A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Species of ENTEROVIRUS causing mild to severe neurological diseases among pigs especially in Eastern Europe. Mild strains are also present in Canada, U.S., and Australia. Specific species include Porcine enterovirus A and Porcine enterovirus B.
A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70.
A species in the family ENTEROVIRUS infecting cattle.
Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.
A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS that has caused outbreaks of aseptic meningitis in children and adults.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting humans and rodents. The type species is Human parechovirus.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A highly contagious disease characterized by subconjunctival hemorrhage, sudden swelling of the eyelids and congestion, redness, and pain in the eye. Epidemic conjunctivitis caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV-70) was first described in Africa in 1969. It is caused also by Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v). Epidemics by this organism have appeared most frequently in Asia.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Molecular phylogeny and proposed classification of the simian picornaviruses. (1/246)

The simian picornaviruses were isolated from various primate tissues during the development of general tissue culture methods in the 1950s to 1970s or from specimens derived from primates used in biomedical research. Twenty simian picornavirus serotypes are recognized, and all are presently classified within the Enterovirus genus. To determine the phylogenetic relationships among all of the simian picornaviruses and to evaluate their classification, we have determined complete VP1 sequences for 19 of the 20 serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that A13, SV19, SV26, SV35, SV43, and SV46 are members of human enterovirus species A, a group that contains enterovirus 71 and 11 of the coxsackie A viruses. SA5 is a member of human enterovirus species B, which contains the echoviruses, coxsackie B viruses, coxsackievirus A9, and enterovirus 69. SV6, N125, and N203 are related to one another and, more distantly, to species A human enteroviruses, but could not be definitely assigned to a species. SV4 and SV28 are closely related to one another and to A-2 plaque virus, but distinct from other enteroviruses, suggesting that these simian viruses are members of a new enterovirus species. SV2, SV16, SV18, SV42, SV44, SV45, and SV49 are related to one another but distinct from viruses in all other picornavirus genera, suggesting that they may comprise a previously unknown genus in Picornaviridae. Several simian virus VP1 sequences (N125 and N203; SV4 and SV28; SV19, SV26, and SV35; SV18 and SV44; SV16, SV42, and SV45) are greater than 75% identical to one another (and/or greater than 85% amino acid identity), suggesting that the true number of distinct serotypes among the viruses surveyed is less than 20.  (+info)

Diagnosis of group A coxsackieviral infection using polymerase chain reaction. (2/246)

AIMS: To examine the relation between enteroviral infection, especially group A coxsackieviral infection, and acute febrile illness over two summers using tissue culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Throat swabs were collected from 246 children from June to August 1997 and 1998. RESULTS: Enteroviruses were isolated from 33/246 samples and 35 other viruses were isolated. Enteroviral genomes were detected in 54/178 samples from which no virus was isolated. Of 41 enteroviral genotypes identified by sequence analysis of PCR products, 38 were group A coxsackieviruses, which are usually difficult to isolate using tissue culture. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that viral detection and identification based on PCR is useful in the diagnosis of group A coxsackieviral infection.  (+info)

Systemic therapy of malignant human melanoma tumors by a common cold-producing enterovirus, coxsackievirus a21. (3/246)

PURPOSE: The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase worldwide; however, treatment of metastatic melanoma remains unsatisfactory, and there is an urgent need for development of effective targeted therapeutics. A potential biological target on the surface of malignant melanoma cells is the up-regulated expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and decay-accelerating factor (DAF), relative to surrounding benign tissue. Coxsackievirus A21 (a common cold virus) targets and destroys susceptible cells via specific viral capsid interactions with surface-expressed virus receptors comprising ICAM-1 and DAF. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The oncolytic capacity of a genetically unmodified wild-type common cold-producing human enterovirus (Coxsackievirus A21, CAV21) was assessed against in vitro cultures and in vivo xenografts of malignant human melanoma cells. RESULTS: In vitro studies established that human melanoma cells endogenously express elevated levels of ICAM-1/DAF and were highly susceptible to rapid viral oncolysis by CAV21 infection, whereas ICAM-1/DAF-expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes were refractile to infection. In vivo studies revealed that the tumor burden of nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing multiple s.c. melanoma xenografts was rapidly reduced by oncolysis mediated by a single administration of CAV21. The antitumor activity of CAV21 was characterized by highly efficient systemic spread of progeny CAV21, with oncolysis of tumors also occurring at sites distant to the primary site of viral administration. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings presented herein demonstrate an important proof of principle using administration of replication-competent CAV21 as a potential biological oncolytic agent in the control of human metastatic melanoma.  (+info)

Complete genome sequences of all members of the species Human enterovirus A. (4/246)

