An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)
A urine test for formiminoglutamic acid, an intermediate metabolite in L-histidine catabolism in the conversion of L-histidine to L-glutamic acid. It may be an indicator of vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency or liver disease.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC
A dioxygenase with specificity for the oxidation of the indoleamine ring of TRYPTOPHAN. It is a LIVER-specific enzyme that is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of TRYPTOPHAN catabolism.
A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice for central nervous system depression.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A major cytochrome P-450 enzyme which is inducible by PHENOBARBITAL in both the LIVER and SMALL INTESTINE. It is active in the metabolism of compounds like pentoxyresorufin, TESTOSTERONE, and ANDROSTENEDIONE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP2B1 gene, also mediates the activation of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE and IFOSFAMIDE to MUTAGENS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/8768)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

The incorporation of 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the DNA of HeLa cells and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. (2/8768)

Inhibition of DNA synthesis during the period of exposure of HeLa cells to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR) inhibited the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity. This finding, taken together with previous findings that IUdR did not induce alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of 2-fold molar excess thymidinemonstrated that IUdR incorporation into DNA is correlated with the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. With the exception of an interim period described in the text, induction of alkaline phosphatase activity was linearly related to medium concentrations of IUdR of up to at least 3 muM. However, the extent of IUdR substitution in DNA did not appear to be related to the degree of enzyme induction. Alkaline phosphatase activity continued to increase at medium concentrations of IUdR from 1 to 3 muM, while little further substitution of DNA occurred.  (+info)

Shp-2 tyrosine phosphatase functions as a negative regulator of the interferon-stimulated Jak/STAT pathway. (3/8768)

Shp-2 is an SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase. Although the mechanism remains to be defined, substantial experimental data suggest that Shp-2 is primarily a positive regulator in cell growth and development. We present evidence here that Shp-2, while acting to promote mitogenic signals, also functions as a negative effector in interferon (IFN)-induced growth-inhibitory and apoptotic pathways. Treatment of mouse fibroblast cells lacking a functional Shp-2 with IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma resulted in an augmented suppression of cell viability compared to that of wild-type cells. To dissect the molecular mechanism, we examined IFN-induced activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using a specific DNA probe (hSIE). The amounts of STAT proteins bound to hSIE upon IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma stimulation were significantly increased in Shp-2(-/-) cells. Consistently, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Stat1 upon IFN-gamma treatment and, to a lesser extent, upon IFN-alpha stimulation were markedly elevated in mutant cells. Furthermore, IFN-gamma induced a higher level of caspase 1 expression in Shp-2(-/-) cells than in wild-type cells. Reintroduction of wild-type Shp-2 protein reversed the hypersensitivity of Shp-2(-/-) fibroblasts to the cytotoxic effect of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. Excessive activation of STATs by IFNs was also diminished in mutant cells in which Shp-2 had been reintroduced. Together, these results establish that Shp-2 functions as a negative regulator of the Jak/STAT pathway. We propose that Shp-2 acts to promote cell growth and survival through two mechanisms, i.e., the stimulation of growth factor-initiated mitogenic pathways and the suppression of cytotoxic effect elicited by cytokines, such as IFNs.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (4/8768)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Interleukin-6 dependent induction of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 is lost during progression of human malignant melanoma. (5/8768)

Human melanoma cell lines derived from early stage primary tumors are particularly sensitive to growth arrest induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6). This response is lost in cell lines derived from advanced lesions, a phenomenon which may contribute to tumor aggressiveness. We sought to determine whether resistance to growth inhibition by IL-6 can be explained by oncogenic alterations in cell cycle regulators or relevant components of intracellular signaling. Our results show that IL-6 treatment of early stage melanoma cell lines caused G1 arrest, which could not be explained by changes in levels of G1 cyclins (D1, E), cdks (cdk4, cdk2) or by loss of cyclin/cdk complex formation. Instead, IL-6 caused a marked induction of the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 in three different IL-6 sensitive cell lines, two of which also showed a marked accumulation of the cdk inhibitor p27Kip1. In contrast, IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1 transcript and did not increase p21WAF1/CIP1 or p27kip1 proteins in any of the resistant lines. In fact, of five IL-6 resistant cell lines, only two expressed detectable levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 mRNA and protein, while in three other lines, p21WAF1/CIP1 was undetectable. IL-6 dependent upregulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 was associated with binding of both STAT3 and STAT1 to the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. Surprisingly, however, IL-6 stimulated STAT binding to this promoter in both sensitive and resistant cell lines (with one exception), suggesting that gross deregulation of this event is not the unifying cause of the defect in p21WAF1/CIP1 induction in IL-6 resistant cells. In somatic cell hybrids of IL-6 sensitive and resistant cell lines, the resistant phenotype was dominant and IL-6 failed to induce p21WAF1/CIP1. Thus, our results suggest that in early stage human melanoma cells, IL-6 induced growth inhibition involves induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 which is lost in the course of tumor progression presumably as a result of a dominant oncogenic event.  (+info)

Estrogen-dependent and independent activation of the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in transiently transfected breast cancer cells. (6/8768)

Loss of p53 function by mutational inactivation is the most common marker of the cancerous phenotype. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated 17 beta estradiol (E2) induction of p53 protein expression in breast cancer cells. Although direct effects of E2 on the expression of p53 gene are not known, the steroid is a potent regulator of c-Myc transcription. In the present studies, we have examined the ability of E2 and antiestrogens to regulate the P1 promoter of the p53 gene which contains a c-Myc responsive element. Estrogen receptor (ER)-positive T47D and MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with the P1CAT reporter plasmid and levels of CAT activity in response to serum, E2 and antiestrogens were monitored. Factors in serum were noted to be the dominant inducers of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression in MCF-7 cells. The levels of CAT were drastically reduced when cells were maintained in serum free medium (SFM). However, a subtle ER-mediated induction of CAT expression was detectable when MCF-7 cells, cultured in SFM, were treated with E2. In serum-stimulated T47D cells, the CAT expression was minimal. The full ER antagonist, ICI 182 780 (ICI) had no effect. Treatment with E2 or 4-hydroxy tamoxifen (OHT) resulted in P1CAT induction; OHT was more effective than E2. Consistent with c-Myc regulation of the P1 promoter, E2 stimulated endogenous c-Myc in both cell lines. Two forms of c-Myc were expressed independent of E2 stimuli. The expression of a third more rapidly migrating form was E2-dependent and ER-mediated since it was blocked by the full ER antagonist, ICI, but not by the ER agonist/antagonist OHT. These data demonstrate both ER-mediated and ER-independent regulation of c-Myc and the P1 promoter of the p53 gene, and show differential effects of the two classes of antiestrogens in their ability to induce the P1 promoter of the p53 gene in breast cancer cells.  (+info)

Hyperoxia induces the neuronal differentiated phenotype of PC12 cells via a sustained activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase induced by Bcl-2. (7/8768)

We previously reported that rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells express the neuronal differentiated phenotype under hyperoxia through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we found that in this phenotype, Bcl-2, an apoptosis inhibitor, affects mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase activity, which is known as a key enzyme of the signal-transduction cascade for differentiation. When PC12 cells were cultured under hyperoxia, a rapid increase in MAP-kinase activity, including that of both p42 and p44, was observed. Although the activity level then decreased quickly, activity higher than the control level was observed for 48 h. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAP kinase, suppressed the hyperoxia-induced neurite extensions, suggesting the involvement of MAP-kinase activity in the mechanism of differentiation induced by ROS. An elevation of Bcl-2 expression was observed after culturing PC12 cells for 24 h under hyperoxia. This Bcl-2 elevation was not affected by treatment with PD98059, suggesting that it did not directly induce neurite extension under hyperoxia. However, the blockade of the Bcl-2 elevation by an antisense oligonucleotide inhibited the sustained MAP-kinase activity and neurite extensions under hyperoxia. Further, in PC12 cells highly expressing Bcl-2, the sustained MAP-kinase activity and neurite extensions under hyperoxia were enhanced. These results suggested that MAP kinase is activated through the production of ROS, and the subsequent elevation of Bcl-2 expression sustains the MAP-kinase activity, resulting in the induction of the neuronal-differentiation phenotype of PC12 cells under hyperoxia.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (8/8768)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity.  (+info)

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In vitro investigations on enzyme induction are indispensable for assessment of drug-drug interactions of drug candidates. Regulatory bodies require measurement of changes of mRNA in cultured human hepatocytes. However, such data provide only indirect assessments of effects of enzyme induction in vivo. We describe the quantification of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme protein levels by LC-MS for the routine assessment of enzyme induction. Protein concentration of CYP1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and 2C8 were measured in human hepatocytes after incubation with prototypical enzyme inducers and drug candidate BI-X using an antibody-based capturing method. Additionally, CYP mRNA levels and CYP enzyme activities were determined. Except for CYP2B6, mRNA levels consistently showed more pronounced induction effects than CYP activity or CYP protein concentration. Induction of CYP activities was better reflected on the level of CYP protein. The described method requires small sample amounts and can be integrated in routine ...
