The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Living facilities for humans.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The contamination of indoor air.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Educational institutions.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
Activity engaged in for pleasure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Organisms that live in water.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The physical measurements of a body.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The status of health in urban populations.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.

Relative influences of sex, race, environment, and HIV infection on body composition in adults. (1/7312)

BACKGROUND: The factors that control body composition in disease are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We planned to compare the relative influences of HIV infection, sex, race, and environment on body composition. METHODS: We analyzed results of body composition studies performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 1415 adults from 2 cohorts: white and African American men and women from the United States, and African men and women (279 HIV-infected and 1136 control). The effects of sex and HIV infection on weight, body cell mass, and fat-free mass were analyzed by using both unadjusted and age-, weight-, and height-adjusted data. RESULTS: Control men weighed more and had more body cell mass and fat-free mass than did control women, although control women had more fat. The strongest correlates with body composition were height and weight, followed by sex. HIV infection, age, environment, and race. Control men and women weighed more and had more body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat than did HIV-infected men. However, differences in body composition between HIV-infected and control groups were strongly influenced by sex. Of the differences in weight between HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, fat-free mass accounted for 51% in men but only 18% in women, in whom the remainder was fat. Sex effects were similar in African and American groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sex has a marked effect on the changes in body composition during HIV infection, with women losing disproportionately more fat than men. Sex-related differences in body composition were narrower in the HIV-infected groups. Race and environment had smaller effects than sex and HIV infection.  (+info)

Clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic features of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. (2/7312)

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has traditionally been considered a disease causing severe and permanent visual loss in young adult males. In nearly all families with LHON it is associated with one of three pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, at bp 11778, 3460 or 14484. The availability of mtDNA confirmation of a diagnosis of LHON has demonstrated that LHON occurs with a wider range of age at onset and more commonly in females than previously recognised. In addition, analysis of patients grouped according to mtDNA mutation has demonstrated differences both in the clinical features of visual failure and in recurrence risks to relatives associated with each of the pathogenic mtDNA mutations. Whilst pathogenic mtDNA mutations are required for the development of LHON, other factors must be reponsible for the variable penetrance and male predominance of this condition. Available data on a number of hypotheses including the role of an additional X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus, impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, mtDNA heteroplasmy, environmental factors and autoimmunity are discussed. Subacute visual failure is seen in association with all three pathogenic LHON mutations. However, the clinical and experimental data reviewed suggest differences in the phenotype associated with each of the three mutations which may reflect variation in the disease mechanisms resulting in this common end-point.  (+info)

Mitochondrial involvement in Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia and Friedreich's ataxia. (3/7312)

Respiratory chain dysfunction has been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. In Friedreich's ataxia (FA) and Huntington's disease (HD), where the respective mutations are in nuclear genes encoding non-respiratory chain mitochondrial proteins, the defects in oxidative phosphorylation are clearly secondary. In Parkinson's disease (PD) the situation is less clear, with some evidence for a primary role of mitochondrial DNA in at least a proportion of patients. The pattern of the respiratory chain defect may provide some clue to its cause; in PD there appears to be a selective complex I deficiency; in HD and FA the deficiencies are most severe in complex II/III with a less severe defect in complex IV. Aconitase activity in HD and FA is severely decreased in brain and muscle, respectively, but appears to be normal in PD brain. Free radical generation is thought to be of importance in both HD and FA, via excitotoxicity in HD and abnormal iron handling in FA. The oxidative damage observed in PD may be secondary to the mitochondrial defect. Whatever the cause(s) and sequence of events, respiratory chain deficiencies appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. The mitochondrial abnormalities induced may converge on the function of the mitochondrion in apoptosis. This mode of cell death is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and it is tempting to speculate that the observed mitochondrial defects in PD, HD and FA result directly in apoptotic cell death, or in the lowering of a cell's threshold to undergo apoptosis. Clarifying the role of mitochondria in pathogenesis may provide opportunities for the development of treatments designed to reverse or prevent neurodegeneration.  (+info)

Pterygium and its relationship to the dry eye in the Bantu. (4/7312)

A comparative study was performed on two groups of Bantus in Johannesburg to see if there was any relationship between the "dry eye" and pterygia, but no correlation was found.  (+info)

Plasma leptin concentrations in Pima Indians living in drastically different environments. (5/7312)

OBJECTIVE: Plasma leptin, an important signal for the regulation of energy stores, is known to be influenced by many hormonal factors, but may also be affected by behavioral and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lifestyle (diet composition, level of physical activity) on plasma leptin concentrations among Pima Indians living in drastically different environments. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 224 Mexican Pima Indians (115 women, 109 men) living a traditional lifestyle in a remote, mountainous area of northwest Mexico and 418 U.S. Pima Indians (281 women, 137 men) living a North American lifestyle on the Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. We hypothesized that the absolute value of leptin would be lower in Mexican Pima Indians because of their lower percent body fat, but could be further influenced by their lifestyle, independent of body composition. RESULTS: Leptin concentration (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) was strongly correlated with percent fat (bioimpedance) in Mexican Pima Indians (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001) and U.S. Pima Indians (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Among U.S. Pima Indians, independent of percent fat, subjects with type 2 diabetes had lower leptin than nondiabetic subjects (difference = 6.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml, P < 0.002). Among nondiabetic subjects, Mexican Pima Indians had lower absolute leptin concentrations than U.S. Pima Indians, but higher after adjustment for percent body fat, waist circumference, age, and sex. In a subset of 70 pairs of subjects matched for sex and percent body fat, leptin concentration was 4.4 +/- 1.0 ng/ml (P < 0.0001) higher in Mexican Pima Indians versus U.S. Pima Indians. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that independent of body composition, leptin concentration may be increased by environmental factors, such as a high-carbohydrate diet and a high level of physical activity.  (+info)

