A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Amino Acid Sequence
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Type C Phospholipases
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 184.108.40.206), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Amino Acid Substitution
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Protein Kinase C
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A kinetic study of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. (1/44858)The activation kinetics of purified Rhodospirillum rubrum ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were analysed. The equilibrium constant for activation by CO(2) was 600 micron and that for activation by Mg2+ was 90 micron, and the second-order activation constant for the reaction of CO(2) with inactive enzyme (k+1) was 0.25 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1. The latter value was considerably lower than the k+1 for higher-plant enzyme (7 X 10(-3)-10 X 10(-3)min-1 . micron-1). 6-Phosphogluconate had little effect on the active enzyme, and increased the extent of activation of inactive enzyme. Ribulose bisphosphate also increased the extent of activation and did not inhibit the rate of activation. This effect might have been mediated through a reaction product, 2-phosphoglycolic acid, which also stimulated the extent of activation of the enzyme. The active enzyme had a Km (CO2) of 300 micron-CO2, a Km (ribulose bisphosphate) of 11--18 micron-ribulose bisphosphate and a Vmax. of up to 3 mumol/min per mg of protein. These data are discussed in relation to the proposed model for activation and catalysis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. (+info)
Nitric oxide stimulates the stress-activated protein kinase p38 in rat renal mesangial cells. (2/44858)Nitric oxide (NO) has gained increased attention as a diffusible universal messenger that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, we reported that exogenous NO is able to activate the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) cascade in mesangial cells. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of glomerular mesangial cells to compounds releasing NO, including spermine-NO and (Z)-1- (N-methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]diazen)-1-ium-1,2-diolate (MAHMA-NO), results in an activation of the stress-activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) cascade as measured by the phosphorylation of the activator of transcription factor-2 (ATF2) in an immunocomplex kinase assay. Activation of the p38-MAPK cascade by a short stimulation (10 min) with the NO donor MAHMA-NO causes a large increase in ATF2 phosphorylation that is several times greater than that observed after stimulation with interleukin-1beta, a well-known activator of the p38-MAPK pathway. Time course studies reveal that MAHMA-NO causes rapid and maximal activation of p38-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation and that activation declines to basal levels within 60 min. The longer-lived NO donor spermine-NO causes a comparable rapid activation of the p38-MAPK pathway; however, the increased activation state of p38-MAPK was maintained for several hours before control values were reattained after 24 h of stimulation. Furthermore, the NO donors also activated the classical extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) p44-MAPK cascade as shown by phosphorylation of the specific substrate cytosolic phospholipase A2 in an immunocomplex kinase reaction. Both MAHMA-NO and spermine-NO cause a rapid activation of p44-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation. Interestingly, there is a second delayed peak of p44-MAPK activation after 4-24 h of stimulation with NO donors. These results suggest that there is a differential activation pattern for stress-activated and mitogen-activated protein kinases by NO and that the integration of these signals may lead to specific cell responses. (+info)
A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (3/44858)Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila . The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals. (+info)
Intracellular signalling: PDK1--a kinase at the hub of things. (4/44858)Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is at the hub of many signalling pathways, activating PKB and PKC isoenzymes, as well as p70 S6 kinase and perhaps PKA. PDK1 action is determined by colocalization with substrate and by target site availability, features that may enable it to operate in both resting and stimulated cells. (+info)
Bcl-2 regulates amplification of caspase activation by cytochrome c. (5/44858)Caspases, a family of specific proteases, have central roles in apoptosis . Caspase activation in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli involves the relocalisation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytoplasm where it stimulates the proteolytic processing of caspase precursors. Cytochrome c release is controlled by members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis regulators  . The anti-apoptotic members Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL may also control caspase activation independently of cytochrome c relocalisation or may inhibit a positive feedback mechanism    . Here, we investigate the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in the regulation of caspase activation using a model cell-free system. We found that Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL set a threshold in the amount of cytochrome c required to activate caspases, even in soluble extracts lacking mitochondria. Addition of dATP (which stimulates the procaspase-processing factor Apaf-1  ) overcame inhibition of caspase activation by Bcl-2, but did not prevent the control of cytochrome c release from mitochondria by Bcl-2. Cytochrome c release was accelerated by active caspase-3 and this positive feedback was negatively regulated by Bcl-2. These results provide evidence for a mechanism to amplify caspase activation that is suppressed at several distinct steps by Bcl-2, even after cytochrome c is released from mitochondria. (+info)
Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (6/44858)The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential. (+info)
Activation of c-Abl tyrosine kinase requires caspase activation and is not involved in JNK/SAPK activation during apoptosis of human monocytic leukemia U937 cells. (7/44858)Genotoxic stress triggers the activation of several sensor molecules, such as p53, JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl, and occasionally promotes the cells to apoptosis. We previously reported that JNK1/SAPK regulates genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis in p53-negative U937 cells by activating caspases. c-Abl is expected to act upstream of JNK1/SAPK activation upon treatment with genotoxic stressors, but its involvement in apoptosis development is still unclear. We herein investigated the kinase activities of c-Abl and JNK1/SAPK during apoptosis elicited by genotoxic anticancer drugs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in U937 cells and their apoptosis-resistant variant UK711 cells. We found that the activation of JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl correlated well with apoptosis development in these cell lines. Unexpectedly, however, the JNK1/SAPK activation preceded the c-Abl activation. Moreover, the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp suppressed c-Abl activation and the onset of apoptosis but not the JNK1/SAPK activation. Interestingly, c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibition by CGP 57148 reduced apoptosis without interfering with JNK1/SAPK activation. These results indicate that c-Abl acts not upstream of JNK1/ SAPK but downstream of caspases during the development of p53-independent apoptosis and is possibly involved in accelerating execution of the cell death pathway. (+info)
Activation of telomerase and its association with G1-phase of the cell cycle during UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mouse. (8/44858)Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds hexanucleotide repeats TTAGGG to the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase activation is known to play a crucial role in cell-immortalization and carcinogenesis. Telomerase is shown to have a correlation with cell cycle progression, which is controlled by the regulation of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (cdks) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (cdkis). Abnormal expression of these regulatory molecules may cause alterations in cell cycle with uncontrolled cell growth, a universal feature of neoplasia. Skin cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer in humans and the solar UV radiation is its major cause. Here, we investigated modulation in telomerase activity and protein expression of cell cycle regulatory molecules during the development of UVB-induced tumors in SKH-1 hairless mice. The mice were exposed to 180 mjoules/cm2 UVB radiation, thrice weekly for 24 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 4 week intervals and the studies were performed in epidermis. Telomerase activity was barely detectable in the epidermis of non-irradiated mouse. UVB exposure resulted in a progressive increase in telomerase activity starting from the 4th week of exposure. The increased telomerase activity either persisted or further increased with the increased exposure. In papillomas and carcinomas the enzyme activity was comparable and was 45-fold higher than in the epidermis of control mice. Western blot analysis showed an upregulation in the protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E and their regulatory subunits cdk4 and cdk2 during the course of UVB exposure and in papillomas and carcinomas. The protein expression of cdk6 and ckis viz. p16/Ink4A, p21/Waf1 and p27/Kip1 did not show any significant change in UVB exposed skin, but significant upregulation was observed both in papillomas and carcinomas. The results suggest that telomerase activation may be involved in UVB-induced tumorigenesis in mouse skin and that increased telomerase activity may be associated with G1 phase of the cell cycle. (+info)
Activation of the enzyme leading to H2O2 production. Agmatine sulfate injection can increase food intake with carbohydrate ... Both differential inhibition and activation of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms is reported. Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a ... Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Indirect down-regulation of the enzymes MMP 2 and 9. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) ... "Agmatine enhances the NADPH oxidase activity of neuronal NO synthase and leads to oxidative inactivation of the enzyme". ...
