The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Physical surroundings or conditions of a hospital or other health facility and influence of these factors on patients and staff.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Living facilities for humans.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The contamination of indoor air.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Educational institutions.
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
Activity engaged in for pleasure.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Organisms that live in water.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Research concerned with establishing costs of nursing care, examining the relationships between nursing services and quality patient care, and viewing problems of nursing service delivery within the broader context of policy analysis and delivery of health services (from a national study, presented at the 1985 Council on Graduate Education for Administration in Nursing (CGEAN) meeting).
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The physical measurements of a body.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The status of health in urban populations.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.

Relative influences of sex, race, environment, and HIV infection on body composition in adults. (1/7312)

BACKGROUND: The factors that control body composition in disease are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We planned to compare the relative influences of HIV infection, sex, race, and environment on body composition. METHODS: We analyzed results of body composition studies performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 1415 adults from 2 cohorts: white and African American men and women from the United States, and African men and women (279 HIV-infected and 1136 control). The effects of sex and HIV infection on weight, body cell mass, and fat-free mass were analyzed by using both unadjusted and age-, weight-, and height-adjusted data. RESULTS: Control men weighed more and had more body cell mass and fat-free mass than did control women, although control women had more fat. The strongest correlates with body composition were height and weight, followed by sex. HIV infection, age, environment, and race. Control men and women weighed more and had more body cell mass, fat-free mass, and fat than did HIV-infected men. However, differences in body composition between HIV-infected and control groups were strongly influenced by sex. Of the differences in weight between HIV-infected and uninfected subjects, fat-free mass accounted for 51% in men but only 18% in women, in whom the remainder was fat. Sex effects were similar in African and American groups. CONCLUSIONS: Sex has a marked effect on the changes in body composition during HIV infection, with women losing disproportionately more fat than men. Sex-related differences in body composition were narrower in the HIV-infected groups. Race and environment had smaller effects than sex and HIV infection.  (+info)

Clinical, biochemical and molecular genetic features of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. (2/7312)

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has traditionally been considered a disease causing severe and permanent visual loss in young adult males. In nearly all families with LHON it is associated with one of three pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, at bp 11778, 3460 or 14484. The availability of mtDNA confirmation of a diagnosis of LHON has demonstrated that LHON occurs with a wider range of age at onset and more commonly in females than previously recognised. In addition, analysis of patients grouped according to mtDNA mutation has demonstrated differences both in the clinical features of visual failure and in recurrence risks to relatives associated with each of the pathogenic mtDNA mutations. Whilst pathogenic mtDNA mutations are required for the development of LHON, other factors must be reponsible for the variable penetrance and male predominance of this condition. Available data on a number of hypotheses including the role of an additional X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus, impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, mtDNA heteroplasmy, environmental factors and autoimmunity are discussed. Subacute visual failure is seen in association with all three pathogenic LHON mutations. However, the clinical and experimental data reviewed suggest differences in the phenotype associated with each of the three mutations which may reflect variation in the disease mechanisms resulting in this common end-point.  (+info)

Mitochondrial involvement in Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia and Friedreich's ataxia. (3/7312)

Respiratory chain dysfunction has been identified in several neurodegenerative disorders. In Friedreich's ataxia (FA) and Huntington's disease (HD), where the respective mutations are in nuclear genes encoding non-respiratory chain mitochondrial proteins, the defects in oxidative phosphorylation are clearly secondary. In Parkinson's disease (PD) the situation is less clear, with some evidence for a primary role of mitochondrial DNA in at least a proportion of patients. The pattern of the respiratory chain defect may provide some clue to its cause; in PD there appears to be a selective complex I deficiency; in HD and FA the deficiencies are most severe in complex II/III with a less severe defect in complex IV. Aconitase activity in HD and FA is severely decreased in brain and muscle, respectively, but appears to be normal in PD brain. Free radical generation is thought to be of importance in both HD and FA, via excitotoxicity in HD and abnormal iron handling in FA. The oxidative damage observed in PD may be secondary to the mitochondrial defect. Whatever the cause(s) and sequence of events, respiratory chain deficiencies appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. The mitochondrial abnormalities induced may converge on the function of the mitochondrion in apoptosis. This mode of cell death is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and it is tempting to speculate that the observed mitochondrial defects in PD, HD and FA result directly in apoptotic cell death, or in the lowering of a cell's threshold to undergo apoptosis. Clarifying the role of mitochondria in pathogenesis may provide opportunities for the development of treatments designed to reverse or prevent neurodegeneration.  (+info)

Pterygium and its relationship to the dry eye in the Bantu. (4/7312)

A comparative study was performed on two groups of Bantus in Johannesburg to see if there was any relationship between the "dry eye" and pterygia, but no correlation was found.  (+info)

Plasma leptin concentrations in Pima Indians living in drastically different environments. (5/7312)

OBJECTIVE: Plasma leptin, an important signal for the regulation of energy stores, is known to be influenced by many hormonal factors, but may also be affected by behavioral and environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lifestyle (diet composition, level of physical activity) on plasma leptin concentrations among Pima Indians living in drastically different environments. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 224 Mexican Pima Indians (115 women, 109 men) living a traditional lifestyle in a remote, mountainous area of northwest Mexico and 418 U.S. Pima Indians (281 women, 137 men) living a North American lifestyle on the Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona. We hypothesized that the absolute value of leptin would be lower in Mexican Pima Indians because of their lower percent body fat, but could be further influenced by their lifestyle, independent of body composition. RESULTS: Leptin concentration (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) was strongly correlated with percent fat (bioimpedance) in Mexican Pima Indians (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001) and U.S. Pima Indians (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Among U.S. Pima Indians, independent of percent fat, subjects with type 2 diabetes had lower leptin than nondiabetic subjects (difference = 6.9 +/- 1.0 ng/ml, P < 0.002). Among nondiabetic subjects, Mexican Pima Indians had lower absolute leptin concentrations than U.S. Pima Indians, but higher after adjustment for percent body fat, waist circumference, age, and sex. In a subset of 70 pairs of subjects matched for sex and percent body fat, leptin concentration was 4.4 +/- 1.0 ng/ml (P < 0.0001) higher in Mexican Pima Indians versus U.S. Pima Indians. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that independent of body composition, leptin concentration may be increased by environmental factors, such as a high-carbohydrate diet and a high level of physical activity.  (+info)

Lipoprotein(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) isoforms related to life style risk factors. (6/7312)

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been considered to be a predictor of premature coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases. Lp(a) levels are largely genetically determined, but the detailed mechanism of Lp(a) elevation is uncertain. We examined the association between Lp(a) levels and apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] phenotypes as well as that of Lp(a) level and other various conditions. The subjects were 280 healthy Japanese (102 males and 178 females) aged 39 to 70 years who were living in a rural community in 1992. We obtained apo(a) phenotypes determined by SDS-PAGE as well as Lp(a) levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. We combined apo(a) phenotypes form 4 groups according to molecular weights (from high apo(a) molecular weight to low: I, II, III and IV). Lp(a) levels were associated with apo(a) phenotype-groups, that is, they were inversely associated with apo(a) molecular weight. Small apo(a) phenotypes were less frequent than large ones. The median Lp(a) level was higher in smoking (29.2 mg/dL) than in non-smoking subjects (18.5 mg/dL) in phenotype-group III. Adjusted means of total cholesterol and fibrinogen levels in apo(a) phenotype-group IV were the highest of all phenotype-groups. Age, apo(a) phenotype, smoking status, total cholesterol and fibrinogen were positively correlated with Lp(a) levels by multiple regression analysis. Lp(a) levels were found to be mainly associated with apo(a) phenotype, but varied broadly within the same apo(a) phenotype at various conditions, such as smoking status and high total cholesterol.  (+info)

