Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Junin virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.PolysaccharidesCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Protein PrecursorsMannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.GlucosamineReceptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.OrosomucoidFucoseRetroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Glycoside HydrolasesViral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Rauscher Virus: A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Furin: A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Mice, Inbred BALB CArteritis Virus, Equine: The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.IndolizinesVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma: Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Spleen Focus-Forming Viruses: Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Lentiviruses, Ovine-Caprine: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in sheep and goats.Filoviridae: A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Subtilisins: A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-Visna-maedi virus: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Binding between Z and the viral envelope glycoprotein complex is required for virion infectivity. Z also interacts with the L ... The organisation of the genome is typical of arenaviruses but their glycoproteins resemble those of filoviruses. LCMV-Lassa ... Burri DJ, da Palma JR, Kunz S, Pasquato A (October 2012). "Envelope glycoprotein of arenaviruses". Viruses. 4 (10): 2162-81. ... The glycoprotein (GP) is synthesised as a precursor molecule. It is cleaved into three parts - GP1, GP2 and a stable signal ...
The quaranjavirus glycoprotein shows no similarity with the influenza virus glycoproteins (haemagglutinin and neuraminidase), ... Segment 5 encodes the envelope glycoprotein (GP). Proteins of unknown function are encoded by segments 4 and 6, which have ... and instead shows some similarities with the gp64 glycoprotein of baculoviruses, which infect insects, as well as the ... glycoprotein of thogotoviruses, a genus of tick-transmitted orthomyxoviruses. The replication cycle of Quaranfil virus takes ...
It can process proalbumin and is thought to be responsible for the activation of HIV envelope glycoproteins gp160 and gp140. ... 1998). "Retroviral envelope glycoprotein processing: structural investigation of the cleavage site". Biochemistry. 37 (13): ... Moulard M, Decroly E (2001). "Maturation of HIV envelope glycoprotein precursors by cellular endoproteases". Biochim. Biophys. ... "Comparative functional role of PC7 and furin in the processing of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp160". FEBS Lett. 405 (1): 68- ...
RSV has an envelope which has one glycoprotein: env. Env is made up of gp85 and gp37, which are glycoproteins that assemble ... The envelope is acquired during exocytosis. The virus buds or pushes on the plasma membrane, which allows it to leave the cell ... Einfeld D, Hunter E (November 1988). "Oligomeric structure of a prototype retrovirus glycoprotein". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. ... RSV has four genes: gag - encodes capsid proteins pol - encodes reverse transcriptase env - encodes the envelope gene src - ...
Radding W, Pan ZQ, Hunter E, Johnston P, Williams JP, McDonald JM (1996). "Expression of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein alters ... "Cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins binds to calmodulin and inhibits calmodulin- ... Malvoisin E, Wild F (1997). "Inhibition of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV envelope glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion by calmodulin". ... "Identification of a calmodulin-binding and inhibitory peptide domain in the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein". AIDS Res. Hum. ...
Exposed on the surface of the viral envelope, the glycoprotein gp120 binds to the CD4 receptor on any target cell that has such ... The retroviral glycoproteins are oligomeric complexes that are composed of SU-TM heterodimers, which are made in the ... Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Viruses (ASLV) have ten subgroups (A through J). The envelope glycoprotein of subgroup A is called ... Gp52 is a 52,000-dalton glycoprotein and gp36 is a 36,000-dalton glycoprotein. MMTV Env is of particular interest to ...
Moulard M, Chaloin L, Canarelli S, Mabrouk K, Darbon H, Challoin L (1998). "Retroviral envelope glycoprotein processing: ... "Endoprotease activities other than furin and PACE4 with a role in processing of HIV-I gp160 glycoproteins in CHO-K1 cells". J. ... Moulard M, Decroly E (2001). "Maturation of HIV envelope glycoprotein precursors by cellular endoproteases". Biochim. Biophys. ... envelope glycoprotein gp160 by the mammalian subtilisin/kexin-like convertases". Biochem. J. 314 (Pt 2): 521-32. PMC 1217081 . ...