Lipoprotein(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) isoforms related to life style risk factors. (6/7312)

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been considered to be a predictor of premature coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Lp(a) levels are largely genetically determined, but the detailed mechanism of Lp(a) elevation is uncertain. We examined the association between Lp(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] phenotypes as well as that of Lp(a) level and other various conditions. The subjects were 280 healthy Japanese (102 males and 178 females) aged 39 to 70 years who were living in a rural community in 1992. We obtained apo(a) phenotypes determined by SDS-PAGE as well as Lp(a) levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. We combined apo(a) phenotypes form 4 groups according to molecular weights (from high apo(a) molecular weight to low: I, II, III and IV). Lp(a) levels were associated with apo(a) phenotype-groups, that is, they were inversely associated with apo(a) molecular weight. Small apo(a) phenotypes were less frequent than large ones. The median Lp(a) level was higher in smoking (29.2 mg/dL) than in non-smoking subjects (18.5 mg/dL) in phenotype-group III. Adjusted means of total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels in apo(a) phenotype-group IV were the highest of all phenotype-groups. Age, apo(a) phenotype, smoking status, total cholesterol and fibrinogen were positively correlated with Lp(a) levels by multiple regression analysis. Lp(a) levels were found to be mainly associated with apo(a) phenotype, but varied broadly within the same apo(a) phenotype at various conditions, such as smoking status and high total cholesterol.  (+info)

Alternatives to minimize the environmental impact of large swine production units. (7/7312)

Large swine production facilities have become controversial additions to the agricultural landscape as their numbers and sizes have increased. In addition to being larger enterprises, these units have involved greater specialization, the influx of outside capital, and the employment of labor without extensive investment in the enterprise. Major complaints have included water pollution and odors. Water pollution complaints have been related to surface and groundwater resources. Accidental spills, structural failure, and purposeful discharges have been noted. Odor problems are most often related to manure management techniques. Large anaerobic lagoons and irrigation of lagoon effluent have the potential to emit odors that travel long distances. Fortunately, technology and management alternatives exist to achieve higher levels of environmental acceptability. More effective water pollution and odor control alternatives generally increase construction and operating costs. Producers, regulatory officials, and the local public have an opportunity to interact to achieve progress in establishing acceptable compromises. This article identifies the range of existing and evolving alternative strategies and provides some assistance to producers and neighbors in achieving the necessary equilibrium.  (+info)

Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti. (8/7312)

The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process.  (+info)

