A low-molecular-weight (16,000) iron-free flavoprotein containing one molecule of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and isolated from bacteria grown on an iron-deficient medium. It can replace ferredoxin in all the electron-transfer functions in which the latter is known to serve in bacterial cells.
A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.
A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.
A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from soil, animal intestines and feces, and fresh and salt water.
A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs or irregular clumps, and sometimes in chains of varying lengths.
The type species of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria of the genus DESULFOVIBRIO. It is found in FRESHWATER; SOIL, and in marine or brackish water.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria capable of reducing sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide. Organisms are isolated from anaerobic mud of fresh and salt water, animal intestines, manure, and feces.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria first isolated from soil in Vineland, New Jersey. Ammonium and nitrate are used as nitrogen sources by this bacterium. It is distinguished from other members of its genus by the ability to use rhamnose as a carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.
Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.
Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
nifJ operon:The nifJ gene encodes for the pyruvate-flavodoxin-oxidoreductase protein. This enzyme is involved in electron ... Characterization of flavodoxin from Azotobacter chroococcum and comparison of its redox potentials with those of flavodoxins ... NH4+ acts as a co-repressor to the glutamine synthetase by modifying it covalently(adenylylation). This modifies enzyme binds ...
Luschinsky, Drennan, Catherine (1995). "Crystallographic studies of FMN and vitamin B(12) dependent enzymes: Flavodoxin and ... "Crystallographic studies of FMN and Vitamin B12 Dependent Enzymes: Flavodoxin and Methionine Synthase". After her PhD, she ... Her research focus is metalloproteins and metalloenzymes, and developing structural approaches to visualise enzymes. Her group ... Drennan has studied enzymes that employ vitamin B12 since she was a graduate student. ...
These enzymes consist of several conserved domains. The N-terminal domain has a flavodoxin-like fold, and is termed the "wing" ... In molecular biology, group III pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylases are a family of bacterial enzymes comprising ornithine ...
Plants and cyanobacteria however utilize four enzymes for this process. The first of these enzymes is a plant-type phytoene ... via HMBDP synthase in the presence of flavodoxin and NADPH. HMBDP is reduced to IPP in the presence of ferredoxin and NADPH by ... Next, MEP is converted to 4-(cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (CDP-ME) in the presence of CTP via the enzyme MEP ... There can be either a beta ring or an epsilon ring, each generated by a different enzyme (lycopene beta-cyclase [beta-LCY] or ...
This enzyme participates in photosynthesis. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase. Other ... Some bacteria and algae use the molecule flavodoxin instead of ferredoxin as the single electron carrier molecule to be reduced ... The binding of NADP+ to the enzyme lowers the binding affinity of the enzyme for ferredoxin. This reaction can also operate in ... The active site for the enzyme occurs at the interface between the two domains. Binding of the enzyme to the thylakoid membrane ...
Ludwig determined the structure of the enzyme carboxypeptidase A, one of the first enzyme structures to be described. In 1967, ... Ludwig focused on studying flavodoxin in her laboratory. In 1969, Ludwig had her first publication which focused on the ... the structures of flavodoxin, the first flavoprotein structure, iron-superoxide dismutase, p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase and ... where they examined the redox state of a flavodoxin from Clostridium beijerinckii. Her laboratory focused on proteins involved ...
This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction protoporphyrinogen IX + 3 menaquinone ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons ... menadione-dependent flavodoxin with protoporphyrinogen oxidase activity". Biochemistry. 48 (29): 6705-11. doi:10.1021/bi900850y ... Protoporphyrinogen IX dehydrogenase (menaquinone) (EC 1.3.5.3, HemG) is an enzyme with systematic name protoporphyrinogen IX: ... protoporphyrin IX + 3 menaquinol This enzyme enables Escherichia coli to synthesize heme in both aerobic and anaerobic ...
The other enzymes containing homologs of POR are nitric oxide synthase (EC 1.14.13.39), NADPH:sulfite reductase (EC 1.8.1.2), ... The FMN-binding domain is similar to the structure of FMN-containing protein flavodoxin, whereas the FAD-binding domain and ... Since all microsomal P450 enzymes require POR for catalysis, it is expected that disruption of POR would have devastating ... POR knockout mice are embryonic lethal, probably due to lack of electron transport to extrahepatic P450 enzymes since liver- ...
... dinucleotide-ferredoxin NADH-ferredoxin reductase NADH flavodoxin oxidoreductase NADH2-ferredoxin oxidoreductase Other enzymes ... This enzyme participates in fatty acid metabolism. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those ... The systematic name of this enzyme is ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase. There are a variety of names in common use: ferredoxin- ... In enzymology, a ferredoxin-NAD+ reductase (EC 1.18.1.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: reduced ferredoxin ...
The enzyme bound cob(I)alamin cofactor of the MTR enzyme functions as a methyl carrier between 5-MTHF and homocysteine. Cob(I) ... All binding domains involve selective and non-covalent interactions except the flavodoxin_1 domain. Flavoproteins are ... Methionine synthase reductase also known as MSR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MTRR gene. Methionine is an ... Reactivation of this enzyme complex occurs through reductive remethylation by MTRR, utilizing S-adenosylmethionine as a methyl ...
For example, an enzyme that catalyzed this reaction would be an oxidoreductase: A- + B → A + B- In this example, A is the ... oxidoreductases that act on iron-sulfur proteins as donors EC 1.19 includes oxidoreductases that act on reduced flavodoxin as a ... This group of enzymes usually utilizes NADP+ or NAD+ as cofactors. Transmembrane oxidoreductases create electron transport ... In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also ...
... (EC 1.19.6.1) is an enzyme with systematic name reduced flavodoxin:dinitrogen oxidoreductase (ATP- ... 6 oxidized flavodoxin + 2 NH3 + n ADP + n phosphate The enzyme is a complex of two proteins containing iron-sulfur centres and ... hydrolysing). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 6 reduced flavodoxin + 6 H+ + N2 + n ATP ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... Nitrogenase+(flavodoxin) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
... s are ubiquitous, with approximately 10% of all enzymes adopting this fold. Further, 5 of 7 enzyme commission (EC) ... Similarly, chimeric βα5-flavodoxin-like fold (CheY)/HisF TIM barrels, and a perfectly 2-fold symmetric HisF-based TIM barrel ... TIM barrel enzymes in supporting the growth of a yeast host lacking IGPS. Although the 2 bacterial and 1 archaeal IGPS enzymes ... All TIM barrel enzymes possess catalytic sites at the C-terminal end of the β-barrel, and structural inserts present close to ...