Involvement of serine 54 in the enzyme activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (28): 16526-34. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE4D gene. The PDE4D gene is ... Sette C, Conti M (Jul 1996). "Phosphorylation and activation of a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase by the cAMP-dependent protein ...
Insulin signal transduction pathway
PI-3K is composed of a regulatory subunit (P85) and a catalytic subunit (P110). P85 regulates the activation of PI-3K enzyme. ... An example of positive feedback mechanism in the insulin transduction pathway is the activation of some enzymes that inhibit ... Other enzymes will push the pathway forward causing a positive feedback like the AKT and P70 enzymes. When insulin binds to its ... Different enzymes control this pathway. Some of these enzymes constrict the pathway causing a negative feedback like the GSK-3 ...
Together they published four papers on enzyme activation. In 1910, Dochez became an assistant resident and bacteriologist at ...
Alexander George Ogston
He contributed to the general field of enzyme kinetics by studying activation and inhibition. He made a sceptical study of the ... Ogston, A G (1955). "Activation and inhibition of enzymes". Discuss. Faraday Soc. 20 (20): 161-167. doi:10.1039/df9552000161. ... Thus a chiral enzyme such as aconitase can act differently on two apparently equivalent groups on a prochiral molecule, so ... Ogston pointed out that when a symmetrical molecule is placed in an asymmetric environment, such as the surface of an enzyme, ...
Decker H, Schweikardt T, Nillius D, Salzbrunn U, Jaenicke E, Tuczek F (August 2007). "Similar enzyme activation and catalysis ...
... which activates some of the cycle enzymes; and the RuBisCo enzyme activation, active in the Calvin cycle, which involves its ... The enzyme RuBisCo has its own, more complex activation process. It requires that a specific lysine amino acid be carbamylated ... The enzymes in the Calvin cycle are functionally equivalent to most enzymes used in other metabolic pathways such as ... The product of the first step is enediol-enzyme complex that can capture CO 2 or O 2. Thus, enediol-enzyme complex is the real ...
Evidence for C-terminal involvement in enzyme activation by lecithin". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 327 (1): 45-52. doi:10.1006/abbi ... D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BDH1 gene. This gene encodes ... The encoded protein forms a homotetrameric lipid-requiring enzyme of the mitochondrial membrane and has a specific requirement ... 2000). "Phosphatidylcholine activation of human heart (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase mutants lacking active center ...
Rault M, Gontero B, Ricard J (May 1991). "Thioredoxin activation of phosphoribulokinase in a chloroplast multi-enzyme complex ... which may potentially transfer information between the two enzymes as well. Multi-enzyme complexes are likely to have more ... A catalytic residue in the enzyme (i.e. aspartate in RsPRK) deprotonates the O1 hydroxyl oxygen on RuP and activates it for ... More recent work on the regulation of eukaryotic PRK has focused on its ability to form multi-enzyme complexes with other ...
Fibroblast activation protein, alpha
Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP-alpha) also known as prolyl endopeptidase FAP is an enzyme that in humans is encoded ... "Antiplasmin-cleaving enzyme is a soluble form of fibroblast activation protein". Blood. 107 (4): 1397-404. doi:10.1182/blood- ... Bae S, Park CW, Son HK, Ju HK, Paik D, Jeon CJ, Koh GY, Kim J, Kim H (September 2008). "Fibroblast activation protein alpha ... "Entrez Gene: fibroblast activation protein, alpha". Garin-Chesa P, Old LJ, Rettig WJ (September 1990). "Cell surface ...
"Proteasome recruitment and activation of the Uch37 deubiquitinating enzyme by Adrm1". Nature Cell Biology. 8 (9): 994-1002. doi ... preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ... "hRpn13/ADRM1/GP110 is a novel proteasome subunit that binds the deubiquitinating enzyme, UCH37". The EMBO Journal. 25 (24): ... "hRpn13/ADRM1/GP110 is a novel proteasome subunit that binds the deubiquitinating enzyme, UCH37". The EMBO Journal. 25 (24): ...
Jin J, Li X, Gygi SP, Harper JW (2007). "Dual E1 activation systems for ubiquitin differentially regulate E2 enzyme charging". ... Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the UBA6 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... "Entrez Gene: UBE1L2 ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like 2". Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA Cloning Using In ... a novel E1 enzyme specific for ubiquitin". J Biol Chem. 282 (32): 23010-4. doi:10.1074/jbc.C700111200. PMID 17580310. " ...
Jin J, Li X, Gygi SP, Harper JW (June 2007). "Dual E1 activation systems for ubiquitin differentially regulate E2 enzyme ... Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 Z (UBE2Z), also known as UBA6-specific E2 enzyme 1 (USE1), is an enzyme that in humans is ... This protein belongs to the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme family and is one of the E2 enzymes. UBE2Z spans 246 amino acids, 150 ... that is located at the enzyme's N-terminal and responsible for the enzyme's catalytic function. This UBC domain has a ...