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Plant breeders consistently come up against the phenomenon of the genotype x environment interaction (GxE) in the activities of breeding programs, especially in the phases of evaluating genotypes for recommendation to producers. These genotypes are thoroughly evaluated through more replications, crop years, locations, and crop seasons. Always with the purpose of obtaining a genotype with high yields, wide adaptability and high stability of performance (Barili et al. 2015Barili LD, Vale NM, Prado AL, Carneiro JES, Silva FF and Nascimento M (2015) Genotype-environment interaction in common bean cultivars with carioca grain cultivated in Brazil in the last 40 years. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 15: 244-250. ). When genotypes are evaluated in multi-environment tests, the need arises for studies on the GxE interaction.. Babić et al. (2010Babić V, Babić M, Ivanović M, Kraljević-Balalić M and Dimitrijević M (2010) Understanding and utilization of genotype-by-environment interaction in ...
Hedonic Pricing Method relates differences in property prices (house and land prices) to variables in the surrounding environment. The basic principle is that property prices are affected to some extent by the characteristics of a particular environment effect. The environment effect can then be given a price tag based on house prices. An environment effect can be seen as positive (proximity to a recreational area, nice view) or negative (water pollution, risk of flooding). It may be to do with differences in time (time series data: prices in 1970 compared to prices in 2005 related to a change in the environment effect). It is also possible to analyse differences between areas with the same type of property but with one important difference in environment variable (cross-section data: the same type of housing in comparable environments with and without the environment effect). ...
Re|shelter is a recently launched non-profit organisation aiming to address the urgent need for safe housing for people with environmental sensitivities, who experience mild to life-threatening physical reactions to extremely low levels of chemicals, mould, electrical fields, and other environmental factors and have great difficulty living in their conventionally built homes.
The Canadian Human Rights Commissions Policy on Environmental Sensitivities has been updated to add more on scent-free policies. Image description: Environmental sensitivity and scent-free policies text on a blue background to the left, with a photo of a dark haired woman resting her chin on her hand, while looking wistfully (towards the title text) out…
Hills Canine Derm Defense Environmental Sensitivities (12/12.5 oz cans) |$50.99| All Veterinary Diets Ship Free! Expedited Shipping Options Available at Checkout.
How can 3D virtual plant help to better understand plant physiology and genotype-environment interactions?. In : CamBio 2006, Brisbane, Australia, 24-28th September ...
Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented.. ...
The CIWEM Republic of Ireland branchs evening lecture using Kerry Central Water Supply Scheme as a case study to show how to deliver critical infrastructure under environmental constraints given by Andrew Driver, contracts director at Glan Agua Ltd and Gavin Reilly, associate director at Nicholas ODwyer Ltd.
To increase tolerance to abiotic stresses in breeding programmes, typically families and collections of genotypes are evaluated in series of trials (environments) representing different levels of stress. The statistical analysis of the data from such trials concentrates on modelling the phenotypic behaviour of the genotypes across the set of environments. This phenotypic behaviour can be modelled in the form of genotype-specific linear and non-linear response curves in relation to environmental characterizations. Non-parallelism of the response curves indicates genotype × environment interaction. Identification of the genetic basis of the parameters determining the response curves will help in the development of breeding programmes for improving abiotic stress tolerance and understanding genotype × environment interaction. In this paper we present two strategies for locating quantitative trait loci for response-curve parameters and estimation of their allele effects. The procedures are ...
Genetic variation for environmental sensitivity indicates that animals are genetically different in their response to environmental factors. Environmental factors are either identifiable (e.g. temperature) and called macro-environmental or unknown and called micro-environmental. The objectives of this study were to develop a statistical method to estimate genetic parameters for macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities simultaneously, to investigate bias and precision of resulting estimates of genetic parameters and to develop and evaluate use of Akaikes information criterion using h-likelihood to select the best fitting model. We assumed that genetic variation in macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities is expressed as genetic variance in the slope of a linear reaction norm and environmental variance, respectively. A reaction norm model to estimate genetic variance for macro-environmental sensitivity was combined with a structural model for residual variance to estimate genetic variance for
An option into guide selection strategies in soybean breeding programs is to investigate associations between the main traits studied by breeders. A question that is faced is the possible influence of genotype x environment (GE) interactions on correlations among traits. Path analysis allows, in addition to measuring correlation, a more detailed study of cause / effect relationships among traits. We measured the effect of the GE interaction in the association between agronomic traits in soybeans. The experiments were carried out during two crop seasons, in three municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a randomized complete blocks design, with 35 treatments. We evaluated number of grains, number of pods (NP), number of grains per pod, grain yield, weight of 100 grains, lodging score, plant height, height of first pod insertion, and full maturity. The data were submitted to variance analysis and path analysis. We also calculated the sum of ranks index in three ways, considering different ...
It has been suggested that climate change will lead to increased environmental fluctuations, which will undoubtedly have evolutionary consequences for all biota. For instance, fluctuations can directly increase the risk of invasions of alien species into new areas, as these species have repeatedly been proposed to benefit from disturbances. At the same time increased environmental fluctuations may also select for better invaders. However, selection by fluctuations may also influence the resistance of communities to invasions, which has rarely been tested. We tested eco-evolutionary dynamics of invasion with bacterial clones, evolved either in constant or fluctuating temperatures, and conducted experimental invasions in both conditions. We found clear evidence that ecological fluctuations, as well as adaptation to fluctuations by both the invader and community, all affected invasions, but played different roles at different stages of invasion. Ecological fluctuations clearly promoted invasions,
We have investigated patterns of selection and local adaptation in soil bacteria sampled over the course of 2 years. Our leading results are: (i) most variation in fitness in our dataset is explained by differences among genotypes, in comparison with environments or genotype-by-environment interactions; (ii) though small, G × E variation is significant, even among genotypes that would otherwise be identified as identical through conventional sequence analysis, and sufficient to generate strong divergent selection among the most disparate environments; (iii) temporal adaptation can be substantial, especially relative to spatial variation, and more complex than we would expect from simple models of directional selection. Below we discuss these observations and what they mean for understanding how selection works in natural communities of microbes.. The main effect of genotype contributed close to 70% of the variation in fitness in our experiment, dwarfing that contributed by the average effect of ...