"A ligand-binding pocket in the dengue virus envelope glycoprotein". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 100 (12): 6986-6991. doi:10.1073/ ... "Binding of a neutralizing antibody to dengue virus alters the arrangement of surface glycoproteins". Nat Struct Mol Biol. 15 (3 ... The DENV E (envelope) protein, found as a dimer on the surface of the mature viral particle, is important in the initial ... The glycoprotein shell of the mature DENV virion consists of 180 copies each of the E protein and M protein. The immature ...
1993). "Cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins binds to calmodulin and inhibits calmodulin ... 1996). "Expression of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein alters cellular calmodulin". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 218 (1): 192-7. ... 1994). "Identification of a calmodulin-binding and inhibitory peptide domain in the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein". AIDS Res ...
Basis for selective incorporation of glycoproteins into influenza virus envelope. J. Virol. 67, 4831-4841 Measles Viruses with ... Measles virus matrix protein specifies apical virus release and glycoprotein sorting in epithelial cells. EMBO J. 19, 3576-3585 ... Chimeric Measles Viruses with a Foreign Envelope. J. Virol. 72, 2150-2159. Gene Transfer into Neurons from Hippocampal Slices. ... Altered Envelope Protein Cytoplasmic Tails Gain Cell Fusion Competence.J. Virol. 72, 1224-1234. ...
This is due to the fact that the glycoprotein envelope on EFV lacks a dilysine retrieval motif that is commonly found in the C ... spiked with glycoproteins and are enveloped particles with a clear core. The infectious particles of EFV have DNA not RNA due ... Shaw, Kit L.; Lindemann, Dirk; Mulligan, Mark J.; Goepfert, Paul A. (2003-2). "Foamy Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Is Sufficient ...
... also known as glycoprotein 41 is a subunit of the envelope protein complex of retroviruses, including human ... The high glycosylation of the env coded glycoproteins allows them to escape the human body's immune system. In contrast to ... "Subunit organization of the membrane-bound HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 19 (9): ... gp41 is the transmembrane portion of the spike complex with a portion of the glycoprotein buried within the viral envelope at ...
... which lines the envelope; and an envelope glycoprotein (GP), which acts as the virus receptor. The thogotovirus glycoprotein is ... not similar to the influenza virus glycoproteins (haemagglutinin and neuraminidase), and instead shows some similarities with ... Batken is considered a DHOV subtype; the viruses have a high degree of sequence identity (90% in the envelope glycoprotein; 96- ... The two viruses have a low degree of sequence identity (37% for the nucleoprotein; 31% for the envelope glycoprotein), and ...
BV acquires its envelope from the cell membrane and requires a glycoprotein, gp64, to be able to spread systemic infection. ... During periods of evolution, the baculoviral envelope glycoproteins have undergone changes. Ld130, also known as baculovirus F- ... The major function of the gp64 envelope protein is to cause the pH-mediated envelope fusion to the endosome. Although gp64 has ... Some differences also exist in the lipid composition of the viral envelope of the two forms. While the BV envelope consists of ...
Analysis of the glycoproteins on the envelope of the viral particle indicate that it is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum ... The virus attaches to host receptors through the SU glycoprotein, and the TM glycoprotein mediates fusion with the cell ... Additional glycoproteins are synthesized from the env gene. The envelope protects the interior of the virus from the ... "Foamy Virus Envelope Glycoprotein-Mediated Entry Involves a pH-Dependent Fusion Process". Journal of Virology. 77 (8): 4722- ...
"Averaging of Viral Envelope Glycoprotein Spikes from Electron Cryotomography Reconstructions using Jsubtomo". J. Vis. Exp. 92 ( ... The M segment encodes the virion surface glycoproteins (Gn, Gc) and non-structural proteins (NSm). The L segment encodes for ... Averaging of glycoprotein spikes of membrane viruses, such as HIV-1, has been a particularly successful approach for studying ... A software named Jsubtomo enables visualization of the structure of viral glycoprotein spikes to a resolution in the range of ...