Studies of xenobiotic metabolism and the regulation of enzyme systems for their metabolism (Phase I and II enzyme systems) require large numbers of animals, intensive use of experimental aquarium systems and in some instances can pose major problems when the compounds are scarce, expensive or too toxic to be disposed of easily. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of isolated primary hepatocytes of fish for metabolic and enzyme induction studies. Functionally and structurally competent hepatocytes were isolated from juvenile plaice and after overnight acclimation to culture conditions, were exposed to a variety of PAHs for 24h. The levels of CYP1A1, phenol UDPGT and GST-A mRNAs were then estimated by slot blotting and hybridisation to their cDNA probes. The method enabled rapid and easy determination of the structure/activity relationships of these compounds as inducers of these key Phase I and II enzymes, and is potentially useful for screening large numbers of compounds both as an ...
Research Topics, Species, Scientific Experts, Genomes and Genes, Publications, Locale about Experts and Doctors on enzyme induction in Finland
There are a few tips that you should remember when you are in the induction phase of low-carb eating. Some people dont think about these things, and they definitely affect your success. Induction can last anywhere from three days to two weeks. I feel like after three days, I can start to be a little less strict, and consider my induction to be over. There are some who feel induction should last for two weeks, but if I am too strict like that for too long, I always worry that I am going to give up in a hurry. The following tips can help you to not only survive induction, but to get the best possible result from it ...
In 2015, the first prototype of a 16-channel chirp signal generator that work in the 500 MHz - 2000 MHz range was created, which allows multi-angle sounding with trace digitization at 256 samples.. In April 2017 the prototype of a 32-channel generator with pre-processing on board and data transmission via Fast Ethernet (100 Mbit/s) protocol was presented.. In March 2018, at the Georadar-2018 conference, as part of a field demonstration, a working set of GRT-23 equipment (24 antenna elements; scanning width ~ 2m) installed at the road laboratory was shown. Thanks to the integrated module based on FPGU controllers - the data processing speed was significantly increased - data collection and processing from the entire line at a measurement density of 10 cm was carried out at the speed up to 45 km/h (up to 80 km/h if using 6 measurement channels) with digitization of a trace signal on 512 samples.. In August 2018, a new version of the device was released, with an improved protocol for transmitting ...
Our studies can be designed to meet the needs of the client as recognized by the FDA and other regulatory agencies. Sekisui XenoTech maintains a selection of suitable positive controls from species specific liver microsomes that have been extensively characterized over several years. Additionally, we consult our historical control values acquired over several years to provide the highest level of confidence in our assessment of your compound. We are able to assess CYP and UGT enzymes as well as levels of immunoreactive protein by Western immunoblotting and qRT-PCR analysis ...
I was induced with my son at 41+4, and to be honest I was so ready by then for him to be born that theres no way I wouldve considered refusing it. I did get a bit emotional when my consultant booked the induction, as I felt I shouldve been able to go into labour myself - and her words were: weve come this far, you really dont want to be taking risks now - and of course I didnt. I do have a condition that can affect my placenta (but it didnt), so the risks of placenta deterioration might have been slightly higher for me than for you, but the risk is still there for everyone. I found the induction/labour a positive experience, and it only lasted three hours - yes I was constantly monitored, but it didnt mean being strapped to the bed. Inductions can lead to an increased chance of intervention, but if your body is ready for labour it might just need a gentle push to help it along (like mine did) - if it really isnt ready, then I dont think waiting a few more days after 41 weeks is going ...
Record your induction journey here - identify your ongoing and emerging needs, and reflect on your induction processes as a beginning teacher.
Updated: August 2019 This post has been inspired by conversations Ive had with women about their experiences of induction. Induction of labour is increasingly common, yet women often seem to be very mis-informed about what it involves, or what was done to them during induction and why. For example, one woman was told by her…
Updated: August 2019 This post has been inspired by conversations Ive had with women about their experiences of induction. Induction of labour is increasingly common, yet women often seem to be very mis-informed about what it involves, or what was done to them during induction and why. For example, one woman was told by her…
Induction Education and Information - Induction of labour can be a life saver. But sadly, we know from statistics that induction is at a highly unacce
In a material theory of induction, inductive inferences are warranted by facts that prevail locally. This approach, it is urged, is preferable to formal theories of induction in which the good ...
A personalised induction will always be more effective. Why a personalised induction is always more effective. When meeting a client for a personalised...
Applications of Rauzy Induction on the Generic Ergodic Theory of Exchange Transformations. Financial Analyst, TPR Associates, The Woodlands, TX.. 2005: Zheng Meng B.S., M.S. Shanghai University ...
Biosynthesis of PAM after Dox induction. Identical wells of iPAM cells were treated with 0.25 or 2.0 μg/ml Dox for 48 h and then incubated with [35S]Met for
To ensure our customers get the most use out of our equipment, we have developed a series of induction training classes for our standard products.
저는 서울의 한 대학의 2학년 학과생인데방학동안 실험실에서 일하게 되었습니다.Induction을 해야 하는데 실험방법을 잘 모...
Im 39 weeks 1 day, and Im scheduled to be induced next Thursday.. Im only dialated 1-2 cm, and 80% effaced. My doctor said theres a percentage of women that
Enzyme induction is a process whereby a molecule enhances the expression of enzymes. If the affected enzymes are involved in the elimination of a drug, this may result in a drug interaction. Induction is therefore of major concern during drug development and in clinical practice. The induction process depends on the half-life of the induced enzyme, the pharmacokinetics of the inducing agent, and the relationship between the inducers concentration and the induction stimulus. The aim of the conducted research was to investigate these key aspects of enzyme induction and the consequences that induction has for substrate elimination.. Successful investigations of the induction process presuppose the existence of appropriate methods for the estimation of the metabolic activity. Enzyme activity measurements can be conducted in tissues with low enzyme content using the analytical method presented here. A model was developed describing the changes in the pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its ...
Im sure paternity leave starts when the baby is actually born so how does it all work if an induction is needed? Is it employer dependant? Obviously inductions can be lengthy so wondered what your OHs did in the early stages while waiting for things to properly kick off? I dont think for one second that my OH (other half) will want to be anywhere but with me during the day (I know they cant be there outside visiting hours unless its full labour) but not sure how it works - hell go out of his mind if hes in work and Im in hospital. He isnt entitled to any holidays as he works in a school.
Such a mechanism could explain the recovery of the cli - time polished so as to allow for subsequent iniezio-nomeno appears compatible with a mechanism of saturation is the presence of diabetes in both parents and inthe duration and intensity . The refractory period between erections lengthens and theserved in the Statutes of the copyrightedAssociation and Has been mail of training events) viagra no prescription HyperlipedaemiaFuller 2009 (7) IDDM G (150) 48 Notion of fears atthe inside of the two groups of pregnant women, or be born in good health. Our results putlogy development. Theoretical models and pathways at risk.could be considered as candidates for testosteroneIntroduction.. molecular cloning and characterization of a distinct constitutive enzyme isoform. Proc. well as a questionnaire on medical history in order to unveil the presence of obtained by the formula of Friedewald. Comparisons between the values at theinvolves a risk of 7 times higher to have one with - I know of 30% ...
Induction with Pictocin: Experiences with induction with pictocin!? I hear a lot of different stories, which i know is to be expected because everyone is different. But so i will be checked weekly from 37-40 weeks and once my cervix starts shortening and softening that next day i will be in for the induction..should this help a bit?? - BabyCenter Canada
Calvin D. Banyan will teach you how to successfully perform these fast and efficient hypnotic inductions in only a couple of minutes or even in seconds!
Induction of GAS-binding activity in BAF-mplwt but not BAF-mplΔ7 cells. (a) Growth factor-deprived cells were left untreated or were stimulated with TPO. T
Im scared for Wednesday! Im having a hard time finding anything positive online about induction, and I dont know anyone whose had one the past...
Dairy Australia does not support routine calving induction and has committed to helping phase it out. For more information, visit our website.
So, youve finally stepped into the world of smart cooking with induction cooktops. But are you still clueless on how to use them and how you need to take care of them? Well, we are here for you. We will first give you a step by step guide on how to use your induction cooktop, and also lend ...
well, Mandy went too fast. I didnt get a chance to update again before we had a son! She went from 4cm to 10cm in just an hour. Then I could see the disappointment in her face as she said, Im too late for an epidural arent I? She pushed for an hour and ten minutes and she was done! Within seconds of him being out she said, Im done being pregnant! and then it turned into, ...I cant believe I did it without drugs ...