... flavodoxin semiquinone, and formate C-acetyltransferase-glycin-2-yl radical. This radical SAM enzyme belongs to the family of ... In enzymology, a [formate-C-acetyltransferase]-activating enzyme (EC 1.97.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... flavodoxin semiquinone + [formate C-acetyltransferase]-glycin-2-yl radical The 3 substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl-L- ... flavodoxin-oxidizing, S-adenosyl-L-methionine-cleaving), formate acetyltransferase activating enzyme, formate acetyltransferase ...
... flavodoxin) EC 1.19.6.1 Category:EC 1.20.1 Category:EC 1.20.2 Category:EC 1.20.4 Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) EC 1.20.4.1 ... Restriction enzyme Type 2 (EC 3.1.21.4) Restriction enzyme Type 3 (EC 3.1.21.5) Restriction enzyme Type 4 (?) Deoxyribonuclease ... This page lists enzymes by their classification in the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology's Enzyme ... Function: An enzyme that is produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system and is abundant in the secretions ...
Unlike other enzymes where BH4 is used as a source of reducing equivalents and is recycled by dihydrobiopterin reductase (EC ... The FMN binding domain is homologous to flavodoxins, and the two domain fragment containing the FAD and NADPH binding sites is ... The enzymes exist as homodimers. In eukaryotes, each monomer consisting of two major regions: an N-terminal oxygenase domain, ... Nitric oxide synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L- ...
Category:EC 1.19 (act on reduced flavodoxin as donor)Edit. *Category:EC 1.19.6 *Nitrogenase (flavodoxin) EC 1.19.6.1 ... This page lists enzymes by their classification in the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology's Enzyme ... EC 6.2.1.55: [[E1 SAMP-activating enzyme]. Category:EC 6.3 (form carbon-nitrogen bonds)Edit. *Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_enzymes&oldid=909320057" ...
... (EC 1.14.14.47, nitric oxide synthetase, NO synthase) is an enzyme with systematic ... "Bacterial flavodoxins support nitric oxide production by Bacillus subtilis nitric-oxide synthase". The Journal of Biological ... name L-arginine,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (nitric-oxide-forming). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 2 L ...
These enzymes are responsible for the reduction of nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Nitrogenases are the only family of enzymes ... The function of the Fe protein is to transfer electrons from a reducing agent, such as ferredoxin or flavodoxin to the ... Nitrogenases are enzymes (EC 1.18.6.1EC 1.19.6.1) that are produced by certain bacteria, such as cyanobacteria (blue-green ... Nitrogenase is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing nitrogen fixation, which is the reduction of nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3 ...
The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD ... 1.19: Acting on reduced flavodoxin as donor. *Nitrogenase (flavodoxin). 1.20: Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors. * ... Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the ... Superoxide is known to denature enzymes, oxidize lipids, and fragment DNA.[19] SODs catalyze the production of O2 and H2O2 from ...
There is no evidence that the enzyme exists. EC 1.3.1.60: dibenzothiophene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase EC 1.3.1.61: terephthalate ... flavodoxin) EC 1.20.1.1: phosphonate dehydrogenase EC 1.20.2.1: arsenate reductase (cytochrome c) EC 1.20.4.1: arsenate ... activating enzyme EC 1.97.1.5: now *EC 1.20.4.1 EC 1.97.1.6: now *EC 1.20.99.1 EC 1.97.1.7: now *EC 1.20.4.2 EC 1.97.1.8: ... acetylacetone-cleaving enzyme EC 1.13.11.51: 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.52: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase EC ...
Crowding may also affect enzyme reactions involving small molecules if the reaction involves a large change in the shape of the ... "Molecular crowding enhances native structure and stability of α/β protein flavodoxin". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Consequently, measurements of the properties of enzymes or processes in metabolism that are made in the laboratory (in vitro) ... Norris MG, Malys N (2011). "What is the true enzyme kinetics in the biological system? An investigation of macromolecular ...
For example, the flavodoxin fold has a five-stranded, parallel β-sheet with topology 21345; thus, the edge strands are β-strand ... Other examples are the lipid A synthesis enzyme LpxA and insect antifreeze proteins with a regular array of Thr sidechains on ... β-sheets can be open, meaning that they have two edge strands (as in the flavodoxin fold or the immunoglobulin fold) or they ... Righthanded β-helices, typified by the pectate lyase enzyme shown at left or P22 phage tailspike protein, have a less regular ...
This conserved region is also found as a domain in various metabolic enzymes and in multidomain proteins, such as aldehyde ... Buckel W, Thauer RK (2018). "Flavin-Based Electron Bifurcation, Ferredoxin, Flavodoxin, and Anaerobic Respiration With Protons ... The energy converting hydrogenases (Ech) are a family of enzymes that reversibly couple the transfer of electrons between Fd ... Since the cyclase is a ferredoxin dependent enzyme this may provide a mechanism for coordination between photosynthesis and the ...
Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD3 gene. ... 1.19: Acting on reduced flavodoxin as donor. *Nitrogenase (flavodoxin). 1.20: Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors. * ... SODs are antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of two superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. The ...
Complex I is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. There are three energy-transducing enzymes in the ... After exposure of idle enzyme to elevated, but physiological temperatures (,30 °C) in the absence of substrate, the enzyme ... Complex I energy transduction by proton pumping may not be exclusive to the R. marinus enzyme. The Na+/H+ antiport activity ... This enzyme is essential for normal functioning of cells and mutations in its subunits lead to wide range of inherited ...
Transports electrons between flavodoxin or ferredoxin and NADPH. ... See the description of this EC number in ENZYME.. By similarity ... section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.,p>,a href=/help/ ... Transports electrons between flavodoxin or ferredoxin and NADPH.By similarity. ,p>Manually curated information which has been ... Flavodoxin/ferredoxin--NADP reductaseBy similarity. Manual assertion inferred from sequence similarity toi ...