But JSRV is different in this aspect since its envelope glycoprotein ("env") by itself is an oncogene and this single protein ... envelope glycoproteins. The viral proteins are synthesized initially as large precursors and are later processed into the ... "Expression of the jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope glycoprotein is sufficient to induce lung tumors in sheep". J. Virol. 80 ... The initial attachment of JSRV to its target cell is mediated through the binding of the SU subunit of the Env glycoprotein to ...
"Carbohydrate binding properties of the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". Glycoconj. J. 9 (6): 315 ... Fetuin-A (alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000090512 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2006). "Renal osteodystrophy: alpha-Heremans Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A, matrix GLA protein serum levels, and bone ...
The envelope includes the glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, which are responsible for binding to and entering the host cell. As the ... The V3 loop of the viron's envelope glycoprotein, gp120, allows it to infect human immune cells by binding to a cytokine ... This is in turn surrounded by an envelope of host-cell origin. The envelope is formed when the capsid buds from the host cell, ... the envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp41) are the major targets for HIV vaccine efforts. Over half of the mass of the ...
The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer embedded with viral proteins, including viral glycoproteins. These viral ... An example of a Class I viral fusion protein is the HIV glycoprotein, gp41. Class II: Protein lacks the central coiled-coil ... Virus-to-cell fusion is initiated when viral glycoproteins bind to cellular receptors. The fusion of the viral envelope with ... The capsid of some viruses are enclosed in a membrane called the viral envelope. In most cases, the viral envelope is obtained ...
Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pahwa S, Pasieka R, Kalyanaraman VS, Pahwa S (1995). "HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce ... peptide corresponding to cytoplasmic domain residues 828-848 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein ...
Glycoprotein diversity[edit]. Glycosylation increases diversity in the proteome, because almost every aspect of glycosylation ... A significant example is the dense glycan shield of the envelope spike of the human immunodeficiency virus.[7] ... glycosylation is a very prevalent form of glycosylation and is important for the folding of many eukaryotic glycoproteins and ... Secondly, N-linked glycans mediate a critical quality control check point in glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. ...
Land A, Braakman I (Aug 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... "Role of oligosaccharides in the processing and maturation of envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1". ... "Biosynthesis and processing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins: effects of monensin on glycosylation ... Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (Oct 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus- ...
Pal R, Hoke GM, Sarngadharan MG (1989). "Role of oligosaccharides in the processing and maturation of envelope glycoproteins of ... Land A, Braakman I (2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... "Biosynthesis and processing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins: effects of monensin on glycosylation ... 1991). "Effect of N-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin on the lectin binding to HIV-1 glycoproteins". Jpn. J. Med. Sci. ...
Pal R, Hoke GM, Sarngadharan MG (1989). "Role of oligosaccharides in the processing and maturation of envelope glycoproteins of ... Land A, Braakman I (2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... "Biosynthesis and processing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins: effects of monensin on glycosylation ... Mutations in this gene may lead to carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type II. The coding region of this gene is ...
The virions taken up by the cell then travel to acidic endosomes and lysosomes where the viral envelope glycoprotein GP is ... The breakdown of endothelial cells leading to blood vessel injury can be attributed to EBOV glycoproteins. This damage occurs ... After infection, a secreted glycoprotein, small soluble glycoprotein (sGP or GP) is synthesised. EBOV replication overwhelms ... Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane from which they bud. The mature progeny ...
All the mutant glycoproteins were expressed and transported to the cell surface. Proteolytic maturation at the subtilisin kexin ... Title: Genetic analysis of heptad-repeat regions in the G2 fusion subunit of the Junin arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ... The G2 fusion subunit of the Junin virus envelope glycoprotein GP-C contains two hydrophobic heptad-repeat regions that are ... Genetic analysis of heptad-repeat regions in the G2 fusion subunit of the Junin arenavirus envelope glycoprotein ...
