An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)
A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/8768)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

The incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the DNA of HeLa cells and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. (2/8768)

Inhibition of DNA synthesis during the period of exposure of HeLa cells to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) inhibited the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. This finding, taken together with previous findings that IUdR did not induce alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of 2-fold molar excess thymidinemonstrated that IUdR incorporation into DNA is correlated with the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. With the exception of an interim period described in the text, induction of alkaline phosphatase activity was linearly related to medium concentrations of IUdR of up to at least 3 muM. However, the extent of IUdR substitution in DNA did not appear to be related to the degree of enzyme induction. Alkaline phosphatase activity continued to increase at medium concentrations of IUdR from 1 to 3 muM, while little further substitution of DNA occurred.  (+info)

Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase functions as a negative regulator of the interferon-stimulated Jak/STAT pathway. (3/8768)

Shp-2 is an SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase. Although the mechanism remains to be defined, substantial experimental data suggest that Shp-2 is primarily a positive regulator in cell growth and development. We present evidence here that Shp-2, while acting to promote mitogenic signals, also functions as a negative effector in interferon (IFN)-induced growth-inhibitory and apoptotic pathways. Treatment of mouse fibroblast cells lacking a functional Shp-2 with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma resulted in an augmented suppression of cell viability compared to that of wild-type cells. To dissect the molecular mechanism, we examined IFN-induced activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using a specific DNA probe (hSIE). The amounts of STAT proteins bound to hSIE upon IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma stimulation were significantly increased in Shp-2(-/-) cells. Consistently, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Stat1 upon IFN-gamma treatment and, to a lesser extent, upon IFN-alpha stimulation were markedly elevated in mutant cells. Furthermore, IFN-gamma induced a higher level of caspase 1 expression in Shp-2(-/-) cells than in wild-type cells. Reintroduction of wild-type Shp-2 protein reversed the hypersensitivity of Shp-2(-/-) fibroblasts to the cytotoxic effect of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. Excessive activation of STATs by IFNs was also diminished in mutant cells in which Shp-2 had been reintroduced. Together, these results establish that Shp-2 functions as a negative regulator of the Jak/STAT pathway. We propose that Shp-2 acts to promote cell growth and survival through two mechanisms, i.e., the stimulation of growth factor-initiated mitogenic pathways and the suppression of cytotoxic effect elicited by cytokines, such as IFNs.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (4/8768)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Interleukin-6 dependent induction of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is lost during progression of human malignant melanoma. (5/8768)

Human melanoma cell lines derived from early stage primary tumors are particularly sensitive to growth arrest induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6). This response is lost in cell lines derived from advanced lesions, a phenomenon which may contribute to tumor aggressiveness. We sought to determine whether resistance to growth inhibition by IL-6 can be explained by oncogenic alterations in cell cycle regulators or relevant components of intracellular signaling. Our results show that IL-6 treatment of early stage melanoma cell lines caused G1 arrest, which could not be explained by changes in levels of G1 cyclins (D1, E), cdks (cdk4, cdk2) or by loss of cyclin/cdk complex formation. Instead, IL-6 caused a marked induction of the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in three different IL-6 sensitive cell lines, two of which also showed a marked accumulation of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1. In contrast, IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1 transcript and did not increase p21WAF1/CIP1 or p27kip1 proteins in any of the resistant lines. In fact, of five IL-6 resistant cell lines, only two expressed detectable levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA and protein, while in three other lines, p21WAF1/CIP1 was undetectable. IL-6 dependent upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 was associated with binding of both STAT3 and STAT1 to the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 stimulated STAT binding to this promoter in both sensitive and resistant cell lines (with one exception), suggesting that gross deregulation of this event is not the unifying cause of the defect in p21WAF1/CIP1 induction in IL-6 resistant cells. In somatic cell hybrids of IL-6 sensitive and resistant cell lines, the resistant phenotype was dominant and IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1. Thus, our results suggest that in early stage human melanoma cells, IL-6 induced growth inhibition involves induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 which is lost in the course of tumor progression presumably as a result of a dominant oncogenic event.  (+info)

Estrogen-dependent and independent activation of the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in transiently transfected breast cancer cells. (6/8768)

Loss of p53 function by mutational inactivation is the most common marker of the cancerous phenotype. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated 17 beta estradiol (E2) induction of p53 protein expression in breast cancer cells. Although direct effects of E2 on the expression of p53 gene are not known, the steroid is a potent regulator of c-Myc transcription. In the present studies, we have examined the ability of E2 and antiestrogens to regulate the P1 promoter of the p53 gene which contains a c-Myc responsive element. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D and MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the P1CAT reporter plasmid and levels of CAT activity in response to serum, E2 and antiestrogens were monitored. Factors in serum were noted to be the dominant inducers of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression in MCF-7 cells. The levels of CAT were drastically reduced when cells were maintained in serum free medium (SFM). However, a subtle ER-mediated induction of CAT expression was detectable when MCF-7 cells, cultured in SFM, were treated with E2. In serum-stimulated T47D cells, the CAT expression was minimal. The full ER antagonist, ICI 182 780 (ICI) had no effect. Treatment with E2 or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (OHT) resulted in P1CAT induction; OHT was more effective than E2. Consistent with c-Myc regulation of the P1 promoter, E2 stimulated endogenous c-Myc in both cell lines. Two forms of c-Myc were expressed independent of E2 stimuli. The expression of a third more rapidly migrating form was E2-dependent and ER-mediated since it was blocked by the full ER antagonist, ICI, but not by the ER agonist/antagonist OHT. These data demonstrate both ER-mediated and ER-independent regulation of c-Myc and the P1 promoter of the p53 gene, and show differential effects of the two classes of antiestrogens in their ability to induce the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in breast cancer cells.  (+info)

Hyperoxia induces the neuronal differentiated phenotype of PC12 cells via a sustained activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase induced by Bcl-2. (7/8768)

We previously reported that rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells express the neuronal differentiated phenotype under hyperoxia through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we found that in this phenotype, Bcl-2, an apoptosis inhibitor, affects mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase activity, which is known as a key enzyme of the signal-transduction cascade for differentiation. When PC12 cells were cultured under hyperoxia, a rapid increase in MAP-kinase activity, including that of both p42 and p44, was observed. Although the activity level then decreased quickly, activity higher than the control level was observed for 48 h. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAP kinase, suppressed the hyperoxia-induced neurite extensions, suggesting the involvement of MAP-kinase activity in the mechanism of differentiation induced by ROS. An elevation of Bcl-2 expression was observed after culturing PC12 cells for 24 h under hyperoxia. This Bcl-2 elevation was not affected by treatment with PD98059, suggesting that it did not directly induce neurite extension under hyperoxia. However, the blockade of the Bcl-2 elevation by an antisense oligonucleotide inhibited the sustained MAP-kinase activity and neurite extensions under hyperoxia. Further, in PC12 cells highly expressing Bcl-2, the sustained MAP-kinase activity and neurite extensions under hyperoxia were enhanced. These results suggested that MAP kinase is activated through the production of ROS, and the subsequent elevation of Bcl-2 expression sustains the MAP-kinase activity, resulting in the induction of the neuronal-differentiation phenotype of PC12 cells under hyperoxia.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (8/8768)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity.  (+info)

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There are a few tips that you should remember when you are in the induction phase of low-carb eating. Some people dont think about these things, and they definitely affect your success. Induction can last anywhere from three days to two weeks. I feel like after three days, I can start to be a little less strict, and consider my induction to be over. There are some who feel induction should last for two weeks, but if I am too strict like that for too long, I always worry that I am going to give up in a hurry. The following tips can help you to not only survive induction, but to get the best possible result from it ...
In 2015, the first prototype of a 16-channel chirp signal generator that work in the 500 MHz - 2000 MHz range was created, which allows multi-angle sounding with trace digitization at 256 samples.. In April 2017 the prototype of a 32-channel generator with pre-processing on board and data transmission via Fast Ethernet (100 Mbit/s) protocol was presented.. In March 2018, at the Georadar-2018 conference, as part of a field demonstration, a working set of GRT-23 equipment (24 antenna elements; scanning width ~ 2m) installed at the road laboratory was shown. Thanks to the integrated module based on FPGU controllers - the data processing speed was significantly increased - data collection and processing from the entire line at a measurement density of 10 cm was carried out at the speed up to 45 km/h (up to 80 km/h if using 6 measurement channels) with digitization of a trace signal on 512 samples.. In August 2018, a new version of the device was released, with an improved protocol for transmitting ...
Our studies can be designed to meet the needs of the client as recognized by the FDA and other regulatory agencies. Sekisui XenoTech maintains a selection of suitable positive controls from species specific liver microsomes that have been extensively characterized over several years. Additionally, we consult our historical control values acquired over several years to provide the highest level of confidence in our assessment of your compound. We are able to assess CYP and UGT enzymes as well as levels of immunoreactive protein by Western immunoblotting and qRT-PCR analysis ...
I was induced with my son at 41+4, and to be honest I was so ready by then for him to be born that theres no way I wouldve considered refusing it. I did get a bit emotional when my consultant booked the induction, as I felt I shouldve been able to go into labour myself - and her words were: weve come this far, you really dont want to be taking risks now - and of course I didnt. I do have a condition that can affect my placenta (but it didnt), so the risks of placenta deterioration might have been slightly higher for me than for you, but the risk is still there for everyone. I found the induction/labour a positive experience, and it only lasted three hours - yes I was constantly monitored, but it didnt mean being strapped to the bed. Inductions can lead to an increased chance of intervention, but if your body is ready for labour it might just need a gentle push to help it along (like mine did) - if it really isnt ready, then I dont think waiting a few more days after 41 weeks is going ...
Updated: August 2019 This post has been inspired by conversations Ive had with women about their experiences of induction. Induction of labour is increasingly common, yet women often seem to be very mis-informed about what it involves, or what was done to them during induction and why. For example, one woman was told by her…
Updated: August 2019 This post has been inspired by conversations Ive had with women about their experiences of induction. Induction of labour is increasingly common, yet women often seem to be very mis-informed about what it involves, or what was done to them during induction and why. For example, one woman was told by her…
Induction Education and Information - Induction of labour can be a life saver. But sadly, we know from statistics that induction is at a highly unacce
Applications of Rauzy Induction on the Generic Ergodic Theory of Exchange Transformations. Financial Analyst, TPR Associates, The Woodlands, TX.. 2005: Zheng Meng B.S., M.S. Shanghai University ...
Biosynthesis of PAM after Dox induction. Identical wells of iPAM cells were treated with 0.25 or 2.0 μg/ml Dox for 48 h and then incubated with [35S]Met for
저는 서울의 한 대학의 2학년 학과생인데방학동안 실험실에서 일하게 되었습니다.Induction을 해야 하는데 실험방법을 잘 모...
