Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Nuclear matrix proteins that are structural components of the NUCLEAR LAMINA. They are found in most multicellular organisms.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A subclass of ubiquitously-expressed lamins having an acidic isoelectric point. They are found to remain bound to nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A family of low molcular-weight proteins that contain PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN DOMAINS. Members of this family play a role in the formation of an insoluble cornified envelope beneath the plasma membrane of stratified squamous epithelial cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Two closely related polypeptides (molecular weight 7,000) isolated from the thymus gland. These hormones induce the differentiation of prothymocytes to thymocytes within the thymus. They also cause a delayed impairment of neuromuscular transmission in vivo and are therefore believed to be the agent responsible for myasthenia gravis.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
A lattice of fibrils which covers the entire inner surface of the nuclear envelope and interlinks nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A ubiquitously expressed sequence-specific transcriptional repressor that is normally the target of signaling by NOTCH PROTEINS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The plasma membrane of the egg.
A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Kihlmark M, Imreh G, Hallberg E (October 2001). "Sequential degradation of proteins from the nuclear envelope during apoptosis ... Chromatin undergoes condensation into compact patches against the nuclear envelope (also known as the perinuclear envelope) in ... The adenovirus E1B-55K protein and the hepatitis B virus HBx protein are examples of viral proteins that can perform such a ... Examples of viral Bcl-2 proteins include the Epstein-Barr virus BHRF1 protein and the adenovirus E1B 19K protein. Some viruses ...
The EMD and LMNA genes provide instructions for making proteins that are components of the nuclear envelope, which surrounds ... "OMIM Entry - * 608442 - SPECTRIN REPEAT-CONTAINING NUCLEAR ENVELOPE PROTEIN 2; SYNE2". www.omim.org. Retrieved 19 May 2016. " ... Retrieved 10 May 2016., update 2011 "OMIM Entry - * 608441 - SPECTRIN REPEAT-CONTAINING NUCLEAR ENVELOPE PROTEIN 1; SYNE1". www ... The nuclear envelope regulates the movement of molecules into and out of the nucleus, and researchers believe it may play a ...
Nuclear envelope pore membrane protein POM 121 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POM121 gene. Alternatively spliced ... Antibodies against this protein can be used to identify the nuclear envelope in immunofluorescence experiments. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Hallberg E, Wozniak RW, Blobel G (Aug 1993). "An integral membrane protein of the pore membrane domain of the nuclear envelope ... The nuclear envelope creates distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in eukaryotic cells. It consists of two concentric ...
They are attached to the nuclear envelope membrane via farnesyl anchors and interaction with inner nuclear membrane proteins ... Lamins are intermediate filament proteins that form the nuclear lamina scaffold underneath the nuclear envelope in animal cells ... Interaction between lamin A and the nuclear envelope protein emerin appears to be crucial in muscle cells, with certain ... Nagano A, Arahata K (2000). "Nuclear envelope proteins and associated diseases". Curr. Opin. Neurol. 13 (5): 533-9. doi:10.1097 ...
This protein localizes to the nuclear envelope and adjacent endoplasmic reticulum. ENSG00000213316 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Protein-protein interaction affinity chromatography of leukotriene C4 synthase". Protein Expr. Purif. 6 (3): 352-6. doi:10.1006 ... This protein is remotely related to microsomal glutathione S-transferase. The MAPEG (Membrane-Associated Proteins in Eicosanoid ... 2000). "Membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism (MAPEG). A widespread protein superfamily". Am. J ...
"The plant TPX2 protein regulates prospindle assembly before nuclear envelope breakdown". The Plant Cell. 20 (10): 2783-97. doi: ... Targeting protein for Xklp2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TPX2 gene. It is one of the many spindle assembly ... Yan L, Li S, Xu C, Zhao X, Hao B, Li H, Qiao B (December 2013). "Target protein for Xklp2 (TPX2), a microtubule-related protein ... When bound to microtubules, TPX2 recruits a plus-end directed motor protein, Xlp2, a protein that is required in early mitosis ...
... is a protein complex associated with the nuclear envelope. The p62 protein remains associated with the nuclear pore complex- ... The nuclear pore complex is a massive structure that extends across the nuclear envelope, forming a gateway that regulates the ... This protein associates with the importin alpha/beta complex which is involved in the import of proteins containing nuclear ... P62 also interacts with a nuclear transport factor (NTF2) protein that is involved in trafficking proteins between cytoplasm ...
2005). "The inner nuclear membrane protein Sun1 mediates the anchorage of Nesprin-2 to the nuclear envelope". J. Cell Sci. 118 ... This gene is a member of the unc-84 homolog family and encodes a nuclear nuclear envelope protein with an Unc84 (SUN) domain. ... "Nuclear envelope proteomics: novel integral membrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98 (21 ... 2006). "Nuclear envelope localization of human UNC84A does not require nuclear lamins". FEBS Lett. 580 (5): 1263-8. doi:10.1016 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is located in the nuclear envelope. It has protein similarity to nuclear transport factor 2. ... The encoded protein heterodimerizes with Tap protein and may regulate the ability of Tap protein to mediate nuclear mRNA export ... This protein functions as a nuclear export factor in both RAN (Ras-related nuclear protein)- and CRM1 (required for chromosome ... 2000). "RanGTP-binding protein NXT1 facilitates nuclear export of different classes of RNA in vitro". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (13 ...
CLUH: encoding protein Clustered mitochondria (cluA/CLU1) homolog. *CTDNEP1: encoding protein CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase ... VPS25: encoding protein Vacuolar protein-sorting-associated protein 25. *VPS53: encoding protein Vacuolar protein sorting 53 ... LINC00511: encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 511. *LINC00674 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein ... encoding protein Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein 2. *QRICH2: encoding protein Glutamine-rich protein ...
2001). "Nuclear envelope proteomics: Novel integral membrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. ... Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 35 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TTC35 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... Hoja MR, Wahlestedt C, Höög C (2000). "A visual intracellular classification strategy for uncharacterized human proteins". Exp ...
The domain is known to direct RanGAP to the nuclear envelope. Non-RanGAP nuclear envelope proteins are also known to encode WPP ... Meier I (December 2000). "A novel link between ran signal transduction and nuclear envelope proteins in plants". Plant ... "Arabidopsis WPP-domain proteins are developmentally associated with the nuclear envelope and promote cell division". The Plant ... The WPP domain is a protein domain thought to be exclusively found in plants, first identified in 2000. The domain is about 90 ...
"HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... cloning and characterization of a novel nuclear protein, HA95, homologous to A-kinase anchoring protein 95". Biology of the ... "Interaction of the nuclear matrix protein NAKAP with HypA and huntingtin: implications for nuclear toxicity in Huntington's ... A-kinase anchor protein 8-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP8L gene. AKAP8L has been shown to interact ...
"HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... "Interaction between an integral protein of the nuclear envelope inner membrane and human chromodomain proteins homologous to ... "Interaction between an integral protein of the nuclear envelope inner membrane and human chromodomain proteins homologous to ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ERG4/ERG24 family. It localizes to the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope ...
"HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... "HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". Journal of Cell Science. 113 Pt 21 ... Foisner R, Gerace L (Jul 1993). "Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope interact with lamins and chromosomes, and ... LAP2 is an inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein. Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. The ...
"Subcellular localization and nucleocytoplasmic transport of the chromosomal passenger proteins before nuclear envelope ... "Borealin/Dasra B is a cell cycle-regulated chromosomal passenger protein and its nuclear accumulation is linked to poor ... Borealin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDCA8 gene. CDCA8 is a component of a chromosomal passenger complex ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Bovine serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are contact ...
... interacts with the Ish1 stress-responsive nuclear envelope protein". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (12): 10562-10572. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Lindsay EA, Harvey EL, Scambler PJ, Baldini A (1998). "ES2, a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, encodes a nuclear protein and ... Protein DGCR14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DGCR14 gene. This gene is located within the minimal DGS critical ... The encoded protein may be a component of C complex spliceosomes, and the orthologous protein in the mouse localizes to the ...
During eukaryotic mitosis the nuclear envelope disintegrates into vesicles dispersing nuclear lamina proteins and nuclear pore ... Yang L, Guan T, Gerace L (1997). "Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope are dispersed throughout the endoplasmic ... Gp-210 anchors the pore complex to the nuclear membrane. and protein tagging reveals its primarily located on the luminal side ... Cohen M, Feinstein N, Wilson KL, Gruenbaum Y (2003). "Nuclear pore protein gp210 is essential for viability in HeLa cells and ...
The genome codes for 30 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and lysis. Vertebrates serve as the natural host. " ...
The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown, viroporins, and lysis. Birds serve as the natural host. "Viral ... The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ...
The nuclear envelope is a membranous structure containing large protein complexes supported by a network of nuclear lamins. ... compromising the structural integrity of the nuclear envelope so that it breaks down. The destruction of the nuclear envelope ... Cyclin B1-Cdk1 is involved in the early events of mitosis, such as chromosome condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, and ... Another important function of the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex is to break down the nuclear envelope. ...
Leach, K.L., Powers, E.A., Ruff, V.A., Jaken, S. and Kaufmann, S. Type 3 protein kinase C localization to the nuclear envelope ... "Type 3 protein kinase C localization to the nuclear envelope of phorbol ester-treated NIH 3T3 cells". The Journal of Cell ... Alpha-Thrombin stimulates nuclear diglyceride levels and differential nuclear localization of protein kinase C isozymes in IIC9 ... but lack mitochondrial DNA and thus are unable to synthesize proteins. By showing mitochondrial protein synthesis was the link ...
... highly insoluble nuclear protein and potential constituent of the keratinocyte cornified envelope". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (38): ... This protein interacts with periplakin, which is known as a precursor of the cornified cell envelope. The cellular localization ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of the several proteins that become sequentially incorporated into the cornified cell ... 2004). "A protein interaction network links GIT1, an enhancer of huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease". Mol. Cell. ...
CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CTDNEP1 gene. ENSG00000288307 GRCh38: Ensembl ... "Entrez Gene: CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1". Retrieved 2012-12-07. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e. ...
Wydner KL, McNeil JA, Lin F, Worman HJ, Lawrence JB (March 1996). "Chromosomal assignment of human nuclear envelope protein ... The nuclear lamina consist of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family ... Depolymerization of the nuclear lamins leads to disintegration of the nuclear envelope. Transfection experiments demonstrate ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ...
2005). "The inner nuclear membrane protein Sun1 mediates the anchorage of Nesprin-2 to the nuclear envelope". J. Cell Sci. 118 ... 2005). "Nesprin-2 is a multi-isomeric protein that binds lamin and emerin at the nuclear envelope and forms a subcellular ... a member of the nuclear envelope (NE) spectrin-repeat (nesprin) family. Nesprins are modular proteins with a central extended ... "Entrez Gene: SYNE2 spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 2". Rajgor D, Mellad JA, Autore F, Zhang Q, Shanahan CM (Jul ...
Wydner KL, McNeil JA, Lin F, Worman HJ, Lawrence JB (Feb 1997). "Chromosomal assignment of human nuclear envelope protein genes ... Foisner, R; Gerace L (Jul 1993). "Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope interact with lamins and chromosomes, and ... The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin ... Ye Q, Worman HJ (1995). "Protein-protein interactions between human nuclear lamins expressed in yeast". Exp. Cell Res. 219 (1 ...