2002). "The FX enzyme is a functional component of lymphocyte activation". Cell. Immunol. 213 (2): 141-148. doi:10.1006/cimm. ... GDP-mannose 4,6 dehydratase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GMDS gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 1998). "Molecular cloning and expression of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase, a key enzyme for fucose metabolism defective in ... short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase and related enzymes) nomenclature initiative". Chem Biol Interact. 178 (1-3): 94-98. doi: ...
Activation of the Neurospora crassa enzyme by ammonium and rubidium ions". The Biochemical Journal. 209 (2): 527-31. doi: ... The enzyme is expressed constitutively by most strains of C.diff, and can thus be easily detected in stool. Diagnosis is ... In plants, the enzyme can work in either direction depending on environment and stress. Transgenic plants expressing microbial ... The enzyme represents a key link between catabolic and anabolic pathways, and is, therefore, ubiquitous in eukaryotes. In ...
Leidecker O, Matic I, Mahata B, Pion E, Xirodimas DP (March 2012). "The ubiquitin E1 enzyme Ube1 mediates NEDD8 activation ... Jin J, Li X, Gygi SP, Harper JW (June 2007). "Dual E1 activation systems for ubiquitin differentially regulate E2 enzyme ... Ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1 (UBA1) is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the UBA1 gene. UBA1 participates ... "Structural insights into E1-catalyzed ubiquitin activation and transfer to conjugating enzymes". Cell. 134 (2): 268-78. doi: ...
The encoded enzyme is a negative regulator of thiopurine activation and toxicity. Mutations in this gene result in poor ... This gene encodes an enzyme that belongs to the Nudix hydrolase superfamily. Members of this superfamily catalyze the ...
Schulman BA, Harper JW (May 2009). "Ubiquitin-like protein activation by E1 enzymes: the apex for downstream signalling ... Ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) starts the ubiquitination process (Figure 1). The E1 enzyme, along with ATP, binds to the ... Ubiquitin-activating enzymes, also known as E1 enzymes, catalyze the first step in the ubiquitination reaction, which (among ... "Structural insights into E1-catalyzed ubiquitin activation and transfer to conjugating enzymes". Cell. 134 (2): 268-78. doi: ...
... reductive activation and kinetic analysis of a multifunctional respiratory enzyme". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (5): 3093-100. doi: ... Portal: Biology v t e (CS1 errors: missing periodical, EC 1.7.99, Flavin enzymes, Flavoprotein enzymes, Enzymes of unknown ... This enzyme participates in nitrogen metabolism. It has 2 cofactors: FAD, and Flavoprotein. Taniguchi H, Mitsui H, Nakamura K, ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on other nitrogenous compounds as donors with ...
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5
2006). "Proteasome recruitment and activation of the Uch37 deubiquitinating enzyme by Adrm1". Nat. Cell Biol. 8 (9): 994-1002. ... Wicks SJ, Haros K, Maillard M, Song L, Cohen RE, Dijke PT, Chantry A (Dec 2005). "The deubiquitinating enzyme UCH37 interacts ... Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UCHL5 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2007). "hRpn13/ADRM1/GP110 is a novel proteasome subunit that binds the deubiquitinating enzyme, UCH37". EMBO J. 25 (24): 5742- ...
"Ribonucleotide activation by enzyme ribonucleotide reductase: understanding the role of the enzyme". Journal of Computational ... Class I RNR enzymes are constructed from large alpha subunit and small beta subunits which associate to form an active ... Organisms are not limited to having one class of enzymes. For example, E. coli have both class I and class III RNR. The ... A somewhat unusual feature of the RNR enzyme is that it catalyzes a reaction that proceeds via a free radical mechanism of ...
Glycogen storage disease type V
Ser-14 is modified by phosphorylase kinase during activation of the enzyme. Lys-680 is involved in binding the pyridoxal ... The enzyme phosphorylase kinase plays a role in phosphorylating glycogen phosphorylase to activate it and another enzyme, ... The associated enzyme deficiency was discovered in 1959 by W. F. H. M. Mommaerts et al. Bissonnette, Bruno; Luginbuehl, Igor; ... The enzyme removes 1,4 glycosyl residues from outer branches of glycogen and adds inorganic phosphate to form glucose-1- ...
Enzyme activation is triggered by acidic pH and appears to be autocatalytic. Protein expression occurs after monocytes ... This enzyme may be involved in the processing of bacterial peptides and endogenous proteins for MHC class II presentation in ... 1998). "Autocatalytic activation of human legumain at aspartic acid residues". FEBS Lett. 438 (1-2): 114-8. doi:10.1016/S0014- ... Chen JM, Fortunato M, Barrett AJ (2001). "Activation of human prolegumain by cleavage at a C-terminal asparagine residue". ...
These are produced by intrapancreatic activation of pancreatic enzymes. Lipase activation produces the necrosis of fat tissue ... The activation of these digestive enzymes lead to inflammation, edema, vascular injury, and even cellular death. The death of ... This occurs through inappropriate activation of inactive enzyme precursors called zymogens (or proenzymes) inside the pancreas ... 16 mmol/L E - Enzymes: LDH >600iu/L; AST >200iu/L A - Albumin 10 mmol/L Predicts mortality risk in pancreatitis with fewer ...
Fu PP, Xia Q, Lin G, Chou MW (2004). "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids--genotoxicity, metabolism enzymes, metabolic activation, and ... These tests and similarities in the peptide sequences of the proteins encoded by these genes to known enzymes indicate that one ... Further steps in loline biosynthesis are thought to proceed with sequential PLP-enzyme-catalyzed and oxidative decarboxylations ... coupled in a condensation reaction linking the γ-carbon in homoserine to the secondary amine in proline in a PLP-type enzyme- ...
Direct activation of enzymes by binding calcium is common; some other enzymes are activated by noncovalent association with ... Trypsin, a digestive enzyme, uses the first method; osteocalcin, a bone matrix protein, uses the third. Some other bone matrix ... as cofactors in many enzymes; and in fertilization. Calcium ions outside cells are important for maintaining the potential ... continuously reformed through neutron activation of natural 40Ca. Many other calcium radioisotopes are known, ranging from 35Ca ...