1975) Flavodoxins and electron-transferring flavoproteins. in The enzymes, ed Boyer P. D. (Academic Press, New York, N.Y), 12: ... 1982) Routes of flavodoxin and ferredoxin reduction in Escherichia coli: CoA acylating pyruvate:flavodoxin and NADPH:flavodoxin ... indicating that only the POR enzyme reduced the flavodoxin. Attempts were made to identify other ferredoxin and flavodoxin ... A flavodoxin (FldA) acts as an electron acceptor for the POR enzyme but not for OOR. A MonoQ-purified fraction of H. pylori ...
ENZYMES AND PROTEINS. The Campylobacter jejuni NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex I) Utilizes Flavodoxin Rather than NADH ... Oxidized flavodoxin is required for the activity of both OOR and PFOR (15, 31), both of which are important enzymes of central ... Reduction of flavodoxin.Purified flavodoxin and C. jejuni CE were mixed in a 4:1 ratio in a capped quartz cuvette to obtain a ... Flavodoxin has also been shown to be essential in H. pylori (10). C. jejuni flavodoxin expressed heterologously in E. coli and ...
The enzyme is also active with 2-oxobutyrate and oxaloacetate. The enzyme is oxygen sensitive. ... is one of three enzymes participating in respiratory metabolism. ... PF02775 TPP_enzyme_C, 1 hit. PRINTSi. PR00369 FLAVODOXIN. ... The enzyme is also active with 2-oxobutyrate and oxaloacetate. The enzyme is oxygen sensitive.2 Publications. ,p>Manually ... IPR011766 TPP_enzyme-bd_C. IPR009014 Transketo_C/PFOR_II. Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF10371 EKR, 1 hit. PF00667 FAD_binding ...
nifJ operon:The nifJ gene encodes for the pyruvate-flavodoxin-oxidoreductase protein. This enzyme is involved in electron ... Characterization of flavodoxin from Azotobacter chroococcum and comparison of its redox potentials with those of flavodoxins ... NH4+ acts as a co-repressor to the glutamine synthetase by modifying it covalently(adenylylation). This modifies enzyme binds ...
Nitrogenase (flavodoxin) (EC 1.19.6.1) is an enzyme with systematic name reduced flavodoxin:dinitrogen oxidoreductase (ATP- ... 6 oxidized flavodoxin + 2 NH3 + n ADP + n phosphate The enzyme is a complex of two proteins containing iron-sulfur centres and ... hydrolysing). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 6 reduced flavodoxin + 6 H+ + N2 + n ATP ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... Nitrogenase+(flavodoxin) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
1a) 2 L-arginine + 2 reduced flavodoxin + 2 O2 = 2 Nomega-hydroxy-L-arginine + 2 oxidized flavodoxin + 2 H2O [RN:R11712];. (1b ... 2 L-arginine + 3 reduced flavodoxin + 4 O2 = 2 L-citrulline + 2 nitric oxide + 3 oxidized flavodoxin + 4 H2O (overall reaction ... consist of only an oxygenase domain and functions together with bacterial ferredoxins or flavodoxins. The orthologous enzymes ... 2 Nomega-hydroxy-L-arginine + reduced flavodoxin + 2 O2 = 2 L-citrulline + 2 nitric oxide + oxidized flavodoxin + 2 H2O [RN: ...
Category:EC 1.19 (act on reduced flavodoxin as donor)Edit. *Category:EC 1.19.6 *Nitrogenase (flavodoxin) EC 1.19.6.1 ... This page lists enzymes by their classification in the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biologys Enzyme ... EC 6.2.1.55: [[E1 SAMP-activating enzyme]. Category:EC 6.3 (form carbon-nitrogen bonds)Edit. *Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_enzymes&oldid=909320057" ...
flavodoxin - anisotropy - reductase - dynamics - system. The bioluminescent bacterial enzyme system NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase- ... The enzyme has a molecular mass of 110 kDa and consists of four 31-kDa subunits. Enzyme catalysis followed Michaelis-Menten ... Procedures for assessing enzyme inhibition in living cells are an important tool in the study of the relevance of enzyme- ... Enzyme kinetics were determined at 60°C, as close as possible to in vivo conditions. The established kinetic parameters were in ...
1.19 Acting on reduced flavodoxin as donor 1.20 Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors ... Enzymes - Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry). [ Brite menu , Organism menu , Download htext , Download json ] ...
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EC 1.14.14.47 nitric-oxide synthase (flavodoxin) (7 June 2017). EC 1.14.14.48 jasmonoyl-L-amino acid 12-hydroxylase (13 October ... New enzymes (12 March 2017, approved 29 March 2017) New enzymes (7 June 2017, approved 5 July 2017) New enzymes (13 October ... Return to Enzyme Supplements home page. Return to Enzyme Nomenclature home page. Return to main IUBMB Biochemical Nomenclature ... An asterisk before EC indicates that this is an amendment to an existing enzyme rather than a new enzyme entry.. Contents. * ...
... and despite a configuration that differs from contemporary enzymes. Emergence of large, complex enzymes from a simple beginning ... Flavodoxin/Rossmann-like fold; PDB ID code 2N3Z) and fold IV, with swapped β-strands topology (2-3-1-4; P-loop NTPases-like ... 2015) Functional class I and II amino acid-activating enzymes can be coded by opposite strands of the same gene. J Biol Chem ... Nonetheless, conversion of NTP to NDP or NMP is common to all these enzymes (41, 42). Numerous Escherichia coli proteins can ...
... and the reduced form of enzyme were used. To produce the reduced form of the enzyme, the purified enzyme was incubated with PEG ... Crystal Structure of Dimeric Flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio gigas Suggests a Potential Binding Region for the Electron- ... and encompasses a wide variety of enzymes from prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The founding enzymes of this class include ... Here we designate this enzyme as ethoxy (EO) chain octylphenol dehydrogenase OPEO-DH). The recombinant enzyme recognized EO ...