It interacts with the nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C, which is what led to its discovery. It also interacts with Islet1 ... Muscular LMNA interacting protein (MLIP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLIP gene. The function of MLIP is not ... Muscular LMNA interacting protein has a number of aliases including MLIP, C6orf142, CIP and Muscle-enriched A-type Lamin- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Ensembl Gene ref Protein ref Ahmady E, Deeke SA, Rabaa S, Kouri L, Kenney L, Stewart AF ...
protein binding. 细胞成分. · nucleus. · nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol ... activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response. · mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly. · ... Chromosomal assignment of human nuclear envelope protein genes LMNA, LMNB1, and LBR by fluorescence in situ hybridization. ... Depolymerization of the nuclear lamins leads to disintegration of the nuclear envelope. Transfection experiments demonstrate ...
Hundreds of different PPR proteins from the nuclear genome are involved in the RNA editing process. These proteins consist of ... is another protein complex that imports proteins across the inner chloroplast envelope. Chloroplast polypeptide chains probably ... Toc75 is the most abundant protein on the outer chloroplast envelope. It is a transmembrane tube that forms most of the TOC ... Tic56 is also a nuclear encoded protein. The preprotein its gene encodes is 527 amino acids long, weighing close to 62 thousand ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors, which ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear envelope breakdown. Ruminants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ...
"Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2015.. ... mitochondrial envelope. • mitochondrial nucleoid. • extracellular exosome. • mitochondrion. Biological process. • lipid ... "Genetic variants in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes influence AIDS progression". PLoS ONE. 5 (9): e12862. doi:10.1371/ ... The encoded protein can also bind RNA and decreases the stability of some mRNAs. The genes of the alpha and beta subunits of ...
DNA and proteins seemed the dominant macromolecules in the living cell, with RNA only aiding in creating proteins from the DNA ... and RNA editing take place at sites determined by the base pairing between the target RNA and RNA constituents of small nuclear ... where a nucleotide-based molecule is needed to synthesize protein, and a peptide-based (protein) molecule is needed to make ... The ability to catalyse the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to produce short peptides or longer proteins. This ...
2004). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197- ... 2002). "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope subtypes A and D on disease progression in a large cohort ... evidence of macaque nuclear sequences confirms substrate identity". Vaccine 23: 1639-1648. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.10.038. ...
nuclear envelope. • غشاء. • ruffle. • extrinsic component of cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane. • غشاء خلوي. • perinuclear ... S100 protein binding. • protein homodimerization activity. • ion transmembrane transporter activity. • ربط أيون الزنك. • ربط ... S100A6‏ (S100 calcium binding protein A6) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين S100A6 في الإنسان.[1] ... "Entrez Gene: S100A6 S100 calcium binding protein A6". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010. الوسيط ,مسار أرشيف=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة ...
... matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase ... part of the hemagglutinin protein fuses the viral envelope with the vacuole's membrane, then the M2 ion channel allows protons ... protein).[63] For example, the influenza A genome contains 11 genes on eight pieces of RNA, encoding for 11 proteins: ... These core proteins and vRNA form a complex that is transported into the cell nucleus, where the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ...
CENP-E is a 312kDa protein from the kinesin motor protein family. CENP-F is a 367kDa protein from the nuclear matrix that ... Nesher, G; Margalit, R; Ashkenazi, YJ (April 2001). "Anti-nuclear envelope antibodies: Clinical associations". Seminars in ... gp210 is a 200kDa protein involved in anchoring components of the nuclear pore to the nuclear membrane. The p62 antigen is a ... 54kDa and 60kDa proteins and RNA. The 60kDa DNA/RNA binding protein and 52kDa T-cell regulatory protein are the best ...
Multiple necessary viral proteins are located within the envelope. DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off ... "budd through nuclear membrane". Completed viral replication occurs within 12 hours of infection. Vacuoles of mature virions are ... Envelope fusion with the plasma membrane of the host cell causes separation of the nucleocapsid from viral DNA and proteins. ... gB, gD, gH, and gL proteins allow for fusion of the cell and envelope, and are necessary for survival. Entrance to host cells ...
Globular proteins: solvent-accessible surface area of a typical globular protein, having a typical molecular mass of ~35000 u ( ... Cross-sectional area of a nuclear pore complex in vertebrates[9] 10−12 1 square micrometre (μm2) 6 μm2 Surface area of an E. ... Back-of-the-envelope calculation. *Fermi problem. *Powers of 10. *Metric (SI) prefix ... "The Nuclear Pore Complex". UIUC Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group. Retrieved 2011-10-14.. ...
... presence or absence of infolding of the nuclear envelope, and composition of the cytoplasm. Type 1 pinealocytes are also known ... The presence of the protein RIBEYE and other proteins in both pinealocytes and sensory cells (both photoreceptors and hair ... The presence of proteins such as Munc13-1 indicates that they are important in neurotransmitter release. At night, synaptic ... The characteristic protein of synaptic ribbons is RIBEYE, as revealed by light and electron microscopy. In lower vertebrates, ...
"5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein are localized in the nuclear envelope of activated human leukocytes". J. ... nuclear matrix. • nuclear envelope lumen. • cell nucleus. • extracellular region. • extracellular space. • nuclear envelope. • ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ... protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind with phospholipids in the nuclear ...
... a new nuclear envelope forms using the membrane vesicles of the parent cell's old nuclear envelope. The new envelope forms ... Motor proteins then push the centrosomes along these microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. Although centrosomes help ... after the nuclear envelope breaks down.[29] The preprophase band disappears during nuclear envelope breakdown and spindle ... At the beginning of prometaphase in animal cells, phosphorylation of nuclear lamins causes the nuclear envelope to disintegrate ...
2000). "Nuclear Lamins A and B1: Different Pathways of Assembly during Nuclear Envelope Formation in Living Cells". Journal of ... "Nuclear Protein Database. Retrieved 2007-03-06.. Unknown parameter ,coauthors=. ignored (. ,author=. suggested) (help). ... Paine P, Moore L, Horowitz S (1975). "Nuclear envelope permeability". Nature. 254 (5496): 109-114. doi:10.1038/254109a0. PMID ... Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer (2002-03-07). "Cell biology: Ripping up the nuclear envelope". Nature. 416 (6876): 31-32. doi: ...
protein binding. Cellular component. • nuclear envelope. • membrane. • കോശസ്തരം. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ... "Localization of functional prostaglandin E2 receptors EP3 and EP4 in the nuclear envelope". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of fever generation. • cell death. • signal transduction. • ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. • prostaglandin receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • prostaglandin E ...
In such proteins, the pigments are arranged to work together. Such a combination of proteins is also called a light-harvesting ... Like mitochondria, chloroplasts possess their own DNA, separate from the nuclear DNA of their plant host cells and the genes in ... inner membrane (1+2+3: envelope). *stroma (aqueous fluid). *thylakoid lumen (inside of thylakoid) ... In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in ...
3D nuclear test simulations as a substitute for legal conduct Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (ASCI Q).[107]. ... In 2011, the challenges and difficulties in pushing the envelope in supercomputing were underscored by IBM's abandonment of the ... MDGRAPE-3 for protein structure computation molecular dynamics[50] and Deep Crack,[51] for breaking the DES cipher. ... the detonation of nuclear weapons, and nuclear fusion). They have been essential in the field of cryptanalysis.[6] ...
The enzymes and proteins listed above serve to reinforce the glycocalyx barrier against vascular and other diseases. Another ... The glycocalyx also consists of a wide range of enzymes and proteins that regulate leukocyte and thrombocyte adherence, since ... and includes enzymes secreted by the absorptive cells that are essential for the final steps of digestion of proteins and ... Membrane proteins. *Membrane glycoproteins. *Integral membrane proteins/transmembrane protein. *Peripheral membrane protein/ ...
The cell shrinks and condenses - the cytoskeleton will collapse, the nuclear envelope disassembles and the DNA fragments up. ... which is facilitated by binding to adaptor proteins via protein-protein interaction motifs that are collectively referred to as ... There is evidence where it promotes transcription of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a transcription factor that assists in ... The adaptor protein FADD will recruit (by a Death domain-Death domain interaction) pro-Caspase 8 via the DED domain. This FasR ...
RecQ protein-like helicases (RECQLs), nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins, and nuclear envelope proteins LMNA (lamins) ... by acting as a scaffold protein that forms a filamentous meshwork underlying the inner nuclear envelope, the membrane that ... "lobulation of the nuclear envelope, thickening of the nuclear lamina, loss of peripheral heterochromatin, and clustering of ... When the truncated prelamin A is localized to the nuclear envelope, it will not be processed and accumulates,[71] leading to " ...
The ~120 kDa SREBP precursor protein is anchored in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear envelope by ... SREB proteins are indirectly required for cholesterol biosynthesis and for uptake and fatty acid biosynthesis. These proteins ... Unactivated SREBPs are attached to the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. In cells with low levels of ... proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH proteins, an arginine residue is replaced with tyrosine making them capable ...
The amino acid sequence of the protein transduction domain is YGRKKRRQRRR.[13] The nuclear localisation signal found within the ... In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.[1][2] Tat is a regulatory protein that ... Protein transduction domain[edit]. Tat contains a protein transduction domain, which is therefore known as a cell-penetrating ... The protein is released by infected cells in culture, and is found in the blood of HIV-1 infected patients.[5] ...
"Permeability of Chloroplast Envelopes to Mg2+: Effects on Protein Synthesis". Plant Physiology. 74 (4): 956-961. doi:10.1104/ ... Wiesenberger, G.; Waldherr, M.; Schweyen, R. J. (1992). "The nuclear gene MRS2 is essential for the excision of group II ... ProteinsEdit. The Mg2+ ion tends to bind only weakly to proteins (Ka ≤ 105[46]) and this can be exploited by the cell to switch ... However, the envelope membrane of E. coli has also been shown to bind Na+, K+, Mn2+ and Fe3+. The transport of ions is ...
From nuclear genes to chloroplast localized proteins. - Plant Science, 161(3):379-389 ... Electric and structural studies of hormone interaction with chloroplast envelope membranes isolated from vegetative and ... Protein import into chloroplasts. - Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 5(6): 529-535 ...
Antibiotics active on the cell wall and envelope (J01C-J01D). Intracellular. *Inhibit peptidoglycan subunit synthesis and ... Protein binding. 90%. Metabolism. ,30% hepatic. Elimination half-life. 0.5 hours. Excretion. Biliary and renal. ...
2000). „HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics". J. Cell. Sci. ENGLAND. 113 ... 2001). „HA95 is a protein of the chromatin and nuclear matrix regulating nuclear envelope dynamics.". J. Cell. Sci. 113 (21): ... Inner nuclear membrane proteins: functions and targeting". PMID 11766875.. *^ Furukawa, K (1999). „LAP2 binding protein 1 ( ... Foisner, R; L, Gerace (1993). „Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope interact with lamins and chromosomes, and ...
nuclear envelope. • membrane. • synapse. • trans-Golgi network. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • ... G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans ... This protein is a member of the rhodopsin-like family of G protein-coupled receptors and is a multi-pass membrane protein that ... These proteins belong to the nuclear hormone receptor class of transcription factors that regulate gene transcription. Since it ...
die Lepomoneren (with envelope) *Protomonas-now classed as a eukaryote and not a bacterium. The name was reused in 1984 for an ... Prokaryotes share many common features, such as lack of nuclear membrane, unicellularity, division by binary-fission and ... Radhey Gupta's molecular taxonomy, based on conserved signature sequences of proteins, includes a monophyletic Gram negative ... die Gymnomoneren (no envelope) *Protogenes-such as Protogenes primordialis, now classed as a eukaryote and not a bacterium ...
Protein separations at the nuclear envelope. The living cell separates its molecular components among numerous organelles. Most ... Communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm takes place at the nuclear envelope, a double membraned structure ... perforated by large protein channels known as the nuclear pores. Through these channels the cell is able not only to pass but ... Caspi Y, Zbaida D, Cohen H, Elbaum M (2008) Synthetic Mimic of Selective Transport Through the Nuclear Pore Complex. Nano ...