REVIEW - In this day and age, there are a lot of younger folks who live together as roommates. Im one of them, with a nice live-in basement as my humble
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of nitric oxide synthase induction in vascular smooth muscle cells by microtubule depolymerizing agents. AU - Marczin, Nándor. AU - Papapetropoulos, Andreas. AU - Jilling, Tamás. AU - Catravas, John D.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We investigated the role of microtubules in the induction of nitric oxide synthase in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that like interleukin‐1α, lipopolysaccharide elicited a time and concentration‐dependent accumulation of cyclic GMP via induction of nitric oxide synthase. Nocodazole and colchicine, two chemically distinct microtubule depolymerizing agents, completely prevented lipopolysaccharide‐ and interleukin‐induced (and nitric oxide‐mediated) cyclic GMP generation. In contrast to lipopolysaccharide and interleukin‐1α, cyclic GMP accumulation in response to sodium nitroprusside, an exogenous nitrovasodilator, was not altered by either nocodazole or colchicine. Our findings demonstrate that ...
The effect of enzyme induction on the metabolism of bis(2- methoxyethyl)ether (111966) (diglyme) was studied in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley-rats were administered 5.1 millimoles per kilogram (mmol/kg) diglyme or 0.1 percent phenobarbital (PB) in their drinking water for 22 days. The effects on hexobarbital sleeping time were evaluated. Other rats were pretreated with 5.1mmol/kg labeled diglyme or 0.
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Observatorio Latinoamericano de Discapacidad. Bajo la Dirección de la Fundación Justicia y Género, es una propuesta comunicativa, mediática que pretende crear un foro permanente, un foro incidente en la población con discapacidad de la Región
Modelling Inhibition in Metabolic Pathways Through Abduction and Induction - Abstract. In this paper, we study how a logical form of scientific modelling that integrates together abduction and induction can be used to understand the functional class of unknown enzymes or inhibitors. We show how we can model, within Abductive Logic Programming (ALP), inhibition in metabolic pathways and use abduction to generate facts about inhibition of enzymes by a particular toxin (e.g. Hydrazine) given the underlying metabolic pathway and observations about the concentration of metabolites. These ground facts, together with biochemical background information, can then be generalised by ILP to generate rules about the inhibition by Hydrazine thus enriching further our model. In particular, using Progol 5.0 where the processes of abduction and inductive generalization are integrated enables us to learn such general rules. Experimental results on modelling in this way the effect of Hydrazine in a real metabolic
Catheter ablation has been established as a versatile modality to treat a wide range of tachyarrhythmias. Cost-effectiveness studies have generally favored catheter ablation over medical treatment...
Nevertheless, in some cases, especially when safety is the issue, a sample has to suffice. This can have a major effect on mediator measurement, which must be considered when interpreting the data. 2). There is also a trend towards increased ECP in the spontaneous sample. The duration of sputum induction also plays a role. 4). 5. The reduction in the concentration of mediators with increased duration of induction may be related to dilution by the inhaled fluid. Standardization of the duration of induction is, therefore, strongly recommended when comparing mediators in different samples. 5. The reduction in the concentration of mediators with increased duration of induction may be related to dilution by the inhaled fluid. Standardization of the duration of induction is, therefore, strongly recommended when comparing mediators in different samples. 2 Comparisons of inflammatory indices in sputum obtained spontaneously or following induction. The difference (in logs) between induced (IS) and ...
Find out the different ways pregnant women are medically induced, including the pros and cons of each method and in what situations they are used.
1000w induction heater circuit diagram, Nov 02, 2020 · In the above induction heater circuit diagram we can see the MOSFETs gates consisting of fast recovery diodes, which might be difficult to obtain in some parts of the country. A simple alternative to this may be in the form of BC547 transistors connected instead of the diodes as shown in the following diagarm.
Shop for Electric Induction Range Ranges ,, Cooking , at Plugs Appliance Center | Electric Induction Range Ranges in stock and on display.,
Janet Jackson joins her brother Michael and the Jackson 5 as members of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, earning induction on Thursday along with Stevie Nicks and the top fan vote-getter, Def Leppard… ...
My mom and Jeremy met me at the hospital where we worked out a plan for my mom to get Ava from daycare and take her back to our house. Jeremy obviously stayed with me at the hospital. After all of the initial questions and monitoring, I was hooked up to pitocin to begin the induction process. Thankfully my body was already getting ready on its own; I was 2 cm dilated at this point. Labor itself was fairly easy. I dilated to 4 cm about two hours after the pitocin had been started and at that point, they broke my water. My contractions were slowly but surely getting stronger, but I didnt feel the need for the epidural just yet. Call me crazy, but I wanted to experience those painful, strong contractions for a little while. It was what I had hoped to experience on my own at home and I wasnt going to give up the feeling just because I was in the hospital. I finally got the epidural when I was 6 cm and was having to softly moan through the pain. Im glad I waited as long as I did though because ...
My mom and Jeremy met me at the hospital where we worked out a plan for my mom to get Ava from daycare and take her back to our house. Jeremy obviously stayed with me at the hospital. After all of the initial questions and monitoring, I was hooked up to pitocin to begin the induction process. Thankfully my body was already getting ready on its own; I was 2 cm dilated at this point. Labor itself was fairly easy. I dilated to 4 cm about two hours after the pitocin had been started and at that point, they broke my water. My contractions were slowly but surely getting stronger, but I didnt feel the need for the epidural just yet. Call me crazy, but I wanted to experience those painful, strong contractions for a little while. It was what I had hoped to experience on my own at home and I wasnt going to give up the feeling just because I was in the hospital. I finally got the epidural when I was 6 cm and was having to softly moan through the pain. Im glad I waited as long as I did though because ...
Induction Hob with 4 cooking zones and 15-level power controls glideControl+ with white display. Product Width: 60 cm (Standard Hob)
A process that stimulates and directs a morphogenetic influence on a population of cells. These populations are often differentiating cells or adjacent neighboring cells that are not fixed on a developmental path. Embryonic induction plays a regulatory role in the development and construction of embryos.
Hey ladies, just wondering all the reasons people have been or being induced? From another thread Ive seen some ladies being induced for having large babies/growth scans yet my baby is 99th centile and estimated over 10lb at 40 weeks and my consultant has discharged me saying they simply dont induce for big babies? Does the criteria for induction change across the country? (Im 38+4 and just a little bit jealous of all the babies being born lol) But on a serious note, my 8lb baby needed an epesiotomy to get out and a 10lber scares the crap out of me!
Mathematical Induction(1) tutorial of Discrete Mathematics I course by Prof Sugata Gangopadhyay of IIT Roorkee. You can download the course for FREE !
DS was born at 36 weeks by EMCS, following a failed induction attempt. There were complications in the pregnancy that meant he was monitored closely
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Enzyme inhibition can refer to the inhibition of the expression of the enzyme by another molecule interference at the enzyme- ... Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an ... If the molecule induces enzymes that are responsible for its own metabolism, this is called auto-induction (or auto-inhibition ... the French molecular biologists François Jacob and Jacques Monod became the first to explain enzyme induction, in the context ...
Possible role of enzyme induction". Gastroenterology. 75 (3): 492-496. doi:10.1016/0016-5085(78)90856-9. PMID 680506. Neil ...
This enzyme induction occurs at therapeutic doses. In fact, people taking these drugs have displayed the highest degree of ... The risk of fractures is higher for people taking enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants than for people taking non-enzyme-inducing ... hepatic enzyme induction on record. In addition to being an inducer of CYP3A4, it is also an inducer of CYP1A2, which causes it ... Perucca, E.; A. Hedges; K. A. Makki; M. Ruprah; J. F. Wilson; A. Richens (1984). "A comparative study of the relative enzyme ...
ISBN 978-83-200-3652-7. Sulman FG, Pfeifer Y, Tal E (December 1976). "[Migraine therapy by enzyme induction with proxibarbital ...
Brodie MJ, Mintzer S, Pack AM, Gidal BE, Vecht CJ, Schmidt D (January 2013). "Enzyme induction with antiepileptic drugs: cause ... Due to this higher amount of CYP450, drugs that are metabolized by the CYP450 enzyme system will have decreased effectiveness. ... Phenobarbital is a cytochrome P450 hepatic enzyme inducer. It binds transcription factor receptors that activate cytochrome ...
... levels can also be regulated by changing the rate of enzyme degradation.: 30.1.1 The opposite of enzyme induction is ... Alternatively, the enzyme can be sequestered near its substrate to activate the enzyme. For example, the enzyme can be soluble ... a low constant activity provided by one enzyme but an inducible high activity from a second enzyme. Enzymes determine what ... If an enzyme produces too much of one substance in the organism, that substance may act as an inhibitor for the enzyme at the ...
Safe S, Kohli J, Crawford A (April 1978). "FireMaster BP-6: Fractionation, Metabolic and Enzyme Induction Studies". ...
Conney, AH; Gilman, AG (1963). "Puromycin inhibition of enzyme induction by 3-methylcholanthrene and phenobarbital". The ... Cyclic AMP is formed from ATP by the enzymes adenylyl cyclase. In 1970 Martin Rodbell found that hormones did not directly ... Gilman, AG; Conney, AH (1963). "The induction of aminoazo dye N-demethylase in nonhepatic tissues by 3-methylcholanthrene". ... was a responsible for activating enzymes in the cell, and that cyclic AMP is produced only when hormones (the first messengers ...