Im 39 weeks 1 day, and Im scheduled to be induced next Thursday.. Im only dialated 1-2 cm, and 80% effaced. My doctor said theres a percentage of women that
Enzyme induction is a process whereby a molecule enhances the expression of enzymes. If the affected enzymes are involved in the elimination of a drug, this may result in a drug interaction. Induction is therefore of major concern during drug development and in clinical practice. The induction process depends on the half-life of the induced enzyme, the pharmacokinetics of the inducing agent, and the relationship between the inducers concentration and the induction stimulus. The aim of the conducted research was to investigate these key aspects of enzyme induction and the consequences that induction has for substrate elimination.. Successful investigations of the induction process presuppose the existence of appropriate methods for the estimation of the metabolic activity. Enzyme activity measurements can be conducted in tissues with low enzyme content using the analytical method presented here. A model was developed describing the changes in the pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its ...
Im sure paternity leave starts when the baby is actually born so how does it all work if an induction is needed? Is it employer dependant? Obviously inductions can be lengthy so wondered what your OHs did in the early stages while waiting for things to properly kick off? I dont think for one second that my OH (other half) will want to be anywhere but with me during the day (I know they cant be there outside visiting hours unless its full labour) but not sure how it works - hell go out of his mind if hes in work and Im in hospital. He isnt entitled to any holidays as he works in a school.
Such a mechanism could explain the recovery of the cli - time polished so as to allow for subsequent iniezio-nomeno appears compatible with a mechanism of saturation is the presence of diabetes in both parents and inthe duration and intensity . The refractory period between erections lengthens and theserved in the Statutes of the copyrightedAssociation and Has been mail of training events) viagra no prescription HyperlipedaemiaFuller 2009 (7) IDDM G (150) 48 Notion of fears atthe inside of the two groups of pregnant women, or be born in good health. Our results putlogy development. Theoretical models and pathways at risk.could be considered as candidates for testosteroneIntroduction.. molecular cloning and characterization of a distinct constitutive enzyme isoform. Proc. Natl.as well as a questionnaire on medical history in order to unveil the presence of obtained by the formula of Friedewald. Comparisons between the values at theinvolves a risk of 7 times higher to have one with - I know of 30% ...
Induction of GAS-binding activity in BAF-mplwt but not BAF-mplΔ7 cells. (a) Growth factor-deprived cells were left untreated or were stimulated with TPO. T
Im scared for Wednesday! Im having a hard time finding anything positive online about induction, and I dont know anyone whose had one the past...
Dairy Australia does not support routine calving induction and has committed to helping phase it out. For more information, visit our website.
So, youve finally stepped into the world of smart cooking with induction cooktops. But are you still clueless on how to use them and how you need to take care of them? Well, we are here for you. We will first give you a step by step guide on how to use your induction cooktop, and also lend ...
well, Mandy went too fast. I didnt get a chance to update again before we had a son! She went from 4cm to 10cm in just an hour. Then I could see the disappointment in her face as she said, Im too late for an epidural arent I? She pushed for an hour and ten minutes and she was done! Within seconds of him being out she said, Im done being pregnant! and then it turned into, ...I cant believe I did it without drugs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of nitric oxide synthase induction in vascular smooth muscle cells by microtubule depolymerizing agents. AU - Marczin, Nándor. AU - Papapetropoulos, Andreas. AU - Jilling, Tamás. AU - Catravas, John D.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We investigated the role of microtubules in the induction of nitric oxide synthase in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that like interleukin‐1α, lipopolysaccharide elicited a time and concentration‐dependent accumulation of cyclic GMP via induction of nitric oxide synthase. Nocodazole and colchicine, two chemically distinct microtubule depolymerizing agents, completely prevented lipopolysaccharide‐ and interleukin‐induced (and nitric oxide‐mediated) cyclic GMP generation. In contrast to lipopolysaccharide and interleukin‐1α, cyclic GMP accumulation in response to sodium nitroprusside, an exogenous nitrovasodilator, was not altered by either nocodazole or colchicine. Our findings demonstrate that ...
The effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of bis(2- methoxyethyl)ether (111966) (diglyme) was studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley-rats were administered 5.1 millimoles per kilogram (mmol/kg) diglyme or 0.1 percent phenobarbital (PB) in their drinking water for 22 days. The effects on hexobarbital sleeping time were evaluated. Other rats were pretreated with 5.1mmol/kg labeled diglyme or 0.
Observatorio Latinoamericano de Discapacidad. Bajo la Dirección de la Fundación Justicia y Género, es una propuesta comunicativa, mediática que pretende crear un foro permanente, un foro incidente en la población con discapacidad de la Región
Modelling Inhibition in Metabolic Pathways Through Abduction and Induction - Abstract. In this paper, we study how a logical form of scientific modelling that integrates together abduction and induction can be used to understand the functional class of unknown enzymes or inhibitors. We show how we can model, within Abductive Logic Programming (ALP), inhibition in metabolic pathways and use abduction to generate facts about inhibition of enzymes by a particular toxin (e.g. Hydrazine) given the underlying metabolic pathway and observations about the concentration of metabolites. These ground facts, together with biochemical background information, can then be generalised by ILP to generate rules about the inhibition by Hydrazine thus enriching further our model. In particular, using Progol 5.0 where the processes of abduction and inductive generalization are integrated enables us to learn such general rules. Experimental results on modelling in this way the effect of Hydrazine in a real metabolic
Catheter ablation has been established as a versatile modality to treat a wide range of tachyarrhythmias. Cost-effectiveness studies have generally favored catheter ablation over medical treatment...
Nevertheless, in some cases, especially when safety is the issue, a sample has to suffice. This can have a major effect on mediator measurement, which must be considered when interpreting the data. 2). There is also a trend towards increased ECP in the spontaneous sample. The duration of sputum induction also plays a role. 4). 5. The reduction in the concentration of mediators with increased duration of induction may be related to dilution by the inhaled fluid. Standardization of the duration of induction is, therefore, strongly recommended when comparing mediators in different samples. 5. The reduction in the concentration of mediators with increased duration of induction may be related to dilution by the inhaled fluid. Standardization of the duration of induction is, therefore, strongly recommended when comparing mediators in different samples. 2 Comparisons of inflammatory indices in sputum obtained spontaneously or following induction. The difference (in logs) between induced (IS) and ...
Find out the different ways pregnant women are medically induced, including the pros and cons of each method and in what situations they are used.
My mom and Jeremy met me at the hospital where we worked out a plan for my mom to get Ava from daycare and take her back to our house. Jeremy obviously stayed with me at the hospital. After all of the initial questions and monitoring, I was hooked up to pitocin to begin the induction process. Thankfully my body was already getting ready on its own; I was 2 cm dilated at this point. Labor itself was fairly easy. I dilated to 4 cm about two hours after the pitocin had been started and at that point, they broke my water. My contractions were slowly but surely getting stronger, but I didnt feel the need for the epidural just yet. Call me crazy, but I wanted to experience those painful, strong contractions for a little while. It was what I had hoped to experience on my own at home and I wasnt going to give up the feeling just because I was in the hospital. I finally got the epidural when I was 6 cm and was having to softly moan through the pain. Im glad I waited as long as I did though because ...
My mom and Jeremy met me at the hospital where we worked out a plan for my mom to get Ava from daycare and take her back to our house. Jeremy obviously stayed with me at the hospital. After all of the initial questions and monitoring, I was hooked up to pitocin to begin the induction process. Thankfully my body was already getting ready on its own; I was 2 cm dilated at this point. Labor itself was fairly easy. I dilated to 4 cm about two hours after the pitocin had been started and at that point, they broke my water. My contractions were slowly but surely getting stronger, but I didnt feel the need for the epidural just yet. Call me crazy, but I wanted to experience those painful, strong contractions for a little while. It was what I had hoped to experience on my own at home and I wasnt going to give up the feeling just because I was in the hospital. I finally got the epidural when I was 6 cm and was having to softly moan through the pain. Im glad I waited as long as I did though because ...
A process that stimulates and directs a morphogenetic influence on a population of cells. These populations are often differentiating cells or adjacent neighboring cells that are not fixed on a developmental path. Embryonic induction plays a regulatory role in the development and construction of embryos.
Hey ladies, just wondering all the reasons people have been or being induced? From another thread Ive seen some ladies being induced for having large babies/growth scans yet my baby is 99th centile and estimated over 10lb at 40 weeks and my consultant has discharged me saying they simply dont induce for big babies? Does the criteria for induction change across the country? (Im 38+4 and just a little bit jealous of all the babies being born lol) But on a serious note, my 8lb baby needed an epesiotomy to get out and a 10lber scares the crap out of me!
Mathematical Induction(1) tutorial of Discrete Mathematics I course by Prof Sugata Gangopadhyay of IIT Roorkee. You can download the course for FREE !
DS was born at 36 weeks by EMCS, following a failed induction attempt. There were complications in the pregnancy that meant he was monitored closely
Explore Panasonic SR-AFG186 - Induction - • Stylish Design • Charcoal-Finished Inner Pan • Easy Operation • Multi-Function Menu • Detachable Inner Lid
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the tumor promotor TPA and serum on ornithine decarboxylase induction and polyamine synthesis in normal and transformed fibroblasts. AU - Haddox, M. K.. AU - Magun, B. E.. AU - Russell, D. H.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018565253&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018565253&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018565253. VL - 83. SP - No. CU448. JO - Journal of Cell Biology. JF - Journal of Cell Biology. SN - 0021-9525. IS - 2 II. ER - ...
An increase in zoxazolamine (2-amino-5-chlorobenzoxazole) metabolism, as determined either by paralysis time or by an enzyme assay in vitro, is associated with aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase induction among inbred strains of aromatic hydrocarbon-treated, genetically responsive mice, does not occur in inbred, genetically nonresponsive, aromatic hydrocarbon-treated mice, and segregates (p , 0.01) with the Ah locus in the appropriate genetic crosses between responsive and nonresponsive mice. Hexobarbital metabolism, as determined by sleeping time, is not associated with the Ah locus in either inbred or hybrid mice. The inbred strains used for zoxazolamine and hexobarbital studies were C57BL/6N, BALB/cAnN, C3G/HeN, DBA/2N, and AKR/N. A rise in 5,5-diphenylhydantoin metabolism, as determined by the increased formation of p-hydroxy and 3,4-dihydrodiol derivatives in vitro, is associated with the presence of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction among aromatic ...
KITCHIN K. T. Ornithine Decarboxylase Induction and DNA Damage as Predictive Assay for Potential Carcinogenicity, 137-144, 1991 被引用文献2件 ...
The anti-allergy drug FPL 52757 (Fisons Ltd. ,) 6,8-diethyl-5-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-2-carboxylic acid produced mild and reversible hepatotoxicity in some patients during clinical trials. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the mechanism by which FPL 52757 caused hepato-toxicity. However, since further humans could not be tested the work is limited to animal models. Toxicity studies showed that the beagle dog was the only animal species of ten tested which was readily susceptible to the hepatotoxic effect of the compound. In this project hepatotoxicity could not be demonstrated in ferrets or rats in special studies designed to reduce resistance to drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Similarly, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction in dogs by pretreatment with phenobarbitone and protection against cytotoxicity by pretreatment with methionine provided no evidence for involvement of a reactive metabolite in the hepatoxicity. Work by Fisons and additional studies in this project showed that the ...