Because plants don't have decarboxylase enzyme for L-ornithine, it must be first converted into L-arginine. Arginine can then ... Metabolic Activation, and Mechanisms". Drug Metabolism Reviews. 36 (1): 1-55. doi:10.1081/DMR-120028426. PMID 15072438. S2CID ... These adducts can damage DNA, leading to genotoxicity and carcinogenesis, and liver enzymes and hepatocytes, leading to ... Fu, Peter P.; Xia, Qingsu; Lin, Ge; Chou, Ming W. (2004). "Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids-Genotoxicity, Metabolism Enzymes, ...
"Activation of nitrofurazone by azoreductases: multiple activities in one enzyme". Scientific Reports. 1 (1): 63. Bibcode: ... Other enzymes this may affect include, pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthetase, malate dehydrogenase, glutathione reductase ... properties are suspected to be due to the interference of DNA synthesis in the microorganism by inhibiting certain enzymes that ...
Protease inhibitor (biology)
Removal of this region by proteolytic cleavage results in activation of the enzyme. This domain is also found, in one or more ... The pro-segment docks into the enzyme, shielding the substrate binding site, thereby promoting inhibition of the enzyme. ... The propeptide is removed by proteolytic cleavage; removal activating the enzyme. This family includes both microviridins and ... Proteinase propeptide inhibitors (sometimes referred to as activation peptides) are responsible for the modulation of folding ...
Yamamoto-Hino M, Goto S (May 2016). "Spätzle-Processing Enzyme-independent Activation of the Toll Pathway in Drosophila Innate ... Activation of these neurons induces the female to cease movement and orient herself towards the male to allow for mounting. If ... Wang T, Xu H, Oberwinkler J, Gu Y, Hardie RC, Montell C (February 2005). "Light activation, adaptation, and cell survival ... Wiederrecht GJ, Brown GM (1984). "Purification and properties of the enzymes from Drosophila melanogaster that catalyze the ...
Uridine monophosphate synthase
In humans, the gene that codes for this enzyme is located on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3q13). This bifunctional enzyme has ... Zhang Y, Deng H, Schramm VL (Dec 2010). "Leaving group activation and pyrophosphate ionic state at the catalytic site of ... Other microorganisms with separated enzymes must retain higher concentrations to keep their enzymes in their more active ... the enzyme shows positive cooperativity. However, when enzyme concentrations are higher, these complex kinetics do not manifest ...
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Each monomer of the enzyme has a peroxidase and a PTGS (COX) active site. The PTGS (COX) enzymes catalyze the conversion of ... Minghetti L, Pocchiari M (2007). "Cyclooxygenase‐2, Prostaglandin E2, and Microglial Activation in Prion Diseases". ... The tertiary and quaternary structures of PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) enzymes are almost identical. Each subunit has three ... PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) are bifunctional enzymes that carry out two consecutive chemical reactions in spatially ...
Methionine synthase) reductase
This enzyme is crucial for maintaining the one carbon metabolism, specifically the folate cycle. The enzyme employs one ... Olteanu H, Munson T, Banerjee R (2002). "Differences in the efficiency of reductive activation of methionine synthase and ... Portal: Biology v t e (EC 1.16.1, NADPH-dependent enzymes, Enzymes of unknown structure, All stub articles, Oxidoreductase ... This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, to be specific those oxidizing metal ion with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. ...
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src
The activation of the c-Src pathway has been observed in about 50% of tumors from colon, liver, lung, breast and the pancreas. ... c-Src should not be confused with CSK (C-terminal Src kinase), an enzyme that phosphorylates c-Src at its C-terminus and ... The activation of c-Src causes the dephosphorylation of the tyrosine 527. This induces long-range allostery via protein domain ... Since the activation of c-Src leads to the promotion of survival, angiogenesis, proliferation and invasion pathways, the ...
Different classes of enzymes are used to digest these polymers. These digestive enzymes include proteases that digest proteins ... their activation into reactive forms using energy from ATP, and thirdly, the assembly of these precursors into complex ... Microbes simply secrete digestive enzymes into their surroundings, while animals only secrete these enzymes from specialized ... the enzyme that makes it. These enzymes are regulated in a reciprocal fashion, with phosphorylation inhibiting glycogen ...
It is a pore-forming peptide, as it can puncture a microbial cell wall, allowing for other death-inducing enzymes to enter the ... Donlon TA, Krensky AM, Clayberger C (1990). "Localization of the human T lymphocyte activation gene 519 (D2S69E) to chromosome ... a human late T cell activation molecule with homology to small, lytic, granule proteins". Journal of Immunology. 158 (6): 2680- ... a human NK and T cell-specific activation gene". Immunogenetics. 37 (2): 102-107. doi:10.1007/BF00216832. PMID 8423048. S2CID ...
26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 7, also known as 26S proteasome non-ATPase subunit Rpn8, is an enzyme that in ... This activity is usually attributed to the role of proteasomes in the activation of NF-κB which further regulates the ... preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ... "HIV-1 tat inhibits the 20 S proteasome and its 11 S regulator-mediated activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 ( ...
Fragmentation (cell biology)
Two enzymes facilitate the production of such recombinant DNA molecules: 1. Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes are ... Apoptosis involves the activation of endonucleases with subsequent cleavage of chromatin DNA into fragments of 180 base pairs ... For each restriction enzyme, bacteria also produce a modification enzyme so that a host bacterium's own DNA is protected from ... The modification enzyme adds a methyl group to one or two bases, and the presence of this methyl group prevents the restriction ...
... is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Specifically activates several components of the blood ... Lindquist PA, Fujikawa K, Davie EW (March 1978). "Activation of bovine factor IX (Christmas factor) by factor XIa (activated ... Has no action on insulin B chain This enzyme is present in the venom of Russell's viper (Vipera russelli). Furie BC, Furie B ( ... Takeya H, Nishida S, Miyata T, Kawada S, Saisaka Y, Morita T, Iwanaga S (July 1992). "Coagulation factor X activating enzyme ...
NADPH oxidase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NOX4 gene, and is a member of the NOX family of NADPH oxidases. ... H oxidase 4 isozyme is essential for lipopolysaccharide-induced production of reactive oxygen species and activation of NF- ... "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 induces apoptosis in human primary neurons through redox-regulated activation of ...
In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). This enzyme phosphorylates ... STAT activation initiates the most well-defined cell signaling pathway for all IFNs, the classical Janus kinase-STAT (JAK-STAT ... Another cellular enzyme, RNAse L-also induced by interferon action-destroys RNA within the cells to further reduce protein ... Minks MA, West DK, Benvin S, Baglioni C (October 1979). "Structural requirements of double-stranded RNA for the activation of 2 ...