Characterization of the envelope glycoprotein of a novel filovirus, Lloviu virus. In: Journal of Virology. 2014 ; Vol. 88, No. ... Characterization of the envelope glycoprotein of a novel filovirus, Lloviu virus. Journal of Virology. 2014 Jan 1;88(1):99-109 ... Characterization of the envelope glycoprotein of a novel filovirus, Lloviu virus. Junki Maruyama, Hiroko Miyamoto, Masahiro ... Characterization of the envelope glycoprotein of a novel filovirus, Lloviu virus. / Maruyama, Junki; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Kajihara ...
"Tracking global patterns of N-linked glycosylation site variation in highly variable viral glycoproteins: HIV, SIV, and HCV ... Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. It was discovered by ... Gp120 is anchored to the viral membrane, or envelope, via non-covalent bonds with the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41. Three ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Glycoprotein 120 Vashistha H, Husain M, Kumar D, Singhal PC (2009). "Tubular cell HIV-1 gp120 ...
The minor envelope glycoproteins GP2a and GP4 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus interact with the receptor ... This is a family of minor envelope glycoproteins from Arteriviridae that corresponds to open reading frame 4 (ORF4) of the ...
Here we have chemically cross-linked the envelope glycoprotein trimer of HIV-1, and observe using high-resolution electron ... The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins are the only antigens that can elicit neutralizing antibodies, and are therefore a major focus ...
The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41, are assembled into a trimeric complex that mediates virus entry into target ... The antigenic structure of the HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein.. Wyatt R1, Kwong PD, Desjardins E, Sweet RW, Robinson J, ... The gp120 glycoprotein, which can be shed from the envelope complex, elicits both virus-neutralizing and non-neutralizing ... HIV-1 entry depends on the sequential interaction of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein with the receptors on the cell, ...
Highly Stable Trimers Formed by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Glycoproteins Fused with the Trimeric Motif of T4 ... Oligomeric structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein. P L Earl, R W Doms, and B Moss ... Oligomeric structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... The envelope (env) glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) consists of two noncovalently associated ...
Chapter 5: Autoantibodies induced by chimeric cytokine - HIV envelope glycoprotein immunogens. * Chapter 6: Enhanced ... HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with costimulatory domains for vaccine applications. Supervisors. B. Berkhout. ... Chapter 4: An HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer with an embedded IL-21 domain activates human B cells. ... Chapter 2: A chimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer with an embedded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM- ...
... indicate that intracellular cleavage of gp160 determines the intracellular transport and survival of the envelope glycoproteins ... Biosynthesis, cleavage, and degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope glycoprotein gp160. R L Willey, J S ... The synthesis and processing of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope precursor glycoprotein gp 160 was studied ... Biosynthesis, cleavage, and degradation of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 ...
In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, ... Surprisingly also, a conserved N-linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell ... Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein ... For example, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the envelope transmembrane protein (TM) are essential ...
Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were ... In addition, polymorphisms were presented in microsatellite zones from two glycoprotein genes (ORF65 and 116). In phylogenetic ... glycoprotein genes identified in the present study seem to be valuable targets for genetic comparison of this virus. ... Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were ...
... glycoprotein that lead to membrane fusion. Here, we report the unexpected finding that ALV entry depends … ... understand the mechanism of pH-independent viral entry involving receptor-induced conformational changes in the viral envelope ... Glycoproteins * Receptors, Virus Grant support * CA70810/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States ... Retroviral entry mediated by receptor priming and low pH triggering of an envelope glycoprotein Cell. 2000 Nov 10;103(4):679-89 ...
HIV-1 infection begins with the binding of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins (Env) to CD4 and a co-receptor on target ... HIV-1 infection begins with the binding of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins (Env) to CD4 and a co-receptor on target ... Structural Mechanism of Trimeric HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Activation. ...