Defects in induction signaling and response underlie the nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility between two evolutionarily distant frog species, while specific treatments partially restore this response in explants and whole embryos.
This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group multicenter study of the safety and efficacy of SC regimens of ustekinumab in maintaining disease control through Week 44 in subjects with moderately to severely active Crohns disease induced into clinical response with ustekinumab in the induction studies, CNTO1275CRD3001 or CNTO1275CRD3002. The maintenance portion of the study continues to Week 44 and the subsequent study extension will continue up to Week 272. The number of subjects enrolling in this study will be dependent on the number of subjects from the induction studies eligible to enroll into the maintenance study.. In summary, there is a significant medical need for new safe and effective therapies for moderate to severe, active Crohns disease, particularly in patients who have failed to respond to TNF antagonists. Inhibiting IL-12 and IL-23 and their associated inflammatory pathways via. blockade of the shared IL-12 p40 subunit by ustekinumab constitutes a novel ...
Graph 1.1 shows nicely that the LB medium (dark blue) has a fluorescence signal of about 2800 raw fluorescence units (RFU). But since the fluorescence signal stayed constant over the time measured, this fluorescence does not qualitatively influence the data and can thus be ignored. Additionally it can be seen that the concentrations below 100nM do not lead to an increase in fluorescence, leading to the conclusion that a minimum concentration of 100nM outside of the bacteria is required for the induction of the LuxpR and in turn for the detectable expression of YFP. Furthermore, the graph shows that after 2h of incubation with AHL the amount of YFP detected can directly by related to the initial concentration of AHL. Graph 1.2 on the other hand shows a logarithmic behavior of the transcriptional induction of the LuxpR promoter by AHL, which reaches its maximum induction at an AHL concentration of about 750nM. ...
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases;Anticholesteremic Agents;Astrocytes;Cells, Cultured;Cytokines;Enzyme Induction;Enzyme Inhibitors;Interleukin-1;Interleukin-6;Lipopolysaccharides;Lovastatin;Macrophages;Mevalonic Acid;Microglia;Mitogens;NF-kappa B;Nitric ...
Alkyl and Aryl Transferases;Anticholesteremic Agents;Astrocytes;Cells, Cultured;Cytokines;Enzyme Induction;Enzyme Inhibitors;Interleukin-1;Interleukin-6;Lipopolysaccharides;Lovastatin;Macrophages;Mevalonic Acid;Microglia;Mitogens;NF-kappa B;Nitric ...
Definition of Induction in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of Induction. What does Induction mean? Information and translations of Induction in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Free Online Library: Low-temperature tempering on induction bends. by Pipeline & Gas Journal; Business Petroleum, energy and mining Bending Analysis
**Do Not Post to this Topic* Start a new topic, please. The Rules of Induction from www.atkins.com/articles/atkins-phases/phas e-one/the-rules-of-induction This phase of the , team1783board
1 The effects of rifampicin, phenytoin, and disopyramide treatments on the metabolism of disopyramide were studied in patients and volunteers. 2 Rifampicin treatment markedly increased the metabolism of disopyramide. 3 Phenytoin had effects similar to those of rifampicin. The effect subsided in 2 we …
Looking for online definition of tyrosine aminotransferase in the Medical Dictionary? tyrosine aminotransferase explanation free. What is tyrosine aminotransferase? Meaning of tyrosine aminotransferase medical term. What does tyrosine aminotransferase mean?
primary hepatocyte culture - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Ill start the human primary hepatocyte culture. I have no idea on the important issue how long primary hepatocyte can maintain its bioactivity. Does anybody has experience on culturing of human primary hepatocytes?
The main purpose of this study is to determine whether additional ustekinumab treatment is beneficial in patients with moderately to severely active Crohns disease who initially had a clinical response to IV ustekinumab in one of the 2 initial induction studies (the CNTO1275CRD3001 [UNITI-1] or CNTO1275CRD3002 [UNITI-2] induction studies). The maintenance treatment will be injections in the skin (given subcutaneously, or SC) of 90 mg ustekinumab either every 8 weeks or 12 weeks, and the effects (both the benefits and any side effects or adverse events) will be compared to SC placebo injections (otherwise identical except without ustekinumab). Patients who responded to IV ustekinumab in the UNITI-1 (NCT01369329) or UNITI-2 (NCT01369342) induction studies will be put into one of these 3 groups by chance (randomly, like rolling dice). The study will be double-blinded (so that neither patients nor study personnel know the identity of the assigned treatment). Patients who are randomized to ...
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play a fascinating role as determinants of toxicity stemming from endogenous and foreign chemical exposure. In addition, certain natural and anthropogenic compounds, such as those present in plants, foods, or combustion by-products can dramatically alter the levels of expression of these genes, thereby modulating the metabolism of agents we are subsequently exposed to. The dramatic upregulation of the CYP2B genes upon exposure to phenobarbital (PB) is one such example. This effect is potentially quite important and can be elicited by many dissimilar compounds that also produce a PB-like response.PB-like inducers can up-regulate the expression of many genes, including the CYP2B subfamily members in mammalian liver. The mechanisms controlling the PB induction response are poorly understood. The aim of this dissertation research was to further characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying the PB induction process through studies involving the examination of ...
The Fa2N-4 cells have the ability to induce CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UGT1A, and MDR1 mRNA in response to known inducers. Using CYP3A4 transcript as an endpoint, we have demonstrated the ability of the assay to rank inducers according to potency and demonstrate dose-response for rifampin as observed previously in primary human hepatocytes (Li et al., 1997; Sahi et al., 2000). In addition to distinguishing inducers from noninducers, this assay has a wide dynamic range for some endpoints such as CYP3A4 and CYP1A2, enabling rank ordering for induction potency. The same decreasing potency for CYP3A4 inducers (rifampin , phenobarbital , dexamethasone) has been previously reported in the literature for studies in primary human hepatocytes using both mRNA and enzyme activity endpoints (Luo et al., 2002). Our results using mRNA induction in Fa2N-4 cells are in good agreement with the publication by Madan et al. (2003), who reported the effects of prototypical inducers for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 in ...
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Losing The Numbers With The Elman Induction You know, there are so many hypnotists of ages and backgrounds who have had the same problem when using the Dave E…
Hello all, I am relatively new to these forums and am enjoying them! I have been an OB/L&D/Nursery RN for 5 years I am curious how other facilities do their inductions. We do quite a few,
Transformants are grown in TB medium. Stable inserts of 10-40 kb can be grown overnight with shaking at 37 °C in the presence of 1X Arabinose Induction Solution. DNA minipreps can be performed by standard methods.. For BACs and unstable smaller inserts, it may be necessary to grow the cultures without induction to an OD600 of 0.2-0.3. To reach this OD, it is convenient to grow the cultures overnight at 37 °C without shaking. The following morning, dilute the cultures 2-10 fold, and grow at 37 °C with shaking at 225 rpm for 30 minutes. For each ml of culture, add 1 μl of 1000 X Arabinose Induction Solution. Continue growth for 2-3 hours at 37 °C with shaking at 225 rpm.. Prepare DNA minipreps according to standard protocols.. ...
Define inducer: one that induces; especially : a substance that is capable of activating the transcription of a gene by combining with and…
Possible role of enzyme induction". Gastroenterology. 75 (3): 492-496. doi:10.1016/0016-5085(78)90856-9. PMID 680506. Neil ...
ISBN 978-83-200-3652-7. Sulman FG, Pfeifer Y, Tal E (December 1976). "[Migraine therapy by enzyme induction with proxibarbital ...
"Enzyme induction with antiepileptic drugs: Cause for concern?". Epilepsia. 54 (1): 11-27. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2012.03671.x ... Due to this higher amount of CYP450, drugs that are metabolized by the CYP450 enzyme system will have decreased effectiveness. ... Phenobarbital is a cytochrome P450 hepatic enzyme inducer. It binds transcription factor receptors that activate cytochrome ...
Safe S, Kohli J, Crawford A (April 1978). "FireMaster BP-6: Fractionation, Metabolic and Enzyme Induction Studies". ...
Other early effects noted were peripheral neuropathy and liver enzyme induction. The ascertainment of other, possibly severe ...
Finally, no inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes was observed. Following a 100 mg dose of eluxadoline, the Cmax ...
The induction of xylanase enzymes varies between strains; in group D1 strains (49, H17c, 12) xylanase expression appears to be ... Most isolates are amylolytic and are able to degrade xylan by producing xylanolytic and esterase enzymes. ... enzymes. Several carbohydrate binding modules (CBM) have also been identified that are predicted to bind glycogen (CBM family ...
production of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes by cellulose induction. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 87, (4) (05): 301-10 Saettler ... One enzyme, endopolygalacturonase, is a highly specialized cell wall-degrading enzyme which is critical for the growth of the ... In order to more easily ramify throughout the host tissue, the hyphae release enzymes which break down host-specific proteins. ... C. lindemuthianum releases large amounts of this enzyme, which not only weakens the cell wall by removing the polygalacturonan ...
"Dose related induction of the drug metabolizing enzymes of rat liver by cilobamine". Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 4 (2 ...
Hence, there is no response to treatment with phenobarbital, which causes CYP450 enzyme induction. Most patients (type IA) have ...
Cytochrome P-450 enzyme induction and inhibition[38][39][40] Potent inducers. Potent inhibitors. Substrates ... 2. Change in enzyme activity:. Many substances can influence the P-450 enzyme mechanism. Drugs interact with the enzyme family ... Enzyme inhibitors block the metabolic activity of one or several P-450 enzymes. This effect usually occurs immediately. On the ... Activation of some enzymes in the cytochrome P-450 system such as CYP2E1 also lead to oxidative stress.[34] Injury to ...
This enzyme induction can be initiated by many natural or synthetic compounds, e.g., carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons such ... Surprisingly, enzyme induction, several developmental effects and aversion to novel foods occur at similar dose levels in ... Therefore it has been suggested that dioxin effects be divided to type I effects (enzyme induction etc.) and type II effects ( ... Some of these low-dose effects can in fact be interpreted as protective rather than toxic (enzyme induction, aversion to novel ...
... shows potent induction potential of cytochrome P450 enzymes similarly to enzalutamide. It is a strong inducer of ... This change is considered to be likely due to CYP3A4 auto-induction. Approximately 65% of apalutamide is excreted in urine (1.2 ... A major active metabolite, N-desmethylapalutamide, is formed by these enzymes, with similar contribution of each of these ... elevated liver enzymes and hepatotoxicity have not been reported with apalutamide. There is no known antidote for overdose of ...
Exposure to ethanol is known to promote further induction of this enzyme in fetal and adult tissues. CYP2E1 is a major ... The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a ... Two enzymes are associated with the conversion of acetic acid to acetyl-CoA. The first is acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain ... In humans, several enzymes are involved in processing ethanol first into acetaldehyde and further into acetic acid and acetyl- ...
"Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 as a key transcription factor for nutritional induction of lipogenic enzyme genes ... Many of the enzymes for the fatty acid synthesis are organized into a multienzyme complex called fatty acid synthase. The major ... This mechanism leads to the increased rate of catalysis of this enzyme, so increases the levels of acetyl-CoA. Increased levels ... It leads to its dephosphorylation via activation of PP2A phosphatase whose activity results in the activation of the enzyme. ...
Itoh, K (1997). "An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant ... Nrf2 is known as a master regulator of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genes. Induction of these cytoprotective ... Because Nrf2-sMaf heterodimers regulate a battery of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, impaired function of ...
This suggests induction of microsomal oxidizing enzymes, which results in greater production of toxic metabolites. Chronic ... indicating that metabolic activation of hepatic oxidative enzymes may be the cause of the increase in toxicity in co- ...
Antioxidant activity and induction of the anticarcinogenic phase II marker enzyme quinone reductase in Hepalclc7 cells". ...
"Mechanism of corticotropin and cAMP induction of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 system enzymes in adrenal cortex cells". The ... "Induction and mitochondrial localization of cytochrome P450scc system enzymes in normal and transformed ovarian granulosa cells ... "Conservation of the Enzyme-Coenzyme Interfaces in FAD and NADP Binding Adrenodoxin Reductase-A Ubiquitous Enzyme". Journal of ... He then set out to clone the cDNAs and the genes that code for these enzymes. His lab was the first to clone the cDNAs and the ...
"Role of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-mediated Induction of the CYP1 Enzymes in Environmental Toxicity and Cancer". Journal of ... A leading hypothesis is that PAHs may activate the cytochrome enzyme CYP1B1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. This enzyme then ... PAH exposure can increase production of the cytochrome enzymes, allowing the enzymes to convert PAHs into mutagenic diol ... and activate it as a transcription factor that increases production of the cytochrome enzymes. The activity of these enzymes ...
Enzyme induction/inhibition by other drugs/foods: *Enzyme induction (increased rate of metabolism), e.g., Phenytoin induces ... Enzyme inhibition (decreased rate of metabolism), e.g., grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A → higher nifedipine concentrations ...
SASP induction of the NAD+ degrading enzyme CD38 on non-senescent cells may be responsible for most of this effect. By contrast ... SASP may also consist of exosomes and ectosomes containing enzymes, microRNA, DNA fragments, and other bioactive factors. ... SASP disrupts normal tissue function by producing chronic inflammation, induction of fibrosis and inhibition of stem cells. ... cGAS is essential for induction of cellular senescence by DNA damage. Senescent cells are highly metabolically active, ...
... enzyme induction). TCDD increases the enzymes breaking down, e.g., carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons such as benzo(a)pyrene ... When TCDD increases the activity of oxidative enzymes more than conjugation enzymes, the epoxide intermediates may increase, ... Genes of enzymes activating the breakdown of foreign and often toxic compounds are classic examples of such genes ( ... One obvious function is to increase the activity of enzymes breaking down foreign chemicals or normal chemicals of the body as ...
"Mechanism of corticotropin and cAMP induction of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 system enzymes in adrenal cortex cells" (PDF). ... The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. ... Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an ... The long term actions of ACTH include stimulation of the transcription of the genes coding for steroidogenic enzymes, ...
"Induction of COX-2 enzyme and down-regulation of COX-1 expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) control prostaglandin E2 ... pathways can induce enzymes such as the COX-2 enzyme. MAPK pathways may also play a role in the regulation of PTGS2. Growth ... Mitogenesis is the induction (triggering) of mitosis, typically via a mitogen. The mechanism of action of a mitogen is that it ...
"Induction of COX-2 enzyme and down-regulation of COX-1 expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) control prostaglandin E2 ... Many of the medications used to treat and manage these conditions work by blocking the effects of the COX-2 enzyme. Many steps ... Both omega-3 and omega-6 are metabolized by the same enzymes, meaning an imbalanced ratio can affect how the other is ... The COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor medications, used to treat inflammation and pain, work by preventing the COX enzymes from turning ...
Smoking has been shown to enhance the elimination rate of toluene from the body, perhaps as a result of enzyme induction. The ... Often toluene exposure occurs in conjunction with benzene and since they are to some degree metabolised by the same enzymes, ... CYP2E1 seems to be the primary enzyme in the hydroxylation of toluene, accounting for roughly 44% of toluene metabolism; ... Other studies have shown that chronic ethanol consumption can enhance toluene metabolism via the induction of CYP2E1. ...
In addition, it has prominent drug interactions due to moderate to strong induction of multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes. ... little or no inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, and little or no central nervous system distribution. However ... Now little-used due to high incidences of elevated liver enzymes and hepatotoxicity and the availability of safer agents. ... Also inhibits cytochrome P450 enzymes and thereby inhibits hepatic estradiol metabolism and increases circulating estradiol ...
... is up-regulated during tubular cell regeneration and induction of antioxidant enzymes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
These findings are attributed to induction of liver enzymes by testosterone and consequent activation of its own metabolism. ...
Claverys JP, Prudhomme M, Martin B (2006). "Induction of competence regulons as a general response to stress in gram-positive ... Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... summarized evidence that induction of competence in S. pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress ... "Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types: induction of transformation by ...
Each transducin then activates the enzyme cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE).. *PDE then catalyzes the hydrolysis of cGMP to ... "Induction of photosensitivity by heterologous expression of melanopsin". Nature. 433 (7027): 745-9. Bibcode:2005Natur.433..745Q ...
The enzyme quercitrinase can be found in Aspergillus flavus.[14] This enzyme hydrolyzes the glycoside quercitrin to release ... "Induction of Zygotic Polyembryos in Wheat: Influence of Auxin Polar Transport". The Plant Cell. 9 (10): 1767-1780. doi:10.1105 ... "BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase). Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research.. *^ Tranchimand S, Brouant P, Iacazio G (Nov ... quercetin is a non-specific protein kinase enzyme inhibitor.[17][20] Quercetin has also been reported to have estrogenic ( ...
enzyme binding. • receptor binding. • lipid binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated ... "Steroid receptor induction of gene transcription: a two-step model". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
April 1999). "Induction of cytochrome P4501A1". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 39: 103-125. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... The detoxification enzymes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) are both protective and necessary for ... detoxification enzymes, such as cytochromes P450 have increased activities in the gut for protection from food-borne toxins. ... This process is similar to induction of CYP1A1 by certain polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins. Seemingly, CYP1A1 activity in ...
The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assists in repair of DNA double strand breaks. ... Under-expression of miR-148b* and miR-193b* cause an observed induction of RAD51 expression.[40] Deletions of 148b* and miR- ... The information summarized in Table 2 suggests that under-expression of microRNAs (causing induction of RAD51) occurs ... "Mammalian ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 interacts with Rad51 recombination protein and localizes in synaptonemal complexes ...
1998). "Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by the activated MEKK1 --> SEK1/MKK4 --> p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway". J ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ...
More than 90% of people who have GPA test positive for ANCA.[16] Cytoplasmic-staining ANCAs that react with the enzyme ... After a person with GPA has successfully undergone induction and gone into remission, the treatment goal then shifts to ... Oral and intravenous cyclophosphamide are both effective for induction of GPA remission. Oral cyclophosphamide at a dose of 2 ... an enzyme prevalent in neutrophil granulocytes.[7] In vitro studies have found that ANCAs can activate neutrophils, increase ...
The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD ... "Induction of hypertension and peripheral inflammation by reduction of extracellular superoxide dismutase in the central ... Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the ... Superoxide is known to denature enzymes, oxidize lipids, and fragment DNA.[19] SODs catalyze the production of O2 and H2O2 from ...
He formulated De Morgan's laws and introduced the term mathematical induction, making its idea rigorous.[95][96][97] ... François Jacob (1920-2013): French biologist who, together with Jacques Monod, originated the idea that control of enzyme ... Australian-British chemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1975 for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalysed ... French biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965 for discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme ...
RNA as an enzyme[edit]. Further information: Ribozyme. RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, are found in today's DNA-based life and could ... Multiplicity reactivation has been reported to occur in influenza virus infections after induction of RNA damage by UV- ... RNA can act as a ribozyme, a special type of enzyme. Because it can perform the tasks of both DNA and enzymes, RNA is believed ... Such enzyme targeting is also responsible for gene down regulation though RNA interference (RNAi), where an enzyme-associated ...
Ovulation induction can be achieved either with pulsatile GnRH therapy or alternatively with gonadotropin injections (hCG, FSH ... Enzyme-linked receptor. (including. growth factor). RTK. *ROR2 (Robinow syndrome). *FGFR1 (Pfeiffer syndrome, KAL2 Kallmann ... can also be used in male patients to induce secondary sexual characteristic development alongside possible fertility induction. ... "Transition in endocrinology: induction of puberty". European Journal of Endocrinology. 170 (6): R229-39. doi:10.1530/EJE-13- ...
... ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2). In the last step, a member of a highly diverse class of enzymes known as ubiquitin ligases ( ... Both internal and external signals can lead to the induction of apoptosis, or programmed cell death. The resulting ... Enzymes that help such reactions are called proteases. Proteasomes are part of a major mechanism by which cells regulate the ... Rpn11, the deubiquinating enzyme, is placed at the mouth of the AAA-ATPase hexamer, ideally positioned to remove ubiquitin ...
Restriction Enzymes Access Excellence Classic Collection Background Paper. *^ Oliveira PH, Touchon M, Rocha EP (2014). "The ... "Induction of type I interferon by RNA viruses: cellular receptors and their substrates". Amino Acids. 38 (5): 1283-99. doi ... Peristalsis, gastric acid, bile acids, digestive enzyme,. flushing, thiocyanate,[2] defensins,[2] gut flora[2] ... In this system, bacteria produce enzymes, called restriction endonucleases, that attack and destroy specific regions of the ...
The naming of enzymes by adding the suffix "-ase" to the substrate on which the enzyme acts, has been traced to French ... Skett P, Gibson GG (2001). 》Chapter 3: Induction and Inhibition of Drug Metabolism》. 》Introduction to Drug Metabolism》 3판. ... Suzuki H (2015). 》Chapter 8: Control of Enzyme Activity》. 》How Enzymes Work: From Structure to Function》. Boca Raton, FL: CRC ... 효소(酵素, 영어: enzyme)는 반응물인 기질(substrate)과 결합해서 효소-기질 복합체를 형성하여 화학 반응의 활성화 에너지 수준을 낮춤으로써 물질대사의 속도를 증가시키는 생체 촉매이거나 또는 속도를 조절하는 생체 ...