Alternatives to minimize the environmental impact of large swine production units. (7/7312)

Large swine production facilities have become controversial additions to the agricultural landscape as their numbers and sizes have increased. In addition to being larger enterprises, these units have involved greater specialization, the influx of outside capital, and the employment of labor without extensive investment in the enterprise. Major complaints have included water pollution and odors. Water pollution complaints have been related to surface and groundwater resources. Accidental spills, structural failure, and purposeful discharges have been noted. Odor problems are most often related to manure management techniques. Large anaerobic lagoons and irrigation of lagoon effluent have the potential to emit odors that travel long distances. Fortunately, technology and management alternatives exist to achieve higher levels of environmental acceptability. More effective water pollution and odor control alternatives generally increase construction and operating costs. Producers, regulatory officials, and the local public have an opportunity to interact to achieve progress in establishing acceptable compromises. This article identifies the range of existing and evolving alternative strategies and provides some assistance to producers and neighbors in achieving the necessary equilibrium.  (+info)

Ocular development and involution in the European cave salamander, Proteus anguinus laurenti. (8/7312)

The anatomy and development of the eye of Proteus anguinus are described. The relationships between organogenesis of the eye in embryos and larva and its involution in the young and the adult are discussed. The availability (in breeding cultures) of a significant number of Proteus embryos (which are normally rare) allowed experimental analysis of the effects of light, xenoplastic differentiation and thyroid hormones on the development of the eye. The results of this study suggest that development and involution of the eye of Proteus are controlled by genetic factors which are not greatly influenced by environment, and one can, therefore, consider the microphthalmy of Proteus as a relict characteristic which is the result of a specific development with disturbance of the normal ontogenic process.  (+info)

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can affect various aspects of the child's development, including:

1. Physical growth and development: PDEDs can lead to changes in the child's physical growth patterns, such as reduced birth weight, short stature, or delayed puberty.
2. Brain development: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect brain development, leading to learning disabilities, memory problems, and cognitive delays.
3. Behavioral and emotional development: Children exposed to PDEDs may exhibit behavioral and emotional difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
4. Immune system functioning: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect the immune system's development, making children more susceptible to infections and autoimmune diseases.
5. Reproductive health: Exposure to certain chemicals during fetal development may disrupt the reproductive system, leading to fertility problems or an increased risk of infertility later in life.

The diagnosis of Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects often requires a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as specialized tests such as imaging studies or laboratory assessments. Treatment for PDEDs typically involves addressing the underlying cause of exposure and providing appropriate interventions to manage any associated symptoms or developmental delays.

In summary, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can have a profound impact on a child's growth, development, and overall health later in life. It is essential for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential risks and to monitor children exposed to substances during fetal development for any signs of PDEDs. With early diagnosis and appropriate interventions, it may be possible to mitigate or prevent some of these effects and improve outcomes for affected children.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

The causes of SBS are not yet fully understood, but they are believed to include:

1. Poor ventilation and air filtration systems: Inadequate ventilation can lead to the buildup of pollutants and carbon dioxide inside the building.
2. Chemical contaminants: The use of chemical cleaning products, pesticides, and other chemicals in the building can release harmful substances into the air.
3. Biological contaminants: Microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, and mold can grow in the building's HVAC system and ductwork, leading to the release of pollutants into the indoor environment.
4. Inadequate lighting and thermal conditions: Poor lighting and thermal conditions can cause eye strain, fatigue, and discomfort.
5. Psychological factors: Stress, anxiety, and other psychological factors can contribute to SBS symptoms.

The diagnosis of SBS is based on a combination of medical history-taking, physical examination, and environmental assessment. Medical professionals use a set of criteria to determine whether the symptoms are consistent with SBS. These criteria include:

1. Symptoms that are specific to the building and not present when the person is outside the building.
2. Symptoms that improve after leaving the building or when the person is away from the building for an extended period.
3. No evidence of any other medical condition that could explain the symptoms.

There is no cure for SBS, but there are several treatment options available to alleviate symptoms. These include:

1. Improving ventilation and air filtration systems.
2. Identifying and addressing chemical and biological contaminants.
3. Providing adequate lighting and thermal conditions.
4. Reducing stress and promoting relaxation techniques.
5. Relocating the person to a different environment if necessary.

Preventing SBS involves identifying and addressing potential causes of the condition before it develops. This includes:

1. Proper maintenance of ventilation and air filtration systems.
2. Regular cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment.
3. Avoiding the use of chemicals and other substances that can contribute to SBS.
4. Ensuring adequate lighting and thermal conditions.
5. Promoting stress reduction techniques and providing a comfortable and supportive work environment.

In conclusion, SBS is a complex condition that affects many people worldwide. It is characterized by a range of symptoms that can vary in severity and frequency. The diagnosis of SBS is based on a combination of medical history-taking, physical examination, and environmental assessment. Treatment options are available to alleviate symptoms, and prevention involves identifying and addressing potential causes of the condition before it develops.

There are several types of heat stress disorders, including:

1. Heat exhaustion: This is a condition that occurs when the body loses too much water and salt, usually through excessive sweating, and is unable to cool itself effectively. Symptoms include dizziness, nausea, headaches, fatigue, and cool, clammy skin.
2. Heat stroke: This is a more severe condition that occurs when the body's temperature control system fails, causing the body temperature to rise rapidly. Symptoms include high fever (usually over 103°F), confusion, slurred speech, and seizures.
3. Heat rash: This is a common condition that occurs when the skin's sweat glands become blocked and swell, causing inflammation and discomfort.
4. Sunburn: This is a condition that occurs when the skin is exposed to too much ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or other sources, leading to redness, pain, and peeling skin.
5. Heat-related illnesses: These are conditions that occur when the body is unable to cool itself effectively in hot environments, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, headaches, and fatigue.

Heat stress disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including high temperatures, humidity, intense physical activity, and wearing heavy or dark clothing that traps heat. They can also be caused by certain medications, alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease.

Treatment for heat stress disorders usually involves moving to a cooler location, drinking plenty of fluids, taking a cool bath or shower, and resting in a shaded area. In severe cases, medical attention may be necessary to treat symptoms such as dehydration, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke.

Prevention is key when it comes to heat stress disorders. This can be achieved by taking steps such as wearing lightweight, loose-fitting clothing, staying in shaded areas, and drinking plenty of fluids. It is also important to avoid strenuous activity during the hottest part of the day (usually between 11am and 3pm) and to take regular breaks to cool off in a shaded area.