Enzyme Nomenclature. Recommendations. EC 1.14.14. With reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one ... EC 1.14.14.47 nitric-oxide synthase (flavodoxin). EC 1.14.14.48 jasmonoyl-L-amino acid 12-hydroxylase EC 1.14.14.49 12- ... Return to Enzyme home page. Return to main IUBMB Biochemical Nomenclature home page. ...
partial [1]) [1] Crystallization (crystal structure of the complex between the heme - and FMN-binding domains of the enzyme, ... crystals are grown at room temperature by liquid - liquid free interface diffusion in a capillary, the flavodoxin-like flavin ...
Expression patterns of genes encoding these enzymes and the biochemical properties of these enzymes and pathways need further ... with FDX or flavodoxin serving as electron donors (Charon et al., 1999; Ragsdale, 2003; Figure 2). In Chlamydomonas, the ... either the same enzyme that catalyzes acetyl-CoA reduction or a distinct enzyme, e.g., ADH2). While the conversion of acetyl- ... This enzyme regenerates 2 NAD+, is present in many eukaryotes, and has been found to be highly expressed in Chlamydomonas (Mus ...
1.19 Acting on reduced flavodoxin as donor 1.20 Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors ...
1.19 Acting on reduced flavodoxin as donor 1.20 Acting on phosphorus or arsenic in donors ... Enzymes - Variovorax paradoxus EPS. [ Brite menu , Organism menu , Download htext , Download json ] ...
... the POR enzyme of H. pylori is composed of the four subunits PorABCD (Hughes et al., 1998), whereas the pyruvate-flavodoxin ... Consequently, orthologs to enzymes MqnA and MqnB of S. coelicolor are not required by C. jejuni and replaced by the menaquinone ... Some C. jejuni strains like 81116 (Pearson et al., 2007) or M1 (Friis et al., 2010) harbor an active TsdA (C8j_0815) enzyme ... Both enzymes mediate the oxygen-dependent respiration of C. jejuni but harbor strikingly different oxygen affinities: the ...
This also resulted in significant changes in the enzyme selectivity towards the cleavage sites for which the enzyme has a high ... FAD often binds to a Rossmann fold, while FMN prefers a TIM-barrel or flavodoxin-like fold. Proline dehydrogenase is denoted as ... the hydrolysis rate limitation can be explained by a second-order enzyme auto-inactivation rate along with the higher enzyme ... Reconstitution of the enzyme with either FAD or FMN revealed that MBP-TtProDH has no preference for FAD as cofactor. Kinetic ...
Crystal structure of AdoMet radical enzyme 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine synthase from Escherichia coli suggests how modifications ... near [4Fe-4S] cluster engender flavodoxin specificity.. Grell TAJ, Bell BN, Nguyen C, Dowling DP, Bruender NA, Bandarian V, ...
... we are comparatively studying bacterial and plastidic enzymes. Since in many bacteria these enzymes are either essential or ... NADPH-flavodoxin (ferredoxin) reductases (FPR) from bacteria: In collaboration with the groups of Dr. E. Ceccarelli and Dr. E. ... 7.- Improved flavodoxin inhibitors with potential therapeutic effects against Helicobacter pylori infection. J.J. Galano, M. ... This enzyme is involved in lignin degradation and biotechnological plant biomass utilization. Our structure-function studies ...
Azotobacter vinelandii flavodoxin II serves as a physiological reductant of nitrogenase, the enzyme system mediating biological ... Electrochemical and structural characterization of Azotobacter vinelandii flavodoxin II.. [So] Source:. Protein Sci;26(10):1984 ... The active site of the enzyme nitrogenase is the FeMo-cofactor (FeMo-co), a C-centred Fe MoS cluster, connected to the ... Docking models and cross-linking patterns between the Fe protein and flavodoxin revealed that the MgADP-bound state of the Fe ...
Abstract [150 words] Ferredoxin/flavodoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductases (FNR) are key enzymes involved in catalysing the electron ... Crystallisation of ferredoxin/flavodoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductases, flavodoxins, ferredoxins and redox partners in Bacillus ... a BH4-dependent heme-enzyme, is the only enzyme that specifically produces NO in mammals. NO is produced by the NOS homodimer ... Crystallisation of ferredoxin/flavodoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductases, flavodoxins, ferredoxins and redox partners in Bacillus ...
Flavodoxins (Flds) are small, bacterial proteins that transfer electrons to various redox enzymes. Flavodoxins are reduced by ... Characterization of different flavodoxin reductase-flavodoxin (FNR-Fld) interactions reveals an efficient FNR-Fld redox pair ... ferredoxin/flavodoxin NADP+ oxidoreductases (FNRs), but little is known of the FNR-Fld interaction. ... ...
Homogeneous ferredoxin (flavodoxin):NADP(+) reductase and flavodoxin A proteins served as electron donors for the reduction of ... This is the first report of a protein system that can be coupled to the adenosyltransferase CobA enzyme for the conversion of ... The resulting co(I)rrinoids served as substrates for the ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase (CobA) enzyme of Salmonella ...
1.99 Other enzymes using O2 as oxidant (deleted subclass) EC class 2", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", ... 1.19 Acting on reduced flavodoxin as donor (21 organisms) EC subclass 1.20", WIDTH, 550, FGCOLOR, "#ffffff", TEXTSIZE, "10px", ... 1.98 Enzymes using H2 as reductant (deleted subclass) ... Propose new enzyme *Improve BRENDA! Download * SBML Output * ...
Flavodoxins have no amino acid sequence homology to ferredoxins (40). In this case, the flavodoxin appears to be part of a ... Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by membrane bound enzymes of Rhodococcus chlorophenolicus PCP-I. Biodegradation2:25-31. ... which is in the size range of the short-chain bacterial flavodoxins. In some situations, flavodoxins are able to perform the ... The cytochrome P450 also has a flavodoxin domain at the N terminus. This study is the first to present a gene which has been ...
Ferredoxin may be replaced by flavodoxin [see EC 1.19.6.1 nitrogenase (flavodoxin)]. The enzyme does not reduce CO (cf. EC 1.18 ... Accepted name: E1 SAMP-activating enzyme. Reaction: ATP + [SAMP]-Gly-Gly + [E1 SAMP-activating enzyme]-L-cysteine = S-[[SAMP]- ... Other name(s): UbaA; SAMP-activating enzyme E1. Systematic name: [SAMP]:[E1 SAMP-activating enzyme] ligase (AMP-forming). ... Proposed Changes to the Enzyme List. The entries below are proposed additions and amendments to the Enzyme Nomenclature list. ...