1999). "Induction of autophagy and inhibition of tumorigenesis by beclin 1". Nature. 402 (6762): 672-6. doi:10.1038/45257. PMID ... There are four pathways of autophagy and these are mediated by the autophagy-related genes and their associated enzymes.[6][7][ ... Liang, XH; Jackson, S; Seaman, M; Brown, K; Kempkes, B; Hibshoosh, H; Levine, B (9 December 1999). "Induction of autophagy and ... Both studies demonstrate that autophagy induction may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise and that it is ...
... acts by induction of DNA strand breaks.[10] Some studies suggest bleomycin also inhibits incorporation of thymidine ... and also acts on topoisomerase II enzyme thus relaxing the topoisomerase complexes. ...
Enzyme regulation[edit]. This protein may use the morpheein model of allosteric regulation.[35] ... Induction of death signaling: Like all death-domain-containing members of the TNFR superfamily, TNFR1 is involved in death ... Micheau O, Tschopp J (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling complexes". Cell ... is released via proteolytic cleavage by the metalloprotease TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE, also called ADAM17).[26] The ...
December 1999). "Induction of autophagy and inhibition of tumorigenesis by beclin 1". Nature. 402 (6762): 672-6. doi:10.1038/ ... The degradation of betaine homo-cysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), a metabolic enzyme, could be used to assess autophagy flux ... Liang XH, Jackson S, Seaman M, Brown K, Kempkes B, Hibshoosh H, Levine B (December 1999). "Induction of autophagy and ... Both studies demonstrate that autophagy induction may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise and that it is ...
Members of the Lysobacter group have gained broad interest for production of extracellular enzymes. The group is also regarded ... Comparison of strains of Lysobacter enzymogenes and PGPR for induction of resistance against Bipolaris sorokiniana in tall ... The second is that mutations in clp result in significant loss of extracellular enzyme activities and antimicrobial activity ... The nucleotide sequence predicts a large prepropeptide with homology to propeptides of other chymotrypsin-like enzymes. J Biol ...
The group of enzymes responsible for addition of methyl groups to DNA are called DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The enzyme ... a cognitive effect that was restored in mice by induction of this mark.[74]. Treatments[edit]. Treatment for prevention or ... are enzymes responsible for the addition of acetyl groups, and histone deacetylases (HDACs) are enzymes responsible for the ... The enzymes responsible for the addition of methyl groups to histones are called histone methyltransferases (HMTs). The enzymes ...
Spindler, S (2005). "Rapid and reversible induction of the longevity, anticancer and genomic effects of caloric restriction". ... NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase enzymes.[61] Sir2 homologs have been identified in a wide range of organisms from bacteria ... it may be evolutionarily desirable for an organism to avoid reproduction and to up-regulate protective and repair enzyme ...
Cheung CY, Poon LL, Lau AS, Luk W, Lau YL, Shortridge KF, Gordon S, Guan Y, Peiris JS (December 2002). "Induction of ... Because of the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that copies the viral genome makes an ...
It is due to an enzyme deficiency (lactase) and not allergy, and occurs in many non-Western people. ... specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI, also known as OIT for oral immunotherapy), and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). The ...
If this enzyme reaches a "hemimethylated" portion of DNA (where 5-methylcytosine is in only one of the two DNA strands) the ... the induction of CDK5 gene expression occurs together with suppression of the G9A gene coding for dimethyltransferase acting on ... This enzyme utilizes a catalytically active site called the SET domain (Suppressor of variegation, Enhancer of zeste, Trithorax ... For example, acetylation of the K14 and K9 lysines of the tail of histone H3 by histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) is ...
The prediction and discovery of telomerase, a remarkable RNA-containing enzyme that synthesizes the ends of chromosomes, ... a chemical whose rapid action and freedom from residual effects have made it the most widely used agent for induction of ...
Drug induction[edit]. ACE inhibitors can induce angioedema.[13][14][15] ACE inhibitors block the enzyme ACE so it can no longer ... These agents increase the level of aminopeptidase P, an enzyme that inactivates kinins;[22] kinins (especially bradykinin) are ... Lanadelumab inhibits the plasma enzyme kallikrein, which liberates the kinins bradykinin and kallidin from their kininogen ... Routine blood tests (complete blood count, electrolytes, renal function, liver enzymes) are typically performed. Mast cell ...
These increases are accompanied by strong induction of an enzyme with a key role in recombinational repair of DNA damage. Thus ...
2009). "Human-specific induction of glutathione peroxidase-3 by proteasome inhibition in cardiovascular cells". Free Radic. ... or extracellular glutathione peroxidase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GPX3 gene. GPx-3 belongs to the ... a selenoglycoprotein distinct from the known cellular enzyme". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 256 (2): 677-86. doi:10.1016/0003-9861( ...
Enzyme inhibition can refer to the inhibition of the expression of the enzyme by another molecule interference at the enzyme- ... Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an ... If the molecule induces enzymes that are responsible for its own metabolism, this is called auto-induction (or auto-inhibition ... the French molecular biologists François Jacob and Jacques Monod became the first to explain enzyme induction, in the context ...
Drug metabolizing enzyme induction pathways in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.. Fisher CD1, Jackson JP, Lickteig AJ ... are xenobiotic activated transcription factors that regulate induction of a number of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). The ... Hepatic mRNA levels of drug metabolizing enzymes in experimental NASH. Total hepatic RNA from normal diet-fed and MCD diet-fed ... Mice fed normal rodent chow or methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 8 weeks were then treated with microsomal enzyme ...
... Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1981 Mar;11(3):279-85. doi: ...
It will discuss the importance of core contract research capabilities, including enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, and ... In addition, will review new capabilities and opportunities including CYP induction and SLC transporter assay services - all ... It will discuss the importance of core contract research capabilities, including enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, and ... Webinar: Your In Vitro ADME CRO: New Assays for Transport, Enzyme Inhibition & Induction. We use cookies to ensure the best ...
The principal methods used for the assessment of enzyme induction and enzyme inhibition are measurement of the pharmacokinetics ... Assessment of enzyme induction and enzyme inhibition in humans: toxicological implications Xenobiotica. 1990 Nov;20(11):1171-85 ... 1. The principal methods used for the assessment of enzyme induction and enzyme inhibition are measurement of the ... which are endogenous substrates for cytochrome P450 IIIA enzymes, provides a non-invasive means of assessing enzyme induction ...
Enzyme activation · Enzyme activity · Enzyme induction · Enzyme inhibition · Enzyme mechanism · Gene location · Genetic ... enzyme activation · enzyme activity · enzyme induction · enzyme metabolism · enzyme substrate · liver microsome metabolism · ... enzyme activity · enzyme induction · enzyme regulation · enzyme subunit · gene control · gene expression · gene identification ... Enzyme activity · Enzyme analysis · Enzyme induction · Liver cell culture · Nonhuman · RNA analysis · RNA hybridization · Swine ...
Continuous Injection Systems, Enzyme Induction, DNA Transformation and Cell Biology Lead researcher. T R Bradley, Mrs N ...
Locale about Experts and Doctors on enzyme induction in Finland ... Experts and Doctors on enzyme induction in Finland. Summary. ... You are here: Locale , Experts and Doctors on enzyme induction in Finland ... Huang D, Jokela M, Tuusa J, Skog S, Poikonen K, Syvaoja J. E2F mediates induction of the Sp1-controlled promoter of the human ... Experts and Doctors on cytochrome p 450 enzyme system in Finland*Experts and Doctors on messenger rna in Finland ...
The decreased bioavailability most probably can be explained by an induction of intestinal cytochrome P450 enzymes, which ... of cyclosporine with concomitant rifampin administration is markedly less than predicted by hepatic enzyme induction.. Hebert ...
The effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of bis(2- methoxyethyl)ether (111966) (diglyme) was studied in rats. Male ... The effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of bis(2- methoxyethyl)ether (111966) (diglyme) was studied in rats. Male ... The role of enzyme induction on metabolite formation of bis(2- methoxyethyl) ether in the rat.. ... NIOSH-Author; Organic-solvents; Glycols; In-vivo-studies; Laboratory-animals; Biotransformation; Enzyme-activity; Urinalysis; ...
Enzyme Induction by Corticosteroids in Embryonic Cells: Steroid Structure and Inductive Effect ... Enzyme Induction by Corticosteroids in Embryonic Cells: Steroid Structure and Inductive Effect ... Enzyme Induction by Corticosteroids in Embryonic Cells: Steroid Structure and Inductive Effect ... Enzyme Induction by Corticosteroids in Embryonic Cells: Steroid Structure and Inductive Effect ...
enzyme repression/induction -enzyme repression- inhibitis at the genetic level by controlling synthesis of key enzymes, excess ... enzyme induction- enzymes are made only when suitable substrates are present, can adapt to variety of nutrients, inverse of ... product binds to DNA and shuts down further enzyme production. - ... Enzyme repression or induction acts at the level of ...
Induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and inhibition of AP-1-MAPKS pathway by natural antioxidant chlorogenic acid.. ... mediated induction of a luciferase reporter. Further study indicated that chlorogenic acid stimulates the nucleus translocation ... suggest that the chemopreventive effects of chlorogenic acid may be through its up-regulation of cellular antioxidant enzymes ...
A Study to Evaluate the Effect of Ustekinumab on Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activities Following Induction and Maintenance Dosing ... Drug Interaction Study to Evaluate the Effect of Ustekinumab on Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activities Following Induction and ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of an intravenous (IV) induction and subcutaneous (SC) ... enzymes (CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2) in participants with moderate to severe Crohns disease (CD). ...
As compared to NGF, cAMP produces a different pattern of enzyme induction (in addition to TH, DBH, PNMT, and AChE, dopa ... These data suggest that there may be multiple mechanisms by which NGF regulates enzyme induction. We have also compared the ... In this study, we have shown that NGF mediates the specific induction of the key enzymes in catecholamine biosynthesis, ... Nerve growth factor-mediated enzyme induction in primary cultures of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: specificity and level of ...
The Influence of Exogenous and Endogenous Steroids on Hepatic Microsomal Enzyme Induction W. J. Marshall W. J. Marshall ... W. J. Marshall; The Influence of Exogenous and Endogenous Steroids on Hepatic Microsomal Enzyme Induction. Clin Sci 1 September ...
Induction of phase 2 enzymes in vitro and in vivo is mediated by increased transcription at phase 2 enzyme gene loci. This ... In summary, sulforaphane is a potent inducer of phase 2 enzymes in human prostatic cells. Induction of phase 2 enzymes is one ... Potent Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes in Human Prostate Cells by Sulforaphane. James D. Brooks, Vincent G. Paton and Genevieve ... Talalay P., Fahey J. W., Holtzclaw W. D., Prestera T., Zhang Y. Chemoprotection against cancer by Phase 2 enzyme induction. ...
Induction of Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Alveolar Macrophages in Response to the Purified Complement Fragments C5a and C5a ... Induction of Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Alveolar Macrophages in Response to the Purified Complement Fragments C5a and C5a ... Induction of Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Alveolar Macrophages in Response to the Purified Complement Fragments C5a and C5a ... Induction of Lysosomal Enzyme Secretion by Alveolar Macrophages in Response to the Purified Complement Fragments C5a and C5a ...