Overall, heat stress disorders can be serious conditions that require prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for these disorders, individuals can stay safe and healthy during the hot summer months.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

1. Twin-to-twin transmission: This refers to the transmission of infectious agents or other conditions from one twin to the other in utero, during delivery, or after birth. Examples include rubella, herpes simplex virus, and group B streptococcus.
2. Monozygotic (identical) twins: These twins develop from a single fertilized egg and share an identical genetic makeup. They are at higher risk of developing certain diseases, such as immune system disorders and some types of cancer, because of their shared genetics.
3. Dizygotic (fraternal) twins: These twins develop from two separate eggs and have a similar but not identical genetic makeup. They are at higher risk of developing diseases that affect multiple family members, such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
4. Twin-specific diseases: These are conditions that affect only twins or are more common in twins than in the general population. Examples include Klinefelter syndrome, which affects males with an extra X chromosome, and Turner syndrome, which affects females with a missing X chromosome.
5. Twin-related complications: These are conditions that occur during pregnancy or delivery and are more common in twins than in singletons. Examples include preterm labor, growth restriction, and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome.
6. Genetic disorders: Twins can inherit genetic mutations from their parents, which can increase their risk of developing certain diseases. Examples include sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and Huntington's disease.
7. Environmental exposures: Twins may be exposed to similar environmental factors during fetal development, which can increase their risk of developing certain health problems. Examples include maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to lead or other toxins, and maternal infections during pregnancy.
8. Social and cultural factors: Twins may face unique social and cultural challenges, such as discrimination, stigma, and social isolation, which can affect their mental health and well-being.

It's important to note that while twins may be at increased risk for certain health problems, many twins are born healthy and lead normal, healthy lives. Regular prenatal care, proper nutrition, and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risks of complications during pregnancy and after delivery. Additionally, advances in medical technology and research have improved the detection and treatment of many twin-related health issues.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.

Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:

1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.

Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.

In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.

There are many potential causes of dehydration, including:

* Not drinking enough fluids
* Diarrhea or vomiting
* Sweating excessively
* Diabetes (when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels)
* Certain medications
* Poor nutrition
* Infections
* Poor sleep

To diagnose dehydration, a healthcare provider will typically perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also order blood tests or other diagnostic tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms.

Treatment for dehydration usually involves drinking plenty of fluids, such as water or electrolyte-rich drinks like sports drinks. In severe cases, intravenous fluids may be necessary. If the underlying cause of the dehydration is a medical condition, such as diabetes or an infection, treatment will focus on managing that condition.

Preventing dehydration is important for maintaining good health. This can be done by:

* Drinking enough fluids throughout the day
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can act as diuretics and increase urine production
* Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
* Avoiding excessive sweating by dressing appropriately for the weather and taking breaks in cool, shaded areas when necessary
* Managing medical conditions like diabetes and kidney disease properly.

In severe cases of dehydration, complications can include seizures, organ failure, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Examples of Zoonoses

Some common examples of zoonoses include:

1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.

Transmission of Zoonoses

Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:

1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.

Prevention of Zoonoses

Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:

1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.


Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.

The symptoms of cholera include:

1. Diarrhea: Cholera causes profuse, watery diarrhea that can last for several days.
2. Dehydration: The loss of fluids and electrolytes due to diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Cholera patients may experience nausea and vomiting, especially in the early stages of the disease.
4. Abdominal cramps: The abdomen may become tender and painful due to the inflammation caused by the bacteria.
5. Low-grade fever: Some patients with cholera may experience a mild fever, typically less than 102°F (39°C).

Cholera is spread through the fecal-oral route, which means that it is transmitted when someone ingests food or water contaminated with the bacteria. The disease can also be spread by direct contact with infected fecal matter, such as through poor hygiene practices or inadequate waste disposal.

There are several ways to diagnose cholera, including:

1. Stool test: A stool sample can be tested for the presence of Vibrio cholerae using a microscope or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT).
2. Blood test: A blood test can detect the presence of antibodies against Vibrio cholerae, which can indicate that the patient has been infected with the bacteria.
3. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of dehydration and other symptoms of cholera.

Treatment of cholera typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy (ORT) or intravenous fluids. Antibiotics may also be given to shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce the risk of complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive treatment.

Prevention of cholera involves maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands with soap and water, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available to protect against cholera, particularly for people living in areas where the disease is common.

In conclusion, cholera is a highly infectious disease that can cause severe dehydration and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing complications and reducing the risk of transmission. Prevention measures such as vaccination and good hygiene practices can also help control the spread of the disease.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

Symptoms of heat exhaustion may include:

* Heavy sweating
* Pale, cool, and clammy skin
* Fast and weak pulse
* Nausea or vomiting
* Dizziness or fainting
* Headache
* Fatigue or weakness
* Temperature of 37°C (98.6°F) or higher

Treatment for heat exhaustion usually involves moving the person to a cooler location, removing excess clothing, and providing cool water to drink. In severe cases, medical attention may be necessary, including intravenous fluids and medical monitoring.

Prevention is key, and this can include staying hydrated, avoiding strenuous activities during the hottest parts of the day, and taking breaks in shaded areas. Wearing lightweight, loose-fitting clothing can also help to prevent heat exhaustion.

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

The bacteria are naturally found in warm seawater and can enter the body through cuts or scrapes on the skin while swimming or playing near the water. People with weakened immune systems, such as those with liver cirrhosis, cancer, or HIV/AIDS, are at a higher risk of developing Vibrio infections.

Types of Vibrio Infections

There are several types of Vibrio bacteria that can cause infections, including:

Vibrio vulnificus: This type of bacteria is found in warm coastal waters and can infect people who have open wounds or weakened immune systems. Vibrio vulnificus infections can be severe and can lead to bloodstream infections, septicemia, and even death.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus: This type of bacteria is found in tropical and subtropical waters and can cause gastrointestinal illness, including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. In severe cases, Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections can lead to bloodstream infections and other serious complications.

Vibrio alginolyticus: This type of bacteria is found in warm coastal waters and can cause gastrointestinal illness, including diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Vibrio alginolyticus infections are generally less severe than those caused by other types of Vibrio bacteria.

Prevention and Treatment

Preventing Vibrio infections is essential for people who have weakened immune systems or who engage in activities that increase their risk of developing an infection, such as swimming in warm coastal waters. Prevention measures include:

Wound care: People with open wounds should avoid swimming in warm coastal waters until the wounds are fully healed.

Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked seafood: Raw or undercooked seafood can be a source of Vibrio bacteria, so it's essential to cook seafood thoroughly before eating it.

Using proper first aid: If you experience an injury while swimming in warm coastal waters, clean the wound thoroughly and seek medical attention promptly.

Treatment for Vibrio infections depends on the severity of the infection and may include antibiotics, supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy, and surgical intervention if necessary. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required.

Preventing and treating Vibrio infections is essential for people who engage in activities that increase their risk of developing an infection. By taking preventive measures and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms develop, you can reduce the risk of serious complications from these infections.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.


1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.


1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.


1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

Some common types of environmental illness include:

1. Asthma and other respiratory allergies: These conditions are caused by exposure to airborne pollutants such as dust, pollen, and smoke.
2. Chemical sensitivity: This condition is caused by exposure to chemicals in the environment, such as pesticides, solvents, and cleaning products.
3. Allergic contact dermatitis: This condition is caused by skin contact with allergens such as latex, metals, and certain plants.
4. Mold-related illnesses: Exposure to mold can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, and headaches.
5. Radon exposure: Radon is a radioactive gas that can accumulate in homes and buildings, particularly in basements and crawl spaces. Prolonged exposure to radon can increase the risk of lung cancer.
6. Carbon monoxide poisoning: This condition is caused by exposure to carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless gas that can build up in enclosed spaces with faulty heating or cooking appliances.
7. Lead poisoning: Exposure to lead, particularly in children, can cause a range of health problems, including developmental delays, learning disabilities, and behavioral issues.
8. Mercury poisoning: Exposure to mercury, particularly through fish consumption, can cause neurological symptoms such as tremors, memory loss, and cognitive impairment.
9. Pesticide exposure: Exposure to pesticides, particularly organophosphates, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and neurological symptoms.
10. Particulate matter exposure: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from air pollution can increase the risk of respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

These are just a few examples of environmental health hazards that may be present in your home or building. It's important to be aware of these potential risks and take steps to mitigate them to ensure the health and safety of occupants.

