Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Health Facility Environment: Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Housing, AnimalBiodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.United StatesFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Schools: Educational institutions.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Nursing Administration Research: Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mice, Inbred C57BLNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.BrazilComputational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.

Relative influences of sex, race, environment, and HIV infection on body composition in adults. (1/7312)

BACKGROUND: The factors that control body composition in disease are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We planned to compare the relative influences of HIV infection, sex, race, and environment on body composition. METHODS: We analyzed results of body composition studies performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 1415 adults from 2 cohorts: white and African American men and women from the United States, and African men and women (279 HIV-infected and 1136 control). The effects of sex and HIV infection on weight, body cell mass, and fat-free mass were analyzed by using both unadjusted and age-, weight-, and height-adjusted data. RESULTS: Control men weighed more and had more body cell mass and fat-free mass than did control women, although control women had more fat. The strongest correlates with body composition were height and weight, followed by sex. HIV infection, age, environment, and race. Control men and women weighed more and had more body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat than did HIV-infected men. However, differences in body composition between HIV-infected and control groups were strongly influenced by sex. Of the differences in weight between HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, fat-free mass accounted for 51% in men but only 18% in women, in whom the remainder was fat. Sex effects were similar in African and American groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sex has a marked effect on the changes in body composition during HIV infection, with women losing disproportionately more fat than men. Sex-related differences in body composition were narrower in the HIV-infected groups. Race and environment had smaller effects than sex and HIV infection.  (+info)

Clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic features of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. (2/7312)

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has traditionally been considered a disease causing severe and permanent visual loss in young adult males. In nearly all families with LHON it is associated with one of three pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, at bp 11778, 3460 or 14484. The availability of mtDNA confirmation of a diagnosis of LHON has demonstrated that LHON occurs with a wider range of age at onset and more commonly in females than previously recognised. In addition, analysis of patients grouped according to mtDNA mutation has demonstrated differences both in the clinical features of visual failure and in recurrence risks to relatives associated with each of the pathogenic mtDNA mutations. Whilst pathogenic mtDNA mutations are required for the development of LHON, other factors must be reponsible for the variable penetrance and male predominance of this condition. Available data on a number of hypotheses including the role of an additional X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus, impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, mtDNA heteroplasmy, environmental factors and autoimmunity are discussed. Subacute visual failure is seen in association with all three pathogenic LHON mutations. However, the clinical and experimental data reviewed suggest differences in the phenotype associated with each of the three mutations which may reflect variation in the disease mechanisms resulting in this common end-point.  (+info)

Mitochondrial involvement in Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia and Friedreich's ataxia. (3/7312)

Respiratory chain dysfunction has been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. In Friedreich's ataxia (FA) and Huntington's disease (HD), where the respective mutations are in nuclear genes encoding non-respiratory chain mitochondrial proteins, the defects in oxidative phosphorylation are clearly secondary. In Parkinson's disease (PD) the situation is less clear, with some evidence for a primary role of mitochondrial DNA in at least a proportion of patients. The pattern of the respiratory chain defect may provide some clue to its cause; in PD there appears to be a selective complex I deficiency; in HD and FA the deficiencies are most severe in complex II/III with a less severe defect in complex IV. Aconitase activity in HD and FA is severely decreased in brain and muscle, respectively, but appears to be normal in PD brain. Free radical generation is thought to be of importance in both HD and FA, via excitotoxicity in HD and abnormal iron handling in FA. The oxidative damage observed in PD may be secondary to the mitochondrial defect. Whatever the cause(s) and sequence of events, respiratory chain deficiencies appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. The mitochondrial abnormalities induced may converge on the function of the mitochondrion in apoptosis. This mode of cell death is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and it is tempting to speculate that the observed mitochondrial defects in PD, HD and FA result directly in apoptotic cell death, or in the lowering of a cell's threshold to undergo apoptosis. Clarifying the role of mitochondria in pathogenesis may provide opportunities for the development of treatments designed to reverse or prevent neurodegeneration.  (+info)

Pterygium and its relationship to the dry eye in the Bantu. (4/7312)

A comparative study was performed on two groups of Bantus in Johannesburg to see if there was any relationship between the "dry eye" and pterygia, but no correlation was found.  (+info)

Plasma leptin concentrations in Pima Indians living in drastically different environments. (5/7312)

OBJECTIVE: Plasma leptin, an important signal for the regulation of energy stores, is known to be influenced by many hormonal factors, but may also be affected by behavioral and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lifestyle (diet composition, level of physical activity) on plasma leptin concentrations among Pima Indians living in drastically different environments. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 224 Mexican Pima Indians (115 women, 109 men) living a traditional lifestyle in a remote, mountainous area of northwest Mexico and 418 U.S. Pima Indians (281 women, 137 men) living a North American lifestyle on the Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. We hypothesized that the absolute value of leptin would be lower in Mexican Pima Indians because of their lower percent body fat, but could be further influenced by their lifestyle, independent of body composition. RESULTS: Leptin concentration (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) was strongly correlated with percent fat (bioimpedance) in Mexican Pima Indians (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001) and U.S. Pima Indians (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Among U.S. Pima Indians, independent of percent fat, subjects with type 2 diabetes had lower leptin than nondiabetic subjects (difference = 6.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml, P < 0.002). Among nondiabetic subjects, Mexican Pima Indians had lower absolute leptin concentrations than U.S. Pima Indians, but higher after adjustment for percent body fat, waist circumference, age, and sex. In a subset of 70 pairs of subjects matched for sex and percent body fat, leptin concentration was 4.4 +/- 1.0 ng/ml (P < 0.0001) higher in Mexican Pima Indians versus U.S. Pima Indians. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that independent of body composition, leptin concentration may be increased by environmental factors, such as a high-carbohydrate diet and a high level of physical activity.  (+info)

Lipoprotein(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) isoforms related to life style risk factors. (6/7312)

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been considered to be a predictor of premature coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Lp(a) levels are largely genetically determined, but the detailed mechanism of Lp(a) elevation is uncertain. We examined the association between Lp(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] phenotypes as well as that of Lp(a) level and other various conditions. The subjects were 280 healthy Japanese (102 males and 178 females) aged 39 to 70 years who were living in a rural community in 1992. We obtained apo(a) phenotypes determined by SDS-PAGE as well as Lp(a) levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. We combined apo(a) phenotypes form 4 groups according to molecular weights (from high apo(a) molecular weight to low: I, II, III and IV). Lp(a) levels were associated with apo(a) phenotype-groups, that is, they were inversely associated with apo(a) molecular weight. Small apo(a) phenotypes were less frequent than large ones. The median Lp(a) level was higher in smoking (29.2 mg/dL) than in non-smoking subjects (18.5 mg/dL) in phenotype-group III. Adjusted means of total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels in apo(a) phenotype-group IV were the highest of all phenotype-groups. Age, apo(a) phenotype, smoking status, total cholesterol and fibrinogen were positively correlated with Lp(a) levels by multiple regression analysis. Lp(a) levels were found to be mainly associated with apo(a) phenotype, but varied broadly within the same apo(a) phenotype at various conditions, such as smoking status and high total cholesterol.  (+info)

Alternatives to minimize the environmental impact of large swine production units. (7/7312)

Large swine production facilities have become controversial additions to the agricultural landscape as their numbers and sizes have increased. In addition to being larger enterprises, these units have involved greater specialization, the influx of outside capital, and the employment of labor without extensive investment in the enterprise. Major complaints have included water pollution and odors. Water pollution complaints have been related to surface and groundwater resources. Accidental spills, structural failure, and purposeful discharges have been noted. Odor problems are most often related to manure management techniques. Large anaerobic lagoons and irrigation of lagoon effluent have the potential to emit odors that travel long distances. Fortunately, technology and management alternatives exist to achieve higher levels of environmental acceptability. More effective water pollution and odor control alternatives generally increase construction and operating costs. Producers, regulatory officials, and the local public have an opportunity to interact to achieve progress in establishing acceptable compromises. This article identifies the range of existing and evolving alternative strategies and provides some assistance to producers and neighbors in achieving the necessary equilibrium.  (+info)

Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti. (8/7312)

The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process.  (+info)

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Hedonic Pricing Method relates differences in property prices (house and land prices) to variables in the surrounding environment. The basic principle is that property prices are affected to some extent by the characteristics of a particular environment effect. The environment effect can then be given a price tag based on house prices. An environment effect can be seen as positive (proximity to a recreational area, nice view) or negative (water pollution, risk of flooding). It may be to do with differences in time (time series data: prices in 1970 compared to prices in 2005 related to a change in the environment effect). It is also possible to analyse differences between areas with the same type of property but with one important difference in environment variable (cross-section data: the same type of housing in comparable environments with and without the environment effect). ...
The Canadian Human Rights Commissions Policy on Environmental Sensitivities has been updated to add more on scent-free policies. Image description: Environmental sensitivity and scent-free policies text on a blue background to the left, with a photo of a dark haired woman resting her chin on her hand, while looking wistfully (towards the title text) out…
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How can 3D virtual plant help to better understand plant physiology and genotype-environment interactions?. In : CamBio 2006, Brisbane, Australia, 24-28th September ...
Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented.. ...
The CIWEM Republic of Ireland branchs evening lecture using Kerry Central Water Supply Scheme as a case study to show how to deliver critical infrastructure under environmental constraints given by Andrew Driver, contracts director at Glan Agua Ltd and Gavin Reilly, associate director at Nicholas ODwyer Ltd.
To increase tolerance to abiotic stresses in breeding programmes, typically families and collections of genotypes are evaluated in series of trials (environments) representing different levels of stress. The statistical analysis of the data from such trials concentrates on modelling the phenotypic behaviour of the genotypes across the set of environments. This phenotypic behaviour can be modelled in the form of genotype-specific linear and non-linear response curves in relation to environmental characterizations. Non-parallelism of the response curves indicates genotype × environment interaction. Identification of the genetic basis of the parameters determining the response curves will help in the development of breeding programmes for improving abiotic stress tolerance and understanding genotype × environment interaction. In this paper we present two strategies for locating quantitative trait loci for response-curve parameters and estimation of their allele effects. The procedures are ...
Genetic variation for environmental sensitivity indicates that animals are genetically different in their response to environmental factors. Environmental factors are either identifiable (e.g. temperature) and called macro-environmental or unknown and called micro-environmental. The objectives of this study were to develop a statistical method to estimate genetic parameters for macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities simultaneously, to investigate bias and precision of resulting estimates of genetic parameters and to develop and evaluate use of Akaikes information criterion using h-likelihood to select the best fitting model. We assumed that genetic variation in macro- and micro-environmental sensitivities is expressed as genetic variance in the slope of a linear reaction norm and environmental variance, respectively. A reaction norm model to estimate genetic variance for macro-environmental sensitivity was combined with a structural model for residual variance to estimate genetic variance for
An option into guide selection strategies in soybean breeding programs is to investigate associations between the main traits studied by breeders. A question that is faced is the possible influence of genotype x environment (GE) interactions on correlations among traits. Path analysis allows, in addition to measuring correlation, a more detailed study of cause / effect relationships among traits. We measured the effect of the GE interaction in the association between agronomic traits in soybeans. The experiments were carried out during two crop seasons, in three municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a randomized complete blocks design, with 35 treatments. We evaluated number of grains, number of pods (NP), number of grains per pod, grain yield, weight of 100 grains, lodging score, plant height, height of first pod insertion, and full maturity. The data were submitted to variance analysis and path analysis. We also calculated the sum of ranks index in three ways, considering different ...
We have investigated patterns of selection and local adaptation in soil bacteria sampled over the course of 2 years. Our leading results are: (i) most variation in fitness in our dataset is explained by differences among genotypes, in comparison with environments or genotype-by-environment interactions; (ii) though small, G × E variation is significant, even among genotypes that would otherwise be identified as identical through conventional sequence analysis, and sufficient to generate strong divergent selection among the most disparate environments; (iii) temporal adaptation can be substantial, especially relative to spatial variation, and more complex than we would expect from simple models of directional selection. Below we discuss these observations and what they mean for understanding how selection works in natural communities of microbes.. The main effect of genotype contributed close to 70% of the variation in fitness in our experiment, dwarfing that contributed by the average effect of ...
AbstractUnderstanding the relative influence of various abiotic and biotic variables on diversification dynamics is a major goal of macroevolutionary studies. Recently, phylogenetic approaches have been developed that make it possible to estimate the role of various environmental variables on divers
Were interested in genetics of natural variation, population genetics and molecular biology. We want to know how climate change is shaping plants resistance and tolerance traits under a combined multidisciplinary approach. Our lab undertakes a research approach that looks for the genetic and molecular basis of naturally occurring quantitative variation in biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these interact with the environment (genotype-by-environment interactions). This multidisciplinary approach will allow a better understanding of the natural evolution of stress pathways in plants and efficient know-how transfer to practical applications ...
Were interested in plant genetics, population genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry. We want to know how climate change is shaping plants resistance and tolerance traits under a combined multidisciplinary approach. Our lab undertakes a research approach that looks for the genetic and molecular basis of quantitative variation in biotic and abiotic stress responses, and how these interact with the environment (genotype-by-environment interactions). This multidisciplinary approach will allow a better understanding of the natural evolution of stress pathways in plants and efficient know-how transfer to practical applications ...
Organisms adapt readily to regularly varying environments, for instance, by adjusting to the daily light cycles by using internal circadian clocks. Real problems arise when environmental fluctuations are irregular. Organisms can adapt to sudden changes in chemical composition, local temperature, or illumination by sensing the changes and responding appropriately, for example, by switching phenotype or behavior. But there is a cost: each individual must maintain active sensory machinery.. Population diversity offers an alternate way to adapt to randomly fluctuating environments. Different subsets of the total population may be well-adapted to different types of environments. In genetically clonal populations, phenotypic diversity is generated by stochastic phenotype-switching mechanisms (1-9). Examples include flagellin phase variation in Salmonella enterica (6); microsatellite length variation (slipped-strand mispairing), controlling the expression of contingency genes in Haemophilus influenzae ...
Studies of animals often report a greater sensitivity of one sex to poor rearing environments. However, it is unclear whether size differences associated with sex, sex itself, or other factors are responsible for differences in performance. While the greater nutritional requirement of the larger sex is a plausible explanation for increased sensitivity (i.e., size-dependent vulnerability), other hypotheses suggest that size-independent traits may have effects on the fitness of offspring (i.e., sex-dependent vulnerability). For example, the heterogametic sex may be more vulnerable to expression of sex-linked recessives in poor environments, or sex-specific phenotypes may have negative effects (e.g., increased testosterone in males). We examined support for these hypotheses through the use of meta-analytic techniques based on the published literature on avian species. Our results revealed small, nonsignificant effects for hypotheses of size- and sex-dependent susceptibilities alone. Application of a
Environmental Effects on the Enhancement in Natural and Damaged DNA Nucleobase Acidity Because of Discrete Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions
An enduring puzzle in evolutionary biology is to understand how individuals and populations adapt to fluctuating environments. Here we present an integro-differential model of adaptive dynamics in a phenotype-structured population whose fitness landscape evolves in time due to periodic environmental oscillations. The analytical tractability of our model allows for a systematic investigation of the relative contributions of heritable variations in gene expression, environmental changes and natural selection as drivers of phenotypic adaptation. We show that environmental fluctuations can induce the population to enter an unstable and fluctuation-driven epigenetic state. We demonstrate that this can trigger the emergence of oscillations in the size of the population, and we establish a full characterisation of such oscillations. Moreover, the results of our analyses provide a formal basis for the claim that higher rates of epimutations can bring about higher levels of intrapopulation heterogeneity, whilst
Recent research indicates that a childs local environment may inhibit their natural urge to exercise. It is often suggested that environmental factors affect
One of my favorite TV series was Northern Exposure. I loved the characters and their individual and collective angst, amplified by the fact that they were all...
There are problems with a Si based biochemistry. First of all there dont seem to be commonly occurring catalytic reactions for manipulating Si here on earth, and they would be very useful to living organisms here on earth as Si is very common in the soil in various forms. Obviously there is a need for dramatically different conditions of temperature, pressure, or chemistry for Si life precursors to occur. Sensibly the most favorable conditions would need to be present in this experiment, as our one good example of a place where live developed seems to have very favorable conditions for the reactions that give rise to life (they occur with startling frequency which is why the apparatus was a success.) ...
SUMMARYFactors affecting survival of parasites introduced to new geographical regions include changes in environmental temperature. Protopolystoma xenopodis is a monogenean introduced with the amphibian Xenopus laevis from South Africa to Wales (probably in the 1960s) where low water temperatures impose major constraints on life-cycle processes. Effects were quantified by maintenance of eggs from infections in Wales under controlled conditions at 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 and 25°C. The threshold for egg viability/ development was 15°C. Mean times to hatching were 22 days at 25°C, 32 days at 20°C, extending to 66 days at 15°C. Field temperature records provided calibration of transmission schedules. Although egg production continues year-round, all eggs produced during ,8 months/ year die without hatching. Output contributing significantly to transmission is restricted to 10 weeks (May-mid-July). Host infection, beginning after a time lag of 8 weeks for egg development, is also restricted to 10 ...
Arguably, humans are in need of both better diagnostic tools to prevent pro- gression of diseases as well as greener catalysts for synthesis of chemicals.. Neurodegenerative diseases affecting neurons in the brain leads to demen- tias, where Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most prevalent. It is estimated that about 50 million people worldwide suffer from AD, a number that has more than doubled during the last 30 years. Currently, there is no cure for AD, but in order to slow the progression of symptoms it is crucial to develop biomarkers for early detection and initiation of clinical interventions.. With theoretical tools it is possible to better understand the optical prop- erties of fluorescent biomarkers, and thus contribute to steering the design of biomarkers for distinguishing different types of disease-associated proteins. Lu- minescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCO) is a class of molecules that binds to aggregates of misfolded amyloid-β proteins, facilitating in vivo-detection of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The active role of βγ in signal transduction. AU - Sternweis, Paul C.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Many receptors that sense the environment effect intracellular regulation through stimulation of heterotrimeric G proteins and the consequences thereof. While prominence was originally given to the α-subunits of G proteins as the pathway for downstream regulation, very active roles for the βγ-subunits have emerged in the past year. Recent experiments highlight the versatility of βγ-subunits in these regulatory pathways, but also emphasize some fundamental questions that remain.. AB - Many receptors that sense the environment effect intracellular regulation through stimulation of heterotrimeric G proteins and the consequences thereof. While prominence was originally given to the α-subunits of G proteins as the pathway for downstream regulation, very active roles for the βγ-subunits have emerged in the past year. Recent experiments highlight the versatility of βγ-subunits ...
This review highlights current knowledge of environmental factors in carcinogenesis and their cellular targets. The hypothesis that environmental factors influence carcinogenesis is widely supported by both epidemiological and experimental studies. The fact that only a small fraction of cancers can be attributed to germline mutations in cancer-related genes further buttresses the importance of environmental factors in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, penetrance of germline mutations may be modified by either environmental or other genetic factors. Examples of environmental factors that have been associated with increased cancer risk in the human population include chemical and physical mutagens (e.g. cigarette smoke, heterocyclic amines, asbestos and UV irradiation), infection by certain viral or bacterial pathogens, and dietary non-genotoxic constituents (e.g. macro- and micronutrients). Among molecular targets of environmental influences on carcinogenesis are somatic mutation (genetic change) and ...
Genotype by environment interactions (GxE) may reduce accuracy of sire selection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of GxE by comparing reaction norms of bulls for birth weight, weaning weight, gain and stayability. Environments were defined as nine regions within the United States with similar temperature humidity index. The environmental mean was determined and a weighted regression was used to determine the progeny mean. Reaction norms were calculated by regressing the progeny mean on the environmental mean. A logit model was used to determine the heritability of stayability on the underlying scale. The heritabilities of BW and WW reaction norms were 0.40 and 0.39, respectively. Heritabilities of stayabaility were 0.34, 0.18, 0.19, 0.08, 0.09, 0.28, 0.30, 0.31 and 0.40 for regions C, D, G, L, M, N, P, S and U, respectively and 0.18 for the national dataset. The percentages of females that calved at age four, given that they had calved at age two were 56.7, 39.9, 32.9, ...
(Medical Xpress)-The brains two hippocampal formations - one in each hemispheres temporal lobe, medial to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle and typically referring to the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper ...
The strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is carried out for certain plans, programmes that are likely to have significant environmental effects in accordance with the SEA Act (200/2005) and the SEA Decree (347/2005). The purpose of SEA is to ensure that environmental considerations are integrated into plan and programme in support of environmentally sound and sustainable development. Environmental assessment means an assessment of the environmental effects of a plan or programme and its alternatives, preparation of an environmental report, carrying out consultations, taking into account the environmental report and the results of consultations in decisionmaking, and the provision of information on the decision. The SEA is made by the authority preparing the plan or programme. The types of plans and programmes subject to the SEA are mainly specified in the legislation. A SEA is a required for e.g. national land use objectives, nature conservation programmes, regional plans, river basin ...
Since plants not only provide food for man and his domestic animals but also pharmaceutical products and raw materials for industry, the development of new crops is of great importance. However, many plant species remain unexploited or are only utilized at a local level. This book provides information on the current research into the use of such crops and on their development in a commercial setting. Written by scientists from many different countries, it covers a wide variety of both temperate and tropical crops, their cultivation, marketing and development, and the socio-economic and environmental factors influencing their utilization.
In discussions regarding growth in specific populations, it is important to use measurements that are independent of important confounding variables such as age and sex. The growth pattern of Pima children markedly differs from U.S. references published by the CDC (14). Preliminary analysis of our data showed that age correlated with the CDC weight z score (r = 0.2, P , 0.01). Because we derived z scores from regression models fit to the study population, these scores had the desirable properties of a mean of zero, a standard deviation of one, and being uncorrelated with age or sex.. There has been considerable interest in identifying patterns of early growth associated with later development of type 2 diabetes. This reflects the potential that specific environmental factors influencing growth, for example undernutrition in fetal and early postnatal life, might predispose to later development of diabetes.. In Pima Indians, maternal diabetes is associated with an increased risk of both type 2 ...
Psychology definition for Active Genotype-Environment Correlation in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Help us get better.
