Enzyme Assays: Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.AmidohydrolasesSubcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Glucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 6-phospho-D-gluconate and NADP+ to yield D-ribulose 5-phosphate, carbon dioxide, and NADPH. The reaction is a step in the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.1.1.43.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.PolysaccharidesGenes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Substrate for deubiquitinylating enzyme activity assays. Identification/confirmation of enzyme deubiquitinylation activity. ... Typical assay set-up: Assay substrate concentration: 0.01-1.0µM. Enzyme concentrations, UCH-L3: 10-100pM, isopeptidase-T: 10- ... Investigation of deconjugating enzyme substrate specificity in comparison with alternative UBL-AMC substrates (e.g. NEDD8-AMC) ... Ubiquitin-AMC is a fluorogenic substrate for a wide range of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), including ubiquitin C-terminal ...
Arnold LH, Kunzelmann S, Webb MR, Taylor IA (Jan 2015). "A continuous enzyme-coupled assay for triphosphohydrolase activity of ... Parker WB, Allan PW, Hassan AE, Secrist JA 3rd, Sorscher EJ, Waud WR (Jan 2003). "Antitumor activity of 2-fluoror- ... Clofarabine-resistance arises from decreased deoxycytidine kinase activity in vitro. ABC transporter ABCG2 promotes export of ...
DNCB is used as a substrate in GST enzyme activity assays. The molecule is conjugated to a single molecule of reduced ... Affinity of CDNB for each class of GST varies and so it is not a good measure of activity for some forms (e.g. GSTT and GSTZ).[ ... so it is used medically to assess the T cell activity in patients. This is a useful diagnostic test for immunocompromised ...
... fluorescent dyes and enzyme activity assays. 2010: Kaneka acquired a majority stake in Eurogentec S.A. Kaneka's products ... Real-time qPCR Probes and Assay Dispensing Service) and Proteomics (e.g. catalog and custom peptides and antibodies, assay kits ... In addition to its pharmaceutical manufacturing activities, Eurogentec became a service company for the biotechnical research ...
... tetrahydrocerulenin to assay condensing enzyme activity in Streptomyces erythreus". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 12: 642-643. Molecular ... As of late 2007, 8 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1KEZ, 1MO2, 1PZQ, 1PZR, 2HG4 ... In enzymology, an erythronolide synthase (EC 2.3.1.94) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 6 malonyl-CoA + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is malonyl-CoA:propanoyl-CoA malonyltransferase (cyclizing). Other names in common use ...
Rogers, G. E.; Rothnagel, J. A. (1983). "A sensitive assay for the enzyme activity in hair follicles and epidermis that ... These citrulline residues are generated by a family of enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), which convert ... It is made from arginine by the enzyme trichohyalin at the inner root sheath and medulla of hair follicles.[6] Arginine is ...
Patients with Jansky-Bielschowsky disease typically have up to 50% reduced lysosomal enzymes, and thus an enzyme activity assay ... Diagnosis of Jansky-Bielschowsky disease is increasingly based on assay of enzyme activity and molecular genetic testing. ... Currently, it is unclear what mechanism in relation to enzyme activity is responsible for the buildup of lipoproteins. ... These mutations result in reduced activity of peptidase enzymes, particularly affecting lysosomes, but other mutations can ...
Enzyme assays are commonly done using fluorometric detection or older radioactively labeled substrates. There is no cure for ... There are several variants in the GALT gene, which have different levels of residual enzyme activity. A patient homozygous for ... Some regions will perform a second-tier test of GALT enzyme activity on samples with elevated galactose, while others perform ... Patients who are homozygous for Duarte mutations (D/D) will have reduced levels of enzyme activity compared to normal controls ...
Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis assays can be used to measure enzyme activity produced by microbes in a sample. A bright ... United States Department of Agriculture (USDA): Assay for Fluorescein Diacetate Hydrolytic Activity for soil samples ... It is often used to measure activity in soil and compost samples; however, it may not give an accurate reading if microbes with ... lower activity phases such as esterases cleave the fluorescein first. It is also used in combination with propidium iodide (PI ...
A positive diagnosis test for thiamine deficiency can be ascertained by measuring the activity of the enzyme transketolase in ... Thiochrome Assay) and separation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).[38][39][40] In recent reports, a number of ... In addition, several inherited disorders of ThDP-dependent enzymes have been reported,[35] which may respond to thiamine ... Impaired thiamine utilization: Magnesium, which is required for the binding of thiamine to thiamine-using enzymes within the ...
