and secondary metabolism in all domains of life. (edu.au)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on carboxylic ester bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, hydroxy fatty acid from castor oil can be converted by yeast to lactone. (dtu.dk)
  • To make lactones, a microbe has to be engineered to carry out fatty acid hydroxylation and a controlled chain shortening. (dtu.dk)
  • They also had to insert a hydroxylating enzyme to achieve hydroxylation, as well as long-chain oxidases to end up with fatty acid of 10-12 carbon molecules. (dtu.dk)
  • We specificially focus on lipid metabolizing enzymes, especially the fatty acid hydroxylases. (shsu.edu)
  • The γ- and δ-lactones are intramolecular esters of the corresponding hydroxy fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The γ-lactones γ-octalactone, γ-nonalactone, γ-decalactone, γ-undecalactone can be prepared in good yield in a one-step process by radical addition of primary fatty alcohols to acrylic acid, using di-tert-butyl peroxide as a catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of their structures reveals that the increase in activity mainly occurs through the destabilization of the active site loop involved in substrate binding, and it has been observed that the level of disorder correlates with the width of the enzyme specificity spectrum. (nature.com)
  • Two novel and convenient routes to obtain enantiomerically enriched trans -β-aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones 5a - d with potential antifeedant and anticancer activity were developed. (mdpi.com)
  • The elaborated methods give access to both enantiomers of trans- β-aryl-δ-hydroxy-γ-lactones 5a - d with the defined absolute configurations of stereogenic centers, which is crucial requirement for the investigations of relationship: spatial structure-biological activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, observed activity of SL may be due to the synergistic action of two sesquiterpene lactones identified from enriched ethyl acetate fraction by HPLC method. (springer.com)
  • The transcription and enzyme activity of GULO were kidney-specific when measured by biochemical assay and reverse transcription-PCR. (canada.ca)
  • In this study, we evaluated the activity of enhydrin, uvedalin and polymatin B, three sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) isolated from Smallanthus sonchifolius, on Leishmania mexicana (MNYC/BZ/62/M) and Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • lactones and ClpP actually resulted in the inhibition of the enzyme's activity. (phys.org)
  • lactones the activity of the enzyme was inhibited. (phys.org)
  • Gluconolactonase with low activity towards other sugar lactones, including gulonolactone and galactonolactone. (abcam.com)
  • Therefore, the team tried out many different combinations of enzymes from moth, pumpkin, bat, and yeast because the literature showed that they might have the right enzymatic activity. (dtu.dk)
  • Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a multi-functional enzyme involved in several aspects of lipid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase, a critical enzyme for bacterial metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Our major project involves identifying the enzymes involved in acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) metabolism. (shsu.edu)
  • While paraoxonase 2 shares similar antioxidant properties with its two enzyme counterparts, it lacks the ability to hydrolyze some of the organophosphate metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incorporation into liver glycogen was higher after the administration of the lactone than after the administration of gluconate, particularly in diabetic animals. (inchem.org)
  • Monitor liver enzymes before and during treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Check liver enzyme tests before initiating therapy and as clinically indicated thereafter. (nih.gov)
  • GLUCONO DELTA-LACTONE EXPLANATION Glucono delta-lactone (GDL) was evaluated for acceptable daily intake at the tenth and eighteenth meetings of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (Annex 1, references 13 and 35). (inchem.org)
  • After oral ingestion, lovastatin, which is an inactive lactone, is hydrolyzed to the corresponding β‑hydroxyacid form. (drugs.com)
  • The class E enzymes can be further subdivided into five sequence clusters, groups I-V, each of which may contain more than one cytochrome P450 family (eg, CYP1 and CYP2 are both found in group I). The divergence of the cytochrome P450 superfamily into B- and E-classes, and further divergence into stable clusters within the E-class, appears to be very ancient, occurring before the appearance of eukaryotes. (ebi.ac.uk)