Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Housing, AnimalBiodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.United StatesFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Schools: Educational institutions.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Nursing Administration Research: Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mice, Inbred C57BLNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.BrazilComputational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
DART External environment. The DART is designed to provide rapid data movement and information sharing across a variety of ... The DART kernel environment is not a generic user-application environment. Instead, the DART kernel provides a run-time ... environment for the file service; an embedded, dedicated application. The DART file server software is linked with the kernel ... hardware platforms in a networked environment. All data transfers are either request-response (pull-type for file transfers) or ...
Mercer, D. (1998). Marketing strategy: the challenge of external environment. The Open University. pp. 57.. ... Mercer, D. (1998). Marketing strategy: the challenge of external environment. The Open University. p. 56.. ... Mercer, D. (1998). Marketing strategy: the challenge of external environment. The Open University. p. 57.. ... One instrument to analyse the company's external environment is the PEST analysis. PEST stands for political, economical, ...
Assess stakeholder attitude c. Envision future IT environment i. Scan external environment ii. Envision future status of the ... Internal and external business drivers that impact IT b. Assess current IT environment i. Assess current status of the entity's ... Establish Requirements for Internal and External Audits of the IT Program vii. Specify the IT Metrics to be Regularly Reported ... Ensure Appropriate IT Requirements for Strategic Partners and Vendors v. Comply with External IT Requirements (e.g. Sarbanes- ...
Culture change is affected by a number of elements, including the external environment and industry competitors, change in ... External linksEdit. *Organizational Culture and Institutional Transformation (pdf) - From the Education Resources Information ... In such environments, strong cultures help firms operate like well-oiled machines, engaging in outstanding execution with only ... According to Schein (1992), the two main reasons why cultures develop in organizations is due to external adaptation and ...
Quiescence is dormancy imposed by the external environment. Correlated inhibition is a kind of physiological dormancy ... Woody Plant Growth in a Changing Chemical and Physical Environment. Proc. Workshop IUFRO Working Party on Shoot Growth ... Growth acceleration of tree seedlings in controlled environments at Petawawa. Environ. Can., For. Serv., Petawawa For. Exp. Sta ... Organisms can synchronize entry to a dormant phase with their environment through predictive or consequential means. Predictive ...
... industry environment; iii) general political, social environment, and external culture; iv) characteristics of the external ... These variables are divided into two categories based on its external and internal environment. The variables in the external ... External Environment factors Internal Environment factors Index of public relations-related articles Edward Bernays & ... by considering the various contingent factors in the strategies organizations use when dealing with their external publics (p. ...
Improving the external environment is admirable and important; but such improvement can't recalibrate our hedonic treadmill ... they tended to promote behaviours that enhanced the inclusive fitness of our genes in the ancestral environment." Russian ...
In the external environment, the eggs become embryonated. In the next stage, the parasite miracidia hatch and invades the first ...
Embedded functioning only in a related external environment. Enacted involving not only neural processes, but also things an ... Which is no longer confined to the brain or body, but involves interaction with the environment. At a 'low' level, like motor ... Extended cognition is the view that mental processes and mind extend beyond the body to include aspects of the environment in ... Extended into the organism's environment. This contrasts with the view of the mind as a processing center that creates mental ...
It means learning as much as possible, as soon as possible, about one's external environment including one's industry in ... The focus is on the external business environment. There is a process involved in gathering information, converting it into ... and any aspect of the environment needed to support executives and managers in strategic decision making for an organization. ... it embraces the entire environment and stakeholders: customers, competitors, distributors, technologies, and macroeconomic data ...
External Action is to interact with an environment. Abstract Action is to encapsulation a plan by a single action. Belief Test ... Environments: A 2APL environment can be implemented as a Java object. The methods of such an object correspond to agents' ... Procedural Rule is to generate a plan to react to either an event (received from environment) or a message (received from an ... Multi-agent systems are specified in terms of individual agents and the environments with which they interact. Individual ...
Trend analysis only covers part of the external environment. Another important aspect of the external environment that a ... But context analysis considers the entire environment of a business, its internal and external environment. This is an ... Trend analysis is an analysis of macro environmental factors in the external environment of a business, also called PEST ... The main goal of a context analysis, SWOT or otherwise, is to analyze the environment in order to develop a strategic plan of ...
III - „Preparing the External Environment of Negotiations" (2003) vol. IV - „Pregătirea mediului intern de negociere" (2003) ...