... independent entry by filovirus glycoprotein-pseudotyped FIV-based vectors in airway epithelia. Of particular interest, entry ... Lentivirus vectors pseudotyped with filoviral envelope glycoproteins transduce airway epithelia from the apical surface ... based vectors by using envelope glycoproteins (GPs) from the filoviruses Marburg virus and Ebola virus. Importantly, primary ...
The JSRV Env glycoprotein is a dominant oncoprotein and its expression is sufficient to induce cell transformation in vitro and ... Varela, Mariana (2008) Biology of the envelope glycoproteins of sheep betaretroviruses. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. ...
The E glycoproteins expressed by mutated plasmids in these VLPs with reduced cross-reactivities maintained an overall wild-type ... DENV-2 envelope glycoprotein homodimer. The image shows a top view looking down towards the viral surface and depicts the ... Localization and Characterization of Flavivirus Envelope Glycoprotein Cross-Reactive Epitopes. Wayne D. Crill, Gwong-Jen J. ... Localization and Characterization of Flavivirus Envelope Glycoprotein Cross-Reactive Epitopes. Wayne D. Crill, Gwong-Jen J. ...
Immature envelope glycoproteins are thought to be segregated at the cell surface to ensure that only the functional protein is ... Assembly of Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein GPC in Detergent-Soluble Membrane Microdomains. Sudhakar S. Agnihothram, Brooke ... Assembly of Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein GPC in Detergent-Soluble Membrane Microdomains. Sudhakar S. Agnihothram, Brooke ... Assembly of Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein GPC in Detergent-Soluble Membrane Microdomains. Sudhakar S. Agnihothram, Brooke ...
Abstract: The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) is the focus of vaccine development aimed at eliciting humoral immunity ... Home , Newsroom , Scientific Publications , Lack of complex N glycans on HIV 1 envelope glycoproteins preserves protein ... Title: Lack of complex N glycans on HIV 1 envelope glycoproteins preserves protein conformation and entry function ... Lack of complex N-glycans on HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins preserves protein conformation and entry function. Virology 2010;401( ...
... allowing the transmembrane glycoprotein to initiate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. The envelope glycoproteins are ... is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins. The gp46 surface glycoprotein binds to cell surface receptors, including ... Antibodies to the Envelope Glycoprotein of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Robustly Activate Cell-Mediated Cytotoxic ... Antibodies to the Envelope Glycoprotein of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Robustly Activate Cell-Mediated Cytotoxic ...
... and characterization of potential glycosylation sites of the type 1 recombinant immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins ( ... Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1 originates in the endoplasmic reticulum and requires cytoplasmic processing for ... Processing of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein for Class I-Restricted Recognition: Dependence on TAP1/2 and Mechanisms for Cytosolic ... Processing of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein for Class I-Restricted Recognition: Dependence on TAP1/2 and Mechanisms for Cytosolic ...
Here, we further characterized the viral envelope glycoproteins from six mother-infant transmission pairs and determined ... as imparted by their envelope glycoproteins, than those in their corresponding mothers. ... whether any specific envelope functions correlate with HIV-1 subtype C perinatal transmission. We found that most newly ... Here, we further characterized the viral envelope glycoproteins from six mother-infant transmission pairs and determined ...
Employing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope glycoprotein (G protein) as a model, we noted that the addition of [35S ... Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides of vesicular stomatitis and influenza virus envelope glycoproteins: host cell ... Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides of vesicular stomatitis and influenza virus envelope glycoproteins: host cell ... Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides of vesicular stomatitis and influenza virus envelope glycoproteins: host cell ...
cDNA encoding the HTLV-1 envelope glycoprotein CD amplified from the CMV-Env-LTR vector (Delamarre et al., 1997) and the full- ... Human Dlg protein binds to the envelope glycoproteins of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and regulates envelope mediated ... Human Dlg protein binds to the envelope glycoproteins of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and regulates envelope mediated ... Human Dlg protein binds to the envelope glycoproteins of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and regulates envelope mediated ...