M-phase inducer phosphatase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDC25C gene. This gene is highly conserved during ... 1991). "Dephosphorylation and activation of a p34cdc2/cyclin B complex in vitro by human CDC25 protein". Nature. 351 (6323): ... 1994). "Activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by microinjection of human cdc25C into mammalian cells. Requirement for prior ... Zheng XF, Ruderman JV (1993). "Functional analysis of the P box, a domain in cyclin B required for the activation of Cdc25". ...
It is believed that the impact of alcohol on aging can be partly explained by alcohol's activation of the HPA axis, which ... Damage to enzymes reduces cellular functionality. Lipid peroxidation of the inner mitochondrial membrane reduces the electric ... are due to defective DNA repair enzymes. ...
"MAP kinase phosphorylation-dependent activation of Elk-1 leads to activation of the co-activator p300". The EMBO Journal. 22 (2 ... For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. ... Promoter DNA sequences provide an enzyme binding site. The -10 sequence is TATAAT. -35 sequences are conserved on average, but ... enzyme bound to the promoter. Enhancers, when active, are generally transcribed from both strands of DNA with RNA polymerases ...
Caspase-10 is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the CASP10 gene. This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the ... Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive ... Vincenz, C; Dixit V M (March 1997). "Fas-associated death domain protein interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme 2 (FLICE2), an ICE ... Vincenz C, Dixit VM (1997). "Fas-associated death domain protein interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme 2 (FLICE2), an ICE/Ced-3 ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases. The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase helps maintain resting potential, affects transport, and ... The downstream signals through ouabain-triggered protein phosphorylation events include activation of the mitogen-activated ... The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase enzyme is active (i.e. it uses energy from ATP). For every ATP molecule that the pump uses, three sodium ions ... In 1997, he received one-half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na⁺,K⁺- ...
Selective androgen receptor modulator
The mechanism of many SARMs may also allow for the treatment of prostate cancer through the activation of AR-induced expression ... Alanine Transaminase (ALT), an enzyme present in the liver, has been shown to fluctuate abnormally while clinical patients were ...
In 1963 zinc was determined to be essential to human growth, three enzymes requiring zinc as a cofactor were described, and a ... cell division and cell activations. However, having too much or too little zinc can cause these functions to be compromised. ... Zinc deficiency could be also associated with low alkaline phosphatase since it acts a cofactor for this enzyme.[citation ... By 2014 over 300 zinc containing enzymes have been identified, as well as over 1000 zinc containing transcription factors.[ ...
... so that the activation energy is roughly 80 kJ/mol (20 kcal/mol). However, the activation energy can be lowered (and the ... For example, the tripeptide glutathione is synthesized in two steps from free amino acids, by two enzymes: glutamate-cysteine ... In living organisms, the process is normally catalyzed by enzymes known as peptidases or proteases, although there are reports ... Both of these mechanisms for lowering the activation energy have been observed in peptidyl prolyl isomerases (PPIases), which ...
These enzymes use both molecular oxygen and two NADPH's to dehydrate one of the hydroxyl groups on the anthraquinone and open ... "Aflatoxin genotoxicity is associated with a defective DNA damage response bypassing p53 activation". Liver International. 31 (4 ... Most of the enzymes have not been characterized and there may be several more intermediates that are still unknown. However, ... Averantin is converted to averufin via a two different enzymes, a hydroxylase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. This will oxygenate ...
Activation of each phase is dependent on the proper progression and completion of the previous one. Cells that have temporarily ... promoting the expression of transcription factors that in turn promote the expression of S cyclins and of enzymes required for ... Activation of E2F results in transcription of various genes like cyclin E, cyclin A, DNA polymerase, thymidine kinase, etc. ... The molecular mechanism that causes the cell switched to cyclin E activation is currently not known, but as cyclin E levels ...
May 2017). "Dectin 1 activation on macrophages by galectin 9 promotes pancreatic carcinoma and peritumoral immune tolerance". ... repulsion of deubiquitinating enzyme USP9X, increased K63 ubiquitination of TAK1 (MAP3K7) kinase, which in turn phopshorylates ...
Endothelin receptor activation mediates strong pulmonary vasoconstriction and positive inotropic effect on the heart. These ... The medication should also be discontinued if the liver aminotransferase enzymes for the patients are increased more than ...
... ranging from regulation of ion channels and G-protein coupled reactions to receptor stimulation and activation of nuclear ... but rather requires an additional class of enzymes (SNO synthases), which catalyze denovo S-nitrosylation. NOSs ultimately ... which is mediated by enzymes that add (nitrosylases) and remove (denitrosylases) SNO from proteins, respectively. Accordingly, ...
In addition, he showed that activation of growth factor receptors, expression of K-Ras G12V and B-Raf V600E, and hypoxia induce ... In addition to the findings that metabolic enzymes of PKM2, PGK1, KHK-A, and PCK1 can function as protein kinases, he ... Lu demonstrated that glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) acts as a protein kinase and phosphorylates histone H3 to ... Lu demonstrated that growth factor receptor activation induces translocation of PKM2 into the nucleus, where it binds to and ...
... and macrophage activation. Oxygen-free radicals are generated which, in turn, lead to further lung damage. Patients may remain ... and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Residence in an institutional setting, prolonged hospitalization or surgical ...
This enzyme participates in starch and sucrose metabolism. This enzyme belongs to the family of glycosyltransferases, ... After binding, fructose 6-phosphate will interact with UDP via a hydrogen bond, which lowers the activation energy of the ... Sucrose-phosphate synthase is a plant enzyme involved in sucrose biosynthesis. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the transfer ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-glucose:D-fructose 6-phosphate 2-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in ...
Chemi-excitation via oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species and/or catalysis by enzymes (i.e., peroxidase, lipoxygenase) ... These genes and their associated proteins are responsible for pathogen recognition and activation of defense signaling networks ...
ENZYME entry on EC 220.127.116.11 BRENDA entry on EC 18.104.22.168 PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available ... "Differential activation of NAD kinase by plant calmodulin isoforms. The critical role of domain I". The Journal of Biological ... Magni G, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N (Jul 2006). "Structural and functional properties of NAD kinase, a key enzyme in NADP ... NAD+ kinase (EC 22.214.171.124, NADK) is an enzyme that converts nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into NADP+ through ...