... Harmon E.B., Harmon M.L., Larsen T.D., Yang J., ... untranslated region of the gene coding for myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). DMPK is a nuclear envelope (NE) protein ... European Bioinformatics InstituteProtein Information ResourceSIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. UniProt is an ELIXIR core ... i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or ...
... to the nuclear envelope but remain at the nuclear interior where they are associated with SUN1 and with nuclear-envelope- ... CDK2 regulates nuclear envelope protein dynamics and telomere attachment in mouse meiotic prophase.. Viera A1, Alsheimer M2, ... We propose that during mammalian prophase I the kinase CDK2 is a key factor governing the structure of the nuclear envelope and ... In most organisms, telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope at the onset of meiosis to promote the crucial processes of pairing ...
Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila.. J Liu, K Song ... Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila.. J Liu, K Song ... Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila.. J Liu, K Song ... Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila. ...
AtNEAP proteins are encoded by a small gene familycomposed of three genes and are targeted through a nuclear localisation ... induce changes in chromatin organisation andultimately gene expression.A novel family of NUCLEAR ENVELOPE ASSOCIATED PROTEINS ( ... The NE is composed of two membranes: on the nucleoplasmic side,the Inner Nuclear Membrane (INM) and on the cytoplasmic side, ... The NE allows communication between both compartments through Nuclear PoreComplexes and bridges the cytoskeleton to the ...
SUN proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and form complexes with KASH proteins of the outer nuclear membrane that ... SUN proteins facilitate the removal of membranes from chromatin during nuclear envelope breakdown.. [Yagmur Turgay, Lysie ... connect the nuclear envelope (NE) to the cytoskeleton. These complexes have well-established functions in nuclear anchorage and ... Quantification of mitotic timing revealed a delay between NEBD and chromatin separation, indicating a role of SUN proteins in ...
... Neuron. 2005 Dec 22;48(6): ... These observations demonstrate that neurons have a unique requirement for nuclear envelope localized torsinA function and ... contain severely abnormal nuclear membranes, although non-neuronal cell types appear normal. These membrane abnormalities ...
Type B lamins remain associated with the integral nuclear envelope protein p58 during mitosis: implications for nuclear ... integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope known to form a multimeric complex with the lamins and other nuclear proteins ... The implications of these findings in nuclear envelope reassembly are discussed below. ... Our data provide direct, in vivo and in vitro evidence that the majority of type B lamins remain connected to nuclear membrane ...
... is a component of the LINC complex that connects the nuclear lamina with the actin cytoskeleton. To elucidate its physiological ... role we studied wound healing in Nesprin-2 Giant deficient mice and found that a loss of the protein aff … ... a type II transmembrane protein of the nuclear envelope, ... The nuclear envelope protein Nesprin-2 has roles in cell ... a type II transmembrane protein of the nuclear envelope, is a component of the LINC complex that connects the nuclear lamina ...
nuclear envelope. NET. nuclear envelope transmembrane protein. INM. inner nuclear membrane. ONM. outer nuclear membrane. PBMC. ... To identify nuclear envelope proteins that play roles in genome organization, we analyzed nuclear envelopes from resting and ... A total of 3351 proteins were identified between both nuclear envelope data sets among which were 87 putative nuclear envelope ... 2001) Nuclear envelope proteomics: novel integral membrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ...
The nuclear envelope protein Matefin/SUN-1 is required for homologous pairing in C. elegans meiosis. Dev. Cell. 12:873-885. doi ... Membrane proteins Bqt3 and -4 anchor telomeres to the nuclear envelope to ensure chromosomal bouquet formation. Yuji Chikashige ... Transmembrane protein Sun2 is involved in tethering mammalian meiotic telomeres to the nuclear envelope. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... inner nuclear membrane. NE. nuclear envelope. SPB. spindle pole body. TMH. transmembrane helix. ...
Identification of new DNA targets of nuclear envelope proteins in C. elegans using the DamID technique. ... The nuclear envelope (NE) has emerged as an important structure that serves numerous pivotal roles in the cell including ... we have created Caenorhabditis elegans strains containing single copy insertions of Dam fused to NE and nuclear pore proteins ... This method is based on the expression in vivo of chimeric proteins containing an adenine methyltransferase (Dam) from E. coli ...
Nuclear envelope proteomics: novel integral membrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98 ... Importin-alpha-16 is a translocon-associated protein involved in sorting membrane proteins to the nuclear envelope. Nat. Struct ... VP4 accumulated along the nuclear envelope and disrupted the localization of nuclear proteins. VP4 was found to be peripherally ... the lamin proteins are concentrated along the nuclear envelope. VP4 partially colocalized with lamin A/C along the nuclear ...
... membrane protein in the nuclear envelope of turkey erythrocytes that associates with the nuclear intermediate filament protein ... The lamin B receptor of the nuclear envelope inner membrane: a polytopic protein with eight potential transmembrane domains.. H ... The lamin B receptor of the nuclear envelope inner membrane: a polytopic protein with eight potential transmembrane domains. ... The amino terminal region also contains three DNA-binding motifs that are found in gene regulatory proteins and histones, ...
KASH proteins interact with Sad1-UNC-84 (SUN) proteins to transfer forces across the nuclear envelope to position nuclei or ... The inner nuclear membrane protein Sun1 mediates the anchorage of Nesprin-2 to the nuclear envelope. J. Cell Sci. 118, 3419- ... Anchorage of plant RanGAP to the nuclear envelope involves novel nuclear-pore-associated proteins. Curr. Biol. 17, 1157-1163. ... Drosophila klaroid encodes a SUN domain protein required for klarsicht localization to the nuclear envelope and nuclear ...
The inner nuclear membrane protein Lem2 is critical for normal nuclear envelope morphology. FEBS Lett.580:6435-6441. ... The nuclear envelope protein MAN1 regulates TGFbeta signaling and vasculogenesis in the embryonic yolk sac. Development134:1385 ... Nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that are up-regulated during myogenesis. BMC Cell Biol.7:38. ... Integral membrane proteins of the nuclear envelope interact with lamins and chromosomes, and binding is modulated by mitotic ...
Interacting Classes of Nuclear Envelope-Associated Coiled-Coil Proteins Are Required for the Tissue-Specific Nuclear Envelope ... Anchorage of plant RanGAP to the nuclear envelope involves novel nuclear-pore-associated proteins. Curr. Biol. 17: 1157-1163. ... Meier, I. (2000). A novel link between ran signal transduction and nuclear envelope proteins in plants. Plant Physiol. 124: ... The small GTPase Ran is a Ras-related nuclear protein that acts in diverse cellular processes, including nuclear transport, ...
To test whether the structurally abnormal nuclear envelopes affect nuclear function, nuclear protein import and export in sar1- ... While the swollen nuclear envelopes of sar1-1, sec31-1 and pmm1-1 remain intact and competent for nuclear protein import and ... Three proteins required for early steps in the protein secretory pathway also affect nuclear envelope structure and cell cycle ... Three proteins required for early steps in the protein secretory pathway also affect nuclear envelope structure and cell cycle ...
Recombinant Protein and Nuclear envelope morphology protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Nuclear envelope morphology protein 1. Nuclear envelope morphology protein 1 ELISA Kit. Nuclear envelope morphology protein 1 ... Protein Family Nuclear envelope morphology protein. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT CART CONTENTS CHECKOUT ... Nuclear envelope morphology protein 1 Antibody. Essential for the formation of a spherical nucleus and meiotic division. ...
To search for such proteins, 23 nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to promote peripheral ... Depletion of two nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that were preferentially expressed in liver each reduced the normal ... The discovery of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that can modulate chromosome position and have restricted patterns of ... endogenous nuclear envelope proteins that control such a mechanism in mammalian cells have yet to be widely identified. ...
The inner nuclear membrane protein Sun1 mediates the anchorage of Nesprin-2 to the nuclear envelope ... The inner nuclear membrane protein Sun1 mediates the anchorage of Nesprin-2 to the nuclear envelope ... The nuclear envelope (NE) is composed of two lipid bilayers, the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and outer nuclear membrane (ONM ... The SUN protein UNC-84 is required only in force-bearing cells to maintain nuclear envelope architecture Natalie E. Cain, ...
1. Nuclear envelope protein interaction studies. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Nuclear envelope protein ... The function of many nuclear envelope proteins is not well established. This is partly because nuclear envelope proteins and ... Samp1, Nuclear envelope, Nuclear membrane, Crosslinking, CoIP, Protein-protein interaction National Category Chemical Sciences ... 4. Identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions in the nuclear envelope. Open this publication in new ...
The Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Nemp1 Is a New Type of RanGTP-Binding Protein in Eukaryotes.. ...
The encoded protein may anchor this complex to the nuclear envelope. There are multiple related genes and pseudogenes for this ... HCA RNA Cell Line for Nuclear envelope pore membrane protein POM 121. ... This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that localizes to the inner nuclear membrane and forms a core component of the ... Essential component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The repeat-containing domain may be involved in anchoring components of ...
File:Nuclear envelope and its proteins.jpg. From CellBiology. Revision as of 08:22, 25 June 2013 by Z8600021. (talk , contribs) ... Nuclear_envelope_and_its_proteins.jpg ‎(600 × 361 pixels, file size: 56 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ... The Nuclear Envelope and its proteins. Original file name: 1423-0127-16-96-1.jpg ... The nuclear pore complex (NPC) transverses the inner and outer nuclear membranes. INM proteins, including SUN1, LAP2, Emerin, ...
nuclear envelope;. HA,. hemagglutinin;. NES,. nuclear export sequence;. GFP,. green fluorescent protein;. GST,. glutathione S- ... Preparation of Yeast Nuclear Envelopes.. Yeast nuclear envelopes from NUP82-wtD yeast were prepared as described (24) with the ... The large SD suggests that these proteins are located on filamentous structures that are mobile during the nuclear envelope ... RNA but not for classical nuclear localization sequence (NLS)-mediated protein import. This study shows that Nup82, a protein ...
nuclear envelope;. HA,. hemagglutinin;. NES,. nuclear export sequence;. GFP,. green fluorescent protein;. GST,. glutathione S- ... Preparation of Yeast Nuclear Envelopes.. Yeast nuclear envelopes from NUP82-wtD yeast were prepared as described (24) with the ... The cytoplasmic filaments of the nuclear pore complex are dispensable for selective nuclear protein import ... The large SD suggests that these proteins are located on filamentous structures that are mobile during the nuclear envelope ...
The Nuclear Envelope and its proteins== Original file name: 1423-0127-16-96-1.jpg This image is a schematic drawing of the ... The three-layers of NE proteins. The nuclear pore complex (NPC) transverses the inner and outer nuclear membranes. INM proteins ... Nuclear Envelope (NE) showing its composite structures including the outer and inner nuclear membranes and NE proteins and ... View source for File:Nuclear envelope and its proteins.jpg. From CellBiology ...
C. elegans nuclear envelope proteins emerin, MAN1, lamin, and nucleoporins reveal unique timing of nuclear envelope breakdown ... C. elegans nuclear envelope proteins emerin, MAN1, lamin, and nucleoporins reveal unique timing of nuclear envelope breakdown ... C. elegans nuclear envelope proteins emerin, MAN1, lamin, and nucleoporins reveal unique timing of nuclear envelope breakdown ... title = "C. elegans nuclear envelope proteins emerin, MAN1, lamin, and nucleoporins reveal unique timing of nuclear envelope ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS2 encodes a membrane protein localized at the spindle pole body and the nuclear envelope. ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPS2 encodes a membrane protein localized at the spindle pole body and the nuclear envelope. Together ...
  • Communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm takes place at the nuclear envelope, a double membraned structure perforated by large protein channels known as the nuclear pores. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Through these channels the cell is able not only to pass but to concentrate specific proteins inside, or outside, of the nucleus. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Thus, the nucleoskeleton associated with the INMis needed to transmit signals to the nucleus and induce changes in chromatin organisation andultimately gene expression.A novel family of NUCLEAR ENVELOPE ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (NEAPs)proposed to be new components of the plant nucleoskeleton has been recently evidenced inthe model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) 1 is a double membrane system consisting of the intermediate filament nuclear lamin polymer and associated proteins attached to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) ( 1 ), nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) that direct transport of soluble macromolecules in and out of the nucleus ( 2 ), and the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) and associated proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Viral progeny assemble in the nucleus and are released from their host cell by a process that appears to involve the activity of a newly identified later-expressed protein, VP4 ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Klarsicht, ANC-1 and Syne homology (KASH) proteins localize to the outer nuclear membrane where they connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. (biologists.org)
  • Many ONM proteins are involved in connecting forces generated by the cytoskeleton to the nucleus to position nuclei within the cell and to move chromosomes inside the nucleus (reviewed by Starr, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • The KASH-SUN interaction in the perinuclear space forms the central link of a KASH-SUN nuclear envelope bridge that connects structural components of the nucleus (such as lamins or chromatin) to components of the cytoplasm (such as actin or the centrosome). (biologists.org)
  • This is especially important during nuclear positioning, because it allows the cytoskeleton to connect to a structural component of the nucleus rather than a fluid membrane. (biologists.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE), which forms the barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, consists of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and outer nuclear membrane, nuclear pore complexes, and the nuclear lamina. (asm.org)
  • One model posits that mutations in lamina proteins alter the mechanical properties of the lamina, thereby rendering the functional state of the nucleus more sensitive to physical stress. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the arrest seen in sns-A10, sns-B2 and sns-B9 is most likely due to nuclear envelope defects that render the cells unable to re-establish the interphase organization of the nucleus after mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • Although the ER and the nucleus differ in structure, their membranes and lumens are continuous and both are the sites of protein translation ( Gant and Wilson, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm but is perforated with nuclear pore complexes (NPC), through which small molecules and ions freely diffuse and large molecules are selectively transported ( Gant and Wilson, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that localizes to the inner nuclear membrane and forms a core component of the nuclear pore complex, which mediates transport to and from the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • As the nuclear gate, the NPC is vital for regulating the transport of ribonucleoproteins (RNP) and proteins to and from the nucleus and plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of nuclear structure. (pnas.org)
  • The nucleus of eukaryotic cells is a vitally important organelle that sequesters the genetic information of the cell, and protects it with the help of two highly evolved structures, the nuclear envelope (NE) and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). (temple.edu)
  • Furthermore, while the trafficking of soluble proteins between the cytoplasm and the nucleus has been well studied over the years, the path taken by NETs into the nucleus remains in dispute. (temple.edu)
  • My work has also contributed four main biological findings to the field: first, we determined the in vivo translocation rates for lamin-B receptor (LBR), a major INM protein found in the nucleus of cells. (temple.edu)
  • As noticed previously in in vitroCreconstituted nuclei, GSTCLAP2 peptides had Sh3pxd2a been detected through the entire nucleus generally, having a propensity from the anti-GST antibody to decorate the nuclear periphery even more highly (Fig. 7, GST). (achemmic.com)
  • Since the nucleus is the largest cell organelle guiding the process of biological cell life, researchers have focused on seeking out the location(s) in the nucleus of the query protein so as to explore its function. (mdpi.com)
  • The lamina is involved in nuclear structure, gene expression, and association of the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton with the nucleus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It contains an inner (INM) and outer nuclear membrane (ONM) separated by the perinuclear lumenal space and joined at nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), giant supramolecular assemblies that mediate molecular trafficking between the nucleus and the cytosol (reviewed in refs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic and cell biological studies indicate that the nuclear lamina is a structural scaffold that provides mechanical strength to the nucleus and helps to maintain nuclear shape. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lamin B receptor can be found in the membrane that surrounds the nucleus (the nuclear envelope). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The DNA-binding domain of the protein also plays a role in the formation of the nucleus within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The nuclear envelope acts as a signaling node to provide enhanced diversification in cell surface to nucleus signaling in eukaryotic cells, a phenomenon which may be especially important in the highly polarized and elongated neuronal cell. (su.se)
  • The NPCs are responsible for import and export of proteins and RNA molecules in and out of the nucleus. (su.se)
  • The nucleus of this organ-like structure in the cell plasma is surrounded by an outer and an inner nuclear envelope, which is penetrated by openings - so-called nuclear pores. (news-medical.net)
  • They discovered that the inner envelope plays a role in the metabolism of lipids, even storing such substances in the cell nucleus. (news-medical.net)
  • The first suggests that disruption of the inner nuclear membrane and the nuclear lamina causes disorganization of nuclear chromatin and gene expression, while the second proposes that the mechanical strength of the cell nucleus is disrupted when the nuclear lamina is weakened leading to structural and signaling defects in mechanically stressed tissue such as muscle and heart. (medscape.com)
  • The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and separates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear lamina, a meshwork within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton supports the cell as a whole. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of subnuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikibooks.org)
  • The nuclear envelope is a double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. (nature.com)
  • The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. (brainscape.com)
  • Protein localization prediction algorithms failed to identify a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in PYDV nucleocapsid (N) protein, although PYDV-N has been shown to localize exclusively to the nucleus when expressed as a green fluorescent protein (GFP):N fusion in plant cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Additional bimolecular fluorescence complementation showed that the PYDV-N-NLS mutants cannot be ferried into the nucleus via interaction with PYDV-P or -M. In contrast, interaction with N-NLS mutants appeared to retard the nuclear import of PYDV-P. GFP fused to aa 419-434 established that the PYDV-N-NLS can function outside the context of this protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nuclear envelope is a structure that surrounds the nucleus, acting as a barrier between the nucleus and the surrounding fluid (cytoplasm) inside the cell. (nih.gov)
  • The nuclear envelope has several functions, including regulating the movement of molecules into and out of the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these proteins are involved in regulating the activity of certain genes, controlling cell division and chemical signaling, and maintaining the structure and stability of the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • Emerin and related proteins also play a role in assembling the nucleus during the process of cell division. (nih.gov)
  • Typically spherical in shape and taking up 10 percent of the volume of a cell, the nucleus is bounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope (Figures 1 and 2). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The heterochromatin of any given chromosome is found within its territory close to the nuclear envelope (Figure 1), but can often project into the interior of the nucleus as patches and/or surround the nucleolus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Those portions of the DNA that replicate late are found near the nuclear envelope, while earlier-replicating DNA is found in the interior of each territory, projecting into the center of the nucleus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since the outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum it is possible that the inner nuclear membrane proteins are translated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, whereby the proteins move into the nucleus by lateral diffusion through a nuclear pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner surface of the nuclear envelope has a protein lining called the nuclear lamina, which binds to chromatin and other contents of the nucleus . (britannica.com)
  • Each pore is surrounded by an elaborate protein structure called the nuclear pore complex, which selects molecules for entrance into the nucleus. (britannica.com)
  • Nucleus envelope. (abcam.com)
  • The nuclear lamina is a dense (~30 to 100 nm thick) fibrillar network inside the nucleus of most cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next to providing mechanical support to the nucleus, the nuclear lamina plays an essential role in chromatin organization, cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, DNA repair, cell differentiation and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the organization of the genome within the nucleus requires the nuclear envelope (NE) and its associated proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Mechanical perturbations of the nucleus normally occur during nuclear positioning and migration. (mdpi.com)
  • KANSAS CITY, MO-Researchers at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research have glimpsed two proteins working together inside living cells to facilitate communication between the cell's nucleus and its exterior compartment, the cytoplasm. (stowers.org)
  • These properties, together with the fact that NXT1 shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, suggest an active role in nuclear transport. (asm.org)
  • Protein and RNA transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm occurs through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), elaborate proteinaceous channels that span the double-membrane system of the nuclear envelope ( 8 , 18 , 26 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • The export of mRNA from the nucleus is also thought to be receptor mediated and dependent on Ran-GTP, but the specific contributions of transport factors to this pathway are much less clear than for protein export. (asm.org)
  • Nucleus Place where ribosomes begin to be assembled from RNA and proteins. (prezi.com)
  • Their aim is to thus provide clues towards a better understanding of mutations in proteins of the envelope of the cell nucleus in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • The nucleus gives the signal to the cell to grow, divide or make proteins. (reference.com)
  • A nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus, allowing only certain substances to enter and exit. (reference.com)
  • The nucleus contains a center called the nucleolus, which is a spherical structure that assembles the ribosomes, the protein-making factories of the cell. (reference.com)
  • The DNA, the molecule that holds the secret code to making proteins, is contained within the nucleus. (reference.com)
  • A total of 3351 proteins were identified between both nuclear envelope data sets among which were 87 putative nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that were not identified in a previous proteomics analysis of liver nuclear envelopes. (mcponline.org)
  • Lamins and an increasing number of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) have been linked to a similarly increasing number of diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to neuropathy, dermopathy, lipodystrophy, bone disorders, and progeroid aging syndromes ( 5 , 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The ER lumen and perinuclear space between the ONM and INM is continuous as well, allowing soluble proteins to diffuse between the ER lumen and perinuclear space, and transmembrane proteins to diffuse between the ONM and ER. (biologists.org)
  • The INM connects to the ONM at nuclear pore complexes, allowing transmembrane proteins to be targeted to the INM. (biologists.org)
  • SUN proteins are type II transmembrane proteins that localize to the INM (reviewed by Starr, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • The lamina is a meshwork of intermediate type filament proteins (lamins A/C, B1, and B2) associated with numerous transmembrane proteins of the INM. (asm.org)
  • The transmembrane proteins of the INM include emerin, MAN1, and NET25, the main subjects of this study. (asm.org)
  • To search for such proteins, 23 nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to promote peripheral localization of human chromosomes in HT1080 fibroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Depletion of two nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that were preferentially expressed in liver each reduced the normal peripheral positioning of chromosome 5 in liver cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The discovery of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that can modulate chromosome position and have restricted patterns of expression may enable dissection of the functional relevance of tissue-specific patterns of radial chromosome positioning. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To identify other NE factors, 22 novel NE transmembrane proteins (NETs) [ 29 ] and emerin were screened for their ability to contribute to chromosome positioning patterns in human cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The INM contains more than 100 unique transmembrane proteins of which only a few have been characterized. (diva-portal.org)