Developmental disabilities can include a wide range of diagnoses, such as:

1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurological disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
2. Intellectual Disability (ID): A condition in which an individual's cognitive abilities are below average, affecting their ability to learn, reason, and communicate.
3. Down Syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, characterized by intellectual disability, delayed speech and language development, and a distinctive physical appearance.
4. Cerebral Palsy (CP): A group of disorders that affect movement, balance, and posture, often resulting from brain injury or abnormal development during fetal development or early childhood.
5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
6. Learning Disabilities: Conditions that affect an individual's ability to learn and process information, such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
7. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): An injury to the brain caused by a blow or jolt to the head, often resulting in cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments.
8. Severe Hearing or Vision Loss: A condition in which an individual experiences significant loss of hearing or vision, affecting their ability to communicate and interact with their environment.
9. Multiple Disabilities: A condition in which an individual experiences two or more developmental disabilities simultaneously, such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder.
10. Undiagnosed Developmental Delay (UDD): A condition in which an individual experiences delays in one or more areas of development, but does not meet the diagnostic criteria for a specific developmental disability.

These conditions can have a profound impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to provide appropriate support and accommodations to help them reach their full potential.

Asthenopia is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly those who spend long hours working on computers, reading, or engaging in other visually demanding activities. It can also be triggered by other factors such as poor lighting, incorrect posture, and eye conditions like myopia (nearsightedness) or hyperopia (farsightedness).

While asthenopia is usually a temporary condition that resolves on its own after resting the eyes, it can sometimes be a symptom of a more serious underlying eye condition. Therefore, if you experience persistent or severe symptoms of asthenopia, it's important to consult an eye care professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Treatment options for asthenopia may include taking regular breaks to rest the eyes, adjusting lighting conditions, using artificial tears to lubricate dry eyes, and making changes to your workspace or reading habits to reduce visual strain. In some cases, prescription eyewear or vision therapy may be necessary to address underlying eye conditions that contribute to asthenopia.

1. Heartworms: A parasite that infects the heart and lungs of dogs and cats, causing respiratory problems and potentially leading to heart failure.
2. Tapeworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms.
3. Mites: Small, eight-legged parasites that can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in animals.
4. Lice: Small, wingless parasites that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
5. Hookworms: A type of parasite that can infect the digestive system of animals, causing weight loss, anemia, and other symptoms.
6. Roundworms: A common type of parasite that can infect animals, causing a range of symptoms including diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
7. Ticks: Blood-sucking parasites that can transmit diseases to animals, such as Lyme disease and anaplasmosis.
8. Fleas: Small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of animals, causing itching and scratching.
9. Leishmaniasis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing skin lesions and other symptoms.
10. Babesiosis: A parasitic disease caused by a protozoan parasite that can infect dogs and other animals, causing fever, anemia, and other symptoms.

Parasitic diseases in animals are often diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the infection, but may include antiparasitic medications, antibiotics, and supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional support. Prevention is key in avoiding parasitic diseases in animals, and this can be achieved through regular deworming and vaccination programs, as well as taking measures to reduce exposure to parasites such as fleas and ticks.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

Hypothermia can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild hypothermia is characterized by shivering and a body temperature of 95 to 97 degrees Fahrenheit (32 to 36.1 degrees Celsius). Moderate hypothermia has a body temperature of 82 to 94 degrees Fahrenheit (28 to 34 degrees Celsius), and the person may appear lethargic, drowsy, or confused. Severe hypothermia is characterized by a body temperature below 82 degrees Fahrenheit (28 degrees Celsius) and can lead to coma and even death if not treated promptly.

Treatment for hypothermia typically involves warming the person up slowly, using blankets or heating pads, and providing warm fluids to drink. In severe cases, medical professionals may use a specialized warm water bath or apply warm packs to specific areas of the body.

Preventing hypothermia is important, especially in cold weather conditions. This can be done by dressing appropriately for the weather, staying dry and avoiding wet clothing, eating regularly to maintain energy levels, and seeking shelter if you become stranded or lost. It's also essential to recognize the signs of hypothermia early on so that treatment can begin promptly.

1. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through bites.
2. Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, raccoons, and other carnivorous animals, causing symptoms such as seizures, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Parvo: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms and dehydration.
4. Heartworm: A parasitic infection caused by a worm that infects the heart and blood vessels of animals, particularly dogs and cats.
5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): A viral disease that weakens the immune system of cats, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
6. Avian influenza: A type of flu that affects birds, including chickens and other domesticated fowl, as well as wild birds.
7. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including cattle, pigs, and dogs.
8. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and wildlife, and can cause symptoms such as fever, kidney failure, and death.
9. Lyme disease: A bacterial infection transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, primarily affecting dogs and humans.
10. Fungal infections: Fungal infections can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock, and can cause symptoms such as skin lesions, respiratory problems, and death.

Animal diseases can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as human health and the economy. They can also be transmitted between animals and humans, making it important to monitor and control animal disease outbreaks to prevent their spread.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent animal diseases in pets and livestock. Regular vaccinations can help protect against common diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, parvovirus, and rabies, among others. Vaccines can be administered orally, through injection, or through a nasal spray.

Preventative care is key in avoiding animal disease outbreaks. Some of the best ways to prevent animal diseases include:

1. Regular vaccinations: Keeping pets and livestock up to date on their vaccinations can help protect against common diseases.
2. Proper sanitation and hygiene: Keeping living areas clean and free of waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
3. Avoiding contact with wild animals: Wild animals can carry a wide range of diseases that can be transmitted to domesticated animals, so it's best to avoid contact with them whenever possible.
4. Proper nutrition: Providing pets and livestock with a balanced diet can help keep their immune systems strong and better able to fight off disease.
5. Monitoring for signs of illness: Regularly monitoring pets and livestock for signs of illness, such as fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, can help identify and treat diseases early on.
6. Quarantine and isolation: Isolating animals that are showing signs of illness can help prevent the spread of disease to other animals and humans.
7. Proper disposal of animal waste: Properly disposing of animal waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
8. Avoiding overcrowding: Overcrowding can contribute to the spread of disease, so it's important to provide adequate living space for pets and livestock.
9. Regular veterinary care: Regular check-ups with a veterinarian can help identify and treat diseases early on, and also provide guidance on how to prevent animal diseases.
10. Emergency preparedness: Having an emergency plan in place for natural disasters or other unexpected events can help protect pets and livestock from disease outbreaks.

There are two main types of noise-induced hearing loss:

1. Acoustic trauma: This type of hearing loss occurs suddenly after a single exposure to an extremely loud noise, such as an explosion or a gunshot.
2. Cumulative trauma: This type of hearing loss occurs gradually over time as a result of repeated exposure to loud noises, such as machinery or music.

The risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss increases with the intensity and duration of noise exposure. Factors that can contribute to an individual's risk of developing NIHL include:

1. Loudness of the noise: Noises that are louder than 85 decibels can cause permanent damage to the hair cells in the inner ear.
2. Prolonged exposure: The longer an individual is exposed to loud noises, the greater their risk of developing NIHL.
3. Age: Older adults are more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss due to the natural aging process and the degeneration of the hair cells in the inner ear.
4. Genetics: Some individuals may be more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss due to genetic factors.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or otosclerosis, can increase an individual's risk of developing NIHL.