P2 has been linked to tumor cell survival due to the lipid's binding and subsequent activation of Akt. Akt activation causes ... Recognition of polyunsaturated acyl chains by enzymes acting on membrane lipids. Biochim Biophys Acta. (2012) 1818:957-62. ... The generation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 at the plasma membrane upon the activation of class I PI 3-kinases and SHIP phosphatases causes ... Test tube experiments have shown that the essential recruitment of PDK1 for Akt activation at the PM can be driven through ...
Enzyme Combined with Redox Mediator for C-H Activation - ChemistryViews
Enzyme Combined with Redox Mediator for C-H Activation. Author: ChemistryViews. The selective functionalization of ... When the team increased the concentrations of the enzyme and NHPI and removed O2, they obtained a benzylic NHPI adduct instead ... A Horseradish Peroxidase-Mediator System for Benzylic C-H Activation,. Mario A. Cribari, Maxwell J. Unger, Jeffrey D. Martell, ... and colleagues have developed a system for the functionalization of alkylbenzenes under mild conditions that combines an enzyme ...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Activation Is Not a Common Feature of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides. | J...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Activation Is Not a Common Feature of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides. ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Activation Is Not a Common Feature of Angiotensin-Converti ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) catalyzes the formation of angiotensin II (Ang II), a vasoconstrictor, whereas its ... Our study showed that ACE2 activation is not a common feature of ACEi peptides. ...
MCQs on Enzyme Regulatory strategies (Allosteric control, Zymogen activation, Isoenzyme and Reversible covalent modifications) ...
Zymogen activation, Isoenzyme and Reversible covalent modifications). Answer key is at the end of MCQs ... There are 20 MCQs on Enzyme Regulatory strategies (Allosteric control, ... Enzyme II Mechanism of enzyme action: ES complex, transition state, activation energy, binding energy, Hypothesis of enzyme ... There are 20 MCQs on Enzyme Regulatory strategies (Allosteric control, Zymogen activation, Isoenzyme and Reversible covalent ...
Adenosine2A receptor vasodilation of rat preglomerular microvessels is mediated by EETs that activate the cAMP/PKA pathway
... by activation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) is coupled to epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) release. We have investigated the ... Enzyme Activation / drug effects * Enzyme Activation / physiology * Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology * GTP-Binding Protein ... Thus in rat PGMV activation of A2AR is coupled to EET release upstream of adenylyl cyclase activation and EETs stimulate mono- ... Dilation of rat preglomerular microvessels (PGMV) by activation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) is coupled to ...
Assessment of Hageman factor activation in human plasma: quantification of activated Hageman factor-C1 inactivator complexes by...
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed for the quantitation of activated Hageman factor-C1 inactivator (HF-C1 ... An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed for the quantitation of activated Hageman factor-C1 inactivator (HF-C1 ... Kaolin activation of HF- deficient plasma yields no detectable complex formation. Kaolin activation of prekallikrein-deficient ... AP Kaplan, B Gruber, PC Harpel; Assessment of Hageman factor activation in human plasma: quantification of activated Hageman ...
Small molecule-mediated allosteric activation of the base excision repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase and its impact on...
Multiplex Real-Time PCR Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) genes ...
1nuf.1 | SWISS-MODEL Template Library
Role of Calcium Ions in the Activation and Activity of the Transglutaminase 3 Enzyme ... Role of Calcium Ions in the Activation and Activity of the Transglutaminase 3 Enzyme Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY ... Ahvazi, B. et al., Roles of Calcium Ions in the Activation and Activity of the Transglutaminase 3 Enzyme. J.Biol.Chem. (2003) ...
Pediatric Hypocalcemia: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase
Buffer components such as salts and additives influence the time required for enzyme activation. ... PCR Enzymes & Kits. End-Point PCR. HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase. HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase. For fast and highly specific ... The activation time for HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase used in the QuantiFast SYBR Green PCR Kits is longer than that for ... Hot-start enzyme from Supplier AII. Supplier R. Supplier I (antibody-mediated). Manual. Wax barrier. ...
JCI - Effects of dietary-induced hyperparathyroidism on the parathyroid hormone-receptor-adenylate cyclase system of canine...
... and the effects of guanyl nucleotides on PTH binding and enzyme activation appeared normal. NaF-stimulated enzyme activity was ... 5,303 +/- 348 in normal controls). The Kact (concentration of PTH required for half-maximal enzyme activation) was unchanged. ... demonstrable by NaF activation, not corrected by guanyl nucleotides, leading to abnormal PTH-receptor adenylate cyclase ...
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the induction of CD8+ T cells by plasmacytoid dendritic cells | Nature...
TLR7 activation induces ROS accumulation in pDCs through the downregulation of ROS-metabolizing enzymes. a ROS production in ... The pDC activation by R848 is associated with the downregulation of several intracellular antioxidant enzyme genes. Some of ... These data suggest that the regulation of ROS-metabolizing enzymes following activation could contribute to the increase in the ... Thus, we then assessed the involvement of ROS in pDC activation by analyzing the upregulation of activation markers and ...
Advanced Search Results - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)
Rat pancreatic stellate cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases: implications for extracellular matrix turnover | Gut
MMP-2: expression, activation and inhibition. Enzyme Protein1996;49:7-19. ... Multiple modes of activation of latent human fibroblast collagenase: evidence for the role of a Cys73 active-site zinc complex ... The key enzymes involved in ECM protein degradation are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). These are a family of at least 25 ... Activation of pancreatic stellate cells in human and experimental pancreatic fibrosis. Am J Pathol1999;155:1087-95. ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Guilt & Conscious Eating - Snacking & Breakfasts
Activation - Activation is key to all these new products as it helps to activate enzyme inhibitors to assist our body to access ... Activation- the process of soaking and dehydration. Activation is the breakdown of enzyme inhibitors exogenously; for that when ... Key part = ACTIVATION. WHY ACTIVATE products = extrusion extracts nutrients, BUT... Activation GALVANIZES the seeds, enzyme ... Activation is an essential process for preparing wholegrains, legumes, beans, nuts and seeds. Activation releases the enzyme ...