The focus was on a simple tripeptide Phe-Ala-Pro, which in earlier enzyme assays has shown inhibition activity. Replacement of ... "Synthesis and Biological Activity of a Ketomethylene Analogue of a Tripeptide Inhibitor of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme", ... "Synthesis and in vitro activity of a non-epimerizable analog of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor A58365A", Chemistry ... The acyl group of the carboxyalkanoyl amino acid binds the zinc ion of the enzyme and occupies the same position at the active ...
studied the enzyme activity of the same species of red pine seeds collected from two different tree stands in Minnesota. The ... Researchers have been able to work around this problem by using detailed Electrophoresis, gel assays, and chromosomal ... Alleles that produced an enzyme lacking catalytic activity were denoted as null alleles. A total of 27 loci were tested in red ... Many different loci were tested for enzyme activity using a specific gel electrophoresis technique. ...
Improvement of the assayed activity can be due to improvements in enzyme catalytic activity or enzyme concentration. There is ... and the activity of de novo designed enzymes. Altering substrate specificity of existing enzymes, (often for use in industry). ... If an enzyme activity can be made necessary for cell survival, either by synthesizing a vital metabolite, or destroying a toxin ... Additionally, such assays are often highly specific to monitoring a particular activity and so are not transferable to new DE ...
... and is used for assays such as ELISA assays, protein and nucleic acid quantification or enzyme activity assays (i.e. in the MTT ... Some of the most common assays are: ELISAs Protein and cell growth assays Protein:protein interactions Reporter assays Nucleic ... allows for detection of assays that contain multiple luminescent reporter enzymes, the development of new luminescence assays, ... and assay cost per sample become critical parameters, with a typical assay volume between 5 and 50 µL per well. Common ...
The assay of enzyme activities in living organisms is therefore one of the most commonly performed activities in modern ... While immunologically-based enzyme assays which uses enzyme specific antibodies to directly detect enzymes suffers from the ... and not the total enzyme activity, zymoblot, being not a serological technique, uses no antibodies and measures enzyme activity ... Numerous methods of enzyme assays are available to quantitatively follow enzyme reactions. These methods which have been ...
... is defined as an enzyme activity (EC 1.17.3.2). The same protein, which in humans has the HGNC approved gene ... During severe liver damage, xanthine oxidase is released into the blood, so a blood assay for XO is a way to determine if liver ... a related enzyme with some overlapping activities (such as conversion of allopurinol to oxypurinol). Inhibition of xanthine ... Xanthine oxidase is a superoxide-producing enzyme found normally in serum and the lungs, and its activity is increased during ...
... developing cell extracts for in vitro assays of enzyme activities. These cell free systems facilitated investigations on the ...
... or it may reflect incomplete understanding of the enzyme's activity. The enzyme assay may be invalid because of differences ... The enzyme assay may be valid, but understanding of the disease and the metabolic pathway in which it occurs may be incorrect ... Enzyme assay testing was especially effective among Ashkenazi Jews because fewer pseudodeficiency alleles are found in this ... In medical genetics, a false positive result occurs in an enzyme assay test when test results are positive, but disease or ...
Walker CJ, Weinstein JD (1991). "In vitro assay of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-chelatase: resolution of the activity ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming nitrogen-D-metal bonds in coordination complexes. The ... Magnesium-chelatase is a three-component enzyme that catalyses the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX. This is the first ... This enzyme participates in porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism. ...
Enzyme assay indicates the effectiveness of a given enzyme to a specific substrate and serves as a quality control tool. It ... The EL offers services to determine the different enzyme activities or samples for food, feeds and other industrial ... It also develops biological binders or biosurfactant,biopolymers,and heat-resistant enzymes,for wastes degradation and ... application and commercialization of existing DNA-based detection kits and industrial enzymes. Bioinformatics and Drug ...
Rogers GE, Rothnagel JA (1983). "A sensitive assay for the enzyme activity in hair follicles and epidermis that catalyses the ... The enzyme converts arginine to citrulline at the inner root sheath and medulla of hair follicles. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
In vitro enzymatic assay revealed that metadoxine reduced the activity of the GABA transaminase enzyme, responsible for the ... In animal studies, metadoxine increased the activity of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme, prevented the decrease in alcohol ... Pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes also play a role in the biosynthesis of four important neurotransmitters: serotonin (5-HT ... Its production has been linked to hepatic gamma-glutamyl transferase activity and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). Lastly, ...