Induction of CYP3A enzymes in human and rat hepatocyte cultures J. ANDREW WILLIAMS; J. ANDREW WILLIAMS ... J. ANDREW WILLIAMS, RICHARD J CHENERY, GABRIELLE M. HAWKSWORTH; Induction of CYP3A enzymes in human and rat hepatocyte cultures ... INDUCTION OF CYP3A EXPRESSION BY METYRAPONE IS MEDIATED THROUGH THE PREGNANE X RECEPTOR Biochem Soc Trans (June,1999) ... 68 Fetal calf serum decreases CYP3A induction in rat but not in dog or human hepatocyte cultures Biochem Soc Trans (November, ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme: induction by steroids in rabbit alveolar macrophages in culture ... Angiotensin converting enzyme: induction by steroids in rabbit alveolar macrophages in culture ... Angiotensin converting enzyme: induction by steroids in rabbit alveolar macrophages in culture ... Angiotensin converting enzyme: induction by steroids in rabbit alveolar macrophages in culture ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
An improved assay of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity: induction of hepatic enzyme activity in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice ... An improved assay of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity: induction of hepatic enzyme activity in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice ... An improved assay of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity: induction of hepatic enzyme activity in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice ... An improved assay of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity: induction of hepatic enzyme activity in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice ...
The increase in enzymatic activity can be associated with induction of oxidative stress by cadmium treatment. Excessive calcium ... In excessive concentration however, more than determined level, a significant decrease in the enzymes activities was determined ... In the present study, the cadmiums effect on anti-oxidative enzymes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants was evaluated. ... Induction of anti-oxidative enzymes by cadmium stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Sbartai Hana1, Rouabhi Rachid2*, ...
This is the first report of in vitro induction of P450 enzymes by rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. While only the induction of ... and enzyme activities in primary human hepatocytes. This is the first report on the in vitro induction of P450 enzymes by ... Comparative Effects of Thiazolidinediones on in Vitro P450 Enzyme Induction and Inhibition. Jasminder Sahi, Christopher B. ... Comparative Effects of Thiazolidinediones on in Vitro P450 Enzyme Induction and Inhibition. Jasminder Sahi, Christopher B. ...
This is the first report of in vitro induction of P450 enzymes by rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. While only the induction of ... Comparative Effects of Thiazolidinediones on in Vitro P450 Enzyme Induction and Inhibition. Jasminder Sahi, Christopher B. ... Comparative Effects of Thiazolidinediones on in Vitro P450 Enzyme Induction and Inhibition. Jasminder Sahi, Christopher B. ... Comparative Effects of Thiazolidinediones on in Vitro P450 Enzyme Induction and Inhibition. Jasminder Sahi, Christopher B. ...
F4/80-positive macrophages in thrombus expressed proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp) 2, Mmp9, and ... F4/80-positive macrophages in thrombus expressed proteolytic enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)2, Mmp9 and ... Crucial Involvement of IL-6 in Thrombus Resolution in Mice via Macrophage Recruitment and the Induction of Proteolytic Enzymes ... Crucial Involvement of IL-6 in Thrombus Resolution in Mice via Macrophage Recruitment and the Induction of Proteolytic Enzymes ...
Enzyme induction is a process whereby a molecule enhances the expression of enzymes. If the affected enzymes are involved in ... The aim of the conducted research was to investigate these key aspects of enzyme induction and the consequences that induction ... The key aspects of the enzyme induction process have been examined using mechanistic induction models. These novel models ... The induction process depends on the half-life of the induced enzyme, the pharmacokinetics of the inducing agent, and the ...
Find out information about enzyme induction. The process by which a microbial cell synthesizes an enzyme in response to the ... presence of a substrate or of a substance closely related to a substrate in... Explanation of enzyme induction ... enzyme induction. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Financial. enzyme induction. [′en‚zīm in′dək·shən] ( ... Enzyme induction , Article about enzyme induction by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/enzyme+ ...
Expression and Induction of CYP2C P450 Enzymes in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes. Judy L. Raucy, Lisa Mueller, Kui Duan ... Expression and Induction of CYP2C P450 Enzymes in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes. Judy L. Raucy, Lisa Mueller, Kui Duan ... Expression and Induction of CYP2C P450 Enzymes in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes. Judy L. Raucy, Lisa Mueller, Kui Duan ... 2001) have studied the induction of human CYP2C enzymes by the same chemicals as those employed here and, in most cases, our ...
The results demonstrate that enzyme induction is tightly coupled to protein kinase activation and is consistent with the ... Coordinate Protein Kinase Activation and Specific Enzyme Induction by Cyclic Nucleotide Derivatives in Intact Cultured Hepatoma ... Coordinate Protein Kinase Activation and Specific Enzyme Induction by Cyclic Nucleotide Derivatives in Intact Cultured Hepatoma ... Coordinate Protein Kinase Activation and Specific Enzyme Induction by Cyclic Nucleotide Derivatives in Intact Cultured Hepatoma ...
  • Enzyme inhibition can refer to the inhibition of the expression of the enzyme by another molecule interference at the enzyme-level, basically with how the enzyme works. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the molecule induces enzymes that are responsible for its own metabolism, this is called auto-induction (or auto-inhibition if there is inhibition). (wikipedia.org)
  • It will discuss the importance of core contract research capabilities, including enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, and transporter interaction. (corning.com)
  • 1. The principal methods used for the assessment of enzyme induction and enzyme inhibition are measurement of the pharmacokinetics of a model compound (probe drug), analysis of drug metabolism in vitro, and determination of changes in the disposition of, and endogenous substrate for, the enzyme of interest. (nih.gov)
  • Measurement of the excretion of metabolites of cortisol and oestradiol, which are endogenous substrates for cytochrome P450 IIIA enzymes, provides a non-invasive means of assessing enzyme induction or inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Combined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies are required to assess the pharmacological relevance of either induction or inhibition of the enzymes involved in drug metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • 4. At present it is difficult to assess the toxicological implications of enzyme induction and inhibition in man. (nih.gov)
  • Induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes and inhibition of AP-1-MAPKS pathway by natural antioxidant chlorogenic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Many clinically relevant drug interactions are the result of induction or inhibition of major drug-metabolizing enzymes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In these studies we examined both the P450 induction and inhibition potential for troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Watch for Many Potential Drug InteractionsThe Effect of Cytochrome P450 Metabolism on Drug Response www.aafp.org /afp/2007/0801/p391.html Carbamazepine ( Tegretol ), a potent enzyme Information regarding a drug's CYP450 metabolism and its potential for inhibition or induction can be found on the Chapter 17 - Page 3 - Boomerhttps://www.boomer.org/c/p4/c17/c1703.htmlChapter 17 Metabolism. (observatoriojyd.org)
  • return to Enyzme induction is an increase in enzyme concentration caused by a drug or Carbamazepine is a drug which can induce its own ENZYME INDUCTION AND INHIBITION - University of Aucklandhttps://flexiblelearning.auckland.ac.nz/medsci303/7/files/ enzyme Carbamazepine 79 4.5. (observatoriojyd.org)
  • ENZYME INDUCTION AND INHIBITION - University of Aucklandhttps://flexiblelearning.auckland.ac.nz/medsci303/7/files/ enzyme Carbamazepine 79 4.5. (observatoriojyd.org)
  • PK is the most frequent type of DDI, which often appears as a result of the inhibition or induction of drug-metabolising enzymes (DME). (eurekaselect.com)
  • In this review, we summarise in silico methods that may be applied for the prediction of the inhibition or induction of DMEs and describe appropriate computational methods for DDI prediction, showing the current situation and perspectives of these approaches in medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In the section on ligand-based methods, we describe pharmacophore models, molecular field analysis, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), and similarity analysis applied to the prediction of DDI related to the inhibition or induction of DME. (eurekaselect.com)
  • By altering the routes or rates of metabolism of a foreign compound, either induction or inhibition clearly can have profound effects on the biological activity of the compound in question. (europeanmedical.info)
  • UGT inhibition and induction assays are available for UGT1A1, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 enzymes, and are performed with recombinant enzymes, HepaRG™ cells, or cryopreserved hepatocytes, together with LC/MS/MS analysis of the model reaction metabolites. (admescope.com)
  • Inhibition of p38 activity increased the level of ARE reporter gene activity by several enzyme inducers including sulforaphane (146). (doctorabel.us)
  • Inhibition de l'adaptation Enzymatique chez B. Coli en Présence de 2-4 Dinitrophénol. (elsevier.com)
  • Avasimibe (3 μmol/L) increased bile acid synthesis (2.9- fold) after preincubation with βVLDL and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity (1.7-and 2.6-fold, with or without βVLDL), the latter paralleled by a similar induction of its messenger RNA (mRNA). (tudelft.nl)
  • Avasimibe did not affect sterol 27-hydroxylase and oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase, 2 enzymes in the alternative pathway in bile acid synthesis. (tudelft.nl)
  • This induction is accompanied by, but not because of, increased intracellular glutathione synthesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Concentrations of these enzymes in the cell lysates did not decrease during the incubation, suggesting that synthesis of new enzyme was occurring. (jimmunol.org)
  • The increase was inhibited by actinomycin D (0.1 microng/ml) and 1 micronM cycloheximide, suggesting that de novo transcription and enzyme synthesis are responsible for the increased enzyme activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The induced synthesis of an enzyme in response to change in environmental conditions. (oup.com)
  • The drug-induced enzyme synthesis is unaffected by adrenalectomy. (rupress.org)
  • Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on D-glucono-Δ-lactone (Δgl) was found to be associated with a specific coordinate induction of the synthesis of two enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway - 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconolactonase - together with that of a third enzyme, gluconokinase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • induction requires de novo protein synthesis, and therefore an increase in the apparent metabolic activity of a tissue in vitro or animal in vivo. (europeanmedical.info)
  • Treatment with inhibitors of DNA synthesis increased the induction response. (unibas.ch)
  • Most of the cellulase appears after most of the sophorose has been taken up, but the presence of an inducer is required to maintain cellulase synthesis because enzyme production ceases after separation of the mycelium from the induction medium. (meta.org)
  • Response to pH suggest either that synthesis and secretion of the enzyme are closely associated or concurrent events affected by surface interactions with the medium. (meta.org)
  • Rate of enzyme synthesis and properties of base level and induced enzymes. (elsevier.com)
  • The decreased bioavailability most probably can be explained by an induction of intestinal cytochrome P450 enzymes, which appears to be markedly greater than the induction of hepatic metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of bis(2- methoxyethyl)ether (111966) (diglyme) was studied in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • The most significant aspect of the metabolism of barbiturates (e.g., phenobarbital, thiopental, methohexital) is their effect on the hepatic microsomal enzyme system (cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes). (openanesthesia.org)
  • Chronic use of barbiturates will cause upregulation, or induction, of the microsomal enzymes (CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4), increasing the metabolism of drugs metabolized by these enzymes. (openanesthesia.org)
  • This enzyme induction also causes barbiturate tolerance due increased barbiturate metabolism. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Although first reported with the microsomal mono-oxygenases, it is now known that a number of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of foreign compounds are inducible. (europeanmedical.info)
  • Conclusions: At therapeutic dosages, VGB did not modify in vivo indices of hepatic microsomal enzyme activity and did not interfere significantly with the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel. (elsevier.com)
  • The induction response to sophorose concentration, although complicated by the metabolism of sophorose, shows saturation kinetics. (meta.org)
  • It is called an Embryo from the moment of Fertilization until the end of the 8th week of gestational age, ethanol blocks metabolism of the parent compounds by competing for the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. (russky.me)