The symptoms of noise-induced hearing loss can vary depending on the severity of the damage. Some common symptoms include:

1. Difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds
2. Difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments
3. Ringing or buzzing in the ears (tinnitus)
4. Muffled hearing
5. Decreased sensitivity to sounds

There is currently no cure for noise-induced hearing loss, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms. These include:

1. Hearing aids: These can help amplify sounds and improve an individual's ability to hear.
2. Cochlear implants: These are electronic devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve.
3. Tinnitus management: There are several techniques and therapies available to help manage tinnitus, including sound therapy, counseling, and relaxation techniques.
4. Speech therapy: This can help individuals with hearing loss improve their communication skills and better understand speech in noisy environments.

Prevention is key when it comes to noise-induced hearing loss. To reduce your risk of developing NIHL, you should:

1. Avoid loud noises whenever possible
2. Wear earplugs or earmuffs when exposed to loud noises
3. Take regular breaks in a quiet space if you are working in a loud environment
4. Keep the volume down on personal audio devices
5. Get your hearing checked regularly to identify any potential issues early on.

Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

Lead poisoning is a condition that occurs when a person is exposed to high levels of lead, a toxic metal that can damage the brain, nervous system, and other organs. Lead can enter the body through ingestion, inhalation, or absorption through the skin. Children are particularly vulnerable to lead poisoning because their developing brains and bodies are more sensitive to the effects of lead.

Types of Lead Poisoning:

There are several types of lead poisoning, including:

1. Acute lead poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a high dose of lead in a short period of time. Symptoms can include vomiting, abdominal pain, and seizures.
2. Chronic lead poisoning: This type of poisoning occurs when a person is exposed to lower levels of lead over a longer period of time. Symptoms can include headaches, fatigue, and learning difficulties.
3. Lead-induced encephalopathy: This is a serious condition that occurs when lead accumulates in the brain and causes damage to brain tissue. Symptoms can include confusion, agitation, and seizures.

Causes of Lead Poisoning:

Lead poisoning can be caused by a variety of sources, including:

1. Lead-based paint: Homes built before 1978 may contain lead-based paint, which can chip and flake, releasing lead dust into the air.
2. Lead-contaminated soil: Soil near industrial sites or areas with high levels of lead in the environment can be contaminated with lead.
3. Lead-contaminated water: Water pipes or fixtures that contain lead can leach into the water, causing lead poisoning.
4. Lead exposure at work: Workers in industries that use lead, such as construction or manufacturing, may be exposed to lead on the job.
5. Lead-containing products: Some products, such as cosmetics and imported canned foods, may contain lead.

Symptoms of Lead Poisoning:

The symptoms of lead poisoning can vary depending on the level of exposure and the age of the person affected. In children, lead poisoning can cause:

1. Learning disabilities
2. Behavioral problems
3. Developmental delays
4. Lower IQ
5. Hyperactivity
6. Sleep disturbances
7. Headaches
8. Nausea and vomiting
9. Abdominal pain
10. Fatigue

In adults, lead poisoning can cause:

1. Memory loss
2. Confusion
3. Slurred speech
4. Weakness in the hands and feet
5. Vision problems
6. Headaches
7. Fatigue
8. Irritability
9. Mood changes
10. Sleep disturbances

Diagnosis of Lead Poisoning:

A diagnosis of lead poisoning is typically made based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Blood tests can measure the level of lead in the bloodstream, and a hair or urine test can also be used to determine exposure. Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans, may be used to visualize any damage to organs or tissues.

Treatment of Lead Poisoning:

There is no specific treatment for lead poisoning, but treatment is aimed at removing the source of exposure and supporting the body's natural detoxification processes. Chelation therapy may be used in severe cases to remove lead from the body. Other treatments may include:

1. Medications to help reduce symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting
2. Blood transfusions in severe cases
3. Monitoring of vital organs such as the kidneys, liver, and brain
4. Nutritional support to ensure adequate intake of essential nutrients
5. Environmental remediation to remove lead sources from the home or workplace

Prevention of Lead Poisoning:

Preventing lead poisoning is crucial, as there is no cure for this condition. Here are some ways to prevent lead exposure:

1. Avoid using lead-based products such as paint, ceramics, and plumbing
2. Keep children away from areas where lead is present, such as construction sites or old buildings
3. Regularly test for lead in soil, water, and paint
4. Use lead-free alternatives to products that contain lead
5. Dispose of lead-containing waste properly
6. Keep the home clean and dust-free to reduce lead particles in the air
7. Avoid eating or drinking in areas where lead is present
8. Wash hands and toys regularly, especially after playing outdoors
9. Use a certified lead abatement contractor to remove lead from homes built before 1978
10. Keep informed about lead hazards in your community and take action to prevent exposure.


Lead poisoning is a serious health issue that can cause long-term damage to the brain, nervous system, and other organs. Prevention is key, and it is essential to be aware of potential sources of lead exposure in your home and community. If you suspect lead poisoning, seek medical attention immediately. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of permanent damage.

1. Pesticide poisoning: Agricultural workers who handle or apply pesticides may be at risk for poisoning, which can cause a range of symptoms including headaches, dizziness, and nausea. Prolonged exposure to pesticides has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer.
2. Lung disease: Agricultural workers who work with dusty crops or in confined spaces may be at risk for lung diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.
3. Heat stress: Agricultural workers who work outdoors during hot weather may be at risk for heat stress, which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. In severe cases, heat stress can be fatal.
4. Noise-induced hearing loss: Agricultural workers who are exposed to loud noises, such as tractors or other machinery, may be at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.
5. Musculoskeletal disorders: Agricultural workers may be at risk for musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, joint pain, and repetitive strain injuries due to the physical demands of their work.
6. Skin diseases: Agricultural workers who handle animals or are exposed to chemicals may be at risk for skin diseases such as allergic contact dermatitis or fungal infections.
7. Eye diseases: Agricultural workers who work with pesticides or other chemicals may be at risk for eye diseases such as conjunctivitis or cataracts.
8. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers who handle grain or other dusty materials may be at risk for respiratory diseases such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis or farmer's lung.
9. Infectious diseases: Agricultural workers may be at risk for infectious diseases such as Q fever, which is caused by a bacteria that can be found in the intestines of some animals.
10. Mental health disorders: The stress and isolation of agricultural work may contribute to mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.

It's important for agricultural workers to take precautions to protect their health and safety on the job, such as wearing personal protective equipment, following proper handling and application procedures for chemicals, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch. Additionally, employers should provide a safe work environment and training on safe work practices to help prevent injuries and illnesses.

The term "Salmonella Infections, Animal" is used to distinguish these infections from Salmonella infections that are caused by contaminated food or water, which are referred to as "Salmonella Infections, Human."

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

Some common types of fish diseases include:

1. Bacterial infections: These are caused by bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterium. Symptoms can include fin and tail rot, body slime, and ulcers.
2. Viral infections: These are caused by viruses such as viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN). Symptoms can include lethargy, loss of appetite, and rapid death.
3. Protozoan infections: These are caused by protozoa such as Cryptocaryon and Ichthyophonus. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.
4. Fungal infections: These are caused by fungi such as Saprolegnia and Achlya. Symptoms can include fuzzy growths on the body and fins, and sluggish behavior.
5. Parasitic infections: These are caused by parasites such as Ichthyophonus and Cryptocaryon. Symptoms can include flashing, rapid breathing, and white spots on the body.