The second is that mutations in clp result in significant loss of extracellular enzyme activities and antimicrobial activity ... These activities normally are phenotypically overwhelming and often lead to masking of other phenotypes in standard assays, ... A clp gene homologue belonging to the crp gene family globally regulates lytic enzyme production, antimicrobial activity, and ... The strain produces numerous extracellular enzymes that contribute to biocontrol activity, including multiple forms of β-1,3- ...
... activity, specificity, and enzyme inhibition as studied by a high capacity assay". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... The kinase activity of this protein leads to an increase in protein synthesis and cell proliferation. Amplification of the ... Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1), also known as p70S6 kinase (p70S6K, p70-S6K), is an enzyme (specifically, a protein ... However, several recent studies suggest that the activity of p70S6K plays a more positive role in the increase of autophagy. ...
An assay on the rates of activity of these enzymes may be used to ascertain biological demand for phosphates in the soil. Some ... This enzyme is present in many animal and plant species. Different forms of acid phosphatase are found in different organs, and ... Certain bacteria like Nocardia, can degrade this enzyme and utilize it as a carbon source. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase ... a type of enzyme, used to free attached phosphoryl groups from other molecules during digestion. It can be further classified ...
... lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.[10][32] Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in ... There is some evidence that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are superior to other inhibitors of the renin- ... "International Expert Committee report on the role of the A1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes". Diabetes Care. 32 (7): 1327- ... High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of diabetes by about 28%.[73] Evidence for the benefit of dietary changes ...
... at 37oC for activity assay and 25oC for Km determination. In the present study the enzyme activity as well as its affinity were ... Under physiological conditions (37oC and 290 mOs) there was a 10-12% decrease in the activity assay, as well as an affinity ... The standard methods used to assay G6PD activity and affinity (Michaelis-Menten constant - Km) for its substrate are currently ... According to the results shown in Table 1, the studied variants showed different values in enzyme activity under" physiological ...
Enzyme assays showed that GSTO2 protein had activities similar to Omega class GSTs. It has detectable glutathione-dependent ... But different from GSTO1-1, GSTO2 exhibits a high catalytic activity with CDNB. Subcellular localization analysis of GSTO2-EGFP ... thiol transferase activity and glutathione-dependent dehydroascorbate reductase activity. ...
... activity was measured by enzyme linked immunossorbent assay (ELISA).. Results: The median values of serum (TRACP-5b) (U/l) in ... The overall activity of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes constitutes the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) which is depleted ... MDA in addition to serving as an index of lipid peroxidation has also served as a measure of osteoclastic activity [42,46,47]. ... This high level could be explained by the fact that the enzyme is a unique bone resorption marker, increased at lower ...
The assay method employs a comparison of the binding ability of the metallated and unmetallated forms of the enzyme to the test ... An assay is disclosed for determining whether a test compound modulates the activity of an enzyme having a metallated active ... whereby the compounds ability to modulate the activity of the enzyme is to be tested. The enzyme is a metallated enzyme ... An assay is disclosed for determining whether a test compound modulates the activity of an enzyme having a metallated active ...
Each assay kit provides the necessary assay buffers, uses a simple protocol and defines the optimum wavelength for sensitive ... The microplate format is convenient for high throughput analysis using a 200 µL assay volume. We offer assays for proteases, ... Assays provide a rapid and convenient way to measure a range of enzyme activities using fluorescent reporters in a robust assay ... Includes assay buffers. Includes assay buffers. Format. 1,000 assays using 200 µL reaction volume. 1,000 assays using 200 µL ...
Kinetic Model Discrimination of Penicillin G Acylase Thermal Deactivation by Non-Isothermal Continuous Activity Assay. Chem. ... The process tolerance to perturbations in temperature also depends heavily on enzyme stability. Knowledge of how an enzyme will ... Using the model enzyme penicillin G acylase (PGA), three models are examined in detail, however, the technique can be applied ... Improved enzyme performance can be achieved without protein engineering if the process is designed with the enzymeâ s ...