External link in ,website= (help) "Environment, Health, Science & Technology". State University of New York, Stony Brook. State ... External link in ,website= (help) "Graduate Study in History of Science, Technology, Environment, and Health". Rutgers ... External link in ,website= (help) "History of Science, Medicine, Environment and Technology - MA - School of History - ... External link in ,website= (help) "History of Science". . University of Tehran. Retrieved 12 February 2014. External link in ...
... corresponding to a specific purpose adapted to a given environment. Environment Natural conditions and external factors ... This definition states that environment is an external factor which cannot be avoided: as a matter of fact, a process is always ... The CPRET representation integrates the process Mission and Environment in order to offer an external standpoint. Several ... Mission Purpose of the process tailored to a given environment. This definition requires a process description to include the ...
... a growing external mismatch with the environment). Organizational ecology can be usefully compared with evolutionary theories ... availability of information about the environment; external legitimacy; and collective rationality and strategy (See also ... "generalism is not always optimal in uncertain environments". The exception is produced by environments which "place very ... The risk of mortality will be low at first as the organization is buffered from failure due to support by external constituents ...
E. A. Serrao; G. Pearson; L. Kautsky; S. H. Brawley (1996). "Successful external fertilization in turbulent environments". ...
Anatomical defects allow continuity between the external environment and the nervous system. The most common cause of recurrent ...
Situation modification refers specifically to altering one's external, physical environment. Altering one's "internal" ... Such behaviors often elicit negative reactions from the social environment, which, in turn, can exacerbate or maintain the ... Wells, A.; Papageorgiou, C. (1998). "Social phobia: Effects of external attention on anxiety, negative beliefs, and perspective ... environment to regulate emotion is called cognitive change. Examples of situation modification may include injecting humor into ...
... the largest body surface area exposed to the external environment. The intestine offers nutrients and protection to microbes, ...
External link in ,title= (help) "District Department of the Environment". Retrieved November 4, 2010. "DDOE" (PDF). Retrieved ... He then moved to the District of Columbia to head the District Department of the Environment. Hawkins led a project by the ... Hawkins, George, "The Changing Face of Compliance and Enforcement" (Natural Resources and the Environment, ABA Section on ... Since 1999, Hawkins has taught Environmental Law and Policy for the Princeton Environment Institute at Princeton University. ...
protect the die from the external environment (moisture, dust, etc.). Many of the reliability issues of a power device are ... The role of packaging is to: connect a die to the external circuit. provide a way to remove the heat generated by the device. ... A three-terminal device (e.g., a triode), whose state is dependent on not only its external power circuit, but also the signal ... heatsink technology provide a means for removing heat from a semiconductor device by conducting it to the external environment ...
Also, data can be got from the institution's external environment. To capture data, academic analytics needs to determine the ...
External events are physical occurrences experienced in a humans environment. These events effect the mood of an individual ... First, events are generated through internal processes that are more connected to one's mood rather than from external ... Eich, E.; Metcalfe, J. (1989). "Mood-dependent memory for internal versus external events". Journal of Experimental Psychology ... are less likely than external events to be remembered after mood shift. There were four different experiments that were ...
Tear production is essential in maintaining and protecting the eye from the external environment. Reduced tear production is ... Problems arise as sensitive tissue dries out and is subjected to external trauma Exposure of the tissue often results in ...
The Irish Terrier is an active and compactly sized dog that is suited for life in both rural and city environments. Its harsh ... External links. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irish Terrier.. *Irish Terrier at Curlie (based on DMOZ) ...
... but also about Earths external environment and the complicated system that connects our planet and the Sun. ... Swarm will not only lead to a better understanding of Earths interior, but also about Earths external environment and the ...
... Introduction. To develop the knowledge and skills expected of a finance manager, in relation ... The economic environment for business and the nature and role of financial markets and institutions ...
Analyze critically the external environment of the industry in which McDonalds operate in India. What were the industry ... These all factors divided in to two parts macro environment and micro environment. Macro environment factors are those external ... Analyze critically the external environment of the industry in which McDonalds operate in India. What were the industry ... More about Mcdonalds External Environment Analysis. *. Industry Analysis: The Fast Food Industry. 948 Words , 4 Pages ...
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, ... For more than 10 years, internalisation of external costs has been on the agenda of European transport and environment policy, ... These external costs tolls will be in addition to the existing transport infrastructure charges that are allowed under the ... Members States will be allowed to charge tolls on heavy-duty vehicles (12 tonnes and over) to cover the external costs ...