AbstractUnderstanding the relative influence of various abiotic and biotic variables on diversification dynamics is a major goal of macroevolutionary studies. Recently, phylogenetic approaches have been developed that make it possible to estimate the role of various environmental variables on divers
Were interested in genetics of natural variation, population genetics and molecular biology. We want to know how climate change is shaping plants resistance and tolerance traits under a combined multidisciplinary approach. Our lab undertakes a research approach that looks for the genetic and molecular basis of naturally occurring quantitative variation in biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these interact with the environment (genotype-by-environment interactions). This multidisciplinary approach will allow a better understanding of the natural evolution of stress pathways in plants and efficient know-how transfer to practical applications ...
Were interested in plant genetics, population genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry. We want to know how climate change is shaping plants resistance and tolerance traits under a combined multidisciplinary approach. Our lab undertakes a research approach that looks for the genetic and molecular basis of quantitative variation in biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these interact with the environment (genotype-by-environment interactions). This multidisciplinary approach will allow a better understanding of the natural evolution of stress pathways in plants and efficient know-how transfer to practical applications ...
Organisms adapt readily to regularly varying environments, for instance, by adjusting to the daily light cycles by using internal circadian clocks. Real problems arise when environmental fluctuations are irregular. Organisms can adapt to sudden changes in chemical composition, local temperature, or illumination by sensing the changes and responding appropriately, for example, by switching phenotype or behavior. But there is a cost: each individual must maintain active sensory machinery.. Population diversity offers an alternate way to adapt to randomly fluctuating environments. Different subsets of the total population may be well-adapted to different types of environments. In genetically clonal populations, phenotypic diversity is generated by stochastic phenotype-switching mechanisms (1-9). Examples include flagellin phase variation in Salmonella enterica (6); microsatellite length variation (slipped-strand mispairing), controlling the expression of contingency genes in Haemophilus influenzae ...
Studies of animals often report a greater sensitivity of one sex to poor rearing environments. However, it is unclear whether size differences associated with sex, sex itself, or other factors are responsible for differences in performance. While the greater nutritional requirement of the larger sex is a plausible explanation for increased sensitivity (i.e., size-dependent vulnerability), other hypotheses suggest that size-independent traits may have effects on the fitness of offspring (i.e., sex-dependent vulnerability). For example, the heterogametic sex may be more vulnerable to expression of sex-linked recessives in poor environments, or sex-specific phenotypes may have negative effects (e.g., increased testosterone in males). We examined support for these hypotheses through the use of meta-analytic techniques based on the published literature on avian species. Our results revealed small, nonsignificant effects for hypotheses of size- and sex-dependent susceptibilities alone. Application of a
Environmental Effects on the Enhancement in Natural and Damaged DNA Nucleobase Acidity Because of Discrete Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions
An enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology is to understand how individuals and populations adapt to fluctuating environments. Here we present an integro-differential model of adaptive dynamics in a phenotype-structured population whose fitness landscape evolves in time due to periodic environmental oscillations. The analytical tractability of our model allows for a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of heritable variations in gene expression, environmental changes and natural selection as drivers of phenotypic adaptation. We show that environmental fluctuations can induce the population to enter an unstable and fluctuation-driven epigenetic state. We demonstrate that this can trigger the emergence of oscillations in the size of the population, and we establish a full characterisation of such oscillations. Moreover, the results of our analyses provide a formal basis for the claim that higher rates of epimutations can bring about higher levels of intrapopulation heterogeneity, whilst
Recent research indicates that a childs local environment may inhibit their natural urge to exercise. It is often suggested that environmental factors affect
One of my favorite TV series was Northern Exposure. I loved the characters and their individual and collective angst, amplified by the fact that they were all...
There are problems with a Si based biochemistry. First of all there dont seem to be commonly occurring catalytic reactions for manipulating Si here on earth, and they would be very useful to living organisms here on earth as Si is very common in the soil in various forms. Obviously there is a need for dramatically different conditions of temperature, pressure, or chemistry for Si life precursors to occur. Sensibly the most favorable conditions would need to be present in this experiment, as our one good example of a place where live developed seems to have very favorable conditions for the reactions that give rise to life (they occur with startling frequency which is why the apparatus was a success.) ...
SUMMARYFactors affecting survival of parasites introduced to new geographical regions include changes in environmental temperature. Protopolystoma xenopodis is a monogenean introduced with the amphibian Xenopus laevis from South Africa to Wales (probably in the 1960s) where low water temperatures impose major constraints on life-cycle processes. Effects were quantified by maintenance of eggs from infections in Wales under controlled conditions at 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 and 25°C. The threshold for egg viability/ development was 15°C. Mean times to hatching were 22 days at 25°C, 32 days at 20°C, extending to 66 days at 15°C. Field temperature records provided calibration of transmission schedules. Although egg production continues year-round, all eggs produced during ,8 months/ year die without hatching. Output contributing significantly to transmission is restricted to 10 weeks (May-mid-July). Host infection, beginning after a time lag of 8 weeks for egg development, is also restricted to 10 ...