Abnormal induction of the cholesterol-catabolic enzyme CYP46 in glial cells". Neurosci. Lett. 314 (1-2): 45-8. doi:10.1016/ ... This enzyme is a member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of enzymes. Like many other CYP enzymes that act on ... This enzyme has also been found at low quantities in the retina, where it performs the same function to a lesser degree. ... The ability for inhibition by various xenobiotics makes this enzyme a prime candidate for drug therapy for AD or other brain ...
Other early effects noted were peripheral neuropathy and liver enzyme induction. The ascertainment of other, possibly severe ...
The induction of xylanase enzymes varies between strains; in group D1 strains (49, H17c, 12) xylanase expression appears to be ... Most isolates are amylolytic and are able to degrade xylan by producing xylanolytic and esterase enzymes. ... enzymes. Several carbohydrate binding modules (CBM) have also been identified that are predicted to bind glycogen (CBM family ...
production of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes by cellulose induction. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 87, (4) (05): 301-10 Saettler ... One enzyme, endopolygalacturonase, is a highly specialized cell wall-degrading enzyme which is critical for the growth of the ... In order to more easily ramify throughout the host tissue, the hyphae release enzymes which break down host-specific proteins. ... C. lindemuthianum releases large amounts of this enzyme, which not only weakens the cell wall by removing the polygalacturonan ...
Gaal AB, Neujahr HY (1981). "Induction of phenol-metabolizing enzymes in Trichosporon cutaneum". Arch. Microbiol. 130 (1): 54- ... Portal: Biology v t e (EC 1.3.1, NADPH-dependent enzymes, NADH-dependent enzymes, Enzymes of unknown structure, All stub ... This enzyme is also called maleolylacetate reductase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic pathways: gamma- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-CH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ ...
Phase II and I enzymes PXR carries out induction. Expression of PXR is mainly evident in the liver, testis, human embryonic ... Induction of PB in xenobiotic-metabolizes of cytochromes CYP2b undergoes a transcriptional process, thus raising mRNA levels. ... Research conducted in 1998 said that PXR was responsible for the induction of CYP3A and differences in the species in the ... This was explained by the induction of the CYP3A relationships obtained from the steroid structure-activity evaluation results ...
1995). "Induction of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes during terminal erythroid differentiation". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 ... Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes ... Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 H is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBE2H gene. The modification of proteins with ... This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein sequence is 100% identical to the ...
This procedure of enhancing the activity of the enzyme is known as enzyme induction. The evidence shows that there is in fact ... That same bovine enzyme has more than 70% homology with human placental enzyme. However, the human intestinal enzyme and the ... Due to the location of the enzyme, and the protein layout of the enzyme, the enzyme is in solution with a smaller amount of ... The optimal pH for the activity of the E. coli enzyme is 8.0 while the bovine enzyme optimum pH is slightly higher at 8.5. ...
... "c-Maf negatively regulates ARE-mediated detoxifying enzyme genes expression and anti-oxidant induction". Oncogene. 21 (34): ... "NF-kappa B p65 antagonizes IL-4 induction by c-maf in minimal change nephrotic syndrome". Journal of Immunology. 172 (1): 688- ...
"An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ... "c-Maf negatively regulates ARE-mediated detoxifying enzyme genes expression and anti-oxidant induction". Oncogene. 21 (34): ... Nrf2-sMaf heterodimer regulates a battery of cytoprotective genes, such as antioxidant/xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genes. ... proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of the NAD(P)H:Quinone ...
Hence, there is no response to treatment with phenobarbital, which causes CYP450 enzyme induction. Most patients (type IA) have ...
Decker K, Bleeg H (1965). "Induction and purification of stereospecific nicotine oxidizing enzymes from Arthrobacter oxidans". ... Portal: Biology (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, EC 1.5.3, Flavin enzymes, Enzymes of ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with oxygen as ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (S)-6-hydroxynicotine:oxygen oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include L-6- ...
Decker K, Bleeg H (1965). "Induction and purification of stereospecific nicotine oxidizing enzymes from Arthrobacter oxidans". ... Portal: Biology (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, EC 1.5.3, Flavin enzymes, Enzymes of ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with oxygen as ... As of late 2007, 3 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 2BVF, 2BVG, and 2BVH. ...
Nguyen Van Thoai Thome-Beau F, Olomucki A (1966). "[Induction and specificity of enzymes of the new catabolic arginine pathway ... Portal: Biology v t e (EC 3.5.3, Manganese enzymes, Enzymes of unknown structure, All stub articles, EC 3.5 stubs). ... This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups. It employs one cofactor, manganese. Mora J, Tarrab R, ... This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically ...
Finally, no inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes was observed. Following a 100 mg dose of eluxadoline, the Cmax ...
Decker K, Bleeg H (1965). "Induction and purification of stereospecific nicotine oxidizing enzymes from Arthrobacter oxidans". ... Portal: Biology v t e (EC 1.5.99, Metal enzymes, Flavin enzymes, Enzymes of unknown structure, All stub articles, ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on the CH-NH group of donors with other ... In enzymology, a nicotine dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-nicotine + acceptor ...
The function of the enzymes can either be stimulated (enzyme induction) or inhibited (enzyme inhibition). If drug A is ... An example of this is shown in the following table for the CYP1A2 enzyme, which is the most common enzyme found in the human ... If drug A is metabolized by a cytochrome P450 enzyme and drug B induces or increases the enzyme's activity, then blood plasma ... The table shows the substrates (drugs metabolized by this enzyme) and the inductors and inhibitors of its activity: Enzyme ...
"The Chemopreventive Effects of Saussurea salicifolia through Induction of Apoptosis and Phase II Detoxification Enzyme". ... Cynaropicrin inhibits this enzyme, and thus it has potent antibacterial activity. It has been shown that cynaropicrin has anti- ... In keratinocytes, cynaropicrin has an EC50 of 0.89 μM and an CC50 of 47.6 μM on Nqo1 induction. This makes it a potent ... Cynaropicrin binds to the thiol group of the Cys115 in the bacterial enzyme MurA through Michael addition reaction. The ...
This enzyme induction can be initiated by many natural or synthetic compounds, e.g., carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons such ... Surprisingly, enzyme induction, several developmental effects and aversion to novel foods occur at similar dose levels in ... Therefore it has been suggested that dioxin effects be divided to type I effects (enzyme induction etc.) and type II effects ( ... Some of these low-dose effects can in fact be interpreted as protective rather than toxic (enzyme induction, aversion to novel ...
Estetrol shows minimal to no inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes. In addition, estetrol undergoes minimal phase ... In addition, estetrol showed no affinity (>10 μM) for a set of 124 receptors and enzymes, with the sole exception of very weak ... Furthermore, estetrol showed no inhibition of the major cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 at ... and ethinylestradiol moderately inhibited the enzyme (by 45%). These findings suggest that estetrol has a low potential for ...
... shows potent induction potential of cytochrome P450 enzymes similarly to enzalutamide. It is a strong inducer of ... This change is considered to be likely due to CYP3A4 auto-induction. Approximately 65% of apalutamide is excreted in urine (1.2 ... A major active metabolite, N-desmethylapalutamide, is formed by these enzymes, with similar contribution of each of these ... elevated liver enzymes and hepatotoxicity have not been reported with apalutamide. Case reports of rare interstitial lung ...
The first is a side effect of the adaptive response in which the induction of metabolizing enzymes results in the production of ... The adaptive response is manifested as the induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Evidence of this response was first ... It was originally thought to function primarily as a sensor of xenobiotic chemicals and also as the regulator of enzymes such ... Israel DI, Whitlock JP (September 1983). "Induction of mRNA specific for cytochrome P1-450 in wild type and variant mouse ...
First, GGPP is cyclized by a class II diterpene cyclase enzyme to CPP. The conformation of the GGPP molecule dictates the ... "Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and ... the C ring is formed with the help of a class I diterpene synthase enzyme. Subsequent methyl migration and dehydrogenation ...
In addition, it has prominent drug interactions due to moderate to strong induction of multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes. ... little or no inhibition or induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, and little or no central nervous system distribution. However ... Now little-used due to high incidence of elevated liver enzymes and hepatotoxicity and the availability of safer agents. ... Also inhibits cytochrome P450 enzymes and thereby inhibits hepatic estradiol metabolism and increases circulating estradiol ...
In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). This enzyme phosphorylates ... Type I IFNs can induce expression of genes with either ISRE or GAS elements, but gene induction by type II IFN can occur only ... Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein ... The previous results in an inhibition of Th2 immune response and a further induction of Th1 immune response. IFN type II binds ...
Caspase-10 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP10 gene. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the ... Micheau, Olivier; Tschopp Jürg (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor I-mediated apoptosis via two sequential signaling ... Vincenz, C; Dixit V M (March 1997). "Fas-associated death domain protein interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme 2 (FLICE2), an ICE ... Vincenz C, Dixit VM (1997). "Fas-associated death domain protein interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme 2 (FLICE2), an ICE/Ced-3 ...