... rapidly measures enzyme activity or protein concentration in complex biological samples. ... Abcams enzyme activity assays apply a novel approach, whereby target enzymes are first immunocaptured from tissue or cell ... Functional Studies - Complex I Enzyme Activity Dipstick Assay Kit (ab109720)This image is courtesy of an Abreview submitted by ... Complex I Enzyme Activity Dipstick Assay Kit. See all Complex I kits. ...
Standardized assay medium to measure Lactococcus lactis enzyme activities while mimicking intracellular conditions.. Goel A1, ... Based on this, we designed a new assay medium for enzyme activity measurements of growing cells of L. lactis, mimicking as ... Standardized Assay Medium To Measure Lactococcus lactis Enzyme Activities while Mimicking Intracellular Conditions ... Standardized Assay Medium To Measure Lactococcus lactis Enzyme Activities while Mimicking Intracellular Conditions ...
Assay Complex I activity in 3 hr 30 min with Complex I Enzyme Activity Microplate Assay Kit (Colorimetric) ab109721. Cited in , ... Complex I Enzyme Activity Assay Kit (ab109721) is a kit designed for the analysis of mitochondrial OXPHOS Complex I enzyme ... However, both the activity assay and the quantity assay described here are affected by enzyme assembly deficiencies. ... Note: This activity assay measures the diaphorase-type activity of Complex I. This activity is not dependant on the presence of ...
CUPRA-ZYME: An Assay for Measuring Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme Activities, Pathways, and Substrate Specificities.. Li Z1, Kitov ... Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) are involved in the synthesis, degradation, and modification of carbohydrates. They play ... However, measuring the activity of glycosyltransferases is considerably more challenging. Here, we introduce CUPRA-ZYME, a ... Measurements of their activities, catalytic pathway, and substrate specificities are essential to a comprehensive understanding ...
... dioxygenase assay) - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hi guys, I am assaying for a dioxygenase activity on a aromatic compound ... basically a aromatic ring hydroxylating activity. The cell was grown using the aromatic compound as sole carbon source . during ... IN any case, from what i have read most group could observe activity when they did the enzyme assay with cell-free extract but ... No enzyme Activity (dioxygenase assay). Started by hanming86 , Apr 01 2010 12:56 AM ...
A Live-Cell Assay for Studying Extracellular and Intracellular Endothelin-Converting Enzyme Activity. Charles Parnot, Jean- ... A Live-Cell Assay for Studying Extracellular and Intracellular Endothelin-Converting Enzyme Activity ... A Live-Cell Assay for Studying Extracellular and Intracellular Endothelin-Converting Enzyme Activity ... A Live-Cell Assay for Studying Extracellular and Intracellular Endothelin-Converting Enzyme Activity ...
Enzyme Assays: A Practical Approach. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1993. Principles of enzyme assay and kinetic studies. ... Measuring the Cytochrome c Nitrite Reductase Activity-Practical Considerations on the Enzyme Assays. Célia M. Silveira, 1 ... One unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that catalyzed the reduction of 1. μmol of nitrite per minute. ... Control assays performed in the absence of nitrite or enzyme showed little or no bleaching of the reduced mediators. Absorbance ...
Microtiter plate assays for the assessment of biochemical activities of E2 and E3 ubiquitin enzymes. Lothar Goretzki, Jue Wang ... Microtiter plate assays for the assessment of biochemical activities of E2 and E3 ubiquitin enzymes ... Microtiter plate assays for the assessment of biochemical activities of E2 and E3 ubiquitin enzymes ... Microtiter plate assays for the assessment of biochemical activities of E2 and E3 ubiquitin enzymes ...
Assay range: 0 - 16 µM for GSH or 0 - 8 µM for GSSGAssay time 3 hDetection method ColorimetricForm 96 TestsFormat 96-well ... Assay range: 0 - 16 µM for GSH or 0 - 8 µM for GSSG. Assay time 3 h. Detection method Colorimetric. Form 96 Tests. Format 96- ... A sensitive and convenient colorimetric (414 or 405 nm) assay kit for the measurement of glutathione from plasma, serum, ...
Conventional enzyme-activity assay: The same protocol as above was used, but assay buffer was added with no UCP particles and ... Upconversion-based enzyme-activity assay: The assay was performed in a total volume of 50 mL by using black half-area ... and Tero Soukka Enzyme-activity assays are used, for example, for screening enzyme inhibitors and activators to discover novel ... Fluorescence-Quenching-Based Enzyme-Activity Assay by Using Photon Upconversion.. код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или ...