External general factors External general environment factors include government regulations, general economic conditions, ... The firms understanding of the external environment is matched with knowledge about its internal environment. Matching the ... the external environment plays an important role for banks. Most of the external factors are beyond the control of a bank. The ... More about External environment for banking industry. *. Taking a Look at the Banking Industry. 1648 Words , 7 Pages ...
Successful external fertilization in turbulent environments. E A Serrao, G Pearson, L Kautsky, and S H Brawley ... Therefore, sensitivity to environmental factors can lead to successful external fertilization, even for species living in ... Mathematical and experimental simulations predict that external fertilization is unsuccessful in habitats characterized by high ...
Every five years we commission an external review of our work. The findings help us remain fully focused on delivering our ... External review 2017. Every five years we commission an external review of our work. The findings help us remain fully focused ... International Institute for Environment and Development, 80-86 Grays Inn Road, London, WC1X 8NH, UK. Tel: +44 (0)20 3463 7399 ... The final report presents the findings of a five-year independent external review of IIED. Annexes with diagrams and tables are ...
External benefits of natural environments. In: Larson, E.vH., ed. The Forest Recreation Symposium. State University of New York ... Existence value is one such external benefit that accrues to individuals who have no intention of ever visiting the area in ... benefits arising from certain physical environments left in a relatively natural condition do not include estimates of external ...
This paper examines the relationship between the external environment and strategy... ... recognize and deal with change in the internal and external environment. ... Strategy implementation - external environment alignment. Valentina Ivančić orcid.org/0000-0001-6651-0984 ; University of ... Dulčić, "Strategy implementation - external environment alignment", Management, vol.22, br. Special Issue, str. 51-67, 2017. [ ...
Introduction Companies always operate in a certain environment; the formulation and impl... ... Read this full essay on Industry and External Environment Analysis. ... Analysis of the External Environment of Business The Technological Environment The external business environment consists of ... Analysis of the External Environment of Business. 1663 words - 7 pages Analysis of the External Environment of Business A ...
Pathogen survival in the external environment and the evolution of virulence.. Walther BA1, Ewald PW. ... The sit-and-wait hypothesis predicts that virulence should be positively correlated with durability in the external environment ...
Why is it important for managers to understand the external environment? and find homework help for other Management questions ... If managers are not aware of these aspects of the environment that are external to their own firm, they may well be caught ... It is important for managers to understand the external environment for five main reasons, as discussed below:. 1. To ... It is important for managers to understand the external environment for five main reasons, as discussed below:. 1. To ...
External Strategic Environment Analysis: free Analysis sample to help you write excellent academic papers for high school, ... External Strategic Environment Analysis (Analysis Essay Sample). / Samples / Analysis / External Strategic Environment Analysis ... provides an elaborate basis for the understanding of the external environment of Huawei and its external strategic environment. ... Check Out Our External Strategic Environment Analysis Essay. Best Custom Writing Service *Well write an essay from scratch ...
... theoretical framework to model and clarify the relationships between firms CSR provisions and the three dimensions of external ... External Business Environment, Corporate Social Responsibility, Analytical Modeling, CEO Centric Effect, Agency Theory ... Specifically, when the external business environment has been experiencing rapid growth for years, the wealth of the CEO is ... denotes the random compensation shocks due to the uncertainty of the external business environment. Here I adopt the arguments ...
What are internal and external environments? The sum total of life-sustaining fluid, metabolic activities inside a living ... Summary of Internal and External Environment. The points of difference between internal environment and external environment ... Figure 1. Internal and External environment. Difference Between Internal and External Environments. Definition. Internal ... What is External Environment?. The environment surrounding the organism from the outside, that involve physical, social, ...
... this time in relation to the external environment. ... Surveying the Human Rights Landscape: The Evolving External ... Soft law and hard law are converging to build an operating environment that asks companies to conduct robust documented due ... and engaging with country offices and external stakeholders. As the world of work continues to evolve as a result of old ... and they have started seriously grappling with the impact of their external relationships. The human rights fields focus on ...
Read chapter 7 The External Environment Influencing Diagnosis: Reporting, Medical Liability, and Payment: Getting the right ... The External Environment Influencing Diagnosis: Reporting, Medical Liability, and Payment. This chapter focuses on the external ... 7 The External Environment Influencing Diagnosis: Reporting, Medical Liability, and Payment 307-342 ... FIGURE 7-1 The diagnostic process is influenced by the external environment, including factors such as payment, reporting, ...