Diagnosis of fish diseases is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and observation of the fish's behavior and environment. Treatment options vary depending on the type of disease and the severity of symptoms, and can include antibiotics, antifungals, and medicated baths. Prevention is key in managing fish diseases, and this includes maintaining good water quality, providing a balanced diet, and keeping the fish in a healthy environment.

Note: The information provided is a general overview of common fish diseases and their symptoms, and should not be considered as professional medical advice. If you suspect your fish has a disease, it is recommended that you consult with a veterinarian or a qualified aquarium expert for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

"Environment", a song by Dave from Psychodrama Environments (journal), a scientific journal Environment (type theory), the ... Look up environment, environmental, or environmentally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Environment most often refers to: ... Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally Biophysical environment, the physical and biological ... business term Environment (magazine), a peer-reviewed, popular environmental science publication founded in 1958 Environment ( ...
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In the Unified Process, "[t]he Environment discipline refers to the tools and customization of the process for the project - ... that is, setting up the tool and process environment". Larman, Craig (2005). Applying UML and patterns: an introduction to ...
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In 1990 it was split into two parts, Atmospheric Environment, Part A: General Topics and Atmospheric Environment, Part B: Urban ... Atmospheric Environment is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research pertaining to air pollution and other ways ... "Atmospheric Environment". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2014. Official website ...
A narrative environment is a space, whether physical or virtual, in which stories can unfold. A virtual narrative environment ... Originally called in Creative Practice for Narrative Environments, now M.A. for Narrative Environments. A course at Central ... A physical narrative environment might be an exhibition area within a museum, or a foyer of a retail space, or the public ... Interdisciplinary Research Institute specialised on Narrative Environments Narrative Ecology A practical methodology developed ...
... was established in 1989 by the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) to ... "Environment & Urbanization: Briefs". Archived from the original on 2010-06-28. Retrieved 2010-07-28. "SAGE journal: Environment ... Environment & Urbanization was first published on the web in 1994 with free access to issues older than two years. Sage ... Another related journal, Environment & Urbanization ASIA, was launched in 2010, edited by Om Prakash Mathur and published by ...
More formally an environment Γ {\displaystyle \Gamma } is a set or ordered list of pairs ⟨ x , τ ⟩ {\displaystyle \langle x,\ ... In type theory a typing environment (or typing context) represents the association between variable names and data types. ... In statically typed programming languages these environments are used and maintained by typing rules to type check a given ...
... Scottish Environment Protection Agency Media related to Environment Agency at Wikimedia Commons NetRegs ... The Environment Agency's stated purpose is, "to protect or enhance the environment, taken as a whole" so as to promote "the ... The Environment Agency and its then chair Chris Smith was involved with a row with Environment Secretary Owen Paterson and ... The Environment Agency was created by the Environment Act 1995, and came into existence on 1 April 1996. It had responsibility ...
The environment is rich but only communicates in a visual static way Living - The environment speaks to the participant, a ... A story environment is a physical, adaptive, augmented 3D reality or virtual space that can become host to narratives. Distinct ... A story environment has potentially five levels: Level 1 - Shared Inhabitants create their own stories and shared mythology in ... E.g.: objects and bots respond to chat Level 4 - Character Environments that are richly rendered with strong back-stories and ...
The term environment can refer to a singular global environment in relation to humanity, or a local biophysical environment, e. ... It is a broad field of study that includes: The natural environment Built environments Social environments Environmentalism is ... Examples include the marine environment, the atmospheric environment and the terrestrial environment. The number of biophysical ... "Environment. Definition". Retrieved 2012-03-15. Kemp, David Walker (1998). Environment Dictionary. London, UK: Routledge. ISBN ...
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... the cultural environment, the natural environment, the technological environment and the economic environment. The analysis of ... The external environment can be further broken into micro and macro environments. The micro-environment consists of customers, ... The macro-environment refers to all forces that are part of the larger society and affect the micro-environment. It includes ... Market environment and business environment are marketing terms that refer to factors and forces that affect a firm's ability ...
A synthetic environment can be divided into the following: Synthetic natural environment - Representation of climate, weather, ... These environments may be created within a single computer or a vast distributed network connected by local and wide area ... A synthetic environment is a computer simulation that represents activities at a high level of realism, from simulation of ... Synthetic human-made environment - Representation of human-made structures like buildings, bridges, and roads Synthetic ...
For the article concerning Hawaii's environment, see Environment of Hawaii Environment Hawaii is a monthly newsletter published ... It focuses on investigative reporting about Hawaii's environment. The newsletter made its debut in July 1990. Official site v t ...
The social environment is a broader concept than that of social class or social circle. The physical and social environment is ... and the objective social environment on which we draw to create the former, noting that the social environment can either ... The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in ... A Study of Environment and Everyday Life. transcript, Bielefeld 2017, ISBN 978-3-8376-4077-9. (Articles with short description ...
... names containing lowercase letters are stored in the environment just like normal environment variables, ... Besides true environment variables, which are statically stored in the environment until changed or deleted, a number of pseudo ... Standardizing a BROWSER environment variable. Eric Raymond is promoting the use of a new environment variable, BROWSER, to ... In some versions of DR-DOS, the environment passed to drivers, which often do not need their environment after installation, ...
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Visionary environments (Wikipedia category listing) Saving and Preserving Arts and Cultural Environments John Maizels, Deidi ... Built Environments of Vernacular Artists, Princeton Architectural Press (2007) website Outsider Environments ... A visionary environment or fantasy world is a large artistic installation, often on the scale of a building or sculpture parks ... Navarre environment (Spain) Samuel P. Dinsmoor: Garden of Eden (US) Lluís Domènech i Montaner: Palau de la Música Catalana ( ...
"We live in both a mental and physical environment. We can influence the mental environment around us, but to a far greater ... as the deleterious consequences of a poor mental environment can be explained by the mismatch between the mental environment ... The mental environment refers to the sum of all societal influences upon mental health. The term is often used in a context ... This poor mental environment may help explain why rates of mental illness are reportedly higher in industrial societies which ...
In radio communications, a stressed environment is an environment that is under the influence of extrinsic factors that degrade ...
A stage, staging or pre-production environment is an environment for testing that exactly resembles a production environment. ... and this environment may be called the integration environment or the development environment; in continuous integration this ... The production environment is also known as live, particularly for servers, as it is the environment that users directly ... Environments may vary significantly in size: the development environment is typically an individual developer's workstation, ...
United Kingdom Secretary of the Environment (Mexico) Environment Directorate (disambiguation) Environment minister List of ... Environment Secretary can refer to: Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs and the Environment, Scotland Secretary for the ... Environment, Transport and Works, Hong Kong Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, ... ministries List of ministers of the environment This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Environment ...
Environmental issues in the United States "Pacific Environment , Our Team". "Pacific Environment". Charity Navigator. Retrieved ... While Pacific Environment's biggest successes in the 1990s were in Russia, they also began to focus more broadly on the Pacific ... Pacific Environment pioneered efforts to block the financing of destructive projects and improve others as one of the founding ... Pacific Environment : Our Mission Climate Change Science and Policy by Stephen H. Schneider, Island Press, 2009, p.521 "Annual ...