Marx, M. -C., Wood, M., Jarvis, S. C. A microplate fluorometric assay for the study of enzyme diversity in soils. Soil biology ... Sinsabaugh, R. L., Lauber, C. L., et al. Stoichiometry of soil enzyme activity at global scale. Ecology letters. 11, 1252-1264 ... Tabatabai, M. A., Bremner, J. M. Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity. Soil biology and ... Freeman, C., Liska, G., Ostle, N. J., Jones, S. E., Lock, M. A. The use of fluorogenic substrates for measuring enzyme activity ...
Assay Kit (Fluorometric). Sensitive, simple assay kit for quantitating ECE1 activity. 100 assays ... Endothelin Converting Enzyme 1 Activity Assay Kit (Fluorometric). Industrys first kit to detect ECE1 activity in biological ... BioVisions Endothelin Converting Enzyme 1 Activity Assay Kit utilizes the ability of active ECE-1 to cleave a synthetic ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE1, ACE2), and Neprilysin is compensated for within the assay. Our assay kit is simple, ...
19. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste ... Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4)-β-Dglucanase, and β ... Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4)-β-D-glucanase, ... Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of ...
... manufacture of active enzymes and their substrates supports development of an ever-expanding portfolio of biochemical assays. ... Enzyme Activity Assay. The vast majority of catalyzing biological processes is performed by enzymes which provide a wide ... For most of the enzymes for which we have activity assay kits, we also provide Sandwich ELISA assays of quantity. By combining ... Substrate profiling analyzing selectivity of enzymes. Our enzyme activity assays involve the immunocapture of the protein of ...
Enzyme Activity Calculations:. One unit of activity is the amount of enzyme to decompose 1 µmole of P-NPP/minute at 25° C. ... Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity Assay Procedure. Chemical Principle. Orthophosphoric Monoester + H20 → Alcohol + H3PO4 ... 2. At time = 0, add 100 µl of the diluted enzyme to Reaction tube and 100 µl Tris to the Control tube. Mix thoroughly. ... Assay Reagents. Buffers: 0.1M Tris buffer, pH 8.0 and 1.0M Tris buffer, pH 8.0. ...
... Adam B Shapiro (1) Carl Peters ... Assay Principle. In this application note we want to present a novel homogeneous FRET-based assay to monitor the activity of ... from lytic assays to live cell assays, from one to multiple assays. ... 1: Schematic of FRET assay for MraY activity. Micelles containing MraY from E. coli membranes (blue) and C55P (black) are mixed ...
... facilitating better understanding of various roles enzymes play in physiological processes. ... Profacgen provides professional enzyme activity assay service for the determination of enzyme activities and kinetics, ... Assay Service • Enzyme Activity Assay Service • DNase I Footprinting Assay Service • Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) • Surface ... Profacgen provides a comprehensive list of enzyme activity assay services for your enzyme research. Our extensive experience in ...
In this report we describe an in vitro assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts was 3- to 4- ... ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity and the enzyme was sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent N- ... and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ... The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol of Mg-deuteroporphyrin per h per mg of protein, ...
This is a protocol on Assay of Acid Phosphatase enzyme activity from Potatoes. ... Phosphatase is an enzyme that removes the phosphate group from a substrate. ... Assay of Acid Phosphatase enzyme activity from Potatoes. Aim:. To determine the acid phosphatase enzyme activity in potatoes ... Assay of Acid Phosphatase enzyme activity from Potatoes. Home » Protocols » Quantitative Analysis » Assay of Acid Phosphatase ...