  • Transports electrons between flavodoxin or ferredoxin and NADPH. (uniprot.org)
  • Flavodoxins are reduced by ferredoxin/flavodoxin NADP+ oxidoreductases (FNRs), but little is known of the FNR-Fld interaction. (uio.no)
  • Homogeneous ferredoxin (flavodoxin):NADP(+) reductase and flavodoxin A proteins served as electron donors for the reduction of co(III)rrinoids to co(I)rrinoids in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is structurally related to two separate flavoprotein families, ferredoxin nucleotide reductase (FNR) and flavodoxin. (novusbio.com)
  • The catalytic domains are analogous to existing globular proteins: the FMN domain is analogous to flavodoxins while the FAD domain resembles ferredoxin reductases. (mdpi.com)
  • Flavodoxins can be used instead of ferredoxin. (expasy.org)
  • Phytoplankton substitute flavodoxin for ferredoxin in times of severe iron stress, replacing the iron-sulfur cluster with an organic cofactor ( 12 , 13 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) is a microbial enzyme that uses thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), three [4Fe-4S] clusters, and coenzyme A (CoA) in the reversible oxidation of pyruvate to generate acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide. (proteopedia.org)
  • The crystal structure of pa-FPR (1.6 Å resolution) showed that its fold is comparable that of the superfamily of ferredoxin reductases and most similar to the structure of Azotobacter vinelandii FPR and Escherichia coli flavodoxin reductase. (elsevier.com)
  • The latter two enzymes interact with distinct redox partners, a ferredoxin and a flavodoxin, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • It was found that pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzyme (PFOR) is encoded by the pforA gene and plays a key role in pyruvate dissimilation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fe-protein interacts with ATP and Mg ++ , and receive electron from ferredoxin or flavodoxin when it is oxidized. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • 177:3953-3959, 1995) have indicated that the major routes for the generation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and succinyl-CoA are via pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (POR) and 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductase (OOR), respectively. (asm.org)
  • Recently, it was shown that in contrast to the usual pyruvate dehydrogenase complex employed by aerobes, the main route for pyruvate assimilation in H. pylori is via a pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase (POR) (EC 1.2.7.1 ) ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • Campylobacter jejuni encodes 12 of the 14 subunits that make up the respiratory enzyme NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also called complex I). The two nuo genes not present in C. jejuni encode the NADH dehydrogenase, and in their place in the operon are the novel genes designated Cj1575c and Cj1574c. (asm.org)
  • The electron acceptor for 2-oxoglutarate:acceptor oxidoreductase was determined to be flavodoxin, which was also determined to be an essential protein in C. jejuni . (asm.org)
  • This complex (also called NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is the first enzyme in many respiratory chains and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to the quinone pool, coupled with the translocation of protons across a membrane ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • nifJ operon:The nifJ gene encodes for the pyruvate-flavodoxin-oxidoreductase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogenase (flavodoxin) (EC 1.19.6.1) is an enzyme with systematic name reduced flavodoxin:dinitrogen oxidoreductase (ATP-hydrolysing). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum membrane oxidoreductase with an FAD-binding domain and a flavodoxin-like domain. (novusbio.com)
  • Q2RMD6_MOOTA ] Oxidoreductase required for the transfer of electrons from pyruvate to flavodoxin. (proteopedia.org)
  • Pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate:flavodoxin oxidoreductase in H. pylori , which can then feed into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle[ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 6 reduced flavodoxin + 6 H+ + N2 + n ATP ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 6 oxidized flavodoxin + 2 NH3 + n ADP + n phosphate The enzyme is a complex of two proteins containing iron-sulfur centres and molybdenum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our projects include testing in animal models novel antimicrobials effective against the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, and the discovery and rational improvement of pharmacological chaperones to rescue defective human enzymes (e.g. mutated PAH responsible for Phenylketonuria) and to inhibit the aggregation of a number of human peptides and proteins involved in amyloidogenesis. (bifi.es)
  • Flavodoxins (Flds) are small, bacterial proteins that transfer electrons to various redox enzymes. (uio.no)
  • Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of all proteins and enzymes, nucleic acids that make up DNA, and chlorophyll that enables the process of photosynthesis in plants [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Previous and/or ongoing/future projects focus on azurin (copper), flavodoxin (flavin), myoglobin (heme), co-chaperonin proteins (heptamers), and VlsE (dimer). (umu.se)
  • We have defined a novel flavin mononucleotide binding cradle, which is a recurrent motif in many flavodoxin-like proteins. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Small proteins called flavodoxins (Fld) and ferredoxins (Fd) accumulate the low-potential electrons needed for this reduction reaction. (boisestate.edu)
  • In this study, a number of alternative FMNH 2 -generating activities, including both conventional FRs and enzymes also able to serve as ferric reductases, were isolated from camphor-grown cells, and the relative level, and hence potential contribution, of these various proteins shown to vary considerably depending on the point of harvest of NCIMB 10007 within exponential-phase growth. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This enzyme is involved in electron transfer to nitrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogenase activity in the symbiont was also verified by enzyme activity assays. (bireme.br)
  • A key feature was that cells expressed large amounts of a remodeled form of the enzyme nitrogenase and the catalysis was driven by light. (constantcontact.com)
  • In an article about the discovery published Aug. 23 in Scientific American , Harwood, a professor of microbiology, said the report blossomed from her work studying an enzyme called nitrogenase. (constantcontact.com)
  • We're really interested in the enzyme nitrogenase because it does a phenomenally difficult reaction," she said. (constantcontact.com)
  • However, the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme complex is restricted to some bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some microbes have an enzyme called nitrogenase which converts N 2 into ammonia (NH 3 ). (boisestate.edu)
  • Crystal structure of AdoMet radical enzyme 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine synthase from Escherichia coli suggests how modifications near [4Fe-4S] cluster engender flavodoxin specificity. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present the structure of a third QueE enzyme from Escherichia coli, which establishes the middle range of the spectrum of variation observed in these homologs. (rcsb.org)