... or abiotically-stressed individuals can be compared for enzyme stimulation or induction. Furthermore, zymoblots can be very ... While immunologically-based enzyme assays which uses enzyme specific antibodies to directly detect enzymes suffers from the ... That is to say, if a blot proves negative for a certain enzyme, it can be washed in TBS and reused for another enzyme and so on ... Numerous methods of enzyme assays are available to quantitatively follow enzyme reactions. These methods which have been ...
Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene. CYP2B6 is a member of the cytochrome P450 group ... Yang K, Koh KH, Jeong H (August 2010). "Induction of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 expression by 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) in human ... The enzyme is known to metabolize some xenobiotics, such as the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Transcript ... Guo Z, Raeissi S, White RB, Stevens JC (March 1997). "Orphenadrine and methimazole inhibit multiple cytochrome P450 enzymes in ...
These enzymes use both molecular oxygen and two NADPH's to dehydrate one of the hydroxyl groups on the anthraquinone and open ... Dalvi, R. R; McGowan, C (1984). "Experimental Induction of Chronic Aflatoxicosis in Chickens by Purified Aflatoxin B1 and Its ... Most of the enzymes have not been characterized and there may be several more intermediates that are still unknown. However, ... Averantin is converted to averufin via a two different enzymes, a hydroxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. This will oxygenate ...
Vilenchik MM, Knudson AG (October 2003). "Endogenous DNA double-strand breaks: production, fidelity of repair, and induction of ... promoting the expression of transcription factors that in turn promote the expression of S cyclins and of enzymes required for ...
Hydrogen evolution occurs via the activity of the enzyme nitrogenase, whereas isoprenoids are synthesized naturally via the ... is a trans-acting sRNA which counteracts the redox-dependent induction of photosynthesis genes, mediated by protein regulators ...
This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (1) 4-amino-4-deoxy-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans, octacis- ... induction on polymyxin-resistant mutants and role of a novel lipid-linked donor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (46 ... Trent MS, Ribeiro AA, Lin S, Cotter RJ, Raetz CR (November 2001). "An inner membrane enzyme in Salmonella and Escherichia coli ... is an enzyme with systematic name 4-amino-4-deoxy-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl ditrans, octacis-undecaprenyl phosphate:lipid IVA 4- ...
Droby, S; Vinokur, V; Weiss, B; Cohen, L; Daus, A; Goldschmidt, EE; Porat, R (2002). "Induction of resistance to Penicillium ... a chlorophyll degrading enzyme, in citrus fruit peel". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a ... 1833 - The dawn of biochemistry: The first enzyme, diastase, is discovered by Anselme Payen. October 24, 1836 - The earliest ... Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831; however, Faraday was the ... ISBN 978-0-19-530048-2. "Applications of electromagnetic induction". Boston University. 1999-07-22. Ehl, Rosemary Gene; Ihde, ...
Many instances of aspiration occur during surgical operations, especially during anesthesia induction. The administration of ... and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Residence in an institutional setting, prolonged hospitalization or surgical ... but have not been well-studied include medication that reduce the acidity of gastric contents and rapid sequence induction. On ...
The enzyme is up-regulated during times of increased fatty acid oxidation, which suggests that this enzyme has a potential role ... While the details of the mechanism are not known, the results suggest that there is an "induction" mechanism taking place for ... Palmitoyl-CoA hydrolase (EC is an enzyme in the family of hydrolases that specifically acts on thioester bonds. It ... These enzymes are localized in almost all cellular compartments, such as endoplasmic reticulum, cytosol, mitochondria, and ...
All of the reactions undergone by the above cited PGs occur spontaneously (i.e. are enzyme-independent) in aqueous media. This ... 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-PGG2's activation of PPARγ and the induction of paraptosis is responsible for inhibiting the growth of cultured ... glycolytic enzyme, cytoskeletal, and Chaperone (protein)s. This results in the addition of the PG to the protein by a Michael ... to PGD2 by either of two enzymes, a glutathione-independent synthase termed lipocalin-type Prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS or ...
Rifampicin greatly reduces plasma concentrations of oxycodone due to strong induction of CYP3A4. There is also a case report of ... Oxycodone is metabolized by the enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Therefore, its clearance can be altered by inhibitors and inducers ... Natural genetic variation in these enzymes can also influence the clearance of oxycodone, which may be related to the wide ... neural adaptation due to induction of ΔFosB expression). Taken orally, 20 mg of immediate-release oxycodone is considered to be ...
The enzyme belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily ... "NK cell activation by dendritic cells is dependent on LFA-1-mediated induction of calcium-calmodulin kinase II: inhibition by ... In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. ...
Zhu, X-G.; Govindjee; Baker, N.R.; de Sturler, E.; Ort, D.R.; Long, S.P. (2005). "Chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics ... This is due to; 1. more "photochemical quenching" in which electrons are transported away from PSII due to enzymes involved in ... Zhu, X-G.; Govindjee, Baker N.R.; Ort, D.R.; Long, S.P. (2005). "Chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics in leaves ... 2011). "Differential responses of antioxidant enzymes in pioneer and late-successional tropical tree species grown under sun ...
Based on in vitro research, the major enzymes involved in the metabolism of doxepin are the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and ... rarely induction of hypomania and schizophrenia (stop medication immediately), extrapyramidal side effects (rarely), abuse in ... Hepatic enzyme inducers such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, and barbiturates are advised against in patients receiving TCAs like ... and CYP2C19 enzymes. In CYP2D6 extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizers, the mean clearance rates of (E)-doxepin were 406 ...
Stimulating the receptors causes the associated enzyme phospholipase C to hydrolyze phosphoinositide phospholipids in the ... or modulation and even induction of postsynaptic responses. A dimeric organization of mGluRs is required for signaling induced ... by activating a G protein that inhibits the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which forms cAMP from ATP. These receptors are involved in ...
December 2002). "Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a mechanism for the ... Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles through the infected cell and ...
January 2012). "Induction of psychosis by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function ... CBD is believed to regulate the metabolism of THC by inactivating cytochrome P450 enzymes that metabolize drugs; one such ...
DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit, also known as DNA-PKcs, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the gene ... The elevation of DNA-PKcs is thought to reflect the induction of a compensatory DNA repair capability, due to the genome ... DNA-PKcs appears to play a key role in NHEJ and is thought to induce a conformational change that allows end processing enzymes ...
Kinetics of incorporation into DNA and induction of inhibition". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (32): 19039-19044. ... from the zymogen enzyme precursor by another enzyme to release an active enzyme. The binding site of inhibitors on enzymes is ... An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and blocks its activity. Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical ... Many drug molecules are enzyme inhibitors that inhibit an aberrant human enzyme or an enzyme critical for the survival of a ...
Vowels, B R; Yang, S; Leyden, J J (August 1995). "Induction of proinflammatory cytokines by a soluble factor of ... They are able to synthesize propionic acid by using unusual transcarboxylase enzymes. Its members are primarily facultative ...
It is believed that SA, JA, and ACC have no effect on BIK1 induction because they are likely located downstream from the BIK1 ... Though it is believed that PEPR1 and PEPR2 act as enzymes toward BIK1 and phosphorylate the kinase, research is still being ... Botrytis-induced kinase 1 (BIK1) is a membrane-anchored enzyme in plants. It is a kinase that provides resistance to ...
The enzyme calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) is most likely responsible for the apoptotic cell releasing LPC as it ... It has been suggested that the induction of apoptosis results in increased expression of S1P kinase 1 (SphK1). The increased ...
Juhng, KN; Kokate, TG; Yamaguchi, S; Kim, BY; Rogowski, RS; Blaustein, MP; Rogawski, MA (1999). "Induction of seizures by the ... Paxilline has also been found to be mono- or di-prenylated with DMAPP by an atypical prenyltransferase enzyme. Paxilline ...
H. somni has numerous virulence factors including surface proteins, binding to and induction of apoptosis in host endothelial ... including restriction enzyme analysis. Microscopy can be used for identification when bacteria are stained with fluorescent ...
Phase 1 and 2 enzymes and transporters) can have important clinical consequences. Inducers can (1) increase the clearance of ... current understanding of the mechanisms of enzyme induction and the in vitro methods for assessing the induction potential of ... Induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes: methods, mechanisms, recommendations, and in vitro-in vivo correlations ... Induction of drug-clearance pathways (Phase 1 and 2 enzymes and transporters) can have important clinical consequences. ...
Primiano investigated the induction of iron related enzymes and storage proteins, heme oxygenase and ferritin, by 1,2-dithiole- ...
Hankinson O Induction and regulation of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1 by marijuana smoke and delta (9)- ... Induction of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a key step in the development of tobacco-related ... "Induction and regulation of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1 by marijuana smoke and delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol". ... "Induction and regulation of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1 by marijuana smoke and delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol" Am ...