Arguably, humans are in need of both better diagnostic tools to prevent pro- gression of diseases as well as greener catalysts for synthesis of chemicals.. Neurodegenerative diseases affecting neurons in the brain leads to demen- tias, where Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most prevalent. It is estimated that about 50 million people worldwide suffer from AD, a number that has more than doubled during the last 30 years. Currently, there is no cure for AD, but in order to slow the progression of symptoms it is crucial to develop biomarkers for early detection and initiation of clinical interventions.. With theoretical tools it is possible to better understand the optical prop- erties of fluorescent biomarkers, and thus contribute to steering the design of biomarkers for distinguishing different types of disease-associated proteins. Lu- minescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCO) is a class of molecules that binds to aggregates of misfolded amyloid-β proteins, facilitating in vivo-detection of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The active role of βγ in signal transduction. AU - Sternweis, Paul C.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Many receptors that sense the environment effect intracellular regulation through stimulation of heterotrimeric G proteins and the consequences thereof. While prominence was originally given to the α-subunits of G proteins as the pathway for downstream regulation, very active roles for the βγ-subunits have emerged in the past year. Recent experiments highlight the versatility of βγ-subunits in these regulatory pathways, but also emphasize some fundamental questions that remain.. AB - Many receptors that sense the environment effect intracellular regulation through stimulation of heterotrimeric G proteins and the consequences thereof. While prominence was originally given to the α-subunits of G proteins as the pathway for downstream regulation, very active roles for the βγ-subunits have emerged in the past year. Recent experiments highlight the versatility of βγ-subunits ...
This review highlights current knowledge of environmental factors in carcinogenesis and their cellular targets. The hypothesis that environmental factors influence carcinogenesis is widely supported by both epidemiological and experimental studies. The fact that only a small fraction of cancers can be attributed to germline mutations in cancer-related genes further buttresses the importance of environmental factors in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, penetrance of germline mutations may be modified by either environmental or other genetic factors. Examples of environmental factors that have been associated with increased cancer risk in the human population include chemical and physical mutagens (e.g. cigarette smoke, heterocyclic amines, asbestos and UV irradiation), infection by certain viral or bacterial pathogens, and dietary non-genotoxic constituents (e.g. macro- and micronutrients). Among molecular targets of environmental influences on carcinogenesis are somatic mutation (genetic change) and ...
Genotype by environment interactions (GxE) may reduce accuracy of sire selection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of GxE by comparing reaction norms of bulls for birth weight, weaning weight, gain and stayability. Environments were defined as nine regions within the United States with similar temperature humidity index. The environmental mean was determined and a weighted regression was used to determine the progeny mean. Reaction norms were calculated by regressing the progeny mean on the environmental mean. A logit model was used to determine the heritability of stayability on the underlying scale. The heritabilities of BW and WW reaction norms were 0.40 and 0.39, respectively. Heritabilities of stayabaility were 0.34, 0.18, 0.19, 0.08, 0.09, 0.28, 0.30, 0.31 and 0.40 for regions C, D, G, L, M, N, P, S and U, respectively and 0.18 for the national dataset. The percentages of females that calved at age four, given that they had calved at age two were 56.7, 39.9, 32.9, ...
(Medical Xpress)-The brains two hippocampal formations - one in each hemispheres temporal lobe, medial to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle and typically referring to the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper ...
The strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is carried out for certain plans, programmes that are likely to have significant environmental effects in accordance with the SEA Act (200/2005) and the SEA Decree (347/2005). The purpose of SEA is to ensure that environmental considerations are integrated into plan and programme in support of environmentally sound and sustainable development. Environmental assessment means an assessment of the environmental effects of a plan or programme and its alternatives, preparation of an environmental report, carrying out consultations, taking into account the environmental report and the results of consultations in decisionmaking, and the provision of information on the decision. The SEA is made by the authority preparing the plan or programme. The types of plans and programmes subject to the SEA are mainly specified in the legislation. A SEA is a required for e.g. national land use objectives, nature conservation programmes, regional plans, river basin ...
Since plants not only provide food for man and his domestic animals but also pharmaceutical products and raw materials for industry, the development of new crops is of great importance. However, many plant species remain unexploited or are only utilized at a local level. This book provides information on the current research into the use of such crops and on their development in a commercial setting. Written by scientists from many different countries, it covers a wide variety of both temperate and tropical crops, their cultivation, marketing and development, and the socio-economic and environmental factors influencing their utilization.
In discussions regarding growth in specific populations, it is important to use measurements that are independent of important confounding variables such as age and sex. The growth pattern of Pima children markedly differs from U.S. references published by the CDC (14). Preliminary analysis of our data showed that age correlated with the CDC weight z score (r = 0.2, P , 0.01). Because we derived z scores from regression models fit to the study population, these scores had the desirable properties of a mean of zero, a standard deviation of one, and being uncorrelated with age or sex.. There has been considerable interest in identifying patterns of early growth associated with later development of type 2 diabetes. This reflects the potential that specific environmental factors influencing growth, for example undernutrition in fetal and early postnatal life, might predispose to later development of diabetes.. In Pima Indians, maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of both type 2 ...
Psychology definition for Active Genotype-Environment Correlation in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Help us get better.
Alcoholism is a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psycho-social, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by continuous or periodic: impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. If you drink alcoholic beverages, even occasionally, you need to know the facts about alcoholism. The Americ
Get the explanation of Comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liability act of 1980 (ercla) and understand what means in insurance.
Autonomous vehicle self-localization must be robust to environment changes, such as dynamic objects, variable illumination, and atmospheric conditions. Topological maps provide a concise representation of the world by only keeping information about relevant places, being robust to environment changes. On the other hand, semantic maps correspond to a high level representation of the environment that includes labels associated with relevant objects and places. Hence, the use of a topological map based on semantic information represents a robust and efficient solution for large-scale outdoor scenes for autonomous vehicles and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). In this work, a novel topological semantic mapping and localization methodology for large-scale outdoor scenarios for autonomous driving and ADAS applications is presented. The methodology uses: (i) a deep neural network for obtaining semantic observations of the environment, (ii) a Topological Semantic Map (TSM) for storing selected ...
Sanjay Jain (University of Delhi; SFI External Professor). Abstract. What sets the scale of the size of bacterial cells and the scale of fluctuations of cell size of genetically identical bacteria in a fixed environment? The talk will discuss the possible origin of these two scales, as well the origin of a time scale - the doubling time of cells. Phenotypic variation in genetically identical cells is generally believed to be a consequence of environmental variations or stochasticity in gene expression due to the small number of molecules involved. Another source of phenotypic variation will be described - the first passage time for a molecular population to cross a fixed threshold in growing cells. In the context of a generic class of mathematical models of cells it will be shown how this time scale and its fluctuations set the average size of cells and the fluctuations of size. ...