  • Flavodoxin mutants of Escherichia coli K-12. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2011). The Escherichia coli alkylation response protein AidB is a redox partner of flavodoxin and binds RNA and acyl carrier protein. (olisweb.com)
  • Ferrous and ferric state of cytochromes P450 in intact Escherichia coli cells: a possible role of cytochrome P450-flavodoxin interactions. (nel.edu)
  • Escherichia coli produces enzymes dedicated to hydrogen metabolism under anaerobic conditions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although the purified enzymes were unable to reduce NAD(P), electrons from both pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate could reduce NADP in cell extracts, consistent with a role for these oxidoreductases in the provision of NADPH as a respiratory electron donor. (asm.org)
  • The protein binds two cofactors, FAD and FMN, which allow it to donate electrons directly from NADPH to all microsomal P450 enzymes. (novusbio.com)
  • NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a microsomal enzyme responsible for the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450 enzymes during the P450 catalytic cycle. (novusbio.com)
  • Two features of the substrate bound to the enzyme have been accentuated: the polarization of the carbonyl π electrons and the length of the C=O bond. (els.net)
  • Enzymes are normally used for catalyzing the transfer of functional groups, electrons, or atoms. (wikibooks.org)
  • Biochemical results showed that BlsE is a SAM-dependent radical enzyme that utilizes cytosylglucuronic acid, the accumulated intermediate metabolite in blsE mutant, as substrate and catalyzes decarboxylation at the C5 position of the glucoside residue to yield cytosylarabinopyranose. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In particular, the C terminus functions as a toggle switch, which affects access of the NADPH substrate to the enzyme. (pnas.org)
  • The most common methods of enzyme activity measurement involve monitoring absorbance or fluorescence of a solution of enzyme and substrate as a function of time. (olisweb.com)
  • Steady-state kinetics measurements involve monitoring the absorbance or fluorescence change exhibited by an enzyme/substrate complex at constant concentration throughout the measurement. (olisweb.com)
  • Pre-steady state kinetics involve measuring of the formation of the enzyme/substrate complex. (olisweb.com)
  • This NADP may serve to protect the enzyme from oxidation by its H 2 O 2 substrate. (kenyon.edu)
  • The improvement in drug delivery efficiency achieved by enzyme-powered nanobots may hold potential toward their use in future biomedical applications such as the substrate-triggered release of drugs in target locations. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • This concept helps to explain the efficiency of enzyme‐catalysed reactions, as when the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme there is a destabilization of the substrate. (els.net)
  • Panel (b) shows the reaction coordinate diagram for the same process if the enzyme binds to and stabilizes the substrate, transition state and product by the same amount. (els.net)
  • The two potential mechanisms out of this conundrum shown by the dashed arrows are either to stabilize the enzyme-transition state complex specifically or destabilize the enzyme-substrate complex. (els.net)
  • 1991) Electron redistribution on binding of a substrate to an enzyme: folate and dihydrofolate reductase. (els.net)
  • It will be part of ENZYME from release 2018_10. (expasy.org)
  • The orthologous enzymes from plants and animals also contain a reductase domain and use only NADPH as the electron donor (cf. (genome.jp)
  • Additionally, we report the purification and reconstitution of BlsE, characterization of its [4Fe-4S] cluster using UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic analysis, and investigation of the ability of flavodoxin (Fld), flavodoxin reductase (Fpr) and NADPH to reduce the [4Fe-4S] 2+ cluster. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Electron transfer of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase requires the binding of two flavin cofactors, FAD and FMN, to the FNR and flavodoxin domains, respectively. (novusbio.com)
  • They are instead actively generated by NADPH oxidases (NOXs), a family of highly regulated enzymes that underpin complex functions in the control of cell proliferation and antibacterial defense. (pnas.org)
  • NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are the only enzymes exclusively dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. (pnas.org)
  • The NADPH-oxidases (NOXs) form the only known enzyme family whose sole function is reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this respect, we have used a variety of models, such as flavodoxin, to develop biotechnological and computational strategies to assist in protein stabilization using rational principles. (bifi.es)
  • This is the first report of a protein system that can be coupled to the adenosyltransferase CobA enzyme for the conversion of co(III)rrinoids to their adenosylated derivatives. (nih.gov)
  • NO activates guanylate cyclase, which induces smooth muscle relaxation by: Increased intracellular cGMP, which inhibits calcium entry into the cell, and decreases intracellular calcium concentrations Activation of K+ channels, which leads to hyperpolarization and relaxation Stimulates a cGMP-dependent protein kinase that activates myosin light chain phosphatase, the enzyme that dephosphorylates myosin light chains, which leads to smooth muscle relaxation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sterne as a protein responsible for the degradation of azo compounds.This enzyme catalyzes the reductive cleavage of azo groups by a ping-pong mechanism. (csgid.org)
  • The enzyme from mammalian heart transfers acyl groups to a specific acceptor protein of 51 kDa. (cathdb.info)
  • Computer-assisted Docking of Flavodoxin with the ATP:Co(I)rrinoid Adenosyltransferase (CobA) Enzyme Reveals Residues Critical for Protein-Protein I. (growkudos.com)
  • The ability to have a single lot of purified enzyme instantly made RNase the model system for protein studies. (bionity.com)
  • This modifies enzyme binds to the nifR region of the nifRLA operon and prevents the transcription of the genes, nifL and nifA. (wikipedia.org)
  • NOS is the only known enzyme that binds flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), heme, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) flavoprotein oxidoreductases was first outlined by Cavener [ 1 ] and encompasses a wide variety of enzymes from prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Vanadium enzymes catalyze peroxidative halogenation reactions, which in most terrestrial organisms is accomplished by Fe(III)-heme enzymes ( 15 ), and tungsten is required for catalysis of oxidoreductases in hyperthermophilic archea ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The collected results indicate that the fldP gene encodes a long-chain flavodoxin, which protects the cell from oxidative stress, thereby expanding the capabilities of P. aeruginosa to thrive in hostile environments. (gob.ar)
  • The enzyme, found in bacteria and archaea, consist of only an oxygenase domain and functions together with bacterial ferredoxins or flavodoxins. (genome.jp)