  • NE transmembrane proteins (NETs) embedded in either the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) or the inner nuclear membrane (INM) play crucial roles in both nuclear structure and functions, including: genome architecture, epigenetics, transcription, splicing, DNA replication, nuclear structure, organization and positioning. (temple.edu)
  • At least four distinct models have been proposed to suggest how transmembrane proteins destined for the INM cross the NE through NPC-dependent or NPC-independent mechanisms, based on specific features found on the soluble domains of INM proteins. (temple.edu)
  • The nuclear lamina is a protein meshwork lining the inner nuclear membrane, which contains a polymer of nuclear lamins associated with transmembrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously identified a group of 67 novel putative nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) in a large-scale proteomics analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, INM is lined by the nuclear lamina, a meshwork containing a polymer of the lamin intermediate filament proteins as well as other more minor polypeptides, including transmembrane proteins concentrated at the INM (reviewed in refs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Whereas laminopathies most frequently are caused by mutations in the gene for lamins A/C, human disorders also can arise from mutations in certain transmembrane proteins of the INM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The INM has been estimated to contain nearly a hundred unique transmembrane proteins, of which the large majority is still not characterized. (su.se)
  • On the nuclear side the LINC complex interacts with transmembrane proteins of the INM and the nuclear lamina, which may in turn respond by directly or indirectly change chromatin organization and gene activity and or sequester transcription factors. (su.se)
  • The NE is composed of two membranes: on the nucleoplasmic side,the Inner Nuclear Membrane (INM) and on the cytoplasmic side, the Outer NuclearMembrane. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • SUN proteins facilitate the removal of membranes from chromatin during nuclear envelope breakdown. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here we show that neurons from both torsinA null (Tor1a(-/-)) and homozygous disease mutant "knockin" mice (Tor1a(Deltagag/Deltagag)) contain severely abnormal nuclear membranes, although non-neuronal cell types appear normal. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, nuclear envelopes were isolated from leukocytes in the two states and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology using an approach that used expected contaminating membranes as subtractive fractions. (mcponline.org)
  • We found that in the absence of Bqt4, telomeres failed to associate with the nuclear membranes in vegetative cells and consequently failed to cluster to the SPB in meiotic prophase. (rupress.org)
  • and (iii) disruption of the nuclear, red blood cell, or host cell membranes. (asm.org)
  • A growing number of viruses have been shown to produce small viral membrane proteins termed viroporins that modulate the permeability of membranes to ions or small molecules ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) consists of two evenly spaced bilayers, the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (rupress.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) separating the nucleoplasm from cytoplasm consists of two concentric lipid membranes, the outer (ONM) and inner (INM) nuclear membranes, the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and an underlying nuclear lamina network. (diva-portal.org)
  • This image is a schematic drawing of the Nuclear Envelope (NE) showing its composite structures including the outer and inner nuclear membranes and NE proteins and their associations with surrounding nuclear and cytoplasmic elements including the lamina, microtubules and actin. (edu.au)
  • It particularly depicts the three-layers of NE proteins which include the nuclear pore complex (NPC) that spans both membranes and inner nuclear membrane proteins (SUN1, LAP2, Emerin, MAN1 and LBR)that interact with the underlying lamina. (edu.au)
  • The nuclear pore complex (NPC) transverses the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (edu.au)
  • The Nuclear Envelope and its proteins== Original file name: 1423-0127-16-96-1.jpg This image is a schematic drawing of the Nuclear Envelope (NE) showing its composite structures including the outer and inner nuclear membranes and NE proteins and their associations with surrounding nuclear and cytoplasmic elements. (edu.au)
  • The nuclear membranes remained intact everywhere except near spindle poles during metaphase and early anaphase, fully disassembling only during mid-late anaphase. (elsevier.com)
  • SUN (Sad1 and UNC-84 ) and KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1 , and Syne homology) proteins are constituents of the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, the 3 NETs that we could analyze by immunoblotting were highly enriched in nuclear envelopes relative to microsomal membranes purified from mouse liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) that surrounds the genetic material in eukaryotic cells (Fig.1) consists of two concentric membranes, the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and outer nuclear membranes (ONM), the nuclear lamina, the nuclear pores and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). (su.se)
  • In addition, a whole new concept in cell signaling bypassing the nuclear pores is provided by the recently discovered LINC complexes (Fig.1), which are built up by specific proteins in the inner and outer nuclear membranes. (su.se)
  • In higher plants, chloroplasts are delineated by an envelope made of two membranes, the outer and the inner envelope membrane, OEM and IEM, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the lip of each pore, the inner and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope are continuous. (brainscape.com)
  • Structurally, the ONM is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is studded with ribosomes ( 3 ), yet it also contains unique proteins, many of which connect the cytoskeleton to the NE ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The ONM, INM and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) all form a single continuous membranous structure, but each is specialized and enriched with specific proteins. (biologists.org)
  • The three sns mutants accumulate a normally secreted protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), have an increased amount of ER membrane, and the ER/nuclear envelope lumen is dilated. (biologists.org)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the cytoplasmic organelle where the early steps of the protein secretory pathway are localized. (biologists.org)
  • 60 MDa in yeast ( 2 )] spanning the nuclear envelope (NE), a double membrane whose lumen is continuous with the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The outer nuclear envelope is also connected to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), another organelle. (news-medical.net)
  • The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and is the site of membrane protein synthesis. (nature.com)
  • Protein homeostasis in this compartment is ensured by endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathways that in yeast involve the integral membrane E3 ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 and Doa10 operating with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 (refs 2 , 3 ). (nature.com)
  • Zattas, D. & Hochstrasser, M. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation at the yeast endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope. (nature.com)
  • The outside surface of the envelope is directly connected to the endoplasmic reticulum of the cytoplasm and is surrounded by a network of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The nuclear lamina is associated with the inner face of the double bilayer nuclear envelope, whereas the outer face is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the nucleoplasmic and perinuclear localization of the Ca 2+ spiking, cisterns of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the nuclear envelope are likely to be the corresponding Ca 2+ stores ( Oldroyd and Downie, 2006 ). (plantcell.org)
  • p58 (also referred to as the lamin B receptor) is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope known to form a multimeric complex with the lamins and other nuclear proteins during interphase. (nih.gov)
  • The lamin B receptor is a previously identified integral membrane protein in the nuclear envelope of turkey erythrocytes that associates with the nuclear intermediate filament protein lamin B (Worman, H. J., J. Yuan, G. Blobel, and S. D. Georgatos. (rupress.org)
  • Neither a post-ER block in the secretory pathway, nor ER proliferation caused by overexpression of an integral ER membrane protein, results in a cell cycle-specific defect. (biologists.org)
  • We have developed a novel method, MCLIP ( Membrane protein Cross-Link ImmunoPrecipitation ), which takes advantage of a cell permeable crosslinker to enable effective detection and analysis of specific interactions of NE proteins in live cells using Western blot. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using MCLIP we show that, in U2OS cells, the integral inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1 interacts with Lamin B1, the LINC (Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex protein, Sun1 and the soluble small GTPase Ran. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have established a reversible in vivo crosslinking immunoprecipitation method called, MCLIP (Membrane protein Cross-Link ImmunoPrecipitation) to overcome this problem. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Inner Nuclear Membrane Protein Nemp1 Is a New Type of RanGTP-Binding Protein in Eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • A second complex found on both sides of the NPC and connected to the above one contains Nup188, Nic96, and the pore membrane protein, Pom152 ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Multiple and surprising new functions for emerin, a nuclear membrane protein. (medscape.com)
  • Asi1 is an inner nuclear membrane protein that restricts promoter access of two latent transcription factors. (nature.com)
  • We report that transcription of the core clock component BMAL1 is positively modulated by the inner nuclear membrane protein MAN1, which directly binds the BMAL1 promoter and enhances its transcription. (philpapers.org)
  • Even more recently, the importance of membrane protein dynamics, formation of supercomplexes and organisation within microbial (inner membrane) or mitochondrial cristae has been highlighted. (biochemistry.org)
  • SUN proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and form complexes with KASH proteins of the outer nuclear membrane that connect the nuclear envelope (NE) to the cytoskeleton. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These complexes have well-established functions in nuclear anchorage and migration in interphase, but little is known about their involvement in mitotic processes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, recent studies have shown that there is also actively transcribed chromatin at the NE, specially associated with the nuclear pore complexes. (csic.es)
  • The Sad1p and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins and Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) proteins that interact to form LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complexes connecting the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton have been implicated in maintaining NE spacing. (rupress.org)
  • These complexes comprise two conserved protein families: SUN (sad1 and UNC-84 ) and KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1 and SYNE homology). (genetics.org)
  • Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are ∼100 MDa transport channels assembled from multiple copies of ∼30 nucleoporins (Nups). (mit.edu)
  • 2005). However, a whole new concept is provided by the recently discovered LINC complexes, which can mediate direct mechanical transduction of signals from the cytoskeleton to the nuclear interior bypassing the nuclear pores. (su.se)
  • Following this evaluation, proteomic analyzes should be refined and the putative role of inter-membrane space components stabilizing trans-envelope complexes demonstrated. (frontiersin.org)
  • For future comprehensive studies, perspectives include the dynamic analyses of OEM proteins and IEM-OEM complexes in various physiological contexts and using virtually any other purified membrane organelle. (frontiersin.org)
  • The conference programme will focus on the ever-growing developments and applications of structural mass spectrometry of membrane proteins and their complexes, as well as new advancements and technological developments in mass spectrometry. (biochemistry.org)
  • An intricate protein structure called a pore complex lines each pore and plays an important role in the cell by regulating the entry and exit of proteins and RNAs, as well as large complexes of macromolecules. (brainscape.com)
  • INM proteins also aid in organization of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Current opinion is that INM proteins synthesised in the cytoplasm are transported to the INM through nuclear pore complexes (NPC). (wikipedia.org)
  • These molecules have special amino acid sequences on their surface that signal admittance by the nuclear pore complexes. (britannica.com)
  • Additionally, it participates in chromatin organization and it anchors the nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the onset of mitosis (prophase, prometaphase), the cellular machinery is engaged in the disassembly of various cellular components including structures such as the nuclear envelope, the nuclear lamina and the nuclear pore complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assembly and disassembly reactions of receptor-substrate complexes are coordinated by Ran, a GTP-binding protein whose nucleotide state is regulated catalytically by effector proteins. (asm.org)
  • The best-understood functions of Ran in nuclear transport are assembly and disassembly reactions of transport complexes. (asm.org)
  • The researchers hope that through further laboratory experimentation with the worm they will be able to better understand the functions of lamin-based complexes, and why mutations in these proteins cause a variety of different laminopathic diseases, such as progeria and muscular dystrophy in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using the MosSCI technique, we have created Caenorhabditis elegans strains containing single copy insertions of Dam fused to NE and nuclear pore proteins such as emerin/EMR-1, lamin/LMN-1 and Nup98/NPP-10N. (csic.es)
  • NET25 and MAN1 share an ∼40-residue LEM homology domain with emerin, the protein mutated in X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. (asm.org)
  • Autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) ( 5 ), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B ( 29 ), and dilated cardiomyopathy (see reference 36 and references therein) are caused by certain mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding lamins A/C. The X-linked form of EDMD results from mutations in EMD, which encodes the lamin A-binding transmembrane protein emerin ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Emerin, LAP2 and MAN1 harbor a LEM domain which interacts with BAF (barrier-to-autointegration factor), a chromatin-binding protein. (edu.au)