Sanjay Jain (University of Delhi; SFI External Professor). Abstract. What sets the scale of the size of bacterial cells and the scale of fluctuations of cell size of genetically identical bacteria in a fixed environment? The talk will discuss the possible origin of these two scales, as well the origin of a time scale - the doubling time of cells. Phenotypic variation in genetically identical cells is generally believed to be a consequence of environmental variations or stochasticity in gene expression due to the small number of molecules involved. Another source of phenotypic variation will be described - the first passage time for a molecular population to cross a fixed threshold in growing cells. In the context of a generic class of mathematical models of cells it will be shown how this time scale and its fluctuations set the average size of cells and the fluctuations of size. ...
Genetic epidemiology: Genetic epidemiology, the study of how genes and environmental factors influence human traits and human health and disease. Genetic epidemiology developed initially from
Survival is a key fitness component and the evolution of age- and stage-specific patterns in survival is a central question in evolutionary biology. In variable environments, favouring chances of survival at the expense of other fitness components could increase fitness by spreading risk across uncertain conditions, especially if environmental conditions improve in the future. Both the magnitude of environmental variation and temporal autocorrelation in the environment might therefore affect the evolution of survival patterns. Despite this, the influence of temporal autocorrelation on the evolution of survival patterns has not been addressed. Here, we use a trade-off structure which reflects the empirically inspired paradigm of acquisition and allocation of resources to investigate how the evolutionarily stable survival probability is shaped in variable, density-dependent environments. We show that temporal autocorrelation is likely to be an important aspect of environmental variability that contributes
Facets of the post-natal environment including the type and complexity of environmental stimuli, the quality of parenting behaviors, and the amount and type of stress experienced by a child affects brain and behavioral functioning. Poverty is a type of pervasive experience that is likely to influence biobehavioral processes because children developing in such environments often encounter high levels of stress and reduced environmental stimulation. This study explores the association between socioeconomic status and the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory that is known to be affected by stress. We employ a voxel-based morphometry analytic framework with region of interest drawing for structural brain images acquired from participants across the socioeconomic spectrum (n = 317). Children from lower income backgrounds had lower hippocampal gray matter density, a measure of volume. This finding is discussed in terms of disparities in education and health that are observed across the
Red Hat customers with large RHEL footprints across multiple environments and even multiple sites are challenged with maintaining consistency and scalability with regard to provisioning, day-to-day systems management, and configuration management. Red Hat Satellite 6 features a highly scalable, modular architecture that lends itself well to addressing these operational challenges. In this video, we review the concept of Satellite 6 remote capsules and how they can be used to centrally management multiple environments and geographic sites, their relationship to the primary integrated management capsule, and how to load balance RHEL puppet clients, system registration, and system updates.Learn more: https://www.redhat.com/en/services/consulting
Endocrine Today Europe Edition | Obesity has a strong genetic component, and people with a high genetic and environmental risk are particularly susceptible, according to findings presented at the 52nd European Association for the Study of Diabetes Annual Meeting.“We know that genes and environmental factors influence our BMI — we know less about if and how they interact,” Timothy Frayling, PhD, professor at the
Environmental factors can also raise your risk of addiction. For children and teens, lack of parental involvement can lead to greater risk-taking or experimentation with alcohol and other drugs. Young people who experience abuse or neglect from parents may also use drugs or alcohol to cope with their emotions.. Peer pressure is another risk factor for addiction, especially among young people. Even when its not overt or aggressive, pressure from friends to fit in can create an environment of experimentation with substances that can lead to addiction. The availability of a substance in your social group can also affect your risk of becoming addicted. For example, large amounts of alcohol are available in many social settings that are popular among college students.. If youre trying to recover from an addiction, you may need to avoid environmental triggers, including some activities, settings, or people. For example, you may need to avoid the people that you previously used drugs with. You may ...
Both diseases are so-called lifestyle diseases. From a global perspective, 370 million people suffer from diabetes and their number is rising. In the press, an epidemic of the third millennium is discussed. Over 15% of European couples of reproductive age have problems with conception of a child. The male factor accounts for over 60% in infertility. Infertility in men is caused by a wide range of factors - genetic and living environment, vascular disease but also metabolic illnesses. They include also diabetes mellitus.. From long-term studies, we know that environmental factors can have a negative effect on reproductive parameters in male mice. We were interested in whether the diabetes environment could have a similar effect, says Jana Pěknicová from the Laboratory of Reproductive Biology at the Institute of Biotechnology of the CAS - BIOCEV. In collaboration with Gabriela Pavlínková from the Laboratory of Molecular Pathogenetics, who has for a long time dealt with research of the ...
Autism is undeniably influenced by genes, but a new study suggests that environmental factors may also contribute significantly - more than researchers previously thought - to the developmental disorder. In fact, environmental factors may play at least as big a role as genes in causing autism.
The CONCORDE scientists have been hard at work processing the data collected from the cruises on the R/V Point Sur and the R/V Pelican. Early analyses of images collected during consortium research cruises are finding new ways that the physical environment affects the distribution of organisms and marine snow in the water column.. Read more about their analyses here.. ...
The pleasures and perks of the modern float tank are based on a revolutionary scientific approach to deep relaxation called Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique or R.E.S.T. Floating creates a twilight zone of creative, inspirational thought processes, where your learning abilities are at their highest and powers of visualization and auto-suggestion are greatly enhanced.
Ambidexterity-the ability to excel simultaneously in efficiency and innovation-is a rare but increasingly critical asset in todays complex business environment.
By studying Autism Profiles, we hope to identify different subgroups of ASD. These subgroups will provide clues that will help us understand some of the very earliest signs of developmental differences or anomalies. We believe that the distinctive subgroups of ASDs may respond differently to a variety of treatments (e.g., dietary, ABA, educational strategies). Very careful clinical assessments will hopefully lead to our separating families into different subgroups based on subtle differences in the behaviour/symptoms and/or physical features of the affected individuals (i.e. through the creation of Autism Profiles). It is important to learn whether genetic or environmental differences exist that could account for subgroups of ASDs, and the different responses to the variety of treatments and supports used with individuals with an ASD. Since some characteristics are familial, rather than specific to an ASD, we encourage all family members to take part in all of our studies. This includes the ...
By studying Autism Profiles, we hope to identify different subgroups of ASD. These subgroups will provide clues that will help us understand some of the very earliest signs of developmental differences or anomalies. We believe that the distinctive subgroups of ASDs may respond differently to a variety of treatments (e.g., dietary, ABA, educational strategies). Very careful clinical assessments will hopefully lead to our separating families into different subgroups based on subtle differences in the behaviour/symptoms and/or physical features of the affected individuals (i.e. through the creation of Autism Profiles). It is important to learn whether genetic or environmental differences exist that could account for subgroups of ASDs, and the different responses to the variety of treatments and supports used with individuals with an ASD. Since some characteristics are familial, rather than specific to an ASD, we encourage all family members to take part in all of our studies. This includes the ...
Get personalization and dynamic policy configuration across virtual, physical, and cloud-based desktop environments with VMware Dynamic Environment Manager. Download a free trial today and learn how you can deliver a better employee experience while streamlining IT management. | VMware AU
Theres been a paradigm shift in the field of genetics. Instead of relying solely on DNA and inheritance, the field of epigenetics now demonstrates how environmental factors can also determine diseases in our future, and in our children and grandchildrens future. Host Bruce Gellerman talks with epigeneticist Michael Skinner, a professor at Washington State University.