Food is a basic necessity of life. Our food production does have a downside for the physical environment, such as biodiversity loss and climate change. By putting consumers and supply chains at the centre of food policy, new opportunities are emerging for making our daily... ...
Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) is a global eco-label for IT products, designed to evaluate their environmental impact on various levels.
Genetic epidemiology: Genetic epidemiology, the study of how genes and environmental factors influence human traits and human health and disease. Genetic epidemiology developed initially from
Survival is a key fitness component and the evolution of age- and stage-specific patterns in survival is a central question in evolutionary biology. In variable environments, favouring chances of survival at the expense of other fitness components could increase fitness by spreading risk across uncertain conditions, especially if environmental conditions improve in the future. Both the magnitude of environmental variation and temporal autocorrelation in the environment might therefore affect the evolution of survival patterns. Despite this, the influence of temporal autocorrelation on the evolution of survival patterns has not been addressed. Here, we use a trade-off structure which reflects the empirically inspired paradigm of acquisition and allocation of resources to investigate how the evolutionarily stable survival probability is shaped in variable, density-dependent environments. We show that temporal autocorrelation is likely to be an important aspect of environmental variability that contributes
Facets of the post-natal environment including the type and complexity of environmental stimuli, the quality of parenting behaviors, and the amount and type of stress experienced by a child affects brain and behavioral functioning. Poverty is a type of pervasive experience that is likely to influence biobehavioral processes because children developing in such environments often encounter high levels of stress and reduced environmental stimulation. This study explores the association between socioeconomic status and the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory that is known to be affected by stress. We employ a voxel-based morphometry analytic framework with region of interest drawing for structural brain images acquired from participants across the socioeconomic spectrum (n = 317). Children from lower income backgrounds had lower hippocampal gray matter density, a measure of volume. This finding is discussed in terms of disparities in education and health that are observed across the
Red Hat customers with large RHEL footprints across multiple environments and even multiple sites are challenged with maintaining consistency and scalability with regard to provisioning, day-to-day systems management, and configuration management. Red Hat Satellite 6 features a highly scalable, modular architecture that lends itself well to addressing these operational challenges. In this video, we review the concept of Satellite 6 remote capsules and how they can be used to centrally management multiple environments and geographic sites, their relationship to the primary integrated management capsule, and how to load balance RHEL puppet clients, system registration, and system updates.Learn more:
Endocrine Today Europe Edition | Obesity has a strong genetic component, and people with a high genetic and environmental risk are particularly susceptible, according to findings presented at the 52nd European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting.“We know that genes and environmental factors influence our BMI — we know less about if and how they interact,” Timothy Frayling, PhD, professor at the
Environmental factors can also raise your risk of addiction. For children and teens, lack of parental involvement can lead to greater risk-taking or experimentation with alcohol and other drugs. Young people who experience abuse or neglect from parents may also use drugs or alcohol to cope with their emotions.. Peer pressure is another risk factor for addiction, especially among young people. Even when its not overt or aggressive, pressure from friends to fit in can create an environment of experimentation with substances that can lead to addiction. The availability of a substance in your social group can also affect your risk of becoming addicted. For example, large amounts of alcohol are available in many social settings that are popular among college students.. If youre trying to recover from an addiction, you may need to avoid environmental triggers, including some activities, settings, or people. For example, you may need to avoid the people that you previously used drugs with. You may ...
Both diseases are so-called lifestyle diseases. From a global perspective, 370 million people suffer from diabetes and their number is rising. In the press, an epidemic of the third millennium is discussed. Over 15% of European couples of reproductive age have problems with conception of a child. The male factor accounts for over 60% in infertility. Infertility in men is caused by a wide range of factors - genetic and living environment, vascular disease but also metabolic illnesses. They include also diabetes mellitus.. From long-term studies, we know that environmental factors can have a negative effect on reproductive parameters in male mice. We were interested in whether the diabetes environment could have a similar effect, says Jana Pěknicová from the Laboratory of Reproductive Biology at the Institute of Biotechnology of the CAS - BIOCEV. In collaboration with Gabriela Pavlínková from the Laboratory of Molecular Pathogenetics, who has for a long time dealt with research of the ...
Autism is undeniably influenced by genes, but a new study suggests that environmental factors may also contribute significantly - more than researchers previously thought - to the developmental disorder. In fact, environmental factors may play at least as big a role as genes in causing autism.
The CONCORDE scientists have been hard at work processing the data collected from the cruises on the R/V Point Sur and the R/V Pelican. Early analyses of images collected during consortium research cruises are finding new ways that the physical environment affects the distribution of organisms and marine snow in the water column.. Read more about their analyses here.. ...
The pleasures and perks of the modern float tank are based on a revolutionary scientific approach to deep relaxation called Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique or R.E.S.T. Floating creates a twilight zone of creative, inspirational thought processes, where your learning abilities are at their highest and powers of visualization and auto-suggestion are greatly enhanced.
Should they be banned?". Environment. 9 August 2019. Suing the Tobacco and Lead Pigment Industries: Government Litigation as ...
Environment. Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin, Heidelberg). ISBN 978-3-642-83779-1 Shields Jr, F. Douglas, Andrew Simon, and ...
Is it ready?". Environment. 2019-04-05. Retrieved 2020-02-11. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (2009). The State of ...
"Environment; Remains Of the Day, At a Price", The New York Times, October 27, 2002. Accessed February 13, 2013. "But ever since ...
Environment; Language; Natural Sciences & Mathematics; Technology (Applied Science); The Arts - Fine and Decorative arts; ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Fiona Harvey, environment correspondent (10 October 2012). "British fishermen attacked ... Environment , NBC News". MSNBC. Retrieved 21 October 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)[dead link] Scallop war: ... by French boats in the Channel , Environment". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2012. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