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said enzyme in both metallated and nonmetallated forms is labeled with a visible dye, a fluorescent dye or a radio label and said binding is determined by assessing the presence, absence or amount of label associated with the binding of the enzyme to the test compound coupled to solid support. (google.com)
  • EnzCheck® Assays provide a rapid and convenient way to measure a range of enzyme activities using fluorescent reporters in a robust assay format. (thermofisher.com)
  • The EnzChek® Protease Assay Kits contain a casein derivative that is heavily labeled with either the green-fluorescent BODIPY® FL or red-fluorescent BODIPY® TR-X dye. (thermofisher.com)
  • They offer stable, sensitive fluorescent detection and activity kits and they have the most sensitive and innovative ELISA kits in their product portfolio. (lubio.ch)
  • Comparison of a multiplexed fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measurement of human immunoglobulin G antibodies to anthrax toxins. (cdc.gov)
  • Second, the dipstick is immersed in Complex I activity buffer solution containing NADH as a substrate and nitrotetrazolium blue (NBT) as the electron acceptor. (abcam.com)
  • d) V max values with 1/10 the metals present in CDMPC, relative to V max values without metals added to the assay buffer. (nih.gov)
  • Set up a control simultaneously by adding ml of TCA to 5 ml of buffer substrate followed by ml of enzyme and proceeds as per test. (biochemden.com)
  • After the target has been immobilized in the well, Complex I activity is determined by following the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ and the simultaneous reduction of a dye which leads to increased absorbance at OD=450 nm. (abcam.com)
  • Some enzymes' activity can be measured by its conversion or production of readily detectable molecules such as ATP, NADH and pyruvate. (profacgen.com)
  • Chromatograph of the negative control for the resting cell assay of the alkane hydroxylase system. (igem.org)
  • A phosphatase is an enzyme that removes a phosphate group from its substrate by hydrolyzing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free hydroxyl group . (biochemden.com)
  • The amount of inorganic phosphorous present in the given unknown sample is __________ mg of inorganic phosphate formed per 1 ml of enzyme / 30 minutes. (biochemden.com)
  • Liver glutamine synthetase (GS), carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPS), ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) and arginase (ARG) activities were also measured. (biologists.org)
  • Measurements of their activities, catalytic pathway, and substrate specificities are essential to a comprehensive understanding of the biological functions of CAZymes and exploiting these enzymes for industrial and biomedical applications. (nih.gov)
  • The vast majority of catalyzing biological processes is performed by enzymes which provide a wide variety of functions inside living organisms. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Enzyme is a large category of bio-molecules that catalyze various biological processes including metabolic processes, cellular signaling and regulation, cell division and apoptosis. (profacgen.com)
  • A comparison of this natural-degrader value with the biological activity we've found of 0.045 U/mg would give more information on the growth feasibility of a strain carring the AH-system BioBrick on octane. (igem.org)
  • The table below provides a sample of deubiquitination enzymes and their associated biological function. (activemotif.com)
  • We have developed an immunocapture assay to measure the specific enzyme activity of neprilysin in brain tissue homogenates and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (ru.nl)
  • During the last decade, considerable research effort has been directed at the identification of changes in oxidative stress and in antioxidative enzymes as one of the mechanisms underlying the development of heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • In view of increasing evidence for the involvement of oxidative stress in heart failure, it is of considerable interest to examine whether changes in antioxidative enzymes at the transcriptional or translational level may exist under chronic conditions in human heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • This was undertaken through observing how oxidative stress induced by H2O2 alters antioxidant enzyme activity within HT29 colon cancer cells, and then observing changes in this activity by treatments with the different antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA), Apo-bLF and Fe-bLF. (nih.gov)
  • In the biofuel industry, acid or alkaline pretreatment is used and will partly destroy and significantly loosen the entire stable structure of plant biomass, thus providing a less recalcitrant and much more accessible material for the hydrolytic enzymes [ 11 ]. (springer.com)
  • By adapting their metabolism to the availability of varying amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the environment, fungi produce a mixture of oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes to efficiently break down lignocelluloses like wood. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine whether activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes (aldolase, pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase) are altered in the glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) compared to controls. (molvis.org)
  • Pyruvate kinase activity was measured by coupling lactate dehydrogenase with NADPH and pyruvate absorbance was measured at 340 nm. (molvis.org)
  • Lipid peroxidation product modification of aldolase, pyruvate kinase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase serves as a likely reason for the reduction of enzyme activity. (molvis.org)
  • Additionally, the activities of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthetase in roots of Col-0 plants decreased and soluble sugar accumulated significantly, whereas pyruvate kinase-mediated glycolysis was not affected, all of which contributed to NH 4 + accumulation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Moreover, HIF activation results in decreased activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ( 7 , 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This beneficial effect was associated with improvement of the mitochondrial respiratory function through recovering the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the vasculature of SHR s. (ahajournals.org)