... it is sponsored by the Group of Research on Organizations and the Natural Environment (GRONEN). Organization & Environment is ... Organization & Environment (O&E) is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the fields of "sustainability management, ... "Organization & Environment", Patel Center, University of South Florida. Accessed: December 2, 2012. "John M. Jermier", Sagepub. ... Collaboration between members of the Organization and Natural Environment section of the Academy of Management and the Section ...
The environment is ignored in analysis of the system, except in regard to these interactions. Bioenergetic systems - energy ... In science and engineering, a system is the part of the universe that is being studied, while the environment is the remainder ... Depending on the type of system, it may interact with the environment by exchanging mass, energy (including heat and work), ... system Earth system science Environment (biophysical) Environmental Management System Thermodynamic system Geography of ...
Million Solar Roofs - Environment California Fund for the Public Interest Canvassing Works: Bernadette Del Chiaro, Environment ... It is affiliated with Environment America and the Fund for the Public Interest ("the Fund"). Environment California was formed ... The suit affected canvassers and other canvassing staff working for Environment California.[unreliable source?] Environment ... Environment California works with the Fund for the Public Interest (FFPIR or "the Fund") to recruit members to the organization ...
Literate environments can be found in both public and private spheres, including home, school, workplace, local community, and ... A rich literate environment is essential for encouraging individuals to become literate and sustain and integrate their newly ... A literate environment may include written materials (newspapers, books and posters), electronic and broadcast media (radios ... The social and cultural environments in which people live and work can be characterized as being either more or less supportive ...
The electromagnetic environment may be expressed in terms of the spatial and temporal distribution of electric field strength ( ... In telecommunication, the term electromagnetic environment (EME) has the following meanings: For a telecommunications system, ... or platform when performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. It is the sum of electromagnetic ...
"Energy and Environment". Scopus., accessed 24 June 2015 (subscription required) "Environment Index: Database Coverage List" ( ... Energy & Environment is an academic journal "covering the direct and indirect environmental impacts of energy acquisition, ... "Energy & Environment: Mission Statement". Multi-Science Publishing. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 11 ... "Editorial". Energy & Environment. 28 (5-6): 543. 15 September 2017. doi:10.1177/0958305X17733089. "Master Journal list". ...
Methods: Among 223 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, we ... Early life organophosphate ester exposures and bone health at age 12 years: The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment ... Early life organophosphate ester exposures and bone health at age 12 years: The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment ... The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) study. Kuiper JR, Braun JM, Calafat AM, Lanphear BP, Cecil KM, Chen ...
EPA - Healthy School Environments. EPAs Healthy School Environments Web pages are a gateway to online resources to help ... Additional information on childrens health and the built environment as well as other related topics can be found in the ... School siting and design are examples of how the built environment can influence childrens health. When new schools are built ... The Healthy Community Design Initiative, also known as the Built Environment and Health Initiative, is no longer a funded ...
The Personalized Environment and Genes Study (PEGS) integrates genetic and environmental data to understand disease etiology, ... PEGS: Personalized Environment and Genes Study PEGS: Personalized Environment and Genes Study. ... Kids Environment , Kids Health A resource for kids, parents, and teachers to find fun and educational materials related to ... The Personalized Environment and Genes Study (PEGS) integrates genetic and environmental data to understand disease etiology, ...
About us We lead Australias response to climate change and sustainable energy use, and protect our environment, heritage and ... Snowy Hydro Limited State of the Environment Sustainable Development Goals Sydney Harbour Federation Trust Water Quality ... Department of Climate Change, Energy, the Environment and Water We acknowledge the Traditional Owners of country throughout ... Water Improving the sustainable management of Australias water supply for industry, the environment and communities. ...
What does a safe sleep environment look like? A safe sleep environment for baby is: Firm (returns to its original shape quickly ... and covered only with a fitted sheet Learn more about safe sleep surfaces and other features of a safe sleep environment. ... What does a safe sleep environment look like?. A safe sleep environment for baby is:. *Firm (returns to its original shape ... Safe Sleep Environment for Baby A safe sleep area can help reduce babys risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and other ...
Learn how to make your environment safer and limit your exposure to potentially harmful substances to stay healthier. ... You cant always choose whats in the environments you live, work, or play in. But taking small steps to make your environments ... Purple and maroon mean air pollution is extreme, and everyone should try to stay inside in an environment with clean air. ...
Utilizing In Vitro Functional Genomics Advances for Gene-Environment (G x E) Discovery and Validation (R01 Clinical Trial Not ... Environment. Will the scientific environment in which the work will be done contribute to the probability of success? Are the ... Gene-environment (G x E) interaction or interplay is interchangeably used for the purposes of this FOA. G x E is defined ... New approaches to therefore both identify and validate gene-environment (G x E) paradigms relevant to human disease are sorely ...
Stay up to date with the top Australian environment news, industry information, and breaking news ... Sea turtles in Panama now have the legal right to live in an environment free of pollution and other detrimental impacts caused ... The prosecutors have blocked the instalment of the zip-lines, claiming they will damage the environment. ...
Latest Environment news, comment and analysis from the Guardian, the worlds leading liberal voice ... 50th World Environment Day - in pictures World Environment Day is an annual global event to raise awareness, mobilise action ... Concentrations of plastics in round-the-world race through remote ocean environments found to be up to 18 times higher than ...
RAND energy and environmental analyses examine the implications of existing and proposed energy policies on the environment. ... Energy and Environment. Stay informed of the latest RAND news and research on Energy and Environment. ... Energy and Environment. Featured. RAND energy and environmental analyses examine the implications of existing and proposed ... energy policies on the environment. Building on a long history of policy research, RAND helps balance the need for ...
... growing up in an urban environment, minority group position and cannabis use, suggesting that ex … ... The environment and schizophrenia Nature. 2010 Nov 11;468(7321):203-12. doi: 10.1038/nature09563. ... Longitudinal research is needed to uncover gene-environment interplay that determines how expression of vulnerability in the ... growing up in an urban environment, minority group position and cannabis use, suggesting that exposure may have an impact on ...
Fact sheet on State of the Campus Environment project If you have comments, questions or ideas about this project, or would ... The State of the Campus Environment survey is composed of three surveys in one. Since no one individual on campus would be able ... State of the Campus Environment: A National Report Card on Environmental Performance and Sustainability in Higher Education. ... The State of the Campus Environment project was designed to address this problematic information gap. In this first-ever large- ...
The Environment Team of the UNODC Border Management Branch assists Member States to prevent and respond to crimes that affect ... Organized crime poses a major threat to our environment, with organized criminal groups around the world engaging in wildlife ... Crimes that affect the environment are serious organized crime with far-reaching impacts for the economy, security, the ... the environment such as wildlife and forest crime, crimes in the fisheries sector, illegal mining, and trafficking in precious ...
The built environment. The University of Oxfords estate comprises 239 buildings, providing more than 600,000m2 of space - or ... HomeResearchEngage with usLocal communityPart of the fabric of the cityThe environment ...
Could electric vehicles offer an alternative to petrol or diesel?
Related to Human-Environment Interactions About. * Research & Discovery * Earth System Sciences * Human-Environment ... Nathan Phillips - ecosystem change in urban and natural environments. *Caterina Scaramelli - ecologies, scientific expertise, ... Boston University Earth & Environment. 685 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215. Phone: 617-353-2525 ... James Baldwin - energy and the environment, regional science, economic and environmental geography ...
Members of anti-proliferation initiative agree to step up cooperation against changing security environment ...
Please visit for even more great content about Environment.. To participate in free, fun online ... Unsubscribe from the Environment Newsletter Online Newsletter Archive for Environment Site Master List of BellaOnline ... January 27 2023 Environment Newsletter. Heres the latest article from the Environment site at Climate ... Farjana Amin, Environment Editor One of hundreds of sites at ...
The take away from this course is to change behaviors in your day to day choices. Small changes add up to big savings and reducing your ecological footprint.