  • It is known that garlic OSCs can modulate drug metabolism systems, especially various phase II detoxifying enzymes, though the mechanism underlying their inductive effect on these enzymes remains largely unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • In the first part of this article, we review primary hepatocyte in vitro systems used in metabolism and enzyme induction studies. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Enzyme induction leads to increased metabolism of certain medications concomitantly taken along with barbiturates. (news-medical.net)
  • The use of the Company's immortalized cell lines permits standardization of CYP induction assays, facilitates comparison of historical data , and eliminates the problem of limited supply and organ donor variability that restrict the use of primary human liver cells for enzyme induction studies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In vitro analyses of hBRM- and different BRG1-containing enzymes reveal many similarities in chromatin remodeling assays ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Assays are also available using hepatocytes or recombinant enzyme study models. (corning.com)
  • We are delighted to announce the release of induction and inhibiton assays for UGT enzymes. (admescope.com)
  • Using purified Vtg concentration standards, competition and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs) were shown to quantitatively detect Vtg in green turtle plasma. (elsevier.com)
  • Sulforaphane and broccoli sprout extract potently induce quinone reductase activity in cultured prostate cells, and this induction appears to be mediated by increased transcription of the NQO-1 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These compounds, along with troglitazone, were evaluated for the ability to induce cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) in primary human hepatocyte cultures and to inhibit P450 in human microsomes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, barbiturates induce other enzymes, notably δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase. (openanesthesia.org)
  • In this study, we examined in microglia the ability of LPS to induce interleukin-1β-converting enzyme (ICE), the protease responsible for processing proIL-1β to its mature biologically active form. (illinois.edu)
  • Under our cultural conditions, sophorose appears to induce an incomplete array of cellulase enzymes, as indicated by enzymatic and electrophoretic studies. (meta.org)
  • Two patients were treated with 90mg of phenobarbitone to induce the hepatic enzymes and the excretion of D-glucaric acid in urine. (who.int)
  • Orally administered compounds will induce modestly phase 2 enzyme activity in the prostate although the significance of this degree of induction is unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The induction of the microsomal enzymes has been demonstrated in many different species including humans, and in various different tissues as well as the liver. (europeanmedical.info)
  • The aim of this study was to reveal possible modulating effects of consumption of Brussels sprouts on duodenal, rectal and lymphocytic (i) glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activity, (ii) GST isozyme levels and (iii) glutathione (GSH) content. (tudelft.nl)
  • Prostate cancer is characterized by an early and near universal loss of expression of the phase 2 enzyme glutathione S -transferase (GST)-π. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We verified that sulforaphane significantly augmented expression of the phase II enzyme genes GSTM1 and NQO1 and confirmed that sulforaphane treatment increased glutathione S-transferase activity in epithelial cells without inducing cell death or apoptosis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We used primary cultures of human hepatocytes from 15 subjects to assess the inducibility of CYP2C enzyme expression by prototypical inducer agents, including rifampicin, dexamethasone, and phenobarbital. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sulforaphane, derived from cruciferous vegetables, is the most potent known inducer of phase II enzymes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Chlorogenic acid also increases the enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferases (GST) as well as that of antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter. (cdc.gov)
  • These results provide the first evidence that chlorogenic acid could protect against environmental carcinogen-induced carcinogenesis and suggest that the chemopreventive effects of chlorogenic acid may be through its up-regulation of cellular antioxidant enzymes and suppression of ROS-mediated NF-fUB and AP-1-MAPKs activation. (cdc.gov)
  • We postulated that sulforaphane may be able to ameliorate the adverse effects of pollutants by upregulating expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We investigated the activity of 3 antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase during morphogenesis of Fritillaria meleagris L. in vitro in bulb scale culture. (ac.rs)
  • Sulforaphane is known to bolster the defenses of cells against carcinogens through up-regulation of enzymes of carcinogen defense (phase 2 enzymes). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We tested whether sulforaphane may act in prostatic cells by increasing phase 2 enzyme expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sulforaphane also induces expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase light subunit but not the heavy subunit, and this induction is associated with moderate increases in intracellular glutathione levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sulforaphane induces phase 2 enzyme expression and activity significantly in human prostatic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sulforaphane-stimulated phase II enzyme induction inhibits cytokine production by airway epithelial cells stimulated with diesel extract. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We then examined whether sulforaphane would stimulate phase II induction and whether this would thereby ablate the effect of diesel extracts on cytokine production. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Our studies show that sulforaphane can mitigate the effect of diesel in respiratory epithelial cells and demonstrate the chemopreventative potential of phase II enzyme enhancement. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Compared to control animals, sulforaphane also significantly induced NQO1 or total GST enzyme activity in the liver, kidney and, most significantly, in the bladder tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Orally administered sulforaphane potently induces phase 2 enzymes in bladder tissues and should be investigated as a bladder cancer preventive agent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Broccoli and its phytochemical sulforaphane activate detoxification enzymes that may protect against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon induced toxicity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of an intravenous (IV) induction and subcutaneous (SC) maintenance administration of ustekinumab on the pharmacokinetic (PK) of a cocktail of representative probe substrates of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2) in participants with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In induction studies, all three thiazolidinediones caused a dose-dependent increase in CYP3A4 activity and immunoreactive protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • rosiglitazone in terms of CYP3A4 mRNA induction potential with 10 μM compound. (aspetjournals.org)
  • While only the induction of CYP3A4 by troglitazone has been demonstrated in vivo, these results suggest that other thiazolidinediones may have the potential to cause clinically significant drug interactions at sufficiently high doses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Subsequent treatment with 25 μM rifampicin for 48 h elicited marked increases in CYP2C8 (700 ± 761%), CYP2C19 (854%), and CYP2C9 (209 ± 176%) protein content versus a 550 ± 170% enhancement of CYP3A4 enzyme levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • en.wikipedia.org /wiki/ Carbamazepine Grapefruit juice raises the bioavailability of carbamazepine by inhibiting CYP3A4 enzymes in the gut wall and in the liver. (observatoriojyd.org)
  • An improved assay of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activity: induction of hepatic enzyme activity in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice by phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Administration of phenobarbital resulted in a 10-fold stimulation of enzyme activity in DBA/2J mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the first of these, the pharmacokinetics of the autoinducing drug phenobarbital and its effect on several enzymes were described in rats. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our results show that CYP2C enzyme expression in human hepatocytes is highly inducible by rifampicin, dexamethasone, and phenobarbital. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phenobarbital (PB) represents a class of inducers in which the effect on detoxification is part of a pleiotropic response that includes liver hypertrophy, tumor promotion, and induction or repression of multiple genes, in addition to genes coding for enzymes or transporters that regulate drug disposition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The induction process depends on the half-life of the induced enzyme, the pharmacokinetics of the inducing agent, and the relationship between the inducer's concentration and the induction stimulus. (diva-portal.org)
  • A model was developed describing the changes in the pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its metabolite NLA-715, that are attributable to carbamazepine induction. (diva-portal.org)
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to determine whether vigabatrin affects in vivo indices of hepatic microsomal enzyme activity and the pharmacokinetics of steroid oral contraceptives in healthy subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • Using our well-known Corning Supersomes™ enzymes, human liver microsomes, or hepatocytes, we will evaluate enzyme-mediated pathways of elimination for your compound. (corning.com)
  • Sekisui XenoTech's Ex vivo CYP and UGT induction studies are specialized for monkey, dog, rat and mouse microsomes from liver tissue (other tissue is also available). (xenotech.com)
  • After culture for 72 h in serum-free medium on collagen, Western blotting revealed that CYP2C9 was the only CYP2C enzyme expressed at appreciable levels in untreated hepatocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For 20+ years, we have provided regulatory agency-driven cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction services using primary hepatocytes. (corning.com)
  • Secondly, in hepatocytes from chick embryo in primary monolayer culture, induction of cytochrome P-450-haemoproteins was markedly influenced by changes in the proliferative activity of hepatocytes. (unibas.ch)
  • Enzyme-selective chemical inhibitors and/or immune inhibitory antibodies can be used to confirm pathways and evaluate whether your compound could be a "victim" of drug-drug interactions. (corning.com)
  • To better understand the signaling events involved in the upregulation of detoxifying enzymes by DATS, ARE activity and Nrf2 protein levels were examined after transient transfection of HepG2 cells with mutant Nrf2, cotreatment with antioxidants, and pretreatment with protein kinase inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
  • Some of these forms of cytochrome P-450 are found in normal liver tissue and are 'constitutive', whereas others are only apparent after induction. (europeanmedical.info)
  • [10] Damage to the liver is not due to the drug itself but to a toxic metabolite ( N -acetyl- p -benzoquinone imine (NAPQI)) produced by cytochrome P-450 enzymes in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction with 3 methylcholanthrene gave the largest increases in nuclear activities: 11 times as much hydroxylase, 6 times as much cytochrome P 450, and 4 times as much binding of both hydrocarbons. (elsevier.com)
  • UGT enzymes (uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferases) are phaseII metabolizing enzymes responsible for biotransformation of many drugs. (admescope.com)
  • This result is evidence for a regulatory mechanism for angiotensin converting enzyme, which is important in blood pressure control. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although many investigations have been done in this regard, only a little is known about the induction and repression mechanism of this hydrolytic enzyme. (ajol.info)
  • The molecular mechanism of the induction response remains incompletely understood. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Studies on the mechanism of hormone induction of alkaline phosphatase in human cell cultures, II. (elsevier.com)
  • Mechanism of corticotropin and cAMP induction of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 system enzymes in adrenal cortex cells. (zenodo.org)
  • The role of enzyme induction on metabolite formation of bis(2- methoxyethyl) ether in the rat. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in calendar 2006, we assume XenoTech will begin penetrating the enzyme induction market by selling product for an assumed ASP of $600. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A combination of process engineering and random mutagenesis of fungal species has greatly improved hydrolytic enzyme production from industrial strains ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The lysosomal enzyme secretion was accompanied by increased pinocytosis and release of proteolytic enzymes from the macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • It was concluded that C5a and C5a desarg may play a role in lung injury by interactions with AM, inducing the secretion of acid hydrolases and proteolytic enzymes that can cause tissue damage, and by regulating the influx of other inflammatory cells into the interstitium and air spaces. (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, the TNF-α-TNF-Rp55 axis can promote thrombus resolution by inducing macrophages to express Plau, Mmp2 , and Mmp9 , the proteolytic enzymes that are crucial to collagenolysis and neovascularization ( 18 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Quinone reductase enzymatic activity, a surrogate of global phase 2 enzyme activity, was assayed by the menadione-coupled reduction of tetrazolium dye. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dimethyl fumarate did not significantly increase prostatic phase 2 enzyme activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 4 different compounds also altered phase 2 enzyme activity to different degrees in different tissue types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) are xenobiotic activated transcription factors that regulate induction of a number of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). (nih.gov)