Anti-MMP9 antibody (ab74277) | Abcam
Moises Asis cmacc 2009 apitherapy for mental disorders and chemical addictions
After repeated activation of the opiate receptor by morphine, the enzyme adapts so that the morphine can no longer cause ... After repeated activation of the opiate receptor by morphine, the enzyme adapts so that the morphine can no longer cause ... Also, it is rich in sugars, natural acids, aminoacids, enzymes, and other substances incorporating to blood stream within 15 ... Protein from larvae is 20% dry matter, rich in enzymes, vitamin A, minerals, glucosides (1-3%). Many drugs produce depression, ...
Breast Milk Protein Called HAMLET Helps Kill Dangerous Hospital 'Superbug
UBA1 gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
The UBA1 gene provides instructions for making the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Learn about this gene and related health ... Ubiquitin-like protein activation by E1 enzymes: the apex for downstream signalling pathways. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009 May; ... The UBA1 gene provides instructions for making the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. This enzyme is necessary for the ubiquitin- ... These variants reduce the activity, function, or production of the enzyme. This shortage of functional enzyme allows damaged or ...
Interactions Between Travel Vaccines & Drugs | CDC Yellow Book 2024
... especially through their activation or inhibition of the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes. ... CYP2D6 Enzyme Substrates. Chloroquine is a CYP2D6 enzyme inhibitor. Monitor patients taking chloroquine concomitantly with ... CYP3A4 Enzyme Inducers. CYP3A4 inducers include medications used to treat HIV or HIV-associated infections (e.g., efavirenz, ... CYP3A4 Enzyme Inhibitors. CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., erythromycin, ketoconazole, ritonavir) can increase chloroquine levels; ...
Geraadpleegde bronnen Jakobskruiskruid
Publikationen von Rainer Höfgen | Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie
From the journals: MCP
Dysregulation of ubiquitylation enzymes can lead to activation or deactivation of pathways implicated in diseases, including ... Identifying an enzyme that promotes pancreatic cancer. Read about papers on these topics recently published in the journal ... In their study, recently published in the journal Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, the team found that an enzyme called ST6GAL1 ... IDing a cancer-promoting enzyme. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, or PDAC, is the most common type of pancreatic cancer and ...
Alexa Fluor 647 anti-beta-Amyloid, 1-16 Antibody, beta-Amyloid, 1-16, 6E10
bupropion News Research Articles
The dynamic assembly of distinct RNA polymerase I complexes modulates rDNA transcription | eLife
These analogies suggest that an overall architectural arrangement may be conserved to mediate enzyme activation and promoter ... Previous work on Pol I in yeast has shown that Rrn3 binding to the enzyme is required for Pol I recruitment to the promoter, ... The Pol I enzyme is presented in the same view as Figure 5B, with the clamp on the right and the protrusion on the left. ... 2012) Inhibition of RNA polymerase I as a therapeutic strategy to promote cancer-specific activation of p53 Cancer Cell 22:51- ...
MetabolismInhibitorsImmunosorbent assayUbiquitin-proteaMetabolic activationZymogenProteasomeHorseradish peroxidaseFunctionalInhibitsGenesInhibitorCovalentGene provides instructionsApoptosisSignaling pathwaysMechanismsActivityCalciumProteinsCatalyzesConcentrationLiverProteinUbiquitinationReceptorLeadMolecularCellsTimeSystemsFormComplex
- It is an activator of most of the enzyme systems involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and protein . (vitaminsdiary.com)
- It is necessary for the activation of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme involved in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. (vitaminsdiary.com)
- Mutations in genes concerned with production of enzymes for metabolism of tobacco products may lead to increased risk of carcinogenesis with respect to oral mucosa. (bvsalud.org)
- Several CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms decrease the activity of the CYP2C9 enzyme and slow the body's metabolism of warfarin. (medlineplus.gov)
- Activation is the same as sprouting - soaking the seeds in filtered water to release the enzyme inhibitors, bringing the seeds to life and making even more nutrients available to your body. (lovingearth.net)
- An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed for the quantitation of activated Hageman factor-C1 inactivator (HF-C1 INH) complexes. (ashpublications.org)
- Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we observed changes in the degree of global DNA methylation in the SK-MEL-3 melanoma cell line under irradiation with 1.6-THz radiation with limited spectral bandwidth. (nature.com)
- This enzyme is necessary for the ubiquitin-proteasome system, which targets damaged or unneeded proteins to be broken down (degraded) within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- However, the 89 fraction from asphalt exposed rat lungs used for metabolic activation of 2-aminoanthracene or benzo[a]pyrene in Ames tests, did not induce mutagenic activity in either S. typhimurium YGIO24 or YGIO29. (cdc.gov)
- Metabolic activation of phenol by human myeloperoxidase and horseradish peroxidase. (cdc.gov)
- This is because several of the contaminants in technical grade methoxychlor are directly estrogenic (Kupfer and Bulger 1987b), whereas pure methoxychlor is proestrogenic and requires metabolic activation before exhibiting estrogenic activity (Bulger et al. (cdc.gov)
- and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme. (bvsalud.org)
- When a chain of ubiquitin proteins is attached to a protein, the protein is recognized and destroyed by a complex of enzymes called a proteasome. (medlineplus.gov)
- The team used N -hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) as the redox mediator (pictured in the center), H 2 O 2 as an oxidant, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the enzyme. (chemistryviews.org)
- This shortage of functional enzyme allows damaged or unneeded proteins to build up inside cells instead of being broken down, which may damage cells and contribute to cell death. (medlineplus.gov)
- Is there an association between angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism and functional activation of monocytes and macrophage in young patients with essential hypertension? (cdc.gov)
- Certain VKORC1 gene polymorphisms decrease the amount of functional VKORC1 enzyme available to help activate clotting proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
- Individuals develop warfarin sensitivity because a lower warfarin dose is needed to inhibit the VKORC1 enzyme, as there is less functional enzyme that needs to be suppressed. (medlineplus.gov)
- Silencing of STAMBPL1 with siRNA inhibits Tax activation of both the canonical and noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
- MLN4924 is an investigational agent that inhibits the Nedd8- activating enzyme, thereby neutralizing Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases and preventing degradation of their substrates. (elsevierpure.com)
- Warfarin prevents (inhibits) the action of the VKORC1 enzyme and slows the activation of clotting proteins and clot formation. (medlineplus.gov)