The positions of environment editor and deputy environment editor are being eliminated. Is this a good thing or bad? ... The New York Times will close its environment desk in the next few weeks and assign its seven reporters and two editors to ... The positions of environment editor and deputy environment editor are being eliminated." Is this a good thing or bad? ... Inside Climate News reports that "The New York Times will close its environment desk in the next few weeks and assign its seven ...
The last few years have seen phenomenal gains for many cryptocurrencies before going through a significant crash in late 2017 out of which they have yet to recover from. Does this mean that now is the time you should invest in some of them for the next large move up? ...
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, ... State of Europes environmentClimateEconomy and resourcesHealthNatureSustainabilityIn-depth topics ...
The School of Built Environment encompasses many of the careers that deal with the design, construction, operation, and ... School of Built Environment. 605 S. Warren. GRN 227. Big Rapids MI 49307. (231) 591-3773 ... Courses and studios are structured to mirror the office environment. Course content and projects are designed to incorporate a ... All of the programs within the School of Built Environment are presented by faculty with considerable industry and professional ...
Top executives of Volkswagen AG (VW) and some other automobile manufacturers met with the head of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and reaffirmed their support for a carbon emissions deal ...
Simon Fraser Universitys Faculty of Environments Pacific Water Research Centre and partners are inviting you to learn about ... The Faculty of Environment encouraged students to write an evidence-based research opinion editorial (op-ed) for its 2018 OpEd ...
Security for a CRM environment. Customer Relationship Management software has been a buzzword in the Information Technology ...
Department of Environment and Geography. Wentworth Way, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5NG, UK Tel: work 01904 ... The aim of REAL was to provide a longer-term historical perspective on human-environment interactions to enable future long- ... Fuel availability can constrain human occupation of desert environments - fuel availability is as important as water, food and ... the environment and mining. The project is a pilot phase supported by GCRF-QR funding to initiate a long-term interdisciplinary ...
Mongolia Environment Profiles (Subcategories). Adjusted net national income 4 Forest area 4 ... desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment 2011. ... of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the ...
  • Impact of metabolic dysfunction on the intrauterine environment and subsequent metabolic health of mother and offspring. (
  • The Obesity, Pregnancy, and Intrauterine Environment program supports basic and clinical research to understand the impact of metabolic dysfunction on the intrauterine environment and subsequent metabolic health of both mother and offspring. (
  • The program also supports basic and clinical research investigating the mechanisms by which the intrauterine environment alters metabolic responses in offspring. (
  • The intrauterine environment is influenced by a complex variety of factors, including maternal lifestyle, environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and psychosocial aspects, making risk determination based on identification of these factors difficult and inaccurate. (
  • Due to the unique regulatory features of imprinted genes and their sensitivity to environmental exposures, genomic imprinting has been proposed as an ideal integrated measure of the intrauterine environment for use in epidemiologic studies of the developmental origins of health and disease. (
  • Gene-environment (G x E) interaction or interplay is interchangeably used for the purposes of this FOA. (
  • Longitudinal research is needed to uncover gene-environment interplay that determines how expression of vulnerability in the general population may give rise to more severe psychopathology. (
  • The overall goal of this NIEHS led initiative is to generate proof-of-principle studies incorporating these new in vitro approaches, together with well characterized exposures, to further our understanding of gene-environment (G x E) interactions in complex human disorders. (
  • Genetic epidemiologic approaches have highlighted the roles of gene-environment interactions and gene-environment correlations in understanding SUD risk and trajectories. (
  • The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) is seeking a Health Scientist Administrator (Program Director) in the Neural Environment Cluster. (
  • Thus, creating and supporting healthy food environments is an important part of public health work. (
  • Case studies document how hospitals improved their environments to better support the health of their employees and communities and the mission of their organizations. (
  • A resource for kids, parents, and teachers to find fun and educational materials related to health, science, and the environment we live in today. (
  • The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is expanding and accelerating its contributions to scientific knowledge of human health and the environment, and to the health and well-being of people everywhere. (
  • As such, they provide unique learning laboratories in which students may gain the knowledge, tools and practical experience necessary to strike the appropriate balance between human needs and sustaining the health of our environment. (
  • Crimes that affect the environment are serious organized crime with far-reaching impacts for the economy, security, the environment, and human health, contributing to biodiversity loss and climate change. (
  • The Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) is a critical piece of legislation that aims to significantly protect human health and the environment by reducing harmful industrial emissions across the EU, particularly through the better application of best available techniques (BATs). (
  • The environment plays an important role in human development and health. (
  • Protecting the environment also helps us protect our health. (
  • Visit the Kids Environment Kids Health website to find fun and educational resources for kids, parents, and teachers. (
  • There is growing evidence that lifelong health, including mental health, is particularly shaped by the environment experienced during the in utero developmental period. (
  • Sea turtles in Panama now have the legal right to live in an environment free of pollution and other detrimental impacts caused by humans, a change that represents a different way of thinking about how to protect wildlife. (
  • But taking small steps to make your environments safer and limiting your exposure to potentially harmful substances can help keep you healthier. (
  • This month serves as a reminder that children are vulnerable to harmful substances in the environment. (
  • The Personalized Environment and Genes Study (PEGS) integrates genetic and environmental data to understand disease etiology, identify disease risk factors, and improve disease prevention. (
  • Please visit for even more great content about Environment. (
  • Persistent trends in overweight and obesity have resulted in a rapid research effort focused on built environment, physical activity, and overweight. (
  • Have suggestions to improve the American research environment? (
  • The National Science and Technology Council's (NSTC's) Joint Committee on the Research Environment (JCORE) wants to hear from you! (
  • Make your voice heard in response to JCORE's Request for Information (RFI), seeking input on actions that Federal agencies can take, working in partnership with private industry, academic institutions, and non-profit/philanthropic organizations, to maximize the quality and effectiveness of the American research environment. (
  • Although heritability is often emphasized, onset is associated with environmental factors such as early life adversity, growing up in an urban environment, minority group position and cannabis use, suggesting that exposure may have an impact on the developing 'social' brain during sensitive periods. (
  • Therefore, production can be a significant source of pressure on the environment - with the potential to cause serious pollution if not carefully managed. (
  • FOX Business host Larry Kudlow calls out the Environment Protection Agency for pushing Americans to get electric vehicles on 'Kudlow. (
  • You can't always choose what's in the environments you live, work, or play in. (
  • I live in a _____________ environment. (
  • Subscribe for free weekly updates from this Environment site. (
  • RAND energy and environmental analyses examine the implications of existing and proposed energy policies on the environment. (
  • It suggests that several features of the suburban built environment such as low densities, poor street connectivity and the lack of sidewalks are associated with decreased physical activity and an increased risk of being overweight. (
  • Earth Day reminds all of us of our personal and collective responsibility to preserve and protect the environment. (
  • Childcare centers can also assess their food environments and develop action plans and policies that promote healthy eating. (
  • Many strategies can contribute to healthy food environments. (
  • A food chain explains which organism eats another organism in the environment. (
  • How do I get the environment variables to 'stick' - nothing I change is maintained. (
  • Here's the latest article from the Environment site at (
  • Every work environment has its risks. (
  • ICE REST APIs , implemented in version 3.7 (July 2022), allow users to access ICE data more easily via database searches outside of the ICE graphical user interface environment. (
  • The word "environment" means different things for different people. (