These sections describe some of the basic site requirements that you should be aware of as you prepare to install your Cisco SFS 7000P and SFS 7000D Server Switches. Environmental factors can adversely affect the performance and longevity of your system. Planning a proper location for the switch and layout of your equipment rack or wiring closet is essential for successful system operation. You should install the switch in an enclosed, secure area, ensuring that only qualified personnel have access to the switch and control of the environment. Equipment that is placed too closely together or placed in inadequately ventilated areas can cause system overtemperature conditions leading to premature component failures. In addition, poor equipment placement can make chassis panels inaccessable and difficult to maintain. The switch requires a dry, clean, well-ventilated, and air-conditioned environment. To ensure normal operation, maintain ambient airflow. If the airflow is blocked or restricted, or if ...
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Séminaire de biophysique 13h à 14h30 Le séminaire de Jean-Baptiste Masson (Janelia Research Campus, HHMI) aura lieu dans lamphi Urbain ESPCI, 10 Rue (...)
Environment. Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin, Heidelberg). ISBN 978-3-642-83779-1 Shields Jr, F. Douglas, Andrew Simon, and ...
Environment; Language; Natural Sciences & Mathematics; Technology (Applied Science); The Arts - Fine and Decorative arts; ...
Environment. Retrieved on 2 February 2012. Oliver, Chris. "Japan's power saving measures set to end early". Market Watch. ...
... by the Nigerian Port Authority's Environment Department of the Health, Safety and Environment Division, in recognition of the ... 2014 CII 2013 Environment, Health, and Safety Excellence Award APM Terminals India's Chennai CFS facility was named winner of ... Environment; Responsible Business; and Social Responsibility. Significant gains or new major initiatives have been achieved or ... the 2013 Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) Excellence Award by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) for the ...
... environment; real estate; humanities and social sciences; IT and computing; law and legal; work and study skills. Open ...
Environment; Politics and Governance; Law,Judiciary,Human Rights and Legal Reform. Social Welfare; Transportation; Agriculture ...
Juliette Jowit (2010-11-24). "Green Deal is not a good deal for all homeowners , Juliette Jowit , Environment , guardian.co.uk ... Monbiot, George (2012-01-13). "The green deal is a useless, middle-class subsidy , George Monbiot , Environment , guardian.co. ... https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jul/23/uk-ceases-financing-of-green-deal "DECC commits to Autumn launch of Green ...
Environment > EARTH SCIENCES > Global Geoparks > Hungary/Slovakia > Novohrad-Nograd Geopark NNG application dossier to EGN ...
Environment, Transport and Electric Mobility, covering a vast network of subsidiaries, branches and agents across the four ... Environment; Renewable; Transports and Logistics. Between 2007 and 2010, the company's turnover exceeds a thousand million ...
"Obituary: William Hall , Environment". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-03-06. "Nuclear engineering , The University of Manchester ...
"Antamina , Environment , Polylepis Conservation in South Conchucos." Antamina. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2011. [2] Price, Larry W ... Due to the harsh environment in which many species of Polylepis grow the growth of the tree's stems and branches are generally ... In 2005 a conservation project began promoted by the Peruvian Department of Environment, the Mountain Institute and had the ... whose thick masses may damage trees by adding weight to the branches and providing a suitable environment for fungi which ...
Morris, Steven (2015). "Orchards may vanish by the end of the century, conservationists warn , Environment , The Guardian". ...
... Board "Statoil, Shell shelve Draugen field CO2 injection , Environment". Reuters. 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2011-10-21. ...
... environment; mobility; energy (although nuclear energy remains on the federal level). Members of the Flemish Parliament elected ...
"Patrick Barkham: A very warm welcome from CO2 central , Environment , The Guardian". Environment.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2015 ... McCarthy, Michael (2006-05-23). "Greenhouse gases: Who produces most? - Environment - The Independent". News.independent.co.uk ...
Environment. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2015-11-27. Houreld, By Katharine. "Horny male seeks mate: Kenya's last northern white ...
Impact on people and environment. Exposure of a member of the public in excess of 10 mSv. Exposure of a worker in excess of the ... Impact on people and environment Exposure in excess of ten times the statutory annual limit for workers. Non-lethal ... Impact on people and environment Limited release of radioactive material likely to require implementation of some planned ... Impact on people and environment Minor release of radioactive material unlikely to result in implementation of planned ...
Environment > Civil protection > Major accidents involving dangerous substances European Commission page about the Seveso ...
A study by the Smith School of Enterprise and Environment at University of Oxford found that the stigmatisation of fossil fuel ... Fossil Free ANU formed out of the ANU Environment Collective (EC), a consensus-based and non-hierarchical group of students ... "Boris Johnson told to divest £4.8bn pension fund from fossil fuels , Environment". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-05-21. Andrew ... "Harvard divestment campaigners gear up for a week of action , Environment". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-05-21. "Harvard Heat ...
Environment , guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2010-08-24. Webster, Ben (2010-03-23). "Lord Oxburgh the climate ... the Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment. In March 2010, he was appointed as the chairman of an inquiry ... http://www.uea.ac.uk/mac/comm/media/press/CRUstatements/SAP David Adam, environment correspondent (2010-04-14). "Scientists ...
Environment. FAA. Retrieved on 2009-02-16. Rasmussen, E.A. and Turner, J. (2003). Polar Lows: Mesoscale Weather Systems in the ... anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment ...
Environment portal United Nations portal Renewable energy portal Global warming portal. ... David Adam (14 February 2010). "Climate scientist says Himalayan glacier report is 'robust and rigorous' , Environment". London ... Environment, Heldref, 43 (4) , p.11. Ch 7 Assessing Progress in Climate Science , in US NRC 2001, p. 22 Press flyer announcing ... the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide recommendations ...
Environment; and Human Factors: Selected Topics. Anthropometry Industrial and organizational psychology Sanders, Mark S.; ...
"ENVIRONMENT". Retrieved 9 July 2015. "CMS Energy Hikes Dividend". Nasdaq. Retrieved 9 July 2015. "EEI Financial Conference" ( ...
J.R. Jaunsen (1989). "The Behavior and Capabilities of Lithium Hydroxide Carbon Dioxide Scrubbers in a Deep Sea Environment". ... "Can technology clear the air? - environment". New Scientist. January 12, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-29. F. S. Zeman; K. S. Lackner ... "Chemical 'sponge' could filter CO2 from the air - environment". New Scientist. October 3, 2007. Retrieved 2009-10-29. " ...
November 2007). "The Ripple Effect: Biofuels, Food Security, and the Environment". Environment. Retrieved 2009-06-07. Renton ... "Biofuel Producers Give EPA an Earful on Renewable Fuel Standard". Environment News Service. 2009-06-09. Retrieved 2009-06-17. " ... A deal is not foreseen before 2014 Renewable energy portal Energy portal Sustainable development portal Environment portal ... "Green groups sue Commission over withheld biofuels docs". Transport & Environment. 2010-03-09. Retrieved 2010-03-29. "Renewable ...
Environment. Tengrinews.kz". En.tengrinews.kz. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 2015-11-18. "Visa Information". Timatic. IATA. Retrieved ...
Raheli S. Millman (August 8, 2004). "ENVIRONMENT; Food Shoppers? Call Them Shareholders". The New York Times. Retrieved August ...
Environment". The Guardian. Retrieved 2012-10-03. Catherine Field (2005-06-30). "'Third team' in Rainbow Warrior plot". The New ...
Lederman, Jason (14 March 2016). "Buzz is disappearing From 'Honey Nut Cheerios' boxes". Environment. Popular Science. Archived ... Skwarecki, Beth (17 March 2017). "Don't plant those "bee-friendly" wildflowers Cheerios is giving away". Environment. ...
How to use environment in a sentence. Meanings of environment Synonym Discussion of environment. ... Environment definition is - the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded. ... Examples of environment in a Sentence. He grew up in a loving environment. Were trying to create a better business environment ... Share environment Post the Definition of environment to Facebook Share the Definition of environment on Twitter ...
Recent research indicates that a childs local environment may inhibit their natural urge to exercise. It is often suggested ... Environment Affects Childrens Activity Levels. By Jane Collingwood Associate News Editor Last updated: 8 Aug 2018 ~ 3 min read ... Collingwood, J. (2018). Environment Affects Childrens Activity Levels. Psych Central. Retrieved on December 1, 2020, from ... But their environment is the most powerful factor in determining how active they actually are." ...
... Americans have long been told that our country is running out of energy, but we now know that is wrong. ...
We design experiences that people love. Our innovation process brings together superior design, engineering and consumer insights to build a diverse and growing portfolio. We believe we must find ways to make electronics more "cradle to cradle." A product that is created (from a cradle of materials) should contribute to society over its entire lifecycle, and the materials that form part of that product should be recycled to form inputs for other products at end-of-life. Its not easy. We believe that if we collectively focus efforts, creativity, and innovation in that direction we can achieve this sooner than we might think.. ...
Living Environment. 2014-12-24 With blue sky, crystal clear water, fresh air, green grass and carpets of flowers, Zhanjiang is ...