  • Rapid bacterial permeabilization reagent useful for enzyme assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In chloroplasts and cyanobacteria the enzyme acts on plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins, but in other bacteria it can also reduce bacterial [4Fe-4S] ferredoxins and flavodoxin. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Low-potential electron donor to a number of redox enzymes. (drugbank.com)
  • The first structural determination of one member of the diflavin reductases family raised some questions about the architecture of the enzyme during catalysis: both FMN and FAD were in perfect position for interflavin transfers but the steric hindrance of the FAD domain rapidly prompted more complex hypotheses on the possible mechanisms for the electron transfer from FMN to external acceptors. (mdpi.com)
  • Members of the AdoMet radical enzyme superfamily utilize a canonical binding motif, a CX 3 CXϕC motif, to bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster, and a partial (β/α) 6 TIM barrel fold for the arrangement of AdoMet and substrates for catalysis. (rcsb.org)
  • Mechanisms of enzyme catalysis are important to many researchers in the area of biochemistry. (olisweb.com)
  • Catalysis occurs by a three-step mechanism, starting with the activation of the enzyme by ATP, forming a phosphoramide bond between adenylate and a lysine residue. (cathdb.info)
  • The use of enzyme catalysis to power micro- and nanomotors exploiting biocompatible fuels has opened new ventures for biomedical applications such as the active transport and delivery of specific drugs to the site of interest. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • QueE is a member of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) radical enzyme superfamily, which harnesses the reactivity of radical intermediates to perform challenging chemical reactions. (rcsb.org)
  • Surprisingly, the structure of QueE from Bacillus subtilis revealed an architecture more reminiscent of the classical AdoMet radical enzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • Characterization of different flavodoxin reductase-flavodoxin (FNR-Fld) interactions reveals an efficient FNR-Fld redox pair and identifies a novel FNR subclass. (uio.no)
  • Krey GD, Vanin EF, Swenson RP: Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the flavodoxin gene from Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough). (drugbank.com)
  • Dubourdieu M, Fox JL: Amino acid sequence of Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin. (drugbank.com)
  • Knauf MA, Lohr F, Blumel M, Mayhew SG, Ruterjans H: NMR investigation of the solution conformation of oxidized flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris. (drugbank.com)
  • Stockman BJ, Euvrard A, Kloosterman DA, Scahill TA, Swenson RP: 1H and 15N resonance assignments and solution secondary structure of oxidized Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin determined by heteronuclear three-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. (drugbank.com)
  • The crystal structures of the flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 have been determined and refined for both oxidized and semi-reduced forms to final crystallographic R-factors of 17.9% (0.8-0.205-nm resolution) and 19.4% (0.8-0.215-nm resolution) respectively. (proteopedia.org)
  • Crystal structure of flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 in two oxidation states. (proteopedia.org)
  • section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes. (uniprot.org)
  • Our results indicate that BlsE represents a typical [4Fe-4S]-containing radical SAM enzyme and it catalyzes decarboxylation in blasticidin S biosynthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The enzyme catalyzes the ligation of DNA strands with 3'-hydroxyl and 5'-phosphate termini, forming a phosphodiester and sealing certain types of single-strand breaks in duplex DNA. (cathdb.info)
  • Finally, the enzyme catalyzes a nucleophilic attack of the 3'-OH terminus on the capped terminus, which results in formation of the phosphodiester bond and release of the adenylate. (cathdb.info)
  • Superoxide dismutase ( SOD , EC 1.15.1.1 ) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O 2 − ) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O 2 ) or hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction that an enzyme catalyzes must be known before it can be classified. (wikibooks.org)
  • The cytochrome P450 also has a flavodoxin domain at the N terminus. (asm.org)
  • P450 enzymes constitute a family of monooxygenase enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of a wide array of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. (novusbio.com)
  • Several P450 enzymes have been classified by sequence similarities as members of the CYP1A and CYP2A subfamilies. (novusbio.com)
  • The cytochromes P450 (P450s or CYPs) constitute a large heme enzyme superfamily, members of which catalyze the oxidative transformation of a wide range of organic substrates, and whose functions are crucial to xenobiotic metabolism and steroid transformation in humans and other organisms. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The P450 peroxygenases are a subgroup of the P450s that have evolved in microbes to catalyze the oxidative metabolism of fatty acids, using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant rather than NAD(P)H-driven redox partner systems typical of the vast majority of other characterized P450 enzymes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The cytochromes P450 (P450s, CYPs) were the first group of enzymes to be classified as a 'superfamily' through bioinformatics studies performed by Nebert et al. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • Microorganisms have adapted to degrade RDX and the enzymes involved include an unusual cytochrome P450, termed XplA, that is N-terminally-fused to a flavodoxin domain, and a flavodoxin reductase partner, XplB. (bl.uk)
  • These data support a mechanism for cytochrome reduction involving a requisite movement of the flavin domains in the intact cytochrome P450 reductase enzyme and the formation of a complex with the cytochrome. (osu.edu)
  • Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are heme enzymes oxygenating a broad range of substrates. (nel.edu)
  • This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. (expasy.org)
  • The entries below are proposed additions and amendments to the Enzyme Nomenclature list . (qmul.ac.uk)
  • This page lists enzymes by their classification in the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 's Enzyme Commission [EC] numbering system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase [NADP + ] is one of three enzymes participating in respiratory metabolism. (uniprot.org)
  • The in vivo electron acceptor of this enzyme is likely to be an endogenous flavodoxin, which was partially purified and shown to be reduced by POR. (asm.org)
  • Cytochromes P (P) are membrane-bound enzymes that catalyze the monooxygenation of a diverse array of xenobiotic and endogenous. (ghid-supraveghere.info)
  • Measuring beta-galactosidase activity in bacteria: cell growth, permeabilization, and enzyme assays in 96-well arrays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Long-chain flavodoxins, ubiquitous electron shuttles containing flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as prosthetic group, play an important protective role against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various microorganisms. (gob.ar)