  • Hepatic mRNA levels of drug metabolizing enzymes in experimental NASH. (nih.gov)
  • Induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters by drugs and other chemicals is an adaptive response of mammals and other organisms to increase the removal of potentially toxic endobiotics and xenobiotics. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Liver biopsy material of six patients with Hodgkin's disease were used as controls for measurement of drug-metabolizing enzymes. (who.int)
  • Core chapters reflect this and the recent interest and need to assess the role of transporters, along with drug metabolizing enzymes, as potential determinants of pharmacokinetic behaviour, toxicity and drug-drug interactions. (rsc.org)
  • Danshen had no effect on CYP1A2 protein expression after fourteen day treatment and confirmed that Danshen did not produce CYP1A2 enzyme induction in Sprague Dawley rat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rogan, EG , Mailander, P & Cavalieri, E 1976, ' Metabolic activation of aromatic hydrocarbons in purified rat liver nuclei: induction of enzyme activities and binding to DNA with and without monooxygenase catalyzed formation of active oxygen ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 457-461. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we have shown that NGF mediates the specific induction of the key enzymes in catecholamine biosynthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT). (jneurosci.org)
  • The purpose of the current study was to determine whether experimental NASH alters the xenobiotic activation of these transcription factors and induction of downstream DME targets Cyp1A1, Cyp2B10, Cyp3A11, Cyp4A14 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • We have compared NGF-mediated TH and AChE induction and have provided pharmacological evidence that TH induction involves a post-transcriptional, polyadenylation-dependent event (blockable by 9-beta-arabinofuranosyladenine but not by alpha- amanitin), whereas AChE induction requires transcription (blockable by alpha-amanitin). (jneurosci.org)
  • We hypothesize that these enhanced detoxification enzyme levels may partly explain the epidemiological association between a high intake of glucosinolates (cruciferous vegetables) and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer. (tudelft.nl)
  • The importance of MAP kinases in phase II detoxification enzyme induction is exemplified by the fact that inhibitory studies using chemical agents and/or generation of dominant negative mutants significantly reduced the expression of phase II detoxification enzymes. (doctorabel.us)
  • Eukaryotic cells have evolved two classes of enzymes that can alter chromatin structure to control accessibility to the transcriptional machinery. (asm.org)
  • The gnd1 mutation, responsible for an approximately 80% loss of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity and the inability of the cells to grow on Δgl, completely abolished the induction of all three enzymes, while the gnd2 mutation affected this only partially. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells sulfo-raphane stimulates ERK2 activity leading to the induction of NQO1. (doctorabel.us)
  • We studied the kinetics of ACTH induction of mitochondrial P450scc, P450c11 and their electron transport proteins, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase in bovine adrenal cortex cells in primary culture. (zenodo.org)
  • Exposure of the cells to ACTH for 1-2 h was sufficient for maximal induction of the enzymes and P450scc mRNA. (zenodo.org)
  • The absence of any effect of prolonged cAMP pulses on enzyme and mRNA levels weakens the previous hypothesis that cAMP is the sole second messenger for the ACTH induction of steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal cortex cells. (zenodo.org)
  • Further studies of the induction of the liver microsomal drug-hydroxylating enzyme system by pretreatment of rats with various drugs are presented. (rupress.org)
  • We tested whether carcinogen defense (phase 2) enzymes could be induced in the prostate tissues of rats after oral feeding of candidate phase 2 enzyme inducing compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there are several types of induction which can be differentiated, and within some of these types inducers show certain structural similarities. (europeanmedical.info)
  • Enzyme activity was optimal at 20°C and pH 7.6. (tudelft.nl)
  • The increase in enzymatic activity can be associated with induction of oxidative stress by cadmium treatment. (academicjournals.org)
  • Successful investigations of the induction process presuppose the existence of appropriate methods for the estimation of the metabolic activity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Enzyme activity measurements can be conducted in tissues with low enzyme content using the analytical method presented here. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the final investigation, the time course of the increase and cessation in enzyme activity was studied in healthy volunteers treated with carbamazepine. (diva-portal.org)
  • Exochitinase activity and the chitinase activity gel were also determined for the isolates showing high chitinase enzyme activity. (ajol.info)
  • An array of chitinase isozymes were observed on chitinase activity gel with a common 70 kDa enzyme for all the isolates. (ajol.info)
  • One class of gnd1 revertants, selected for growth on Δgl, was found to have recovered normal dehydrogenase activity and the ability to synthesize the three enzymes when induced by Δgl. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In contrast, glucose-positive revertants of gnd1 , with restored constitutive dehydrogenase activity, continued to remain deficient in induction of the three enzymes and also failed to grow on Δgl. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Thus, induction can change the proportions of isoenzymes in a particular tissue, and may increase the activity of a normally insignificant form by many times. (europeanmedical.info)
  • The clearance and half-life of antipyrine (a broad marker of drug oxidation capacity), the urinary excretion of 6-β- hydroxycortisol (a selective marker of cytochrome CYP3A-mediated oxidation), and the activity of serum γ-glutamyltransferase (a nonspecific index of microsomal enzyme activity) were determined after 3 weeks of each treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies suggest that the human sirtuins may function as intracellular regulatory enzyme repression or induction acts at the level of with mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. (russky.me)
  • 1. The basic activity of the enzymes was not influenced by the substance either in normal or in adrenalectomized animals. (meta.org)
  • All bulbs were then grown for 4 weeks at standard temperature on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and kinetin or thidiazuron (at concentrations of 1 mg L-1 each) in order to examine the influence of the above-mentioned pretreatments and nutrient medium composition on enzyme activity. (ac.rs)
  • Enzyme activity was measured 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the start of morphogenesis induction. (ac.rs)
  • The mechanisms of these pharmacological actions are not only poorly understood but are assumed to involve a wide spectrum of enzyme effects in addition to physiochemical effects on other parameters of drug activity such as membrane permeability, electrolyte activities, and so on. (springer.com)
  • section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes. (uniprot.org)
  • however, additional induction of Nqo1 was still achievable following treatment with the Nrf2 activator OPZ. (nih.gov)
  • We first demonstrated a role for phase II enzymes in regulating diesel effects by transfecting the airway epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) with the sentinel phase II enzyme NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Cytosolic enzyme activities of nicotinamide quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), total glutathione transferase (using DCNB) and mu-class glutathione transferase (using CDNB) were determined in the treated and control animals and compared. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mRNA levels of these enzymes increase and reach a peak within 3-12 h after ACTH addition. (zenodo.org)
  • Hence, we examined the effect of a pulse of ACTH or cAMP analogs on enzyme and mRNA levels. (zenodo.org)
  • Potential mechanisms of interactions include liver enzyme induction and displacement of AEDS from protein binding sites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dexamethasone (10 μM) treatment enhanced CYP2C8 mRNA (360 ± 100%) and protein (274%) content, although this steroid had less effect on CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 transcripts (23 ± 21% and 21 ± 36%, respectively) and enzyme levels (55 and 143%, respectively). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The results demonstrate that enzyme induction is tightly coupled to protein kinase activation and is consistent with the possibility that these two processes are causally related. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We are able to assess CYP and UGT enzymes as well as levels of immunoreactive protein by Western immunoblotting and qRT-PCR analysis. (xenotech.com)
  • Treatment of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with estradiol-17β resulted in the induction of a 200 kDa plasma protein, consistent with vitellogenin (Vtg). (elsevier.com)
  • Our results showed that ARE activation and Nrf2 protein accumulation were well correlated with phase II gene expression induction. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, the cadmium's effect on anti-oxidative enzymes in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) plants was evaluated. (academicjournals.org)
  • Dexamethasone and prednisone in physiologic range increased angiotensin converting enzyme 7- to 16-fold in comparison to control in 3 days at maximal stimulation (4 nM steroid) in rabbit alveolar macrophages in culture. (sciencemag.org)
  • [2] Chemicals often cause subclinical injury to the liver, which manifests only as abnormal liver enzyme tests . (wikipedia.org)
  • Human placental cytochrome P450 and quinone reductase enzyme induction in relation to maternal smoking. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Exposure to xenobiotics, including currently utilized therapeutic agents, appears to constitute one factor involved in regulating CYP2C enzyme expression in human liver. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results show that TGZQ as well as TGZ yields reactive metabolites in vivo, and that bioactivation is enhanced by induction of P450 3A. (strath.ac.uk)
  • It is not possible to draw any conclusions from the results regarding the relationship between the in vitro hepatic enzyme activities and the in vivo excretion of D-glucaric acid in the urine due to the small number of cases studied. (who.int)
  • The aim of the conducted research was to investigate these key aspects of enzyme induction and the consequences that induction has for substrate elimination. (diva-portal.org)
  • These novel models improve the understanding of the induction process and its consequences for substrate elimination. (diva-portal.org)
  • The process by which a microbial cell synthesizes an enzyme in response to the presence of a substrate or of a substance closely related to a substrate in the medium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. The induction of the enzymes by cortisone increased in the presence of the compound whereas the substrate induction remained unchanged. (meta.org)
  • Airborne particulate pollutants, such as diesel exhaust particles, are thought to exacerbate lung and cardiovascular diseases through induction of oxidative stress. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • There are several enzymes present in the liver that function in metabolizing various drugs. (news-medical.net)
  • The dose-response relationships for a variety of these derivatives revealed a highly significant correlation between kinase activation and enzyme induction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One of the cyclic nucleotide derivatives tested, 8-parachlorophenylthio cAMP, exhibited dramatically higher potency (ED 50 for kinase activation and enzyme induction ≅ 2-3 µM) than N 6 ,O 2 '-dibutyryl cAMP (ED 50 ≅ 100 µM). (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, rational engineering of regulatory networks will likely be necessary to further increase productivity and specificity of enzyme secretion. (pnas.org)
  • These findings suggest that a complex network of transcriptional activators is required for cellulase and hemicellulase gene induction and secretion in filamentous fungi. (pnas.org)
  • But, these agents stimulated cortisol secretion to the medium quickly, indicating that they can activate some intracellular processes while not showing any effect on enzyme induction. (zenodo.org)
  • The mammalian SWI/SNF family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes includes members containing either the Brg1 or Brm ATPase. (asm.org)
  • Protection against cancer by plant phenylpropenoids: induction of mammalian anticarcinogenic enzymes. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • T2 - induction of mammalian anticarcinogenic enzymes. (dundee.ac.uk)