We can urge our elected officials to consider the environment when they create policy. We can save the places we love on this ...
However, some of these improvements in our lives have resulted in changes to the environment around us. ... Our environment is a hugely complex system that includes the air we breathe, the land we live on, the water we drink and the ... We must work to ensure that our developments in some areas do not adversely affect our environment whilst also ensuring that we ... Chemistry can help us to understand, monitor, protect and improve the environment around us. Chemists are developing tools and ...
A story environment is a physical, adaptive, augmented 3D reality or virtual space that can become host to narratives. Distinct ... A story environment has potentially five levels:. Level 1 - Shared. Inhabitants create their own stories and shared mythology ... Living - The environment speaks to the participant, a monologue, pushes story at the participant e.g.; ghosts, residual lives, ... Environments that are richly rendered with strong back-stories and require the participant to improvise around a range ...
Environment. * Rare marine life in protected UK waters at risk of being destroyed by supertrawlers In the first six months of ...
Environment. * Biblical plague or manageable threat? Beating back swarms with Kenyas locust hunters Swarms of the pests, ...
... we build them with the environment in mind, make sure they last and recover their precious materials. ... Tested to be safe for you and theenvironment.. We thoroughly analyse the materials in Apple devices to find chemicals that ... could be harmful to people or the environment. And we set strict standards for what goes into the devices you use and wear. In ...
"Environment Agency.. *^ a b "2006-07 Annual Report" (PDF). Environment Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December ... European Environment Agency. References[edit]. *^ "Our Vision". Environment Agency. Archived from the original on 2 November ... "Environment-agency.gov.uk. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2011.. *^ "Rod Licence Sales". Environment Agency. Retrieved ... The Environment Agencys stated purpose is, "to protect or enhance the environment, taken as a whole" so as to promote "the ...
To receive our Environment news, publications and events, sign up to MyOECD (choose "Environment" as an area of interest and ... OECD WORK ON ENVIRONMENT 2017-18. This brochure details how our Organisation is helping governments face up to cross-cutting, ... Lisa Danielson of the OECD Environment Directorate and Alexander Bisaro of the Global Climate Forum discussed how OECD ... United Nations Environment Assembly - 2) 18 March, Berlin: High-level panel on Investing in Low-emission, Resilient Development ...
Environment Wales is a partnership of voluntary organisations in Wales, whose aim it is to contribute to sustainable ... in Wales Wales Council for Voluntary Action West Wales Eco Centre Wildlife Trusts Wales Environment Wales website Environment ...
In Unified Process "[t]he Environment discipline refers to the tools and customizing the process for the project - that is, ... setting up the tool and process environment" Larman, Craig (2005). Applying UML and patterns: an introduction to object- ...
Natural Disasters & Environment. Mount St. Helens. Mount St. Helens is a volcano located in southwestern Washington state. Its ... For centuries, communities spanning the globe have found various ways to honor nature and the environment. ...read more ... interest in the environment was not a passing fad. Nixon used his ...read more ...
... infographics and videos in the Environment category. ...
... the same excellent preservational environment that would later yield Archaeopteryx. They person who first studied it thought… ...
... * Exhibition Text. * Mineral materials (elements), once widely distributed throughout the original magma ... And in the two cases a bit towards the right of this area are displayed minerals that are formed in this pegmatitic environment ...
Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate Connections, a ... Environment Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate ... Environment And Energy Collaborative. Colorados Oil And Gas Regulators Must Now Consider Public Health And Safety. CPR News. ...
I feel much the same way when, e.g., Prince Charles says something about the environment. And everyone who happens to agree ... They seem to be Libertarian, anti-environment, anti-science, pro-fossil fuel, and frankly, anti-green. Not just one or two of ...
Environment ColorScheme="{Default , HighContrast1 , HighContrast2}" DebugOutlines="DebugOutlines element" IsNavigating="{true ...
Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate Connections, a ... Environment Breaking news on the environment, climate change, pollution, and endangered species. Also featuring Climate ...
environment in Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G. & C. Merriam, 1913. *environment in The Century Dictionary, The ... From Middle French environnement, equivalent to environ +‎ -ment. Compare French environnement. Pronunciation[edit]. *IPA(key) ... programming) The environment of a function at a point during the execution of a program is the set of identifiers in the ... muse on the irrelevance of the borders that separate nation states and keep people from understanding their shared environment. ...
DOSIS 3D helps to understand space radiation and how it penetrates the Space Station walls. Active and passive radiation detectors are used to map radiation in all modules of the Space Station.. The European Columbus laboratory is monitored by 11 passive dosimeters. The dosimeters are about the size of a pack of playing cards and attached to the walls of Columbus with Velcro. The detectors record how much radiation has been absorbed in total during the period they are in space.. After each six-month crew rotation, the detectors are replaced to record changes in radiation. Luca removed an old set of dosimeters from Columbus, packed them for return to Earth, and stuck a new set to the walls.. In addition to the passive detectors, DOSIS-3D uses active dosimeters that measure fluctuations in radiation levels over time. Data from all Station partners is shared to create as complete a picture of space radiation as possible.. ...
Get the table of contents of every new volume published in Environment & Policy. ...
OECD Home EnvironmentGreening transportTransport and environment Greening transport. *Biodiversity, water and natural resource ... Transport and environment. An efficient transport sector is important for economic development and for the wellbeing of people ... OECD work on environment and on environmental policy tools and evaluation *Database on instruments used for environmental ... Air pollution from diesel: from theory to practice, Suzi Tart, OECD Environment Directorate , 2015. ...
Energy and Environment: Progress and Existence. Energy Provides Existence and Is Cause for Change (hopefully Progress). Energy ... SPEAKING Enquiry * Nature Laws *The Second Law * ZerothReligion.mkostic.com * PUBLICATIONS * Energy&Environment * Industrial ... Energy and Environment Links * mass-energy equivalence * Mass, momentum, and energy * Laws of Nature: A Skeptics Guide * ... MEE 101 Energy and Environment: This is a course essential for every person and the whole society, and it is an introductory ...
... parents and the community to enhance our childrens educational environment. ...
The System and Environment Framework is based upon the following assumptions:. * Properties are associated with XML name spaces ... The System and Environment framework is formally defined in terms of OMG IDL interfaces. The SEProperty interface is modeled on ... The System and Environment is treated as a hierarchy of properties rooted in the SEComponent as shown in the following ... The System and Environment Framework provides a mechanism to both query and update properties. For dynamic properties it is ...
Carbon Footprint Calculator (b. Berekely Institute of the Environment: U.S. inhabitants only) * iv. Carbon and Lifestyle ... to create short videos on the environment, health and other social issues. Listed here are sample videos on fast food, bio- ... efficiency and renewable power while saving money and the environment.. Sam Suds & the Poison Plastic (2006) 4 mins ,www. ...
The event is jointly organised by the European Commissions Directorate-General for the Environment and the forthcoming ...
  • Highlighting content that focuses on environmental challenges and solutions, KCETLink's "Summer of the Environment" was an initiative in the summer of 2017 to ignite compassion and action for helping to save and heal our planet. (kcet.org)
  • Instead, a general measure of the obesogenic environment, socioeconomic position (a measure of relative wealth), best captured the environmental factors that interact with genetic risk for obesity. (healio.com)
  • Rachel King, Fortune , "Restaurant owners want and need more guidance on how to reopen from government officials," 13 May 2020 The veterans homes operate in a regulatory environment divided between the states, which manage them, and the VA, which inspects them and pays for much of the care. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Marek Strzelecki, Bloomberg.com , "Brussels Edition: Poland's Trouble With the Law," 10 May 2020 Washing clothes can also have a detrimental effect on the environment , especially because of synthetic materials like polyester that contain plastic fibers. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Isabelle Gerretsen And Ivana Kottasová, CNN , "The world is paying a high price for cheap clothes," 3 May 2020 Learning to navigate a novel environment with scarce resources was daunting, but possible. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Lakshmi Ramachandran, STAT , "A service trip to Peru offers lessons for treating Covid-19 in the U.S.," 2 May 2020 Amid a difficult economic environment , Tesla eked out a profit last quarter, the company's third successive quarter in the green. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Colin Beresford, Car and Driver , "Other Automakers Paid Tesla a Record $354 Million Last Quarter," 2 May 2020 This positive impact on the environment has happened because so many people stayed home. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Researchers tested the association of the genetic risk score with BMI in high- and low-obesogenic environment groups and tested for interactions. (healio.com)