  • Emerin, MAN1, and LAP2 are integral membrane proteins of the vertebrate nuclear envelope. (elsevier.com)
  • Ce-emerin and Ce-MAN1 migrate on SDS-PAGE as 17- and 52-kDa proteins, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on their biochemical extraction properties and immunolocalization, both Ce-emerin and Ce-MAN1 are integral membrane proteins localized at the nuclear envelope. (elsevier.com)
  • We used antibodies against Ce-MAN1, Ce-emerin, nucleoporins, and Ce-lamin to determine the timing of nuclear envelope breakdown during mitosis in C. elegans. (elsevier.com)
  • Ellis JA, Yates JR, Kendrick-Jones J, Brown CA. Changes at P183 of emerin weaken its protein-protein interactions resulting in X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. (medscape.com)
  • This complex includes nuclear membrane integral and associated proteins including emerin, lamin A/C, SUN1, SUN2, nesprin-1, and nesprin-2 that are proposed to form a mechanical link between the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. (medscape.com)
  • EDMD1 is caused by mutations in the EMD gene on the X chromosome that codes for the nuclear envelope protein emerin. (medscape.com)
  • Emerin is a ubiquitous inner nuclear membraneprotein, presentin nearly all cell types, although its highest expression is in skeletal and cardiacmuscle.Emerin binds to many nuclear proteins, including several gene-regulatory proteins (eg, barrier-to-autointegration factor, germ cell-less, Btf), nesprins (proteins that act as molecular scaffolds), F-actin, and lamins. (medscape.com)
  • They bind to structural components (emerin, nesprin), chromatin components (histone), signal transduction molecules (protein kinase C), and several gene regulatory molecules. (medscape.com)
  • Lastly, mutations in the transmembrane protein 43 (TMEM43), also termed LUMA, which binds to emerin and SUN2, has also been reported to cause an EDMD phenotype in a few families. (medscape.com)
  • The EMD gene provides instructions for making a protein called emerin. (nih.gov)
  • Within cells, emerin is a component of the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • Emerin interacts with several other proteins on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • Almost all of the EMD gene mutations prevent cells from producing any emerin protein. (nih.gov)
  • Studies suggest, however, that an absence of emerin could disrupt the functions of other proteins in the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • In rare cases, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy results from EMD mutations that change a single building block (amino acid) in the emerin protein. (nih.gov)
  • These mutations lead to the production of an abnormal version of emerin that is unable to interact with other proteins or cannot be correctly inserted into the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • The nuclear envelope LEM-domain protein emerin. (nih.gov)
  • The Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy phenotype arises from aberrant targeting and binding of emerin at the inner nuclear membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Among the few well-characterized INM proteins are lamin B receptor (LBR), lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1), lamina-associated polypeptide-2 (LAP2), emerin and MAN1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins containing the LEM domain, such as emerin, LAP2β and MAN1, seem to have a number of roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimenting with removal of the worm's lamin protein or its interacting protein partners emerin, MAN1 or BAF, the researchers have described "down-the-line" consequences, including the disruption of various proteins necessary for normal cell reproduction. (innovations-report.com)
  • Type B lamins remain associated with the integral nuclear envelope protein p58 during mitosis: implications for nuclear reassembly. (nih.gov)
  • Our data provide direct, in vivo and in vitro evidence that the majority of type B lamins remain connected to nuclear membrane 'receptors' during mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • On the other side, lamins and many INM proteins directly connect chromatin to the NE. (mcponline.org)
  • Lamins are critical for nuclear structure, forming a lattice that anchors the nuclear pores and the chromatin to the NE ( Gant and Wilson, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • However, neither lamins nor other structural elements that affect nuclear organization or the changes in nuclear structure associated with the entry and exit of cells from mitosis have been identified in yeast. (biologists.org)
  • Some work has been done indicating components that may be involved from the chromatin side, but the only proteins implicated from the NE thus far are lamins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lamins are a group of proteins in a residual nuclear envelope fraction derived from the nuclear lamina. (vcu.edu)
  • Initial studies reported in this work involved the enzymic cleavage of isolated lamins A and B and another lamina protein with a molecular weight of 61,000-daltons. (vcu.edu)
  • The topography of the lamins in the isolated nuclear envelope has been examined. (vcu.edu)
  • The lamins are a group of nuclear envelope proteins thought to form a structural layer at the nuclear periphery. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Lamins are type V intermediate filaments and represent the major constituent of the nuclear lamina. (uni-leipzig.de)
  • Nuclear lamins and proteins of the INM have been genetically linked to a diverse group of diseases collectively termed "laminopathies", which include muscular and lipid dystrophies, neurological disorders and progeria (premature aging). (su.se)
  • Closing the (Nuclear) Envelope on the Genome: How Nuclear Lamins Interact with Promoters and Modulate Gene Expression. (philpapers.org)
  • Lamins and chromatin found at the nuclear envelope are organised with the assistance of proteins embedded in the INM. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear lamina consists of two components, lamins and nuclear lamin-associated membrane proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • After phosphorylation by cyclin B/Cdk1, the nuclear lamina depolymerises and B-type lamins stay associated with the fragments of the nuclear envelope whereas A-type lamins remain completely soluble throughout the remainder of the mitotic phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myotonic dystrophy 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by a triplet nucleotide repeat expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the gene coding for myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). (uniprot.org)
  • DMPK is a nuclear envelope (NE) protein that promotes myogenic gene expression in skeletal myoblasts. (uniprot.org)
  • Muscular dystrophy research has revealed the NE to be a key determinant of nuclear structure, gene regulation, and muscle function. (uniprot.org)
  • AtNEAP proteins are encoded by a small gene familycomposed of three genes and are targeted through a nuclear localisation signal to the nucleuswhere they are anchored at the INM through their C-terminal transmembrane domain.AtNEAPs also possess several long coiled-coil domains reminiscent of the lamin structure inanimals. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Through this activity Nesprin-2 can affect the nuclear landscape and gene regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings suggest functions for Nesprin-2 at the nuclear envelope (NE) in gene regulation and in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton which impact on wound healing. (nih.gov)
  • A favored hypothesis to explain the pathology underlying nuclear envelopathies is that mutations in nuclear envelope proteins alter genome/chromatin organization and thus gene expression. (mcponline.org)
  • Several known proteins identified in both data sets have functions in chromatin organization and gene regulation. (mcponline.org)
  • One screen found two NETs that can recruit a specific gene locus to the nuclear periphery, and the second found a different NET that promotes chromatin condensation. (mcponline.org)
  • The variation in the protein milieu with pharmacological activation of the same cell population and consequences for gene regulation suggest that the nuclear envelope is a complex regulatory system with significant influences on genome organization. (mcponline.org)
  • A favored hypothesis to explain how different NE proteins can produce such a wide range of disease pathologies is that chromatin-NE connections are disrupted with NE protein mutations, yielding changes in gene regulation. (mcponline.org)
  • Furthermore, many binding partners have been identified for NETs that are either chromatin proteins, enzymes that modify chromatin proteins, or regulators of gene expression ( 1 , 11 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) has emerged as an important structure that serves numerous pivotal roles in the cell including compartmentalization, control of nuclear position and morphology, contribution to cell stability, chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. (csic.es)
  • The amino terminal region also contains three DNA-binding motifs that are found in gene regulatory proteins and histones, suggesting that the lamin B receptor may additionally play a role in gene regulation and/or chromatin organization. (rupress.org)
  • Mutations in the laminA/C gene as well as in other nuclear envelope associated proteins lead to a series of human genetic disorders, so-called laminopathies. (uni-leipzig.de)
  • This gene encodes a LEM domain-containing transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane. (genecards.org)
  • LEMD2 (LEM Domain Nuclear Envelope Protein 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a spectrin repeat containing protein expressed in skeletal and smooth muscle, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, that localizes to the nuclear membrane. (genecards.org)
  • SYNE1 (Spectrin Repeat Containing Nuclear Envelope Protein 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The SYNE1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called Syne-1 that is found in many tissues, but it seems to be especially critical in the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four and a half LIM protein 1 gene mutations cause four distinct human myopathies: a comprehensive review of the clinical, histological and pathological features. (medscape.com)
  • The LBR gene provides instructions for making a protein called the lamin B receptor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some LBR gene mutations that cause Greenberg dysplasia change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the sterol reductase domain of the lamin B receptor, which leads to the loss of sterol reductase activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • LMNA gene and protein expression was investigated in eight different mutation carriers by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and protein mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
  • In 5 of 6 gene mutations that have been shown to cause EDMD, the affected protein is present in the LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex. (medscape.com)
  • New mutations have been found in the synaptic nuclear envelope protein 1 ( SYNE1 ) gene and in the synaptic nuclear envelope protein 2 ( SYNE2 ) gene in a few families, also termed Nesprin-1 and Nesprin-2, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Nuclear transport is crucial to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (wikibooks.org)
  • The inner nuclear membrane (INM) functions in essential nuclear processes including chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression 1 . (nature.com)
  • In recent decades, the nuclear envelope has emerged as a global gene regulatory machine, although its role in circadian regulation has not been explored. (philpapers.org)
  • and help to repress gene expression, both by tethering specific genomic regions to the nuclear periphery, and by interaction with histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nucleotide sequence sufficient to encode one protein is called a gene . (britannica.com)
  • KASH proteins interact with Sad1-UNC-84 (SUN) proteins to transfer forces across the nuclear envelope to position nuclei or move chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Fission yeast cells in which Ran is misregulated arrest after mitosis with condensed, unreplicated chromosomes and abnormal nuclear envelopes. (biologists.org)
  • Although ectopic affinity-tethering of specific loci can be used to relocate chromosomes to the nuclear periphery, endogenous nuclear envelope proteins that control such a mechanism in mammalian cells have yet to be widely identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Five of these proteins had strong effects on chromosome 5, but individual proteins affected different subsets of chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, they do not explain how in some tissues particular chromosomes reposition to the nuclear periphery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another region of the lamin B receptor, called the DNA-binding domain, attaches (binds) to chromatin, the complex of DNA and proteins that packages DNA into chromosomes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It contains most of the cell's genetic material (DNA), organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikibooks.org)
  • The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome. (wikibooks.org)
  • Every time a cell divides, the nuclear envelope must break down to release the recently duplicated chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The nucleoplasmic domains of such proteins can interact with chromatin to create a scaffold and restrict the conformation of chromosomes within three dimensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nuclear breakdown is necessary to allow the mitotic spindle to interact with the (condensed) chromosomes and to bind them at their kinetochores. (wikipedia.org)
  • During evolution, eukaryotic cells have acquired a nuclear envelope (NE) enclosingand protecting the genome, which is organized in chromatin, a structure wrapping DNAaround histone proteins. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • To identify nuclear envelope proteins that play roles in genome organization, we analyzed nuclear envelopes from resting and phytohemagglutinin-activated leukocytes because leukocytes have a particularly high density of peripheral chromatin that undergoes significant reorganization upon such activation. (mcponline.org)
  • We have confirmed the correct expression and localization of our fusion proteins and we are currently analyzing DNA binding sites using whole-genome tiling arrays and qPCR. (csic.es)
  • Since the sequencing of the simian virus 40 (SV40) viral genome over 30 years ago, it has served as a model to explore fundamental processes including nuclear import, cell transformation, and virus structure ( 24 , 29 , 33 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • After infection and replication of the viral genome, the late viral proteins are synthesized, including the minor structural proteins VP2 and VP3, which are produced from successive in-frame Met residues. (asm.org)
  • Debate Anchoring from the INM to chromatin This research provides evidence for the novel direct connections from the NE using the genome, via the INM proteins LAP2 as well as the chromatin- and nuclear matrixCassociated proteins HA95. (achemmic.com)
  • The HBV virion consists of a DNA genome enclosed within an icosahedral capsid, in turn enclosed within a lipoprotein envelope. (nih.gov)