... theoretical framework to model and clarify the relationships between firms CSR provisions and the three dimensions of external ... External Business Environment, Corporate Social Responsibility, Analytical Modeling, CEO Centric Effect, Agency Theory ... The Impact of External Business Environment on Corporate Social Responsibility: Theoretical Implications and Empirical Evidence ... Qiao, Y. (2020) The Impact of External Business Environment on Corporate Social Responsibility: Theoretical Implications and ...
Capacitive pressure sensor isolating electrodes from external environment Abstract. A capacitive pressure sensor is provided ... define a cavity 9 which is completely sealed and isolated from the external environment. The inside of the cavity 9 is vacuumed ... 3 to mechanically protect the same from excessively large pressure possibly applied from both Environment 1 and Environment 2, ... Also, it is apparent that dust particles and so on, even included in a used environment, will not affect the measurement of ...
Historic environment update from the cabinet secretary for Scottish culture and external affairs. ... protecting and celebrating our historic environment. It will ensure that the regulation of the historic environment in Scotland ... The historic environment is central to telling the story of our nation. It is an intrinsically valuable asset that sits right ... The Strategic Historic Environment Forum, which will oversee delivery of our vision, met for the first time recently at the ...
Calling of late bound functions from an external program environment PCT/US2006/021591 WO2006130871A3 (en) 2005-06-02. 2006-06- ... Call late barriers functions from an external program environment from Info. Publication number. DE602006015949D1. ... DE200660015949 2005-06-02 2006-06-02 Call late barriers functions from an external program environment from Active ... computing environment with a dll of a second computing environment that can be invoked from the first computing environment in ...
"Biofilms as a Mode of Existence of Bacteria in External Environment and Host Body: The Phenomenon, Genetic Control, and ... Biofilms as a Mode of Existence of Bacteria in External Environment and Host Body: The... Ilyina, T.; Romanova, Yu.; Gintsburg ... Biofilms as a Mode of Existence of Bacteria in External Environment and Host Body: The Phenomenon, Genetic Control, and ... The development of biofilm communities is a primary strategy of bacterial survival not only in the external environment but ...
Sensory Mechanisms Sensory Pathways Convey information about the external and internal environment to the brain Announcements ... Sensory Pathways • Convey information about the external and internal environment to the brain ...
ms, first we need to get familiar with its internal environments (strengths and weaknesses) and its external environments ( ... elements that acquires inputs from the environment, transforms them, and discharges outputs to the external environments" (Daft ... alysing and reviewing its strategies in order to meet the changes and challenges that come from the external environments so as ... These conditions of the external environment factors are forcing Amazon.com to become more focused on the needs of their cus ...
The Moderating Effect of External Environment on the Relationship Between Strategic Entrepreneurship and Performance of ... R2 = .410, F-stat = 42.982, p,0.05). External environment significantly moderated the relationship between strategic ... The Moderating Effect of External Environment on the Relationship Between Strategic Entrepreneurship and Performance of ... inflexible planning and poor management of external environmental challenges. These problems have negatively affected their ...