  • Researchers found gene-environment interaction with self-reported TV watching ( P for interaction = .00007) and self-reported physical activity ( P for interaction = .000005). (healio.com)
  • This paper examines the relationship between the external environment and strategy implementation process, taking into account two perspectives of analysis. (srce.hr)
  • a militant reformer who was born into an unlikely social setting environment applies to all the external factors that have a formative influence on one's physical, mental, or moral development. (merriam-webster.com)
  • the kind of environment that produces juvenile delinquents milieu applies especially to the physical and social surroundings of a person or group of persons. (merriam-webster.com)
  • We're trying to create a better business environment . (merriam-webster.com)
  • For any business, as to grow and prosper, managers must be able to anticipate, recognize and deal with change in the internal and external environment. (srce.hr)
  • Respondents were asked to evaluate the level of environment uncertainty in everyday business through the level of change complexity and turbulence. (srce.hr)
  • Recent Examples on the Web The company also discontinued the use of cash for payment and, while Schulman stresses that Cava very much cares about its impact on the environment , all multi-use utensils, bowls and trays have been removed from dining rooms. (merriam-webster.com)
  • We wanted to answer the question of whether or not aspects of the environment and our lifestyles accentuate any genetic predisposition to obesity. (healio.com)
  • It is unlikely that one specific aspect of the environment accentuates the genetic risk of obesity," Frayling said. (healio.com)
  • Multimodal applications are expected to function in heterogeneous environments with widely varying device capabilities. (w3.org)
  • Java technology is designed to support applications that will be deployed into heterogeneous network environments. (oracle.com)
  • Environment covers air pollutants, global warming, the greenhouse effect, and other dangers to the planet. (infoplease.com)
  • Some chemicals and pollutants in your environment can make your asthma worse. (mass.gov)
  • Some chemicals last forever and can cause harm to people and the environment. (apple.com)
  • We thoroughly analyse the materials in Apple devices to find chemicals that could be harmful to people or the environment. (apple.com)
  • or perhaps to muse on the irrelevance of the borders that separate nation states and keep people from understanding their shared environment . (wiktionary.org)
  • Work in ways that result in no accidents, no harm to people, and no damage to the environment, including no net loss to biodiversity when undertaking new projects in sensitive areas. (bp.com)
  • We are committed to protect the environment, respect our neighbours, cause no harm to people, and help the world move towards a lower-carbon future. (shell.com)
  • First, most people experience and interact with the environment through where they live -- and that is increasingly a city. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The dotcoms that want their people to stay and work long hours prime the environment with free food, foosball tables, and in-house dry cleaning - they are signaling "home" and "community," which is where people live. (forbes.com)
  • Five million people, in over two million properties, now live in flood risk areas in England and Wales and it is the responsibility of the Environment Agency to predict and warn people of the risk of flooding from rivers and seas. (fujitsu.com)
  • They include respect for the dignity of human beings, especially those who are vulnerable, an understanding that people are influenced by their environment, and a desire to work for social change that rectifies gross or unjust differences. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In our effort to modernize our National Airspace System (NAS) it is imperative that we don't harm the environment or compromise the safety of the people who work and travel in the NAS. (faa.gov)
  • Around 89,500 people earn their living in the environment industry in the Munich region. (muenchen.de)
  • In light of global ecological challenges, the environment industry is integral to the far-reaching transformation that is facing up to the pressing needs of our day - from climate change to urbanization, from resource efficiency to decarbonization - with new ideas, innovative technologies and sophisticated services. (muenchen.de)
  • This book begins with an overview of current thinking on bioavailability, its definition, cutting-edge research in speciation and advancement in tools for assessing chemical bioavailability in the terrestrial environment. (elsevier.com)
  • All environments of deposition belong to one of three settings: terrestrial, coastal (or marginal marine), and marine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Streams are the most widespread terrestrial sedimentary environment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We must work to ensure that our developments in some areas do not adversely affect our environment whilst also ensuring that we mitigate any damage that has occurred. (rsc.org)
  • When Emacs is using the X Window System, various environment variables that control X work for Emacs as well. (gnu.org)
  • We see the effects of environment often, in our change management work. (forbes.com)
  • This is a question we should always ask ourselves: How are we using the work environment to frame our change and support the right behaviors? (forbes.com)
  • Environment is integrated into the World Bank's knowledge work, policy dialogues, country and sector strategies, and investments. (worldbank.org)
  • The scene was designed to work as a game environment and makes use of small 512x512 repeating textures and is low polygon. (behance.net)
  • It has been observed that social work is defined in its own place in the larger social environment, continuously evolving to respond to and address a changing world. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although several definitions of social work have been provided throughout its history, common to all definitions is the focus on both the individual and the environment, distinguishing it from other helping professions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We work to reduce aviation's impact on the environment and to ensure we have sustainable energy for the aviation fleet. (faa.gov)
  • As it goes forward, we will continue to work hard to provide new value for customers, the environment, and society through eco-friendly innovation activities with all stakeholders. (samsung.com)
  • Do you work for Pew Environment Group? (idealist.org)
  • Because of this, it's particularly important that you verify at runtime whether an environment sensor exists before you attempt to acquire data from it. (android.com)
  • It relies on the Generic Modeling Environment (Gme), a configurable object-oriented toolkit that supports the creation of domain-specific modeling and program synthesis environments. (psu.edu)
  • To function within increasingly complex, network-based environments, programming systems must adopt object-oriented concepts. (oracle.com)
  • Lisa Danielson of the OECD Environment Directorate and Alexander Bisaro of the Global Climate Forum discussed how OECD countries are responding to these risks, and what more could be done in the future. (oecd.org)
  • The Environment Agency ( EA ) is a non-departmental public body , established in 1995 and sponsored by the United Kingdom government 's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), with responsibilities relating to the protection and enhancement of the environment in England (and until 2013 also Wales ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Environment Wales is a partnership of voluntary organisations in Wales, whose aim it is to contribute to sustainable development, mainly by awarding grants for projects which contribute to this aim. (wikipedia.org)
  • It evaluates the environment aspects of a product is evaluated by product developers according to eco-design process. (samsung.com)
  • All products and services that generate "direct environmental benefits" and/or that constitute an "ecofriendly substitute" belong to the environment industry. (muenchen.de)
  • Accidental spills: If an incident occurs and oil or chemicals are released to the environment, they have the potential to pollute the waters and land, affecting flora and fauna as well as users who depend on these resources. (bp.com)
  • 3) provide a basis on which enterprises can themselves solve their working environment problems in cooperation with employers' and workers' organizations and subject to supervision and guidance from the public authorities. (ilo.org)
  • We can urge our elected officials to consider the environment when they create policy. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Our health, safety, security and environment (HSSE) policy sets out our expectations for HSSE performance in our operations. (bp.com)
  • Distinct from a story world , these environments can be in close proximity and even overlapping, and may have quite different narrative themes. (wikipedia.org)
  • programming ) The environment of a function at a point during the execution of a program is the set of identifiers in the function's scope and their bindings at that point. (wiktionary.org)
  • We say an identifier is in scope in an environment if the identifier is bound in that environment or any enclosing environment. (mozilla.org)
  • Cargo sets and reads a number of environment variables which your code can detect or override. (mit.edu)