Antibody responses to envelope glycoproteins in HIV-1 infection. Nat Immunol 16:571-576. doi:10.1038/ni.3158. ... CD4-induced antibodies promote association of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with CD4-binding site antibodies. J Virol 90:7822 ... A Bispecific Antibody That Simultaneously Recognizes the V2- and V3-Glycan Epitopes of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Is ... A Bispecific Antibody That Simultaneously Recognizes the V2- and V3-Glycan Epitopes of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Is ...
This unit describes quantitation of functional interactions between HIV envelope glcoprotein and target cell receptors, using ... The HIV‐1 envelope glycoproteins: Fusogens, antigens, and immunogens. Science 280:1884‐1888. ... The block to HIV‐1 envelope glycoprotein‐mediated membrane fusion in animal cells expressing human CD4 can be overcome by a ... Initial stages of HIV‐1 envelope glycoprotein‐mediated cell fusion monitored by a new assay based on redistribution of ...
  • Among the adequately cleaved mutant glycoproteins, four positions in the N-terminal region (I333, L336, L347 and L350) and two positions in the C-terminal region (R392 and W395) were shown to be important determinants of cell-cell fusion. (osti.gov)
  • The proposed subunit composition of the HIV-1 env protein is identical to that previously observed for the paramyxovirus envelope proteins F and HN. (pnas.org)
  • Reverse genetics using the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) genome highlighted important functional domains of the envelope protein involved in the viral life cycle. (mdpi.com)
  • Surprisingly also, a conserved N -linked glycosylation site of the extracellular envelope protein (SU) inhibits cell-to-cell transmission suggesting that infectious potential has been limited during evolution. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the BLV envelope protein in the context of viral infection, replication and pathogenesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Employing the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) envelope glycoprotein (G protein) as a model, we noted that the addition of [ 35 S]sulphate substituents into its complex carbohydrate units occurred in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), Madin-Darby bovine kidney, LLC-PK 1 and BHK-21 cell lines but was not detectable in BRL 3A, BW5147.3, Chinese hamster ovary, HepG2, NRK-49F, IEC-18, PtK1 or 3T3 cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified hDlg as a cellular binding partner of a viral membrane integral protein, the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). (biologists.org)
  • The mutated glycoproteins were analysed by using a range of assays to identify regions critical for maintaining protein conformation, E1E2 complex assembly, CD81 receptor binding, membrane fusion and infectivity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the baculovirus envelope protein GP64 transduce primary cultures of human airway epithelia (HAE) at their apical surface. (nature.com)
  • Instances of glycoprotein/capsid overlap frequently involved nonconcentric puncta and regions of axons with dense viral protein concentrations. (elsevier.com)
  • Three gp120s and gp41s combine in a trimer of heterodimers to form the envelope spike, which mediates attachment to and entry into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since sulphation in both internal and peripheral locations of the virus glycoproteins was found to be arrested by the α1 → 2 mannosidase inhibitor, kifunensine, as well as by the intracellular migration block imposed by brefeldin A, it was concluded that this modification is a late biosynthetic event which most likely takes place in the trans -Golgi network. (biochemj.org)
  • All the mutant glycoproteins were expressed and transported to the cell surface. (osti.gov)
  • Among the adequately cleaved mutant glycoproteins, four positions in the N-terminal region (I333, L336, L347 and L350) and two positions in the C-terminal region (R392 and W395) were shown to be important determinants of cell-cell fusion. (osti.gov)
  • Glycoproteins were transported into and down axons normally when neurons were infected with an HSV mutant that produces immature capsids that are retained in the nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • Three envelope glycoprotein genes (ORF 25, 65 and 116) of the CyHV-3 isolates from the USA, Israel, Japan and Korea were compared, and interestingly, sequence insertions or deletions were observed in these target regions. (mdpi.com)
  • Linkage of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein gO variant groups identified from worldwide clinical isolates with gN genotypes, implications for disease associations and evidence for N-terminal sites of positive selection. (naver.com)