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- Qiao, Y. (2020) The Impact of External Business Environment on Corporate Social Responsibility: Theoretical Implications and Empirical Evidence. (scirp.org)
- This 2020 report from the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) consolidates knowledge and experiences gathered from across sectors and is a valuable reference for policymakers and practitioners to understand issues and potential interventions to address Gender-based Violence (GBV) as it relates to the environment. (worldwildlife.org)
- On Tuesday, 28 January 2020 PLA convened the fourth Tidal Thames Environment Conference at the Museum of London Docklands , where we explored the opportunities and challenges that the decarbonisation drive offers. (pla.co.uk)
- Biofilms as a Mode of Existence of Bacteria in External Environment and Host Body: The. (deepdyve.com)
- According to the abstract of a research article in WEF's journal, Water Environment Research (September 2011), "Several investigators have reported higher densities of indicator bacteria after dewatering of anaerobically digested biosolids. (sourcewatch.org)
- political, economical, legal, government rules and regulations influence the firm's choice of direction and action and also affect the internal environment of a bank. (bartleby.com)
- The firm's understanding of the external environment is matched with knowledge about its internal environment. (bartleby.com)
- From an agency theory perspective, the paper develops a theoretical framework to model and clarif y the relationships between firm's CSR provisions and the three dimensions of external market conditions: market complexity, munificence, and dynamism. (scirp.org)
- Organizations have different stakeholders (shareholders, customers, employees, government) who have expectations of the organizations and may exercise considerable influence and power over the strategy to be followed As said earlier, the external environment plays an important role for banks. (bartleby.com)
- Osborn & Hunt 1974) The purpose of study on the peripheral environment is supporting a chance to the organizations to finger out the possible developing opportunity and potential threat, use them to be the conditions and limitations to develop the business strategy. (brightkite.com)
- In this chapter the committee emphasizes the need for safe environments for voluntary error reporting, without the threat of legal discovery or disciplinary action, where health care organizations can analyze and learn from diagnostic errors in order to improve diagnosis. (nap.edu)
- At the moment, any facilitation is welcomed in the business environment hardly tried by the consequences of the crisis, the role of decisions, strategies, policies and programs is essential in increasing the chance of survival and success of the organizations (Vlăsceanu, 2014, pp.35-36). (docplayer.net)
- Pestle analysis Pestle is a framework that helps organizations to assess the broad environment they leave in. (docplayer.net)
- The external environment influences a company's strategic options as well as the decisions made in light of them. (bartleby.com)
- Meanwhile, the company's products must be marketed through the external market. (brightkite.com)
- The organization's strategy should direct the analytical environment, and the analytical environment should support the company's strategy. (sas.com)
- Pathogen survival in the external environment and the evolution of virulence. (nih.gov)
- The external environment is too extreme for continued survival. (differencebetween.net)
- The development of biofilm communities is a primary strategy of bacterial survival not only in the external environment but also in the bodies of infected macroorganisms. (deepdyve.com)
- To predict and validate survival of non-acid adapted Escherichia coli O157 in an environment mimicking the human stomach. (nih.gov)
- The following links are APIC resources on the environment of care for healthcare professionals. (apic.org)
- The following links are APIC and external resources on the environment of care and infection prevention for consumers. (apic.org)
- There may be links in this document that will transfer you to external websites. (apvma.gov.au)
- This chapter focuses on the external environment and how it contributes to the diagnostic process and the occurrence of diagnostic errors (see Figure 7-1 ). (nap.edu)
- More tangibly, it is conservatively estimated that Scotland's Historic Environment contributes £2.3 billion annually to our economy and supports 41,000 jobs. (archaeologists.net)
- The internal life-sustaining fluid that allows sustaining exchanges and encompassing the cells, form the internal environment. (differencebetween.net)
- The internal environment is important for normal cell function. (differencebetween.net)
- While talking about unicellular organisms like Amoeba, algae and Paramecium, all the things to the inner side of its cell sheath comprise the internal environment. (differencebetween.net)
- What is Internal Environment? (differencebetween.net)
- The conception of the internal environment was first given by the French physiologist named Claude Bernard (1813-78), who said that conservation of an unchanging inside environment was mandatory for a living organism to survive and endure the varying outside environment. (differencebetween.net)
- The conditions prevailing inside the body of an organism especially with respect to the anatomy of the tissue fluid are known as internal environment of an organism. (differencebetween.net)
- There is more stability in case of the internal environment. (differencebetween.net)
- The internal environment is constant and maintenance of a constant interior environment is called homeostasis. (differencebetween.net)
- Keywords: Flexibility, Internal environment, External environment. (docplayer.net)
- Whilst tentative, this framework provides scope to develop experimental approaches to understand in greater detail the internal environment of plant nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