  • You can override the defaults by setting the following environment variables. (android.com)
  • Berekely Institute of the Environment: U.S. inhabitants only) * iv. (freewebs.com)
  • For centuries, communities spanning the globe have found various ways to honor nature and the environment. (history.com)
  • Respect the local environment and the communities that depend on it for resources to support their livelihoods. (bp.com)
  • In Unified Process "[t]he Environment discipline refers to the tools and customizing the process for the project - that is, setting up the tool and process environment" Larman, Craig (2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • You can set environment variables for Android Studio and the command-line tools that specify things like where the SDK is installed and where user-specific data is stored. (android.com)
  • The following table describes commonly used environment variables for the Android SDK tools. (android.com)
  • And in the two cases a bit towards the right of this area are displayed minerals that are formed in this pegmatitic environment. (amnh.org)
  • Managers need to need to keep abreast of the latest economic developments in countries around the world, and use this information to analyse and correlate with the economic environment in which businesses function to be able to make informed decisions that will enable the organization to progress despite obstacles. (oreilly.com)
  • This non-profit, non-governmental organization specializes in on-line data and information management, spatial data integration and training, and interdisciplinary research related to human interactions in the environment. (fao.org)
  • Find out how to protect data and stop threats across the architectural control points of cybersecurity environments-from device to cloud-with security operations that provide continuous analytics, management, automation, and orchestration, via an open, proactive, intelligence-driven approach. (mcafee.com)
  • statements have their own environment type. (mozilla.org)
  • environment variable names are case-sensitive, and it is conventional to use upper case letters only. (gnu.org)
  • This means you can set up an environment variable in your login shell, and all the programs you run (including Emacs) will automatically see it. (gnu.org)
  • reads the name of an environment variable, and prints its value in the echo area. (gnu.org)
  • We say an environment binds an identifier if that environment itself associates the identifier with a variable, independently of its outer environments. (mozilla.org)
  • There is no guarantee that setting this environment variable to 1 will make the emulator runnable. (android.com)
  • Deserts are varied and variable environments , and it is impossible to arrive at a concise definition that satisfies every case. (britannica.com)
  • Our environment is a hugely complex system that includes the air we breathe, the land we live on, the water we drink and the climate around us. (rsc.org)
  • This specification describes platform and language neutral interfaces for the System and Environment (S&E) component in the W3C Multimodal Interaction Framework . (w3.org)
  • The System and Environment component provides the Interaction Manager with dynamic access to a hierarchy of properties representing the current device capabilities, device configuration, user preferences and environmental conditions. (w3.org)
  • The way to set environment variables outside of Emacs depends on the operating system, and especially the shell that you are using. (gnu.org)
  • the system environment variables, the user environment variables, and the environment variables that are set in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file. (microsoft.com)
  • System environment variables can be viewed from Control Panel by choosing the System icon. (microsoft.com)
  • These variables take precedence over system environment variables. (microsoft.com)
  • The Path is constructed from the system path, which can be viewed in the System Environment Variables field in the System dialog box. (microsoft.com)
  • Note: The environment variables LibPath and Os2LibPath are built the same way (system path + user path + AUTOEXEC.BAT path). (microsoft.com)
  • Exposure to damp and moldy environments may cause a variety of health effects, or none at all. (cdc.gov)
  • We're in the process of collecting the chemical composition of all the materials in our products to further assess their effect on human health and the environment. (apple.com)
  • Third, how we structure our cities matters -- for the environment, our health, and the economy. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In its broadest sense, environmental health comprises those aspects of human health, disease, and injury that are determined or influenced by factors in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • This includes not only the study of the direct pathological effects of various chemical, physical, and biological agents, but also the effects on health of the broad physical and social environment, which includes housing, urban development, land-use and transportation, industry, and agriculture. (cdc.gov)
  • NCEH is one of CDC's key centers with responsibilities involving the impact that the environment (both natural and manmade) has on human health. (cdc.gov)
  • Although Nixon expressed personal disgust with environmentalists in private, he also recognized that Americans' interest in the environment was not a passing fad. (history.com)
  • One deals with Flood and Coastal Risk Management and the other with Environment and Business. (wikipedia.org)
  • Get Business Environment now with O'Reilly online learning. (oreilly.com)
  • Explore a preview version of Business Environment right now. (oreilly.com)
  • Contribute to the prosperity of human life and the conservation of the environment by doing business activities that respect humanity and nature, based on a reverence for life. (samsung.com)
  • At Intel, we continually strive to improve our operations and minimize our impact on the environment. (intel.com)
  • Of the factors caused by human intervention that can affect this environment, activities that sustain the economy of Albania such as mining and forestry are notably influential. (wikipedia.org)
  • A story environment is a physical, adaptive, augmented 3D reality or virtual space that can become host to narratives . (wikipedia.org)
  • We seek to understand the planet's complex web of physical environments, and the workings of life in all species. (harvard.edu)
  • Red Hook made other changes to the process too, but the physical environment played a crucial role in their results. (forbes.com)
  • Environments that are richly rendered with strong back-stories and require the participant to improvise around a range character definitions with others who are also role playing. (wikipedia.org)
  • I think, maybe, the semantic was to returns a new "empty" environment, No, (null-environment) does not create a *new* "empty" environment. (cygwin.com)
  • blocks, and the like create declarative environment records. (mozilla.org)
  • All environment variables and the paths set in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file are used to create the Windows NT environment. (microsoft.com)
  • In the network environment, applications written in the Java programming language are secure from intrusion by unauthorized code attempting to get behind the scenes and create viruses or invade file systems. (oracle.com)
  • Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use. (gnu.org)
  • instance represents a lexical environment, associating names with variables. (mozilla.org)
  • There are also some predefined environment variables that are set when the user logs on. (microsoft.com)
  • These three environment variables are set based on the value of the home directory. (microsoft.com)
  • All above environment variables are always present and therefore may be used in log on scripts. (microsoft.com)
  • User environment variables can be viewed from Control Panel as well. (microsoft.com)
  • The user may add, delete or modify the environment variables in the User Environment Variables for User field. (microsoft.com)
  • User environment variables can be added, changed or deleted from Control Panel. (microsoft.com)
  • Cargo exposes these environment variables to your crate when it is compiled. (mit.edu)
  • Cargo sets several environment variables when build scripts are run. (mit.edu)
  • This page describes the most commonly used environment variables. (android.com)
  • environment variables in that order. (android.com)
  • The Android emulator queries the following environment variables when it starts. (android.com)
  • Low resolution satellite imagery, meteorological data and products, methods and techniques used for environmental monitoring, crop forecasting, early warning, desert locust control and more, from the ARTEMIS and Agrometeorology Groups, FAO Environment and Natural Resources Service (SDRN). (fao.org)
  • Healthy, working forests are the cornerstone to keeping our environment clean for future generations. (mass.gov)
  • With billions headed for urban centers in the decades to come, and with cities already home to a majority of the earth's population, the future of cities and our environment are inextricably connected. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Oct 8, 2018) A 5.5 percent share of all gainful employment in and around Munich, revenues of around EUR 23 billion and dynamic growth rates make the environment industry a significant economic factor in the Munich region - and one with bright prospects for the future. (muenchen.de)
  • From big data and new technologies to markets, geopolitics and the natural environment, explore the future of the world built environment. (rics.org)
  • Learn about ways to protect the environment, from recycling to wetlands management to cleanup of hazardous waste sites and spills. (mass.gov)
  • instance representing a debuggee function has an environment object representing the environment the function has closed over. (mozilla.org)