"Singapore National Environment Agency Weather Statistics". Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 24 November ... "Weather Statistics". National Environment Agency (Singapore). Archived from the original on 31 October 2016. Retrieved 20 March ... They are maintained by the National Environment Agency, which also grade each food stall for hygiene. The largest hawker centre ... "Environment". Base. Retrieved 21 February 2021. "Population and Population Structure". Singstat. Department of Statistics ...
O, Desiree (April 2, 2009). "Emily Hunter: Eco-Warrior , Environment". The Shameless blog. Shameless magazine. Retrieved March ...
It is also released directly into the environment as fly ash, whereas nuclear plants use shielding to protect the environment ... If the ECCS fails, multiple physical barriers limit the release of radioactive materials to the environment even in the case of ... Opponents believe that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment such as the risk of nuclear weapons ... Their release to the environment could be hazardous. Secondly, the fission products, which make up most of the intensely ...
Environment. Retrieved on 2 February 2012. Oliver, Chris. "Japan's power saving measures set to end early". Market Watch. ...
... by the Nigerian Port Authority's Environment Department of the Health, Safety and Environment Division, in recognition of the ... 2014 CII 2013 Environment, Health, and Safety Excellence Award APM Terminals India's Chennai CFS facility was named winner of ... Environment; Responsible Business; and Social Responsibility. Significant gains or new major initiatives have been achieved or ... the 2013 Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) Excellence Award by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) for the ...
"E.O. Wilson at 90: The conservation legend shares dreams for the future". Environment. June 10, 2019. Retrieved December 27, ... at the Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University. Wilson became a special lecturer at Duke University as part of the ... a work that explored the evolutionary and psychological basis of humanity's attraction to the natural environment. This work ...
Long history of civil war, genocide, and US intervention has all left its imprint on the current political environment of the ... "Changing climate forces desperate Guatemalans to migrate". Environment. 2018-10-23. Retrieved 2018-12-08. Oct 2018, Emily Yates ...
... environment. Official web site of "Parcs régionaux MRC Matawinie" (MRC Matawninie Regional Park) Geographical audits conducted ...
Ottman, Jacquelyn; Stafford, Edwin R.; Hartman, Cathy (2006). "Avoiding Green Marketing Myopia" (PDF). Environment. 48 (5). ... and the Center for Small Business and the Environment. In 2012, she founded, a global platform for sharing ...
Environment; Politics and Governance; Law, Judiciary, Human Rights and Legal Reform. Social Welfare; Transportation; ...
Juliette Jowit (24 November 2010). "Green Deal is not a good deal for all homeowners , Juliette Jowit , Environment , guardian. ... Monbiot, George (13 January 2012). "The green deal is a useless, middle-class subsidy , George Monbiot , Environment , guardian ... "Green Deal: energy saving for your home ...
"Environment". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2021-01-28. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Duyck, Bernard. "" Les volcans ...
The Peace River environment did not fit the image which had been created. Thick forest, a short growing season, and variable ... The northern environment, the distance from the metropolitan market, the Depression, and the settlement process. all restricted ... The long process of adaptation to the environment resulted in an enduring pioneer quality in the Peace River region. The ... Conclusion The Peace River thus encompassed the three elements of Peace River regional identity: imagery; environment; and ...
Environment > EARTH SCIENCES > Global Geoparks > Hungary/Slovakia > Novohrad-Nograd Geopark NNG application dossier to EGN ...
Environment, Transport and Electric Mobility, covering a vast network of subsidiaries, branches and agents across the four ... Environment; Renewable; Transports and Logistics. Between 2007 and 2010, the company's turnover exceeds a thousand million ...
Environment". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-05-31. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Leslie, André; Taube, Friedel ( ...
"Obituary: William Hall , Environment". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 March 2017. "Nuclear engineering , The University of ...
Environment". The Guardian. Retrieved December 16, 2015. Markazi, Arash (July 14, 2015). "5 things to know about Donald Trump's ...
Morris, Steven (2015). "Orchards may vanish by the end of the century, conservationists warn , Environment , The Guardian". ...
Environment. Increased moisture increases the rate of crack growth. In the case of aluminium, cracks generally grow from the ... environment, overloads and underloads can also affect the rate of growth. Crack growth may stop if the loads are small enough ... often showing considerable scatter even in seemingly identical samples in well controlled environments. Fatigue is usually ...
A device called Genesis can be used to scan and find items hidden throughout the game's environments. An automap feature is ... Capcom (2015). "Environment". Resident Evil Revelations: Official Complete Works. Titan Books. p. 164. ISBN 978-1783295012. ... Eurogamer reviewer Rich Stanton praised the environments for their lighting and particle effects, while GameSpot credited the ... horror game where the player controls the on-screen character from a third-person perspective to interact with the environment ...
... environment; mobility; energy (although nuclear energy remains on the federal level). Members of the Flemish Parliament elected ...
"Patrick Barkham: A very warm welcome from CO2 central , Environment , The Guardian". Retrieved 11 ... McCarthy, Michael (23 May 2006). "Greenhouse gases: Who produces most? - Environment - The Independent". ...
Environment. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2015-11-27. Houreld, By Katharine. "Horny male seeks mate: Kenya's last northern white ...
EU policies aim to protect the environment and biodiversity, minimize risks to human health, and promote the transition to a ... Marine and coastal environment. EU action to protect Europes coasts, seas and oceans. ... 8th environment action programme: Commission consults on monitoring framework with headline indicators ... EU action to ensure chemicals are safe, for health and the environment. ...
EU policies aim to protect the environment and biodiversity, minimize risks to human health, and promote the transition to a ... Directorate-General for Environment. Level(s), Whats in it for clients and investors, including property owners and developers ... Directorate-General for Environment. Level(s), Whats in it for construction companies and contractors, manufacturers, asset ... Marine and coastal environment. EU action to protect Europes coasts, seas and oceans. ...
... Americans have long been told that our country is running out of energy, but we now know that is wrong. ...
... outlooks and country reviews on environment including biodiversity, water, resource and waste management, climate change, ... OECD Home Environment Environment. OECD work on environment helps countries design and implement effective policies to address ... Environment Focus Blog. The Environment Focus Blog aims to increase dialogue on a variety of environmental topics among policy ... Protecting the planet - Environment timeline on the occasion of the OECD 60th Anniversary 1966-2021. Check out a timeline of ...