- The purpose of this report is to provide a brief recent history, structure of the company as well as objectives of McDonald's with the aim of examining each element of the external business environment that has great potential on the organization through a PESTEL analysis. (ipl.org)
- Microeconomics Concepts in a UK based Organization INTRODUCTION Every organization has to analyze its business environment before making policies and strategies for its day to day operations, marketing and promotional efforts, and competing with the industry rivals (Loudon, Stevens, & Wrenn 2004). (bartleby.com)
- The strategic management for the organization need has an overall and objectives analysis about the change of the external environment, based the research result to set up the organizational goals and strategy plans. (brightkite.com)
- On the other hand, the company is a kind of dynamic social organization, it is not only been dictated by the environment, but also be adapted to the environment and impact on it, promoting social progress and economic prosperity. (brightkite.com)
- Different ways that a government influences the external environment of an organization could be through issues on taxation, control of the environmental degradation, legislations on quotas as well as subsidies, labor and employment regulations, legislations on consumers, competition, safety as well as issues on health. (essaysprofessors.com)
- Tobacco growing is causing 'massive harm' to the environment through the extensive use of chemicals, energy and water, and pollution from manufacturing and distribution, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Tuesday. (cbc.ca)
- Although its name evokes images of cascading mountain streams, the Water Environment Federation (WEF) is actually the sewage sludge industry's main trade, lobby and public relations organization, with over 41,000 members and a multi-million-dollar budget that supports a 100-member staff. (sourcewatch.org)
- It will have an impact on the project management environment and could potentially affect the culture of the organization. (pmi.org)
- An analysis of the macro-environment of any firm or organization can be performed with a PEST Analysis . (12manage.com)
- Michael Porter's Five Forces Model provides a healthy and time-tested framework for analysing the industry environments, reflected in the strength of the five forces. (brightkite.com)
- In the analytical work of the paper, I develop a comprehensive framework pertaining to the linkage between CEO's propensity of engaging in CSR activities and three orthogonal dimensions of external business environment: market complexity, munificence and dynamism. (scirp.org)
- Moreover, the theoretical framework developed by the paper is seminal in the sense that with further specializations, the framework is an ideal platform to model how the CSR provisions will react in face of either external profitability shocks or internal managerial turnovers. (scirp.org)
- Centered at the strategic decision making of CEO, Section 3 develops the theoretical framework that models the relationships between CSR provisions of the firm and the three dimensions of external business environment. (scirp.org)
- Osborn & Hunt 1974) In other words, environment decides the enterprises' strategy, decisions making, organizational structure and management styles. (brightkite.com)
- In any nation, the government has a very important role to play as far as organizational environment is concerned. (essaysprofessors.com)
- This relationship between organizational strategy and the analytical environment is built in three distinct stages. (sas.com)
- CEPA 1999), which is aimed at preventing pollution and protecting the environment and human health, is jointly administered by Environment Canada and Health Canada, and includes specific requirements for the assessment and management of substances. (gc.ca)
- INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, INTERNATIONAL LABOUR OFFICE, Assessment of Occupational Exposure Due to External Sources of Radiation, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.3, IAEA, Vienna (1999). (iaea.org)
- It is important for managers to understand this aspect of the business environment because it can affect their firm and how it should be run. (enotes.com)
- China government has various political legislations that affect Huawei's external strategic environment. (essaysprofessors.com)
- There are two kinds of environment variables that affect the Apache HTTP Server. (apache.org)
- 1 UNDERSTANDING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT FOR A FLEXIBLE PRODUCTION APPROACH Cătălin Cristian BABALÂC The Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania Abstract The present paper analysis briefly the main techniques used to understand both the internal and external environment that affect the road on which each company takes according to its proper strategy. (docplayer.net)
- Chapter 2 examines how changes in external conditions may affect the pace of income convergence between advanced and emerging market and developing economies. (imf.org)
- The Act contains mandatory and enabling provisions that require, or permit, the assessment of the risks to human health and the environment that may result from exposure to substances. (gc.ca)
- This Safety Guide, co-sponsored by the ILO, addresses the assessment of exposure to external sources of radiation in the workplace and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations. (iaea.org)
- Natural radiation exposure comprises internal and external components. (bfs.de)
- It accounts for two thirds of the total natural radiation exposure , the external component for one third. (bfs.de)
- External radiation exposure amounts to 0.7 millisievert per year. (bfs.de)
- Terrestrial radiation is a further component of the external radiation exposure . (bfs.de)
- The radionuclides present in the rocks pass into the building materials and in this way add to the external radiation exposure . (bfs.de)