  • Using unbiased screening with a novel genome-wide yeast library based on a tandem fluorescent protein timer 5 , we identify more than 50 substrates of the Asi, Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ubiquitin ligases. (nature.com)
  • The non-random organization of the genome strongly suggests that the nuclear lamina plays a role in chromatin organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progress in our understanding is being made rapidly as advances in analysing the nuclear and organellar genome and proteome combine with developments in live-cell microscopy and manipulation at the subcellular level. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • IN eukaryotic cells, the nuclear envelope (NE) forms a barrier between nuclear contents and the cytoplasm. (genetics.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis Elegans SUN Protein UNC-84 Interacts with Lamin to Transfer Forces From the Cytoplasm to the Nucleoskeleton During Nuclear Migration. (philpapers.org)
  • in the cytoplasm, the cytoplasmic ER, or the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in genes encoding NE proteins have been causally linked to a host of human diseases (reviewed in reference 43 ). (asm.org)
  • Proper interaction of chromatin with the nuclear envelope may play a role in several important cellular functions such as making new copies of DNA (replication), controlling the activity of genes, and regulating programmed cell death (apoptosis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The vast majority of plastid proteins are encoded by nuclear genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the nuclear scaffold places limits on what genes can and can not be expressed within a given cell and, hence, may serve a basis for cell identity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes are interspersed along the DNA molecule with other sequences that do not encode proteins. (britannica.com)
  • The cytoplasmic Ran GTPase activating protein RanGAP is critical to establish a functional RanGTP/RanGDP gradient across the NE and is associated with the outer surface of the NE in metazoan and higher plant cells. (plantcell.org)
  • We sublocalized the yeast nucleoporin Nup82 to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) by immunoelectron microscopy. (pnas.org)
  • The nucleoporins Nsp1 ( 10 ) and Nic96 (Michael P. Rout, personal communication), which are found in a complex with Nup49 ( 11 , 12 ), and Nup57 ( 13 ) have been localized to the cytoplasmic and nuclear sides of the NPC, so presumably this entire complex is found on both sides of the NPC. (pnas.org)
  • This study shows that Nup82, a protein required for poly(A) + RNA export ( 18 , 19 ), also is located on the cytoplasmic face of the NPC and interacts physically with Nup159. (pnas.org)
  • The cytoplasmic region of KASH-domain proteins can interact with various cytoskeletal elements and associated motor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Omnus, D. J. & Ljungdahl, P. O. Latency of transcription factor Stp1 depends on a modular regulatory motif that functions as cytoplasmic retention determinant and nuclear degron. (nature.com)
  • Similarly, messenger RNAs (mRNA) are synthesized, packaged, and subsequently transported to the cytoplasmic ribosomes, where they are translated into protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Type V intermediate filaments differ from cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in the way that they have an extended rod domain (42 amino acid longer), that they all carry a nuclear localization signal (NLS) at their C-terminus and that they display typical tertiary structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) have revealed unexpected functions of cytoplasmic microtubules in nuclear architecture and chromosome behavior, and have pointed to NE-chromatin tethers as protective elements during nuclear mechanics. (mdpi.com)
  • Because RCC1 is nuclear and RanGAP is cytoplasmic, a steep gradient of Ran-GTP/Ran-GDP is predicted to exist across the nuclear envelope ( 11 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Evidence for this model has been obtained by analysis of cross-linked fragments from a mild trypsin digestion of oxidized lamina proteins. (vcu.edu)
  • A further study involved a high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoretic system for separating the lamina proteins. (vcu.edu)
  • We 1st assessed if the distribution of INM and lamina proteins was modified in the injected nuclei. (achemmic.com)
  • Because mutations in lamina proteins have been linked to several human diseases affecting skeletal muscle, we examined NET expression during differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that nuclear lamina proteins lamin A/C are often absent (47%) in ovarian cancer cells and tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The NE allows communication between both compartments through Nuclear PoreComplexes and bridges the cytoskeleton to the nucleoskeleton through the LInker ofNucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton complex. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Nesprin-2, a type II transmembrane protein of the nuclear envelope, is a component of the LINC complex that connects the nuclear lamina with the actin cytoskeleton. (nih.gov)
  • The outer nuclear membrane (ONM) communicates and interacts with components of the cytoskeleton to control nuclear positioning and structure. (biologists.org)
  • and second, structural connections between the INM and ONM must be formed to transfer forces between the cytoskeleton and the nuclear lamina. (biologists.org)
  • They interact in the perinuclear space via C-terminal SUN-KASH domains to form the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex thereby bridging the nuclear envelope. (genetics.org)
  • Multi-isomeric modular protein which forms a linking network between organelles and the actin cytoskeleton to maintain the subcellular spatial organization. (genecards.org)
  • As a component of the LINC (LInker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complex involved in the connection between the nuclear lamina and the cytoskeleton. (genecards.org)
  • The protein is thought to attach the membrane of Purkinje cells to the actin cytoskeleton, which is a network of fibers that make up the cell's structural framework. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These direct links across the NE that connect the cytoskeleton with the nuclear interior are believed to mediate mechanical signals from the cell surface to the nuclear interior. (su.se)
  • The physical properties of the NE and the linkage of chromatin in compacted conformation at sites of cytoskeleton contacts seem to be key for withstanding nuclear mechanical stress. (mdpi.com)
  • Directing nuclear deformation on micropillared surfaces by substrate geometry and cytoskeleton organization. (springer.com)
  • We propose that during mammalian prophase I the kinase CDK2 is a key factor governing the structure of the nuclear envelope and the telomere-led chromosome movements essential for homolog pairing. (nih.gov)
  • Journal Article] The perichromosomal protein Ki67 supports mitotic chromosome architecture. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Each chromosome is specifically anchored through its telomeres to a discrete place on the nuclear envelope by the proteins of the nuclear lamina. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The nuclear envelope (NE) is composed of two lipid bilayers, the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and outer nuclear membrane (ONM). (rupress.org)
  • It consists of the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and outer nuclear membrane (ONM), which are connected with the ER. (genetics.org)
  • Up until now, scientists assumed that only the ER and the outer nuclear envelope were involved in the cell's lipid metabolism and that the inner envelope obtained its lipids exclusively through the nuclear pores. (news-medical.net)
  • It is therefore not merely an extension of the outer envelope and the ER but has its own unique functionality. (news-medical.net)
  • We sought a method providing information at the surface of the outer envelope membrane (OEM), based on specific tagging with biotin or proteolysis using thermolysin, a non-membrane permeable protease. (frontiersin.org)
  • and T4, which binds a reinforcement protein to the outer surface of the mature capsid. (nih.gov)
  • The nuclear envelope is a double membrane composed of an outer and an inner phospholipid bilayer. (britannica.com)
  • These results indicate that VP4 forms pores in the nuclear membrane leading to lysis and virus release. (asm.org)
  • The ONM is continuous with the ER membrane, and the INM and ONM are connected to each other at nuclear pores. (rupress.org)
  • Signals from the cell surface may reach the nuclear interior via import of signaling proteins through the nuclear pores (Arabi et al. (su.se)
  • Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to most molecules, nuclear pores are required to allow movement of molecules across the envelope. (wikibooks.org)
  • Most material passes in and out of the nuclear envelope through large openings called the nuclear pores. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The entire envelope is perforated by numerous nuclear pores. (britannica.com)
  • Histones and other large proteins must also pass through the pores. (britannica.com)
  • Second, we verified the existence of peripheral channels in the scaffolding of NPCs and, for the first time, directly observed the transit of INM proteins through these channels in live cells. (temple.edu)
  • We have previously shown that the mouse heterochromatin protein 1 homologue M31 interacts dynamically with the nuclear envelope. (edu.kz)
  • Before birth, cholesterol interacts with signaling proteins that control early development of the brain, limbs, genitals, and other structures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Interacts with mungbean yellow mosaic virus capsid protein. (rcsb.org)
  • PuF, an Antimetastatic and Developmental Signaling Protein, Interacts with the Alzheimer's Amyloid-Beta Precursor Protein Via a Tissue-Specific Proximal Regulatory Element. (philpapers.org)
  • Purification and characterization of two basic spermatid-specific proteins isolated from the dog-fish Scylliorhinus caniculus. (springer.com)
  • Specificity of human Nesprin 2 antibody verified on a Protein Array containing target protein plus 383 other non-specific proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Specificity of human, mouse Lamin B Receptor antibody verified on a Protein Array containing target protein plus 383 other non-specific proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • In the present report, we use cell fractionation and antibodies against the lamin B receptor to localize it to an 8-M urea-extracted membrane fraction of chicken liver nuclei, supporting an inner nuclear membrane localization. (rupress.org)
  • Surprisingly, the NE morphology of most Caenorhabditis elegans nuclei was normal in the absence of functional SUN proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Distortions of the perinuclear space observed in unc-84 mutant muscle nuclei resembled those previously observed in HeLa cells, suggesting that SUN proteins are required to maintain NE architecture in cells under high mechanical strain. (rupress.org)
  • Characterization of the ususual basic proteins of cricket spermatid nuclei on the basis of their molecular weights and amino acid compositions. (springer.com)
  • In this regard, the N protein-mediated transport of nucleocapsids parallels the role of VirE2 in the transfer of transfer DNA (T-DNA) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to nuclei of plant cells to which it is attached. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chromatin dynamics in interphase nuclei and its implications for nuclear structure. (springer.com)
  • As indicated by depletion and order-of-addition experiments, the inhibitory activity co-isolates with a 55-kDa protein, which binds avidly to the nuclear envelope and presumably blocks M31-binding sites. (edu.kz)
  • In contrast to NTF2, NXT1 preferentially binds Ran-GTP, and it colocalizes with the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
  • Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase is critical for nuclear envelope integrity. (uniprot.org)
  • We have determined by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy that the ablation of the kinase CDK2 alters the nuclear envelope in mouse spermatocytes, and that the proteins SUN1, KASH5 (also known as CCDC155) and lamin C2 show an abnormal cap-like distribution facing the centrosome. (nih.gov)
  • Preceding the first putative transmembrane segment is a highly charged 204-residue-long amino terminal region that contains two consensus sites for phosphorylation by protein kinase A. Since the lamin B receptor has been shown to be phosphorylated by protein kinase A in vitro and in vivo and this phosphorylation affects lamin B binding (Applebaum, J., G. Blobel, and S. D. Georgatos. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and transforming growth factor β signaling is required to rescue differentiation after MAN1 depletion. (asm.org)
  • This is followed by the fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes and the expression of characteristic muscle proteins, like muscle creatine kinase and the skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MyHC) (reviewed in reference 8 ). (asm.org)
  • These different disassembly events are initiated by the cyclin B/Cdk1 protein kinase complex (MPF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of serine 119 in the proto-oncogenic Serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 modulates its activity as a splicing enhancer protein. (uio.no)
  • Protein kinase A type I activates a CRE-element more efficiently than protein kinase A type II regardless of C subunit isoform. (uio.no)
  • Inactive forms of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A are expressed in the brain of higher primates. (uio.no)
  • Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing. (uio.no)
  • Protein kinase A (PKA) - A potential target for therapeutic intervention of dysfunctional immune cells. (uio.no)
  • Specific effects of cAMP are mediated by multiple isozymes of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and A-kinase anchoring proteins. (uio.no)
  • The principle intracellular target for cAMP in mammalian cells is the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). (uio.no)
  • The fact that this broad specificity protein kinase mediates a number of discrete physiological responses following cAMP engagement has raised the question of how specificity is maintained in the cAMP/PKA system. (uio.no)
  • Investigating interactions of proteins in the nuclear envelope (NE) using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) has previously been difficult or even impossible due to their inherent resistance to extraction. (diva-portal.org)
  • We also, show that MCLIP is suitable to coprecipitate protein interactions in different stages of the cell cycle. (diva-portal.org)
  • Protein-protein interactions in the NE have been difficult to study due to the resistance of NE proteins to extraction. (diva-portal.org)
  • The nucleocytoplasmic interactions established by the LINC complex play an important role in the transmission of mechanical forces across the nuclear envelope and in nuclear movement and positioning. (genecards.org)
  • We are focusing on investigating the function(s) of specific networks of interactions between proteins in the NE and their role in cellular signaling and chromatin organization. (su.se)