  • Functional substitution among Fdxs may occur, and other soluble electron shuttles, such as flavodoxins, may act as Fdx-substitutes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • With these three homologs, we compare and contrast the structural architecture and make hypotheses about the role of these structural variations in binding and recognizing the biological reductant, flavodoxin. (rcsb.org)
  • Broader impact statement: We know more about how enzymes are tailored for catalytic activity than about how enzymes are tailored to react with a physiological reductant. (rcsb.org)
  • Here, we consider structural differences between three 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine synthases and how these differences may be related to the interaction between these enzymes and their biological reductant, flavodoxin. (rcsb.org)
  • In the BETCy study, the physiological reductant flavodoxin was used to uncover the rate limiting step. (constantcontact.com)
  • The bacterium possesses enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff and pentose-phosphate pathways ( 5 , 29 , 30 ), but although it is capable of glucose metabolism, respiratory activity is greater with some organic acids, such as pyruvate ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Harnessing these pathways and enzymes under certain conditions can result in incr. (growkudos.com)
  • OOR enzymes have been purified from a number of thermophilic bacteria and archaea. (asm.org)
  • It is a key enzyme involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in plants, fungi and bacteria. (expasy.org)
  • Genes upstream of the putative acxABC operon encode enzymes that convert acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA, which is metabolized further to generate two molecules of acetyl-CoA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression levels of key enzymes involved in (A) utilization of xylose and (B) acyl chain elongation are indicated. (asm.org)
  • These enzymes catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent two-electron reductions of quinones and protect cells against damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species. (umbc.edu)
  • Since many enzymes have common names that do not refer to their function or what kind of reaction they catalyze, an enzyme classification system was established. (wikibooks.org)
  • The Olis CLARiTY chamber offers an exciting new possibility of measuring enzyme kinetics in highly scattering environments such as those in whole cell or mitochondria suspensions. (olisweb.com)
  • So that's the level of question you'll get on enzyme kinetics. (mit.edu)
  • Watenpaugh KD, Sieker LC, Jensen LH: The binding of riboflavin-5'-phosphate in a flavoprotein: flavodoxin at 2.0-Angstrom resolution. (drugbank.com)
  • The resulting co(I)rrinoids served as substrates for the ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase (CobA) enzyme of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and were converted to their respective adenosylated derivatives. (nih.gov)
  • This reaction forex dopler catalyzed by an iron-dependent activating enzyme that requires reduced flavodoxin and S-adenosylmethionine as substrates. (retzepti.ru)
  • The essential steps in all of these processes are catalyzed by metalloenzymes ( Fig. 1 , A and B). These enzymes contain iron and other transition metal ions that can exist in multiple oxidation states. (sciencemag.org)
  • Watt W, Tulinsky A, Swenson RP, Watenpaugh KD: Comparison of the crystal structures of a flavodoxin in its three oxidation states at cryogenic temperatures. (drugbank.com)
  • The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme was purified to homogeneity and shown to belong to a newly recognized group of four-subunit PORs. (asm.org)
  • Catalase was one of the first enzymes to be purified to homogeneity, and has been the subject of intense study. (kenyon.edu)
  • Eyring H, Lumry R and Spikes JD (1954) Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of enzyme‐catalyzed reactions. (els.net)
  • Dashed lines represent the existence of multiple enzyme reactions between the indicated molecules. (asm.org)
  • Cytochrome P enzymes are responsible for most phase I reactions. (ghid-supraveghere.info)
  • Lipoylation is essential for the function of several key enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism, as it converts apoprotein into the biologically active holoprotein. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • The corresponding enzyme activities, such as NAD(P)H-dependent peroxide (H 2 O 2 and alkyl hydroperoxides) reductase, were highly induced, indicating that microoxic growth of C. acetobutylicum is associated with the expression of a number of genes for oxygen metabolism and ROS scavenging. (asm.org)
  • Finally, the size of the FPP pool was increased by overexpression of enzymes that are rate-limiting in FPP biosynthesis. (wur.nl)
  • Nitric oxide synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This family of enzymes can phosphorylate both Ser/Thr and Tyr residues. (cathdb.info)
  • The structure revealed that AzoR has a flavodoxin-like structure, without the explicit overall amino acid sequence homology. (csgid.org)
  • It is evident from Fig. 11.5 that glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyses the reaction of glutamic acid plus NH 3 and converts into glutamine, which in turn combines with 2-oxoglutarate and results in two molecules of glutamic acid in the presence of an enzyme, glutamine oxoglutarate amino transferase (GOGAT). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • The enzyme is among the most efficient known, with rates approaching 200,000 catalytic events/second/subunit (near the diffusion-controlled limit). (kenyon.edu)
  • We propose that the structure with balsalazide bound represents an enzyme intermediate and, together with the flavin mononucleotide binding cradle, we propose a novel catalytic mechanism. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Metabolic and reactive oxygen-deactivating enzymes dependent on Fe-S clusters or other iron cofactors were decreased in abundance in iron-depleted cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Predictive active site models for sulfoxidation catalysed by the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase and 3,6-diketocamphane 1,6-monooxygenase, enantiocomplementary enzymes from Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Some hypotheses to explain aerobic growth inhibition in anaerobes were proposed, such as the possibility that oxygen attacks oxygen-sensitive enzymes causing metabolic cessation or that anaerobes lack the ability to decompose active oxygen species, such as catalase, which cause irreversible oxidative damage to DNA and lipid molecules ( 2 , 27 , 49 , 63 , 67 ). (asm.org)
  • First, unlike the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes, these enzymes are highly oxygen labile. (asm.org)
  • Fox KM and Karplus PA (1994) Old yellow enzyme at 2Åresolution: overall structure, ligand binding, and comparison with related flavoproteins. (els.net)
  • X-ray crystallography has proven to be an invaluable tool in structural and mechanistic studies of enzymes. (cornell.edu)
  • These enzymes allow for structural or geometric changes within a compound. (wikibooks.org)
  • 2009). Discovery of Specific Flavodoxin Inhibitors as Potential Therapeutic Agents against Helicobacter pylori Infection. (olisweb.com)
  • Cancer, often chemotherapy or you're giving people inhibitors of enzymes to decrease tumor growth. (mit.edu)