Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to reduce the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual's health. It was established in 1969.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Environmental Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with environmental factors that may impinge upon human disease, and development of methods for the detection, prevention, and control of environmentally related disease.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.United StatesOral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Housing: Living facilities for humans.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Lead PoisoningEpidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.New York CityAir Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Respiratory Tract DiseasesOutcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Planning Techniques: Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Mercury PoisoningMya: A genus of soft-shell clams in the family Myidae, class BIVALVIA.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.MontanaHealth Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Duty to Warn: A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.WisconsinEducation, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Swimming PoolsTerrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.EuropeIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.North CarolinaElectronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Cuba: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies, south of Florida. With the adjacent islands it forms the Republic of Cuba. Its capital is Havana. It was discovered by Columbus on his first voyage in 1492 and conquered by Spain in 1511. It has a varied history under Spain, Great Britain, and the United States but has been independent since 1902. The name Cuba is said to be an Indian name of unknown origin but the language that gave the name is extinct, so the etymology is a conjecture. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p302 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p132)Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Greece

Light on population health status. (1/991)

A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994.  (+info)

Hazardous wastes in eastern and central Europe: technology and health effects. (2/991)

Issues of hazardous waste management are major concerns in the countries of eastern and central Europe. A National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-supported conference was held in Prague, Czech Republic, as a part of a continuing effort to provide information and promote discussion among the countries of eastern and central Europe on issues related to hazardous wastes. The focus was on incineration as a means of disposal of hazardous wastes, with discussions on both engineering methods for safe incineration, and possible human health effects from incineration by-products. Representatives from government agencies, academic institutions, and local industries from 14 countries in the region participated along with a few U.S. and western European experts in this field. A series of 12 country reports documented national issues relating to the environment, with a focus on use of incineration for hazardous waste disposal. A particularly valuable contribution was made by junior scientists from the region, who described results of environmental issues in their countries.  (+info)

Water pollution and human health in China. (3/991)

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute.  (+info)

Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores. (4/991)

We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum.  (+info)

High concentrations of heavy metals in neighborhoods near ore smelters in northern Mexico. (5/991)

In developing countries, rapid industrialization without environmental controls has resulted in heavy metal contamination of communities. We hypothesized that residential neighborhoods located near ore industries in three northern Mexican cities would be heavily polluted with multiple contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) and that these sites would be point sources for the heavy metals. To evaluate these hypotheses, we obtained samples of roadside surface dust from residential neighborhoods within 2 m of metal smelters [Torreon (n = 19)] and Chihuahua (n = 19)] and a metal refinery [Monterrey (n = 23)]. Heavy metal concentrations in dust were mapped with respect to distance from the industrial sites. Correlation between dust metal concentration and distance was estimated with least-squares regression using log-transformed data. Median dust arsenic, cadmium, and lead concentrations were 32, 10, and 277 microg/g, respectively, in Chihuahua; 42, 2, and 467 microg/g, respectively, in Monterrey, and 113, 112, and 2,448 microg/g, respectively, in Torreon. Dust concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly higher around the active smelter in Torreon, where more than 90% of samples exceeded Superfund cleanup goals. At all sites, dust concentrations were inversely related to distance from the industrial source, implicating these industries as the likely source of the contamination. We concluded that residential neighborhoods around metal smelting and refining sites in these three cities are contaminated by heavy metals at concentrations likely to pose a health threat to people living nearby. Evaluations of human exposure near these sites should be conducted. Because multiple heavy metal pollutants may exist near smelter sites, researchers should avoid attributing toxicity to one heavy metal unless others have been measured and shown not to coexist.  (+info)

Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals. (6/991)

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches.  (+info)

Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke. (7/991)

One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios.  (+info)

Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. (8/991)

For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected.  (+info)