  • We showed that this method could allow the characterization of OEM embedded proteins facing the cytosol, as well as peripheral and soluble proteins associated via tight or lose interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hu, C.-D., Chinenov, Y. & Kerppola, T. K. Visualization of interactions among bZIP and Rel family proteins in living cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. (nature.com)
  • An interdisciplinary evaluation of these results with experts from neighbouring fields such as protein-protein interactions, computational biology, dynamic membrane transport mechanisms and lipid biophysics is now needed to retain and even accelerate this momentum. (biochemistry.org)
  • Once INM:chromatin interactions have been established following formation of the nuclear envelope, soluble nuclear proteins may bind to exposed chromosomal segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nuclear lamina is assembled by interactions of two lamin polypeptides in which the α-helical regions are wound around each other to form a two stranded α-helical coiled-coil structure, followed by a head-to-tail association of the multiple dimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, the anchoring of chromatin to the nuclear periphery has been associated with silencing and heterochromatin formation. (csic.es)
  • To investigate the contribution of VP4 to cell lysis, VP4 was expressed in mammalian cells where it was predominantly observed along the nuclear periphery. (asm.org)
  • Our results establish a novel connection between the nuclear periphery and circadian rhythmicity, therefore bridging two global regulatory systems that modulate all aspects of bodily functions. (philpapers.org)
  • The protein is involved in nuclear structure organization and plays a role in cell signaling and differentiation. (genecards.org)
  • Involved in nuclear structure organization (PubMed:16339967). (genecards.org)
  • Organization of the nuclear envelope (modified from Stewart et al. (su.se)
  • As a result of these discoveries it has now been realized that proteins of the NE orchestrate a much larger repertoire of functions than previously realized, both in cell signaling, chromatin organization and in the mitotic machinery. (su.se)
  • Quantification of mitotic timing revealed a delay between NEBD and chromatin separation, indicating a role of SUN proteins in bipolar spindle assembly and mitotic progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Previously, we reported that two meiotic proteins, Bqt1 and -2, are required for tethering telomeres to the spindle pole body (SPB) during meiotic prophase in fission yeast. (rupress.org)
  • Ran GTPase plays essential roles in multiple cellular processes, including nucleocytoplasmic transport, spindle formation, and postmitotic nuclear envelope (NE) reassembly. (plantcell.org)
  • The RanGTPase is essential for three aspects of nuclear structure and function: nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle formation, and the structure and post-mitotic re-assembly of the NE ( Sazer and Dasso, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • The purpose of antibody protein sequencing is to accurately deduce every single amino acid present in the primary sequence. (news-medical.net)
  • against the matrix protein of infl uenza A virus as a primary and Sherif R. Zaki antibody and a donkey anti-goat antibody conjugated to 12-nm colloidal gold particles as a secondary antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical electron microscopy labeling that used an anti-matrix examination detected infl uenza virus antigens in type II protein goat antibody detected matrix (M) proteins on the pneumocytes, in epithelial cells in the upper airways, and dense tubular structures (Figure 1, panel E) as well as on in submucosal glands. (cdc.gov)
  • E) Immunogold labeling of the nuclear tubules by using an antibody against the matrix protein. (cdc.gov)
  • Among its related pathways are Nuclear Envelope Reassembly and Cell Cycle, Mitotic . (genecards.org)
  • Third, our research has elucidated the roles that both the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and intrinsically disordered (ID) domains play in INM protein transport. (temple.edu)
  • Transport through the NPC requires soluble receptors that recognize a nuclear localization signal (NLS) or a nuclear export signal (NES) within a protein destined for import or export, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Studies in S. pombe have revealed that bouquet formation involves interaction between a SUN domain protein, Sad1, and a putative KASH domain protein, Kms1. (rupress.org)
  • Due to their positioning within or their association with the inner membrane, they mediate the attachment of the nuclear lamina to the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • HA95 and LAP2β mediate a novel chromatin-nuclear envelope interaction implicated in initiation of DNA replication. (uio.no)
  • TAP was functionally characterized as an mRNA export factor based on its ability to stimulate nuclear export of mRNA that contains the constitutive transport element found in simple retroviruses ( 12 ), and it may mediate host mRNA export as well ( 3 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • A Single Herpesvirus Protein can mediate Vesicle Formation in the Nuclear Envelope. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • The Ran GTPase is an essential protein that has multiple functions in eukaryotic cells. (biologists.org)
  • Thus each occupies a geographically distinct nuclear space called a chromosomal territory (Figure 2). (encyclopedia.com)
  • These changes include blebbing , cell shrinkage , nuclear fragmentation , chromatin condensation , chromosomal DNA fragmentation , and global [ vague ] mRNA decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visualization of chromosomal loci location and dynamics is crucial for understanding many fundamental intra-nuclear processes such as DNA transcription, replication, and repair. (springer.com)
  • It is likely that the majority of them are also associated with the nuclear lamina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data suggest that KDP-1 is a novel KASH protein that functions to ensure the timely progression of the cell cycle between the end of S phase and the entry into mitosis. (biologists.org)
  • Higher eukaryotes undergo an open mitosis in which the nuclear envelope breaks down before and is re-assembled after mitosis ( Gant and Wilson, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • A phosphorylation event at the onset of mitosis leads to a conformational change which causes the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once this complex is activated, the cell is forced into mitosis, by the subsequent activation and regulation of other protein kinases or by direct phosphorylation of structural proteins involved in this cellular reorganisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most organisms, telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope at the onset of meiosis to promote the crucial processes of pairing, recombination and synapsis during prophase I. This attachment of meiotic telomeres is mediated by the specific distribution of several nuclear envelope components that interact with the attachment plates of the synaptonemal complex. (nih.gov)
  • Two leaky Ya alleles that partially complement have lesions at opposite ends of the YA protein, suggesting that the N- and C-termini are important for YA function and that YA might interact with itself either directly or indirectly. (genetics.org)
  • It has been shown to interact with nuclear transport factors and is required for nuclear export of poly(A) + RNA but not for classical nuclear localization sequence (NLS)-mediated protein import. (pnas.org)
  • One-third of these Nups contain phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-rich repeats, forming a diffusion barrier, which is selectively permeable for nuclear transport receptors that interact with these repeats. (mit.edu)
  • Some may interact directly with the nuclear lamina, and some may be associated with it through scaffold proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the C. elegans worm has only one lamin protein and few proteins that interact with it, the processes that occur there are similar to what happens in humans and provide clues to the laminopathic diseases affecting people. (innovations-report.com)
  • A new KASH protein, KDP-1, was identified in a membrane yeast two-hybrid screen of a Caenorhabditis elegans library using the SUN protein UNC-84 as bait. (biologists.org)
  • To date, the only proteins known to localize specifically to the ONM contain a domain similar to the C-termini of klarsicht, ANC-1 and Syne (KASH). (biologists.org)
  • KASH proteins are C-tail-anchored proteins with a luminal KASH domain following the single transmembrane domain ( Starr and Fischer, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
  • KASH proteins are then restricted to the ONM by directly interacting with a Sad1-UNC-84 (SUN) protein in the perinuclear space. (biologists.org)
  • KASH-SUN NE bridging proteins are conserved across eukaryotes from Giardia to yeast to humans (reviewed by Starr, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • KASH proteins are found at the ONM, whereas SUN proteins reside at the INM. (genetics.org)
  • The results showed that all mutation carriers incorporated mutated lamin protein into the nuclear envelope. (cdc.gov)
  • We have now identified, by tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry, a second family of CC-TMD proteins, structurally similar, yet clearly distinct from the WIP family, that is required for RanGAP NE association in root tip cells. (plantcell.org)
  • High-sensitivity mass spectrometry has allowed the inventory of proteins in thylakoid, stroma, and envelope fractions. (frontiersin.org)
  • To evaluate this method, envelope, thylakoid, and stroma proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed by immunostaining and mass spectrometry. (frontiersin.org)
  • This two-day meeting will focus on new advancements and technological developments in mass spectrometry for studying the structure and function of membrane proteins. (biochemistry.org)
  • It will bring together MS practitioners and structural biologists from academia and industry and will include sessions across many aspects of structural mass spectrometry of membrane proteins. (biochemistry.org)
  • CDK2 regulates nuclear envelope protein dynamics and telomere attachment in mouse meiotic prophase. (nih.gov)
  • Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is a post-translational modification that regulates all aspect of life through the antagonistic action of kinases and phosphatases. (portlandpress.com)
  • Besides providing mechanical support, the nuclear lamina regulates important cellular events such as DNA replication and cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report that the Asi complex functions together with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 to degrade soluble and integral membrane proteins. (nature.com)
  • We show that the Asi ubiquitin ligase is involved in degradation of mislocalized integral membrane proteins, thus acting to maintain and safeguard the identity of the INM. (nature.com)
  • Concerning membrane association, proteins can be either integral or peripheral or even soluble proteins bound transiently to a membrane complex. (frontiersin.org)
  • The n uclear e nvelope t ransmembrane protein NET25 (Lem2) is a truncated paralog of MAN1, an NE component linked to bone disorders. (asm.org)
  • Database searches showed that 4 of the 6 up-regulated NETs contain regions of homology to proteins previously linked to signaling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Homology modeling suggested that the related proteins CASTOR and POLLUX might be ion channels. (plantcell.org)
  • The characterization of cytosolic components associated with the envelope surface is further needed to understand the functional integration of the organelle within the rest of the cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • Caspi Y, Zbaida D, Cohen H, Elbaum M (2008) Synthetic Mimic of Selective Transport Through the Nuclear Pore Complex. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Essential component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein may anchor this complex to the nuclear envelope. (nih.gov)
  • this complex is essential for RNA export, but not for classical nuclear localization sequence-mediated nuclear protein import. (pnas.org)
  • Nuclear protein import can be separated into two distinct steps: binding to the nuclear pore complex followed by translocation to the nuclear interior. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This method also suggests that some proteins associated with the inner envelope membrane (IEM) might need the integrity of a trans-envelope (IEM-OEM) protein complex (e.g., division ring-forming components) or at least an intact OEM partner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we describe a protein degradation pathway at the INM in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) mediated by the Asi complex consisting of the RING domain proteins Asi1 and Asi3 (ref. 4 ). (nature.com)
  • KANSAS CITY, MO-At a glance, DNA is a rather simple sequence of A, G, C, T bases, but once it is packaged by histone proteins into an amalgam called chromatin, a more complex picture emerges. (stowers.org)
  • Normally, DNA is contained within a complex consisting of the DNA wrapped up in proteins called chromatin. (reference.com)
  • The implications of these findings in nuclear envelope reassembly are discussed below. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with this observation, bona fide tubulin, isolated from rat brain and maintained in a nonpolymerized state, abolishes binding of M31 to the nuclear envelope and aborts M31-mediated nuclear envelope reassembly in an in vitro system. (edu.kz)
  • Second, we adapted SPEED microscopy to study transmembrane protein translocation in vivo. (temple.edu)
  • We used immunofluorescence microscopy to analyze nuclear morphology, flow cytometry to analyze cellular DNA content, and fluorescence in situ hybridization to examine cell ploidy of the lamin A/C-suppressed cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that the loss of nuclear envelope structural proteins, such as lamin A/C, may underlie two of the hallmarks of cancer - aberrations in nuclear morphology and aneuploidy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the recent study, the authors describe the synthesis of lipid droplets and show that the inner nuclear envelope has its own composition of lipids. (news-medical.net)
  • The research results also show which factor is responsible for the proper exchange of lipids between inner nuclear envelope and lipid droplets. (news-medical.net)
  • Nuclear lipid droplets derive from a lipoprotein precursor and regulate phosphatidylcholine synthesis. (abcam.com)
  • Whatever the true mechanism, the discovery of mutations in several different nuclear membrane proteins that cause similar diseases will likely eventually lead to a better understanding of nuclear membrane physiology and the pathophysiology of diseases caused by mutations in these proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • The nuclear lamina forms a meshwork underlying the inner nuclear membrane. (edu.au)
  • Folker, E. S., Ostlund, C., Luxton, G. W. G., Worman, H. J. and Gundersen, G. G. Lamin A variants that cause striated muscle disease are defective in anchoring transmembrane actin-associated nuclear lines for nuclear movement. (columbia.edu)