- Overexpression of wild-type STAMBPL1, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, enhances Tax-mediated NF-κB activation and the induction of NF-κB target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Various products of these genes are enzymes involved in the activation or degradation of carcinogens/pro-carcinogens. (bvsalud.org)
- Although addition of corn inhibitor to plasma prevents activated HF-C1 INH complex formation, it does not inhibit activated HF sufficiently fast to prevent prekallikrein activation. (ashpublications.org)
- Toward this end, the goals of our research are (1) to understand the basic enzymatic mechanisms underlying Ubl attachment to targets, (2) to understand how Ubls are attached selectively, and (3) to understand mechanisms by which Ubl covalent attachment can change enzyme and target function. (stjude.org)
Gene provides instructions3
- The UBA1 gene provides instructions for making the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. (medlineplus.gov)
- The CYP2C9 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that breaks down various substances in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- The VKORC1 gene provides instructions for making a vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme. (medlineplus.gov)
- Results: CD40L-expressing stroma protected CLL cells from spontaneous apoptosis and induced resistance to multiple drugs, accompanied by NF-kB activation and Bim repression. (elsevierpure.com)
- 2002. Myeloperoxidase-dependent caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in HL-60 cells: protection by the antioxidants ascorbate and (dihydro)lipoic acid. . (oregonstate.edu)
- We believe that determining the mechanisms by which enzymes transfer Ubls will be of broad importance, much like studies of protein kinases have influenced our knowledge of signaling pathways and their roles in diseases. (stjude.org)
- Surprisingly, however, the precise molecular mechanisms governing the activities of these enzymes remain poorly understood. (harvard.edu)
- NaF-stimulated enzyme activity was reduced in the hyperparathyroid animals (8,285 +/- 607 pmol cAMP/mg protein per 30 min vs. 10,851 +/- 247 in controls). (jci.org)
- 1975. [Effect of methyl parathion or zineb administration on the activity of some hepatic enzymes in rats]. (cdc.gov)
- These variants reduce the activity, function, or production of the enzyme. (medlineplus.gov)
- Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. (bvsalud.org)
- The process includes an influx of calcium and activation of enzymes that cause bacteria cells to weaken and rupture. (healthline.com)
- As a result, damaged or unneeded proteins build up inside cells instead of being broken down, which may contribute to abnormal activation of immune cells or cell damage and death. (medlineplus.gov)
- The VKORC1 enzyme helps turn on (activate) clotting proteins in the pathway that forms blood clots . (medlineplus.gov)
- Angiotensin -converting enzyme (ACE) catalyzes the formation of angiotensin II (Ang II), a vasoconstrictor , whereas its homologue ACE2 degrades Ang II into angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7)), a vasodilator . (bvsalud.org)
- First, at the apex of each Ubl's cascade, a dedicated E1 enzyme selects its Ubl and catalyzes adenylation of the Ubl's C-terminus. (stjude.org)
- The Kact (concentration of PTH required for half-maximal enzyme activation) was unchanged. (jci.org)
- Protionamide is almost completely metabolised in the liver by the CYP450 system, though it is not known which of the CYP enzymes are responsible. (who.int)
- 1991. Serum liver enzyme and histopathologic changes in calves with chronic and chronic-delayed Senecio jacobaea toxicosis. (jakobskruiskruid.com)
- These are termed xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) found especially in the liver but also in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and several are polymorphic and strongly influence individual biological responses to carcinogens. (bvsalud.org)
- Using a deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme siRNA library we identified STAM-binding protein-like 1 (STAMBPL1) as a DUB that is required for Tax-mediated NF-κB activation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Ubls are attached to protein targets by a series of molecular handoffs involving an E1 activating enzyme, an E2 conjugating enzyme (or Ubc), an E3 ligase, and the target. (stjude.org)
- Most cases of VEXAS syndrome are caused by genetic variants that change the protein building block (amino acid) methione at position 41 in the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 to another amino acid. (medlineplus.gov)
- Ubiquitination of IkBa may partially account for constitutive activation of NF-kB. (elsevierpure.com)
- These data indicate that desensitization of the PTH-responsive adenylate cyclase system of canine kidney as a result of mild chronic elevations of endogenous PTH is due to a postreceptor defect, demonstrable by NaF activation, not corrected by guanyl nucleotides, leading to abnormal PTH-receptor adenylate cyclase coupling. (jci.org)
- Proper control of the PG hydrolases is particularly important since misregulation of these enzymes can lead to lethal breaches in the cell wall. (harvard.edu)
- These variants lead to the production of an abnormally short enzyme with reduced function. (medlineplus.gov)
- Dysregulation of ubiquitylation enzymes can lead to activation or deactivation of pathways implicated in diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. (asbmb.org)
- Kaolin treatment of high-molecular weight (HMW) kininogen-deficient plasma yields an even more profound abnormality in the rate of formation of activated HF-C1 INH complexes reflecting the complex role of HMW kininogen in the initiation of contact activation. (ashpublications.org)
- Kaolin activation of prekallikrein-deficient plasma demonstrates a time- dependent increase in formation of activated HF-C1 INH complex consistent with the ability of HF in this plasma to autoactivate as the time of incubation with the surface is increased. (ashpublications.org)
- The polymerase combines the high specificity, sensitivity, and minimal optimization of HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase, with a fast 5-minute activation time. (qiagen.com)
- HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase provides the unrivaled performance of HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase with a shortened activation time of just 5 minutes. (qiagen.com)
- HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase outperformed kits tested from other suppliers and ensures high specificity and superior performance in hot-start PCR (see figures " Highest specificity. PCR was performed with HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase, HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase, and Taq DNA Polymerase from QIAGEN, and 3 hot-start PCR enzymes from the indicated suppliers. Parallel reactions were performed following the suppliers' recommendations, using 50 ng human genomic DNA. A 1.5 kb fragment of the human CFTR gene was amplified in 35 PCR cycles. M : markers. "> Highest specificity " and " Higher specificity with different primer-template systems. Higher specificity with different primer-template systems. "> Higher specificity with different primer-template systems ", and table). (qiagen.com)
- When the team increased the concentrations of the enzyme and NHPI and removed O 2 , they obtained a benzylic NHPI adduct instead, resulting from a coupling of the radical form of the mediator and the benzylic radical. (chemistryviews.org)
- Kaolin activation of HF- deficient plasma yields no detectable complex formation. (ashpublications.org)