  • The scientific evidence concerning the environmental and health impacts of genetic engineering is still emerging. (fao.org)
  • Today, we are leading in the emerging field of exposomics, and our pioneering research programs are investigating a broad range of early environmental exposures and their impacts on health and development throughout life. (mssm.edu)
  • NIEHS-supported researcher Aimin Chen, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Health at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, is studying the impacts of e-waste recycling on pregnant women and their children in Guiyu. (nih.gov)
  • While environmental journalists often focus on regulatory wrestling matches in Washington, D.C., a seasoned New York Times investigative reporter argues the most important stories are those in the real communities where bureaucratic impacts are felt. (sej.org)
  • It is a survey course intended to give students an understanding of how environmental factors impact the health of people and the community, and of the efforts made to prevent or minimize the effects of negative impacts. (studiesabroad.com)
  • The fracking industry's response to criticisms of its health impacts has been compared to that of the tobacco industry. (truthout.org)
  • Publication of articles in EHP does not mean that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) condones, endorses, approves, or recommends the use of any products, services, materials, methodology, or policies stated therein. (nih.gov)
  • This web portal is part of a national network created in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide health, exposure, environmental hazard data and information that communities can use to improve their health. (ct.gov)
  • Community Health and Environmental Policy research centers, and related RAND centers. (rand.org)
  • Three of the partnerships APHA convenes with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provide expertise, scientifically based information and tools that practitioners, the general public and decision-makers can use to help protect environmental health. (apha.org)
  • In particular, I want students to understand core concepts in environmental health science and gain an analysis of regulatory and policy decisions that influence individual and community level health outcomes. (carleton.edu)
  • A primer explaining ATSDR's comprehensive efforts to prevent or mitigate adverse human health outcomes related to hazardous substance exposure, how the process works, and some general principles for improving effectiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • Environmental health is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health, whereas environmental protection is concerned with protecting the natural environment for the benefit of human health and the ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health has been defined in a 1999 document by the World Health Organization (WHO) as: Those aspects of the human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can potentially affect health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health as used by the WHO Regional Office for Europe, includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals, radiation and some biological agents, and the effects (often indirect) on health and well being of the broad physical, psychological, social and cultural environment, which includes housing, urban development, land use and transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental health policy is the interplay between the environment and health, and how the environment can affect human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Policies are created by governments and organizations where they see the issues arising in the health of their jurisdiction related to the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Municipal governments focus on policies that affect the boundaries they control, while state governments focus on several cities or states within their borders where environment affects health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developing nations do not always have the same access to resources to implement policies that can improve the environment and health of their citizens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental Health Policy is the combination between the environment and the health of citizens in a defined area. (wikipedia.org)
  • When defining Environmental Health policy it is best to break down the concept into three separate groups: environment, health and policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The environment aspect of the term refers to the ecosystems and the environmental factors that can impact human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental Health Policy refers to the human impact on the environment, which in turn has an impact on human health and requires policy action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our environment affects our health. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If parts of the environment, like the air , water , or soil become polluted, it can lead to health problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The environment is important in human development and health. (tn.us)
  • A resource for kids, parents, and teachers to find fun and educational materials related to health, science, and the environment we live in today. (nih.gov)
  • CDPH seeks to promote health for all through a healthy environment. (ca.gov)
  • Congress approved a series of sweeping legislative measures, including the Clean Air Act (1970), the Water Pollution Control Act (1972), and the Environmental Pesticide Control Act (1972), each designed to clean up hundreds of chemicals in the environment and preclude further irreparable damage. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, the IPCS designs promotional materials such as the three posters below, which illustrate the relationship between toxic chemicals, health, and the environment as part of their educational division. (nih.gov)
  • Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist. (bls.gov)
  • WHO synthesizes the best available scientific evidence on environment and health to report on trends, develops standards for acceptable levels of risk and provides guidance to professionals who need to make science relevant to policy actions. (who.int)
  • It's helpful to acknowledge there are a lot of things outside the control of families (genes, community environment, etc), while also supporting specific behaviors that make a difference for health. (washington.edu)
  • Working at the intersection of genetics, environmental health, and data science, researchers in Baylor College of Medicine's Center for Precision Environmental Health seek to understand these differing effects, evaluating gene-environment interactions. (bcm.edu)
  • Center researchers work to understand how the environment influences health and disease and uncover new disease control strategies and interventions. (bcm.edu)
  • There is now a growing awareness of the negative effects of technological development on the environment and on human health due to exposure to environmental contaminants. (wessex.ac.uk)
  • This course explores the relationship of people to their environment -- how it affects their physical well-being, as well as what they can do to protect and enhance their health, and to influence the quality of the environment. (studiesabroad.com)
  • 1. Define the major sources and types of environmental agents and discuss the transport and fate of these agents in the environment. (studiesabroad.com)
  • 2. Identify the carriers or vectors that promote the transfer of these agents from the environment to the human and describe how these agents interact with biological systems, and the mechanisms by which they exert adverse effects over health. (studiesabroad.com)
  • We also study the potential adverse effects of emerging 2D nanomaterials on human health and the environment and work to identify safe design rules rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics that will enable their successful development and commercialization. (brown.edu)
  • Our global environment: A health perspective (5th ed. (jhsph.edu)
  • The articles include interviews, case studies, thought pieces, and interdisciplinary theoretical works that explore the relationship between human health and the urban environment. (usda.gov)
  • This volume is a joint endeavor of Meristem and the U.S. Forest Service Northern Research Station as they work to strengthen networks of researchers and practitioners to develop new solutions to persistent and emergent challenges to human health, well-being, and potential within the urban environment. (usda.gov)
  • The AAP serves as the PEHSU National Program Office (NPO) to support the 10 regional PEHSUs in the US and lead programmatic outreach to increase awareness, utilization, and impact of the program with the goal of reducing environmental exposures and improving health across the lifespan. (aap.org)
  • On March 16, NIEHS sponsored a panel on climate change as part of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH). (nih.gov)
  • NIEHS is committed to conducting the most rigorous research in environmental health sciences, and to communicating the results of this research to the public. (nih.gov)
  • NIEHS offers a broad range of job opportunities, career enhancement programs, and research training grants and programs in environmental health sciences and administration. (nih.gov)
  • Download or play NIEHS Health Chat's with a wide range of experts and topics. (nih.gov)
  • Find out about the exciting discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers that are helping to improve health and save lives. (nih.gov)
  • Our NIEHS "Superfund" center on environmental health renewed for 5 years. (brown.edu)
  • NIEHS 50th Anniversary Environmental Health FEST. (brown.edu)
  • It is targeted towards preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • How do we create conditions and environments that support health and well-being? (rand.org)
  • You'll explore the relationship between professional, domestic and leisure environments, build your understanding of their impact and learn the skills to assess and improve environmental health in a variety of settings. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • APHA and the National Environmental Health Partnership Council are pleased to present Investing in a Robust Environmental Health System (PDF), a guide to creating healthy environments for all. (apha.org)
  • The Value of Environmental Health Services report (PDF), created by members of the National Environmental Health Partnership Council, sheds light on the economic value on the very environmental health services that prevent disease and create healthy, supportive environments. (apha.org)
  • Healthy environments where we live, learn, work, and play are recognized as a vital factor in a person's overall health and well-being. (ihs.gov)
  • Our department is deeply committed to the prevention of diseases with environmental origins, and we are shaping the future of environmental health research, clinical practice, and training the next generation of leaders in this field. (mssm.edu)
  • Research in the environmental health field tries to limit the harmful exposures through natural things such as soil, water, air food, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you are giving a presentation about an environmental health topic or just looking for general information about environmental health research or the institute, this page will help. (nih.gov)
  • OHSU is dedicated to improving the health and quality of life for all Oregonians through excellence, innovation and leadership in health care, education and research. (ohsu.edu)