Enum Environment.DoubleQuotesValue. java.lang.Object java.lang.Enum,Environment.DoubleQuotesValue, gnu.prolog.vm.Environment. ... HasAtom, Serializable, Comparable,Environment.DoubleQuotesValue,. Enclosing class:. Environment. public static enum Environment ... static Environment.DoubleQuotesValue. getDefault(). static Environment.DoubleQuotesValue. valueOf(String name). Returns the ... public static final Environment.DoubleQuotesValue DQ_ATOM. Method Detail. values. public static Environment.DoubleQuotesValue ...
We design experiences that people love. Our innovation process brings together superior design, engineering and consumer insights to build a diverse and growing portfolio. We believe we must find ways to make electronics more "cradle to cradle." A product that is created (from a cradle of materials) should contribute to society over its entire lifecycle, and the materials that form part of that product should be recycled to form inputs for other products at end-of-life. Its not easy. We believe that if we collectively focus efforts, creativity, and innovation in that direction we can achieve this sooner than we might think.. ...
Living Environment. 2014-12-24 With blue sky, crystal clear water, fresh air, green grass and carpets of flowers, Zhanjiang is ...
... Petitions. Its time to stand together on environmental issues.. Its time to stand together on the environmental ... We can urge our elected officials to consider the environment when they create policy. We can save the places we love on this ... unless we have care for the environment the whole world will collapse ...
We can urge our elected officials to consider the environment when they create policy. We can save the places we love on this ...
However, some of these improvements in our lives have resulted in changes to the environment around us. ... Our environment is a hugely complex system that includes the air we breathe, the land we live on, the water we drink and the ... We must work to ensure that our developments in some areas do not adversely affect our environment whilst also ensuring that we ... Chemistry can help us to understand, monitor, protect and improve the environment around us. Chemists are developing tools and ...
A story environment is a physical, adaptive, augmented 3D reality or virtual space that can become host to narratives. Distinct ... A story environment has potentially five levels:. Level 1 - Shared. Inhabitants create their own stories and shared mythology ... Living - The environment speaks to the participant, a monologue, pushes story at the participant e.g.; ghosts, residual lives, ... Environments that are richly rendered with strong back-stories and require the participant to improvise around a range ...
Environment. * Rare marine life in protected UK waters at risk of being destroyed by supertrawlers In the first six months of ...
The term environment can refer to a singular global environment in relation to humanity, or a local biophysical environment, e. ... Examples include the marine environment, the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment.[2] The number of ... Life-environment interaction[edit]. All life that has survived must have adapted to the conditions of its environment. ... Kemp, David Walker (1998). Environment Dictionary. London, UK: Routledge.. *^ Deng, Y. X., and J. P. Wilson. 2006. "The Role of ...
Environment. * Biblical plague or manageable threat? Beating back swarms with Kenyas locust hunters Swarms of the pests, ...
... we build them with the environment in mind, make sure they last and recover their precious materials. ... Tested to be safe for you and theenvironment.. We thoroughly analyse the materials in Apple devices to find chemicals that ... could be harmful to people or the environment. And we set strict standards for what goes into the devices you use and wear. In ...
To receive our Environment news, publications and events, sign up to MyOECD (choose "Environment" as an area of interest and ... OECD WORK ON ENVIRONMENT 2017-18. This brochure details how our Organisation is helping governments face up to cross-cutting, ... Lisa Danielson of the OECD Environment Directorate and Alexander Bisaro of the Global Climate Forum discussed how OECD ... United Nations Environment Assembly - 2) 18 March, Berlin: High-level panel on Investing in Low-emission, Resilient Development ...
Natural Disasters & Environment. Mount St. Helens. Mount St. Helens is a volcano located in southwestern Washington state. Its ... For centuries, communities spanning the globe have found various ways to honor nature and the environment. more ... interest in the environment was not a passing fad. Nixon used his more ...
... infographics and videos in the Environment category. ...
... the same excellent preservational environment that would later yield Archaeopteryx. They person who first studied it thought… ...
... and it was sponsored by Environment Minnesota, Cool Planet, and the Citizens Climate Lobby. I didnt count the number of people ...
... * Exhibition Text. * Mineral materials (elements), once widely distributed throughout the original magma ... And in the two cases a bit towards the right of this area are displayed minerals that are formed in this pegmatitic environment ...
So if the project manager knows about these environments he / she will be able tomanipulate the environment and being able to ... Project environment * 1. ST JOHNS UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AND EDUCATION GEOGRAPHY DEPARTMENTCOURSE NAME ... 4. shows that the project manager faced the challenge to manipulate social environment for thesustainability of the project by ... Lack of these skills leads the project manager fail to integrate variousproject environments for effective attainment of the ...
Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate Connections, a ... Environment Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate ... Environment And Energy Collaborative. Colorados Oil And Gas Regulators Must Now Consider Public Health And Safety. CPR News. ...
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Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate Connections, a ... Environment Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate ...
environment in Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913. *environment in The Century Dictionary, The ... From Middle French environnement, equivalent to environ +‎ -ment. Compare French environnement. Pronunciation[edit]. *IPA(key) ... programming) The environment of a function at a point during the execution of a program is the set of identifiers in the ... muse on the irrelevance of the borders that separate nation states and keep people from understanding their shared environment. ...
DOSIS 3D helps to understand space radiation and how it penetrates the Space Station walls. Active and passive radiation detectors are used to map radiation in all modules of the Space Station.. The European Columbus laboratory is monitored by 11 passive dosimeters. The dosimeters are about the size of a pack of playing cards and attached to the walls of Columbus with Velcro. The detectors record how much radiation has been absorbed in total during the period they are in space.. After each six-month crew rotation, the detectors are replaced to record changes in radiation. Luca removed an old set of dosimeters from Columbus, packed them for return to Earth, and stuck a new set to the walls.. In addition to the passive detectors, DOSIS-3D uses active dosimeters that measure fluctuations in radiation levels over time. Data from all Station partners is shared to create as complete a picture of space radiation as possible.. ...
Get the table of contents of every new volume published in Environment & Policy. ...
Energy and Environment: Progress and Existence. Energy Provides Existence and Is Cause for Change (hopefully Progress). Energy ... SPEAKING Enquiry * Nature Laws *The Second Law * * PUBLICATIONS * Energy&Environment * Industrial ... Energy and Environment Links * mass-energy equivalence * Mass, momentum, and energy * Laws of Nature: A Skeptics Guide * ... MEE 101 Energy and Environment: This is a course essential for every person and the whole society, and it is an introductory ...
... parents and the community to enhance our childrens educational environment. ...

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