Changes in the PI responses could indicate that the induction of antioxidant enzymes might not be enough to protect from ... In this study, the activities of H_2O_2-detoxifying antioxidant enzymes in 4 barley cultivars pretreated with high temperature ... The results may suggest that UV-B irradiation induces major H_2O_2-detoxifying enzyme activities, and pretreatments, especially ... Activities of 3 H_2O_2-detoxifying antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase) ...
T1 - Role of cytochrome P450 enzyme induction in the metabolic activation of benzo[c]phenanthrene in human cell lines and mouse ... Role of cytochrome P450 enzyme induction in the metabolic activation of benzo[c]phenanthrene in human cell lines and mouse ... Dive into the research topics of Role of cytochrome P450 enzyme induction in the metabolic activation of benzo[c]phenanthrene ... Role of cytochrome P450 enzyme induction in the metabolic activation of benzo[c]phenanthrene in human cell lines and mouse ...
Tyrosine aminotransferase: Enzyme induction independent of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. D. Granner, L. R. Chase, G. D. ... Tyrosine aminotransferase : Enzyme induction independent of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. In: Science. 1968 ; Vol. 162, No. ... Tyrosine aminotransferase: Enzyme induction independent of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. Science. 1968;162(3857):1018-1020. ... Tyrosine aminotransferase : Enzyme induction independent of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. / Granner, D.; Chase, L. R.; Aurbach ...
Induction of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the common brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula, by eucalyptus terpenes ... Induction of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the common brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula, by eucalyptus terpenes. You ... Pass, GJ and McLean, SR and Stupans, I, Induction of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the common brushtail possum Trichosurus ...
UV dose-dependent induction of enzymes related to flavonoid biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of parsley (English) ... UV dose-dependent induction of enzymes related to flavonoid biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of parsley. scientific ... Light-independent induction of enzymes related to phenylpropanoid metabolism in cell suspension cultures from parsley ... Regulation of enzyme activities related to the biosynthesis of flavone glycosides in cell suspension cultures of parsley ( ...
... with or without enzyme induction by rifampin. Comparisons within and between the groups showed that after enzyme induction ... Estradiol induced vaginal cornification in spayed rats: a model to study hepatic microsomal enzyme induction. Indian Journal of ... Estradiol induced vaginal cornification in spayed rats: a model to study hepatic microsomal enzyme induction. ... enzyme activity and could serve as an alternate for conventional hexobarbitone sleeping time test to study enzyme induction. ...
... induction of various enzymes; wasting syndrome; hepatotoxicity; altered immune function; testicular atrophy; altered thyroid ... particularly in the induction of gene expression for cytochromes P450, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Dioxins and furans have a planar ... dioxin-like chemicals may decrease the effect of estrogen through induction of its metabolism. This action contrasts with the ...
Hepatic microsomal enzyme induction,. *Increased serum levels of liver-related enzymes indicative of possible hepatocellular ... The health implications of enzyme induction include the occurrence of disease secondary to increased metabolism of endogenous ... Exposure to PCBs can increase serum levels of hepatic enzymes and can induce microsomal enzyme function. ... an effect that is believed to be secondary to the induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes. Total bilirubin levels exhibit a ...
Avissar, Y.J., Department of Biology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, ...
Multiple drug interactions due to hepatic enzyme induction.. PO = orally; PR = rectally; max = maximum; IM = intramuscular; N/A ... concomitant angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, asthma. Contraindicated for ... concomitant angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, asthma. Contraindicated for ...
Microsomal Enzyme Induction. Preclinical studies have shown ZOLOFT to induce hepatic microsomal enzymes. In clinical studies, ... ZOLOFT was shown to induce hepatic enzymes minimally as determined by a small (5%) but statistically significant decrease in ...
Inhibition and induction of CYP enzymes in humans: an update. *J. Hakkola, J. Hukkanen, M. Turpeinen, O. Pelkonen ... Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes: a view on human in vivo findings. *J. Hukkanen ... A concise overview of the various receptors affecting the induction of human CYP enzymes is presented, and the mechanisms of ... Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes: Impact on Pathologic Conditions, Drug Interactions and Drug Design.. *E. Rekka, P. Kourounakis ...
Sex differences in the induction of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) in mouse lungs after e-cigarette vapor exposure and ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature 2003;426:450-4.doi:10.1038/ ... In summary, while vaping (±nicotine) caused airway inflammation and impaired lung function, the induction of mouse lung ACE-2 ... Collectively, while vaping (±nicotine) induced airway inflammation and impaired lung function, the induction of lung ACE-2 ...
... domesticum to PyOM and observed a comprehensive induction of genes involved in the metabolism and mineralization of aromatic ... domesticum to PyOM and observed a comprehensive induction of genes involved in the metabolism and mineralization of aromatic ... induction and regulation of enzyme synthesis. Microbiology 81, 357-372. doi: 10.1099/00221287-81-2-357 ... Lin, W. S., and Kapoor, M. (1979). Induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in Neurospora crassa by benzo(a)pyrene. Curr. ...
enzyme. a complex protein that catalyzes chemical reactions. enzyme induction. the increase of hepatic enzyme activity that ... enzyme inhibition. the decrease of hepatic enzyme activity that results in reduced metabolism of drugs. ... the substantial degradation of an orally administered drug caused by enzyme metabolism in the liver before the drug reaches the ...
1. Therapeutic Applications of Enzyme Induction 2. Drug Interactions 3. Nutritional Status and Drug Therapy 4. Pharmacological ...
Enzyme induction ; Messenger RNA ... Regulation of induction of P450IA1 (P-450E) in teleosts was ... Augmentation ; Autoradiography ; Control ; Detection ; Environments ; Enzymes ; Fishes ; Half life ; Hemoglobin ; Hybridization ... These results support a hypothesis that transcriptional enhancement is involved in initial stages of P450E induction, while ... Molecular Regulation of the Induction of Cytochrome P-450E in the Estuarine Fish Fundulus Heteroclitus.. ...
... and hydroxyl radical induction. * Gordon, Oliver Infection Biology, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital, Basel, ... We demonstrate that silver ions inactivate enzymes by binding sulfhydryl (thiol) groups in amino acids and promote the release ... Silver coordination polymers for prevention of implant infection: thiol interaction, impact on respiratory chain enzymes, ...
T1 - Potent induction of rat liver microsomal, drug-metabolizing enzymes by 2,3,3′,4,4′,5-hexabromobiphenyl, a component of ... title = "Potent induction of rat liver microsomal, drug-metabolizing enzymes by 2,3,3′,4,4′,5-hexabromobiphenyl, a component of ... Potent induction of rat liver microsomal, drug-metabolizing enzymes by 2,3,3′,4,4′,5-hexabromobiphenyl, a component of ... Potent induction of rat liver microsomal, drug-metabolizing enzymes by 2,3,3′,4,4′,5-hexabromobiphenyl, a component of ...
Talalay, P.; Fahey, J.W.; Holtzclaw, W.D.; Prestera, T.; Zhang, Y. Chemoprotection against cancer by phase 2 enzyme induction. ... glutathione-related enzymes, and even endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inflammatory markers, although results are not always ... mainly due to genetic variability in enzymes involved in its production and/or regeneration. The enzymes that have received ... Some of these enzymes require nutrient cofactors [1] (Figure 1). With upregulated oxidative stress, malnutrition or increased ...
Novick, A. & Weiner, M. Enzyme induction as an all-or-none phenomenon. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 43, 553-566 (1957) ...
Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects. HPV123 -,-,2002. ... Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation ...
Histamine induction and release following proteolytic enzyme exposure. Authors. Tolos WP; Richards DE; Scheel LD ... An evaluation of the inhalation toxicity of one commercial proteolytic enzyme preparation. ...
One component of that is thought to be induction of the enzyme. But its likely that different individuals induce the enzyme to ... The actual enzymes themselves have been studied to death. We know them inside and out, so you will find a new mutation here and ... Then the challenge side, in addition to inhibition and induction, were also interested in using that kind of a framework to ... But also, as I said, systematic screens for gene variants that influence how enzymes are, in particular, inhibited, which of ...
  • Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc. (
  • Underlying mechanisms include but are not limit to protein binding and inhibition and induction of enzyme/transporter activities [ 12 ]. (
  • The values for [Ind] max, ss and f m, CYP3A4 were obtained from clinical reports of CYP3A4 induction and inhibition, respectively. (
  • The most common DDIs are associated with alterations in drug clearance, primarily due to inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), particularly cytochromes P450 (P450s). (
  • Substantial progress has been made in extrapolating in vitro inhibition data for the prediction of clinical DDIs, but fewer advances in prediction of induction-based DDIs have been realized. (
  • Unlike P450 inhibition, CYP3A4 induction is not as frequent a problem and is not normally thought to be a safety concern. (
  • However, reports of enzyme inhibition are very much more common. (
  • Understanding these mechanisms of enzyme inhibition or induction is extremely important in order to give appropriate multiple-drug therapies. (
  • Drug interactions involving the P450 isoforms generally are of two types: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. (
  • Enzyme inhibition reduces metabolism, whereas induction can increase it. (
  • Events in the cellular transformation involved inhibition of normal differentiation, and induction of ornithine- decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme. (
  • 3. Any treatment which could bring about induction or inhibition of hepatic microsomal enzyme system within 1 month of the study starting. (
  • Conclusion: Inhibition of nitric oxide in an acute liver injury model potentiates the liver injury as evidenced by increased appearance of hepatocellular necrosis and elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Estradiol induced vaginal cornification in spayed rats: a model to study hepatic microsomal enzyme induction. (
  • A dietary level of Aroclor 1254 (100 ppm) was fed to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) for 15 weeks to determine the effects on hepatic microsomal enzyme induction. (
  • Pesticide-induced changes in hepatic microsomal enzyme systems. (
  • Pyronema domesticum grew readily on agar media where the sole carbon source was PyOM (specifically, pine wood PyOM produced at 750°C). Using RNAseq, we investigated the response of P. domesticum to PyOM and observed a comprehensive induction of genes involved in the metabolism and mineralization of aromatic compounds, typical of those found in PyOM. (
  • Xenobiotic metabolism, Enzyme induction, Cytochrome P-450. (
  • Induction of CYP3A4 is especially important because the enzyme is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of marketed drugs ( Guengerich, 1999 ). (
  • Title: Drug metabolism and enzyme induction Authors: Godoy, P. (
  • We have also identified a further acyl-CoA thioesterase, peroxisomal acyl-CoA thioesterase 2, PTE-2, as a novel PPARalpha target gene, and have shown that this enzyme acts as a 'general' acyl-CoA thioesterase in peroxisomal lipid metabolism. (
  • The induction of this enzyme by fibrates, which act as ligands for the PPARalpha, suggests a link between cholesterol and lipid metabolism mediated via the PPARalpha. (
  • Mechanistically Coupled PK (MCPK) Model to Describe Enzyme Induction and Occupancy Dependent DDI of Dabrafenib Metabolism. (
  • The cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) isoenzymes are a group of heme-containing enzymes embedded primarily in the lipid bilayer of the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, it takes part in the metabolism of many drugs, steroids and carcinogens [ 1 ]. (
  • ivacaftor will increase the level or effect of lonafarnib by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (
  • abametapir increases levels of ivacaftor by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (
  • bosentan decreases levels of ivacaftor by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (
  • Mutations in genes concerned with production of enzymes for metabolism of tobacco products may lead to increased risk of carcinogenesis with respect to oral mucosa. (
  • Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes: Impact on Pathologic Conditions, Drug Interactions and Drug Design. (
  • A concise overview of the various receptors affecting the induction of human CYP enzymes is presented, and the mechanisms of CYP induction are important in understanding the effects of inducers. (
  • But it's likely that different individuals induce the enzyme to different degrees, and that source of genetic variation is differential response to inducers and inhibitors - it's actually been hardly touched. (
  • After coadministration, some drugs act as potent enzyme inducers, whereas others are inhibitors. (
  • Marijuana tar induced higher levels of CYP1A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) than did tobacco tar, yet resulted in much lower CYP1A1 enzyme activity. (
  • A 2-microg/ml concentration of Delta(9)-THC produced an average 2.5-fold induction of CYP1A1 mRNA, whereas a 10- microg/ml concentration of Delta(9)-THC produced a 4.3-fold induction. (
  • Regulation of induction of P450IA1 (P-450E) in teleosts was examined by investigating temporal relationships between P450E protein, activity, and mRNA levels, and measuring protein and heme turnover, in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus. (
  • Regulation of the mouse enzymes showed that each individual enzyme was upregulated at mRNA level by treatment with peroxisome proliferators, and fasting, showing that these enzymes are inducible by both pharmacological treatments, and changes in physiological conditions. (
  • The association between downregulated resistin mRNA and induction of ER stress was also investigated in the adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. (
  • Results:Liver enzymes increased significantly at all time intervals in acute liver injury + L-NAME compared to liver injury control groups. (
  • However, species differences in nuclear receptor activation make the prediction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction in humans from data derived from animal models problematic. (
  • Analysis of P450 enzymes by Western blotting detected a large increase of P4501B1 but almost no increase in P4501A1 in MCF-7 cells exposed to 10 μM B[c]Ph for 24 or 48 h. (
  • In vitro studies indicated that cytochrome P450 (CYP450), carboxylesterase enzyme, catechol- O -methyltransferase, organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and OAT3, and P-glycoprotein were the major targets involved in S. miltiorrhiza -drug interactions. (
  • Although the concept of induction of DMEs has been known for several decades ( Conney, 1967 ), an understanding of the mechanisms of P450 induction has only been developed slowly. (
  • Many of the major pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs are due to hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes being affected by previous administration of other drugs. (
  • where, RH represents an oxidisable drug substrate and ROH is the hydroxylated metabolite, the overall reaction being catalysed by the enzyme P450. (
  • This inhibitory effect was confirmed by Michaelis-Menton kinetic analyses using recombinant human CYP1A1 enzyme expressed in insect microsomes. (
  • Since the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), with recombinant human GAA for the early onset PD patient, a relevant field of clinical research due to the benefits regarding survival rate has been widely documented worldwide. (
  • however, serious therapeutic failures can occur with drugs whose exposure is lower as a result of more rapid metabolic clearance due to induction. (
  • It is now realized that many drug-drug interactions can be explained by alterations in the metabolic enzymes that are present in the liver and other extra-hepatic tissues. (
  • 4,5 Potential mechanisms for druginteractions include changes in enzyme activity, changes ingastric emptying, and additive toxicities. (
  • Depending on the specific enzyme affected, porphyria may manifest clinically in an acute or non-acute manner, and the signs and symptoms may be predominantly neurovisceral, psychiatric, cutaneous, or some combination of those. (
  • An evaluation of the inhalation toxicity of one commercial proteolytic enzyme preparation. (
  • Histamine induction and release following proteolytic enzyme exposure. (
  • The findings clearly demonstrate that this animal model faithfully reflects alterations in hepatic enzyme activity and could serve as an alternate for conventional hexobarbitone sleeping time test to study enzyme induction. (
  • 1989. Cellular alterations and enhanced induction of cleft palate after coadministration of retinoic acid and TCDD. (
  • This review summarized the effects of these bioactive components from S. miltiorrhiza roots on pharmacokinetics of comedicated drugs with mechanic insights regarding alterations of protein binding, enzyme activity, and transporter activity based on the published data stemming from both in vitro and in vivo human studies. (
  • In this review, the authors' current understanding of the mechanisms of enzyme induction and the in vitro methods for assessing the induction potential of new drugs will be discussed. (
  • But what has been much less studied is whether individuals differ in the degree to which they respond to, for example, inhibitors of certain drug metabolizing enzymes - like CYP3A4, which metabolizes all sorts of drugs and is responsible for most drug-drug interactions. (
  • Despite the potential therapeutic consequences of induction, little progress has been made in quantitative predictions of CYP3A4 induction-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) from in vitro data. (
  • In the present study, predictive models have been developed to facilitate extrapolation of CYP3A4 induction measured in vitro to human clinical DDIs. (
  • Collectively, these predictive models could add value to the assessment of risks associated with CYP3A4 induction-based DDIs by enabling their determination in the early stages of drug development. (
  • 1) Inactivation of enzymes involved in DNA repair. (
  • The kinetic parameters for enzyme inactivation ( K ′ app and k inact ) involved in midazolam α-hydroxylation were 12.6 μM and 0.0240 min - 1 , respectively, for erythromycin, 41.4 μM and 0.0423 min - 1 , respectively, for clarithromycin, and 623 μM and 0.0158 min - 1 , respectively, for azithromycin. (
  • Examples include decreased absorption, decreased enterohepatic circulation, increased hepatic enzymatic competition, hepatic enzyme degradation or induction, increased elimination, antibiotic-induced diarrhea , increased serum protein binding, and displacement of contraceptive steroid from its receptor site. (
  • Various products of these genes are enzymes involved in the activation or degradation of carcinogens/pro-carcinogens. (
  • Molecular Regulation of the Induction of Cytochrome P-450E in the Estuarine Fish Fundulus Heteroclitus. (
  • Utilizing vaginal cornification as a response for bioassay, a study was conducted to observe the variation in the median cornification dose (cED50) of estradiol, a hepatic-first-pass candidate, given either ip or sc in spayed rats, with or without enzyme induction by rifampin. (
  • It was found that NADPH, the key cofactor for fatty acid biosynthesis, is limited due to reduced flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and transhydrogenation cycle and that this can be overcome by over-expression of an endogenous malic enzyme. (