  • We are committed to not just being a leader in community health and environmental policy research, but in ensuring that our work has a positive impact on the world. (rand.org)
  • Dr. Cheryl Walker, director of the Center for Precision Environmental Health, talks with Noorhan Al-Juboory, BCM Biotech Academy at Rusk, about why it is important for scientists and researchers to talk to others about their research. (bcm.edu)
  • Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering presents timely research on all aspects of environmental health science, engineering and management. (springer.com)
  • It works in close collaboration with other UN agencies, non-governmental organizations and other major players in nutrition and health to create synergies and complement ongoing research and programme evaluation activities, with the IAEA's comparative advantage being the support of the use of nuclear techniques. (iaea.org)
  • Memorandum about identifying veterans who may have been exposed to chemical and biological agents in connection with research projects and to provide information potentially relevant to current health concerns. (health.mil)
  • You will gain effective communication and leadership in Environmental Health settings and develop academic research strategies and critical writing. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • There are new challenges in environmental health, new initiatives and research findings that drive policy changes, and new leadership at the King County Executive office. (kingcounty.gov)
  • The US Global Change Research Program calls climate change "a significant threat to the health of the American people. (massmed.org)
  • Asthma rates are on the rise in California, but the condition disproportionately affects low-income children and adults, according to a study from the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. (sej.org)
  • This is an introductory interdisciplinary environmental health science course that will introduce students to basic concepts in environmental health such as hazard and risk as well as topics such as water access and equality, pesticides, and air quality. (carleton.edu)
  • On the environmental hazard of using biotechnology, Prof Tetteh said a toxin known as Bt toxin had been produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, which was toxic to insects of the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera families only, but not to man and other animals. (scoop.it)
  • citation needed] In the United Kingdom, practitioners must have a graduate degree in environmental health and be certified and registered with the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health or the Royal Environmental Health Institute of Scotland. (wikipedia.org)
  • This manual is designed as a reference for Environmental Health Practitioners (EHPs) engaging with and working in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. (health.gov.au)
  • The course is designed to acquaint the student with the scientific and technical foundations of the field, and examines both the practice of environmental health and the problems which are addressed by the practitioners in this career discipline. (studiesabroad.com)
  • Guides lay persons and non-medical users and medical practitioners to useful and reliable online medical and health information. (curlie.org)
  • The University of South Carolina recognizes that asbestos-containing materials (ACM) may release asbestos fibers into the air when not properly managed, and that this can pose a health risk to university faculty, staff, students, contractors and visitors. (sc.edu)
  • As of 2016 the WHO website on environmental health states "Environmental health addresses all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related factors impacting behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • and reducing radiation exposure to patients at healthcare facilities are all concerns of the Office of Environmental Health and Engineering Division of Environmental Health Services (DEHS). (ihs.gov)
  • Find Health Affairs and Defense Health Agency policy documents. (health.mil)
  • The appearance of hyperlinks does not constitute endorsement by the Defense Health Agency of non-U.S. Government sites or the information, products, or services contained therein. (health.mil)
  • Although the Defense Health Agency may or may not use these sites as additional distribution channels for Department of Defense information, it does not exercise editorial control over all of the information that you may find at these locations. (health.mil)
  • More information on the specific work that is done in each of these programs can be found on the Division of Environmental Health Services (DEHS) website. (ihs.gov)
  • The PEHSUs form a network that responds to requests for information throughout the United States (one in each of the federal regions) and offers guidance on prevention, diagnosis, management, and treatment of environmentally-related health effects from preconception through young adulthood. (aap.org)
  • Quantifying the health effects of neurotoxicants and obesogens. (brown.edu)
  • Our investigations generate and interpret environmental contaminant, toxicity, and effects data. (usgs.gov)
  • Read about the health effects of climate change and what physicians have to say about it in the summer issue of the Massachusetts Medical Society member newsletter. (massmed.org)
  • New England Journal of Medicine Climate Crisis and Health site A collection of articles and other resources describing effects of climate change on physical and psychological health and on the function of health care systems, including resources to support action by physicians and other health care professionals. (massmed.org)
  • NUSA DUA, Indonesia (Reuters) - Millions more people will be at risk from illnesses such as malaria and diarrhea in a warming world beset by heatwaves and water shortages, the World Health Organization said on Thursday. (enn.com)