- IIED's board welcomes the external review of IIED which we believe provides an accurate overview of the organisation's operating context - as well as its strengths, key opportunities and areas of challenge. (iied.org)
- Better understanding and measurement of the external implementation context would be particularly beneficial in light of complex health interventions that extend into and interact with the larger environment they are embedded within. (springer.com)
- We conducted a integrative systematic literature review to identify external context constructs likely to impact implementation of complex evidence-based interventions. (springer.com)
- We identified eight external context constructs: (1) professional influences, (2) political support, (3) social climate, (4) local infrastructure, (5) policy and legal climate, (6) relational climate, (7) target population, and (8) funding and economic climate. (springer.com)
- The current paper highlights limitations of extant conceptualizations of the external implementation setting and then describes a integrative systematic literature review aimed at developing an inductive conceptualization of the external context. (springer.com)
- This page contains environment of care resources and education for both healthcare professionals and consumers. (apic.org)
- The following resources are educational opportunities related to the environment of care. (apic.org)
- All of these titles are available in electronic format at a 50% discount making them ideal resources for online learning environments. (igi-global.com)
- The second factor is the business economic environment. (essaysprofessors.com)
- To be successful or simply to survive the changing economic environment, companies need to know how to organize their work and how to set priorities that can be monitored, measured and completed in a timely manner (Cioană, 2011, p. 74). (docplayer.net)
- The release of radioactivity to the environment can result in acute or chronic impacts that, in extreme cases, can cause loss of biota in the short term and genetic mutation in the longer term, both of which may result in unknown and potentially fatal effects. (europa.eu)
- Where does radioactivity occur in the environment? (bfs.de)
- External Environment We have used Porter's five forces on the discount retail industry to understand external environment(Porter, Michael E., Competitive Strategy(1988). (brightkite.com)
- Therefore, a combination of pest analysis and Porter's five forces model provides an elaborate basis for the understanding of the external environment of Huawei and its external strategic environment. (essaysprofessors.com)
- Agency's external communications (website, printed materials, etc.) explicitly and consistently reflect its commitment to working with and welcoming LGBTQ clients and their families. (hrc.org)
- For information regarding seafood advisories, please visit the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Choose Fish and Shellfish Wisely External web pages. (cdc.gov)
- The environmental awareness has become the starting point of the environment analysis. (brightkite.com)
- However, the industry is faced with problems of poor entrepreneurial orientation, inflexible planning and poor management of external environmental challenges. (ccsenet.org)
- The DAC is monitoring external development finance targeting environmental objectives through its Creditor Reporting System (CRS) using "policy markers": donors are requested to indicate for each development co-operation activity they report to the OECD whether or not it targets environmental objectives. (oecd.org)
- Tobacco growing, the manufacture of tobacco products and their delivery to retailers all have severe environmental consequences, including deforestation, the use of fossil fuels and the dumping or leaking of waste products into the natural environment,' Oleg Chestnov, WHO Assistant Director-General, said in the report to mark World No Tobacco Day on Wednesday. (cbc.ca)
- As required by Title 8, California Code of Regulations, Section 3203, and in support of the University Policy on Management of Heath, Safety, and the Environment, each campus is required to have a written Injury and Illness Prevention Program (IIPP) which identifies the person or persons with authority and responsibility for implementing the campus' health, safety, and environmental program. (ucop.edu)
- Before a member of the University community conducts an activity which has potential adverse implications for health, safety or the environment, a responsible party must evaluate the associated hazards and environmental impacts and identify the appropriate set of protective safety and environmental requirements to assure that faculty, staff, students, visitors, members of the public, and the environment are protected from adverse affects. (ucop.edu)
- Speakers covered new technologies with the potential for powering river transport, how river habitats can reduce environmental impacts and how valuing the environment can make significant differences. (pla.co.uk)
- We will be looking for people from a range of backgrounds who want to contribute to the development of this new organisation and feel they have the skills required to help lead it through this period of organisational change and the implementation of Scotland's first Historic Environment Strategy, Our Place in Time. (archaeologists.net)
- The research s findings claim that the importance of aligning internal and external environments and are influenced each other in the management of Bougainville Copper. (writework.com)
- The associated Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) had gross receipts of $12 million in 2010. (sourcewatch.org)
- A temporary micro-g environment exists in a drop tube (in a tower or shaft), a sub-orbital spaceflight , e.g. with a sounding rocket , and in an airplane such as used by NASA 's Reduced Gravity Research Program, aka the Vomit Comet , and by the Zero Gravity Corporation . (wikipedia.org)