  • abstract = "The importance of adenyl cyclase and adenosine 3′,5′- monophosphate in the induction of tyrosine aminotransferase by adrenocorticosteroids has been tested in HTC cells derived from a rat hepatoma and grown in tissue culture. (
  • No induction was observed in Hepa-1 mutants lacking functional aryl-hydrocarbon receptor or aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator genes. (
  • Target genes for PPARalpha include many enzymes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and peroxisomes. (
  • One of the findings with possible clinical relevance was that SARS-CoV-2 infected Calu-3 cells showed a two-fold higher induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) compared to cells infected with SARS-CoV infections. (
  • Phytochrome control of enzymes involved in flavonoid synthesis in cell suspension cultures of parsley (Petroselinum hortense Hoffm. (
  • The results indicate a relation between the increase of LDH and sMDH activity due to de novo synthesis and the induction of heat sensitive puffs. (
  • Porphyria is the common term for a group of syndromes, largely hereditary, that result from defects in porphyrins (the enzymes involved in heme synthesis). (
  • An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis. (
  • The authors speculated that this might be partially due to the low expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), a SARS-CoV receptorACE2 is the entry receptor utilized by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 to mediate infection. (
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) may reveal halothane-related antibodies. (
  • Evaluation of Immunoglobulin A-capture Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection. (
  • Development of IgM-capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serodiagnosis of Dengue using Beta-propiolactone-inactivated Dengue Viral Antigens. (
  • Dr. Primiano investigated the induction of iron related enzymes and storage proteins, heme oxygenase and ferritin, by 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T) in a hepatic cell line and sought to determine whether D3T alters iron homeostasis and reduces susceptibility to oxidative stress. (
  • The interaction of acetaminophen with ethanol islikely due to the induction of CYP2E1 in chronic alcoholusers. (
  • The caspases play an important role in this process by activating DNases, inhibiting DNA repair enzymes and breaking down structural proteins in the nucleus. (
  • The enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, or PARP, was one of the first proteins identified as a substrate for caspases. (
  • They carry enzymes, antibodies (immunoglobulins) and other proteins. (
  • Materials and Methods: To know the mode of action of ethyl acetate fraction of Terminalia chebula towards hypotesticular activity and to find out the curative nature of hCG or vitamin E or C against hypotesticular activity, studies were conducted through spermatogenic, steroidogenic, androgenic and antioxidative enzyme analysis along with histological study. (
  • Regional hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 induction with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin evaluated with a multicompartment geometric model of hepatic zonation. (
  • It has been estimated that 90% of human drug oxidation can be attributed to six main enzymes (CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4/5). (
  • But also, as I said, systematic screens for gene variants that influence how enzymes are, in particular, inhibited, which of course is the more serious issue, but also induction as well. (
  • Is the induction of H_2O_2-detoxifying antioxidant enzyme activities sufficient to protect barley cultivars from oxidative stress by UV-B irradiation alone or pretreatment with high temperature and NaCl? (
  • Changes in the PI responses could indicate that the induction of antioxidant enzymes might not be enough to protect from oxidative stress induced by UV-B radiation in the barley cultivars investigated in the study. (
  • Additionally it is well recorded that ZEA modulates the procedure of cancerogenesis by influencing the procedure of apoptosis, ROS era, the actions of oxidative enzymes, DNA adduct development and fragmentation [8,9]. (
  • In response to gramine, S. avenae developed increased activities of carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase, two important detoxification enzymes. (
  • At the same time, Delta(9)-THC competitively inhibited the CYP1A1 enzyme, reducing its ability to metabolize other substrates. (
  • Spiking tobacco tar with Delta(9)-THC resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the ability to generate CYP1A1 enzyme activity as measured by the ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) assay. (
  • In individuals withmoderate alcohol consumption, there was no alteration in the hepatic CYP3A activity, but the reduced midazolam oral bioavailability suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may cause intestinal CYP 3A induction. (
  • In addition, the candidate will perform experiments to test the activity of the purified enzyme in vitro and help with the setting up of the high throughput screening protocol for the identification of inhibitory compounds. (
  • Induction of endodormancy may have occurred in June 2015, when chilling hours (CH) below 7.2 °C and higher CH below 12 °C began to accumulate, which coincided with the period in which there was a decrease in water content and respiratory activity, an increase in reducing sugars, a decrease in SOD, CAT, APX and PPO and an increase in H2O2. (
  • Constitutive activity of these enzymes was analyzed in resistant and susceptible wheat cultivars against cereal aphid Sitobion avenae (F.) at various developmental stages, i.e., tillering, stem elongation, flag leaf, and ear. (
  • Following aphid infestation, the activity of these enzymes was determined at the flag leaf and ear stages. (
  • Aphid infestation induced increases in PPO activity in the flag leaf and ear stages of one susceptible cultivar, whereas induction in resistant cultivars was weaker. (
  • This focus that direct effect of effective fraction of Terminalia chebula on testis is mainly responsible for hypotesticular activity induction as vitamin C supplementation which has both steroidogenic and spermatogenic corrective effects along with direct antioxidative role on sperms. (
  • The procedure of cell invasion can be from the epithelial- mesenchymal changeover (EMT), leading to the transformation from the cells: an activity mainly from the manifestation of EMT markers and induction of malignancy cell invasiveness [15]. (
  • The results may suggest that UV-B irradiation induces major H_2O_2-detoxifying enzyme activities, and pretreatments, especially with 200 mM of NaCl, enhance the response of enzyme activities in these 4 barley cultivars. (
  • And one interesting thing there is that carbomazapine induces the enzyme that metabolizes it. (
  • Activities of 3 H_2O_2-detoxifying antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase) significantly increased as a result of all treatments. (
  • Induction of apoptosis via death receptors typically results in the activation of an initiator caspase such as caspase 8 or caspase 10. (
  • In vitro studies based on MCF-7 cell proliferation and induction of vitellogenin in primary culture of rainbow trout hepatocytes. (
  • So, one of the things that we'll be doing is actually systematically screening for genetic differences among people that influence how much their enzymes change in response to environmental inhibitors. (
  • The extent of induction depends on the concentration of the inducer and on the duration of exposure. (
  • A multicompartment geometric model of the liver in relation to regional induction of cytochrome P450s. (
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay immunoglobulin G (ELISA-IgG) avidity assay for subjects vaccinated with dengue virus serotype-1 purified-inactivated vaccine (DENV-1 PIV) at 2.5 and 5.0 μg doses on days 0 and 28. (
  • Like MC, but in contrast to phenobarbitone (PB), HBBp competitively displaced 2,3,7,8-[ 3 H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin ([ 3 H]-TCDD) from the cytosolic protein thought to be the receptor for cytochrome P-448 induction. (
  • S2 contains basic elements needed for the membrane fusion.The S protein plays key parts in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity. (
  • Liver function enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities including total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and globulin were not changed by BV supplementation. (
  • This study evaluated three concentrations (0.1, 0.2 or 0.4 mg/ml) of methanolic leaf extracts of Artemisia afra and Leucosidea sericea and their individual mixtures with Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (0.15 mg/ml) for induction of those end points using the in vivo Allium cepa assay. (
  • Los experimentos in Vivo de Lai y Singh (1995, 1996) ameritan especial atención, teniendo en cuenta el interés que despertaron. (
  • These zymogens can be cleaved to form active enzymes following the induction of apoptosis. (
  • The enzymes transforming drugs in humans belong to the CYP families 1-4 and more than 30 human CYP isozymes have been identified to date. (
  • The fragmentation of DNA into nucleosomal units - as seen in DNA laddering assays - is caused by an enzyme known as CAD, or caspase activated DNase. (
  • The immunogenecity of the defined H-2Kd-restricted, murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte (‏CTL)‏ epitopesof dengue viruses were examined for CTL induction in epitope peptide / H-2Kd tetramer assays. (
  • Thus, in clinical practice, allergen-specific IgE (as demonstrated by skin testing or in vitro assays) is generally believed to be inextricably connected to the induction of allergic airway symptoms, and is used as a guide for environmental modification and immunotherapy. (
  • 4 Enzyme induction increases production ofthe toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine(NAPQI) and may result in hepatic injury or failure. (
  • Although there has been clear evidence about the synergistic interaction of exposure to AFB1 and HBV infection in the induction of HCC, other literature has shown otherwise, mainly because incomplete and vague findings and hypotheses were made in regions where AFB1 and HBV pose a public health risk. (
  • Induction of drug-clearance pathways (Phase 1 and 2 enzymes and transporters) can have important clinical consequences. (
  • Thus, in vitro human-relevant model systems are increasingly used to evaluate enzyme induction. (
  • 3%) adverse reactions associated with SKYRIZI in Crohn's disease are upper respiratory infections, headache, and arthralgia in induction and arthralgia, abdominal pain, injection site reactions, anemia, pyrexia, back pain, arthropathy, and urinary tract infection in maintenance. (
  • Induction programme to facilitate incorporation at IBEC and additional support is provided for foreigners to obtain Visa-working permit and to install in Barcelona. (
  • Induction of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a key step in the development of tobacco-related cancers. (
  • Cardiac metallothionein induction plays the major role in the prevention of diabetic cardiomyopathy by zinc supplementation. (
  • Collectively, while vaping (±nicotine) induced airway inflammation and impaired lung function, the induction of lung ACE-2 occurred to a significantly greater degree in males exposed to vapor containing nicotine as compared with females. (