  • CHANNAI, India (Reuters Health) - In a study conducted in India, vitamin A supplements given in the early newborn period reduced the risk of infant deaths from diarrhea, fever and respiratory infections, but did not reduce the occurrence of these problems. (enn.com)
  • This primer will also present key principles and techniques to assist federal decision-makers and health risk communicators to improve their overall effectiveness in evaluating health risk messages and materials. (cdc.gov)
  • 5. Animal waste, including animal carcasses, body parts, bedding and other items from animals known or suspected by either the Department of Health or the Department of Agriculture of being contaminated with organisms that can produce disease in humans, and for which disposal by burial or other ordinarily acceptable means would not sufficiently reduce the risk of disease transmission to humans or other animals. (uvm.edu)
  • Environmental Health Risk is a global problem and one that needs to be studied and solved by international cooperation. (wessex.ac.uk)
  • The 6th International Conference on the Impact of Environmental Factors on Health (Environmental Health Risk 2011) has recently taken place in Riga, Latvia, organised by the Wessex Institute of Technology, represented by Professors Carlos A Brebbia and Viktor Popov, and Riga Stradins University, represented by Professor Maija Eglite. (wessex.ac.uk)
  • It summarizes environmental risk factors and explores how to interpret and understand epidemiological data using concentration-response, exposure-response or dose-response techniques, explaining the environmental interventions available for each environmental risk factor. (elsevier.com)
  • When left intact and undisturbed, these materials do not pose a health risk. (sc.edu)
  • He said GM foods posed no health risk since extensive test was made on them before they were released. (scoop.it)
  • The industry claims well drilling in the Marcellus Shale will bring several hundred thousand jobs, and has minimal health and environmental risk. (truthout.org)
  • Members of the Climate Change and Global Health Using Science to Protect Populations panel agreed on the urgency of the climate change issue, and the need to collaborate across disciplines and with local communities, to have an impact on health. (nih.gov)
  • The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health. (nih.gov)
  • We also explore the role of science in environmental policy-making, the enforcement of regulations, and the efforts of community groups to influence public policy. (carleton.edu)
  • Gain a critical understanding and discernment of scientific, community, social, and political frameworks for understanding conflicts in the realms of science, environmental policy-making and regulation. (carleton.edu)
  • In addition to problem sets that help students practice core scientific learning, the final project for the course is a science policy analysis of an environmental health issue. (carleton.edu)
  • Precision environmental health lies at the nexus of genetics, environmental health and data science (GxExD) and therefore leverages various disciplines and partnerships leading to a multitude of opportunities for engagement. (bcm.edu)
  • Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering is the official journal of the Iranian Association of Environmental Health (IAEH), published on behalf of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. (springer.com)
  • Bachelor of Science in Coastal Environmental Science (B.S. (lsu.edu)
  • Living with the earth: Concepts in environmental health science. (jhsph.edu)
  • What Does Science Say About the Health Benefits of Cordyceps? (howstuffworks.com)
  • Environmental factors can have an unequal impact on lower income and ethnic minority regions being exposed to environmental stressors and a lower quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Personal factors such as genetic susceptibility, nutrition, lifestyle, and individual habits also impact health in our communities. (ca.gov)
  • examining the impact of migration on health care utilization for HIV and NCDs, testing conditional incentives for linkage to HIV treatment. (brown.edu)
  • The fifth International Conference on the Impact of Environmental Factors on Health (E.H.R 2009) has recently taken place at the Ashurst Lodge campus of the Wessex Institute of Technology. (wessex.ac.uk)
  • The enclosed Final Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared for the proposed subdivision, Swan Sites, No. 2, located on the northwest part of Swan Lake, in Lake County, Montana. (worldcat.org)
  • Our degree gives you the skills and accreditations to confidently make an impact as an environmental health officer. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • Learn what steps you can take to reduce the environmental-and health-impact of your practice. (massmed.org)
  • plus referrals, not to medical specialists but to specific art, design and participatory projects, local environmental organizations and local government or civil society groups: organizations that can use the data and actions prescribed as legitimate forms of participation to promote social change. (nyu.edu)
  • The goal of the environmental health option of the MPH program is to prepare graduates who can function as professional environmental health specialists is a variety of settings. (wku.edu)
  • Information on this illness in Virginia can be found on the Virginia Department of Health page on Severe Lung Illness Associated with Vaping . (virginia.gov)
  • Click here for driving directions to the Division of Shellfish Sanitation, Virginia Department of Health, Madison Building in downtown Richmond. (virginia.gov)
  • We're the only undergraduate degree accredited by the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health (CIEH). (mdx.ac.uk)