- For these reasons and to help procurement professionals make better buying decisions faster, business intelligence firm IBISWorld has updated a report on the procurement of Automated External Defibrillators in its growing collection of procurement category market research reports. (prweb.com)
- For more information, visit IBISWorld's Automated External Defibrillators procurement category market research report page. (prweb.com)
- Eligibility for credit will only apply to students who have completed the JCU Graduate Certificate of Research Methods [Tropical Environments and Societies] . (edu.au)
- Students who have completed the Graduate Certificate of Research Methods [Tropical Environments and Societies] may be eligible for up to 12 credit points of credit for equivalent subjects. (edu.au)
- Matching the conditions of the two environments is the foundation the firm needs to form its strategic intent, to develop its strategic mission, and to take strategic actions in the pursuit of strategic competitiveness and above-average returns. (bartleby.com)
- The enterprise and its external operation conditions are in an interaction and interrelated relationship. (brightkite.com)
- The sum total of life-sustaining fluid, metabolic activities inside a living organism and surrounding objects outside its body cells, conditions, or impacts, ecology, air, water, minerals etc form the internal and the external environments of an organism. (differencebetween.net)
- The environment surrounding the organism from the outside, that involve physical, social, chemical and biological conditions encompassing the living organism. (differencebetween.net)
- Living organisms discover and react to alteration in the conditions of their outside environment. (differencebetween.net)
- The end of the chapter analyses the decision-making process in industrial companies under the conditions given for them, namely in an ambiguous development environment. (igi-global.com)
- Many of these chemicals are so harmful to both the environment and farmers' health that they are banned in some countries,' the report said. (cbc.ca)
- Under the CMP, Environment Canada and Health Canada have made significant progress in evaluating the substances identified as priorities following the Categorization process, and have implemented appropriate risk management measures where necessary. (gc.ca)
- Environment Canada and Health Canada are highly engaged with other federal regulators and international programs, and participate in a variety of fora related to the assessment and management of chemical risks. (gc.ca)
- Brief Overview The environment is critical to health and the nurse's role in caring for the sick is to provide a clean, quiet, peaceful environment to promote healing. (bartleby.com)
- The University Policy on Management of Health, Safety and the Environment sets forth the University's policy, standards, and guiding principles on health, safety and the environment. (ucop.edu)
- The University must consider all applicable State and federal laws and regulations as well as other pertinent information concerned with the health and safety of employees and the protection of the environment. (ucop.edu)
- Environment, Health and Safety Offices support this policy implementation by assisting managers/supervisors and Principal Investigators in identifying hazards and providing employee safety training programs. (ucop.edu)
- However, not all people living in such environments will become obese, nor will all obese people have the same body fat distribution or suffer the same health problems. (cdc.gov)
- Family health history reflects the effects of shared genetics and environment among close relatives. (cdc.gov)
- National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. (nih.gov)
- Sethi 1979) So, the companies must analysis the environment and adapt to being survive and development. (brightkite.com)
- In other words, according to the "thrifty genotype" hypothesis, the same genes that helped our ancestors survive occasional famines are now being challenged by environments in which food is plentiful year round. (cdc.gov)
- Find out about our work looking after the environment of the tidal Thames, including habitat management, driftwood collection, Thames Barrier navigation and much more. (pla.co.uk)
- Shallow water marine environment - processes due to waves and tidal currents, creates shelves and slopes, lagoons. (wikipedia.org)
- In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification , if the sediment is preserved in the rock record. (wikipedia.org)
- 1996. Sedimentary Environments: Processes, Facies and Stratigraphy . (wikipedia.org)
- We are adopting a new approach set out in the first ever Historic Environment Strategy for Scotland, Our Place in Time, and creating a new national body to help take forward its delivery. (archaeologists.net)
- The new strategy Our Place in Time sets out a clear vision and direction for the sector, detailing how our historic environment will be carefully managed to deliver increasing benefits to Scotland's people. (archaeologists.net)
- The strategy supports all parts of the historic environment sector to work collectively to reach its full potential. (archaeologists.net)
- While it builds on previous excellent work, notably the Scottish Historic Environment Policy development, it is the first overarching strategy. (archaeologists.net)
- Deep water marine environment - Flat area on the deep ocean floor (abyssal plains) caused by ocean currents. (wikipedia.org)
- MAGE (Marine Aerosol and Gas Exchange) was the only component of ACSOE which included measurements in the marine environment. (bodc.ac.uk)
- Data collected in the marine environment for the MAGE component of ACSOE are held by BODC. (bodc.ac.uk)
- The second one defines the enterprise response and proactiveness in external data collecting, processing and identification of opportunities. (srce.hr)
- light_environment defines (a) the color and intensity of the Diffuse Skylight and (b) the direction, color and intensity of the Direct Sunlight. (valvesoftware.com)