The species Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) in the family Picornaviridae consists of coxsackieviruses (CV) A2-A8, A10, A12, A14 and A16 and enterovirus 71. Complete genome sequences for the prototype strains of the 10 serotypes whose sequences were not represented in public databases have been determined and analysed in conjunction with previously available complete sequences in GenBank. Members of HEV-A are monophyletic relative to all other human enterovirus species in all regions of the genome except in the 5' non-translated region (NTR), where they are known to cluster with members of HEV-B. The HEV-A prototype strains were about 66 to 86 % identical to one another in deduced capsid amino acid sequence. Antigenic cross-reactivity has been reported between CVA3-Olson and CVA8-Donovan, between CVA5-Swartz and CVA12-Texas-12 and between CVA16-G-10 and EV71-BrCr. Similarity plots, individual sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses demonstrate a high degree of capsid sequence similarity within each of these three pairs of prototype strains, providing a molecular basis for the observed antigenic relationships. In several cases, phylogenies constructed from the structural (P1) and non-structural regions of the genome (P2 and P3) are incongruent. The incongruent phylogenies and the similarity plot analyses imply that recombination has played a role in the evolution of the HEV-A prototype strains. CVA6-Gdula clearly contains sequences that are also present in CVA10-Kowalik and CVA12-Texas-12, suggesting that these three strains have a shared evolutionary history despite their lack of similarity in the capsid region.  (+info)

Enteroviruses 76, 89, 90 and 91 represent a novel group within the species Human enterovirus A. (5/246)

Molecular methods have enabled the rapid identification of new enterovirus (EV) serotypes that would have been untypable using existing neutralizing antisera. Nineteen strains of four new EV types termed EV76 (11 isolates), EV89 (two isolates), EV90 (four isolates) and EV91 (two isolates), isolated from clinical specimens from patients in France (one isolate) and Bangladesh (18 isolates), are described. Nucleotide sequences encoding the VP1 capsid protein (882-888 nt) are less than 65 % identical to the homologous sequences of the recognized human EV serotypes, but within each group the sequences are more than 78 % identical. The deduced amino acid sequences of the complete capsid (P1) region are more than 94 % identical within type but less than 76 % identical to those of the recognized serotypes. For both VP1 and P1, the 19 isolates are monophyletic by type with respect to all other EV serotypes. Using the proposed molecular typing scheme, these data support their identification as four new types within the species Human enterovirus A (HEV-A). In almost all cases, the VP1 sequences were more similar to those of some simian EVs than to the human EVs. Partial 3D sequences of all 19 isolates also clustered within HEV-A; they were monophyletic as a group, but not by type, suggesting that recombination has occurred among viruses of these four types. Partial 3D sequences were more closely related to those of simian EVs than to human viruses in HEV-A. These results suggest that the four new types may represent a new subgroup within HEV-A, in addition to the existing human and simian subgroups.  (+info)

RNA interference against enterovirus 71 infection. (6/246)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly infectious major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) which could lead to severe neurological complications. There is currently no effective therapy against EV71. In this study, RNA interference (RNAi) is employed as a therapeutic approach for specific viral inhibition. Various regions of the EV71 genome were targeted for inhibition by chemically synthesized siRNAs. Transfection of rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells with siRNA targeting the 3'UTR, 2C, 3C, or 3D region significantly alleviated cytopathic effects of EV71. The inhibitory effect was dosage-dependent with a corresponding decrease in viral RNA, viral proteins, and plaque formations by EV71. Viral inhibition of siRNA transfected RD cells was still evident after 48 h. In addition, no significant adverse off-target silencing effects were observed. These results demonstrated the potential and feasibility for the use of siRNA as an antiviral therapy for EV71 infections.  (+info)

Human enterovirus 71 subgenotype B3 lacks coxsackievirus A16-like neurovirulence in mice infection. (7/246)

BACKGROUND: At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had >= 85% similarity at the 3' end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. RESULTS: Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3'-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. Intracerebral inoculation of one-day old mice with the virus resulted in 16% of the mice showing swollen hind limbs and significantly lower weight gain in comparison to EV-71 B4-infected mice. None of the mice presented with hind leg paralysis typical in all the CV-A16 infected mice. CV-A16 genome sequences were amplified from the CV-A16-infected mice brain but no amplification was obtained from all the EV-71-inoculated mice suggesting that no replication had taken place in the suckling mice brain. CONCLUSION: The findings presented here suggest that EV-71 B3 viruses had CV-A16-liked non-structural gene features at the 3'-end of the genome. Their presence could have affected virulence by affecting the mice general health but was insufficient to confer the EV-71 B3 virus a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection.  (+info)

Phylogenetic evidence for inter-typic recombination in the emergence of human enterovirus 71 subgenotypes. (8/246)

BACKGROUND: Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a common causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). In recent years, the virus has caused several outbreaks with high numbers of deaths and severe neurological complications. Several new EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from these outbreaks. The mechanisms that contributed to the emergence of these subgenotypes are unknown. RESULTS: Six EV-71 isolates from an outbreak in Malaysia, in 1997, were sequenced completely. These isolates were identified as EV-71 subgenotypes, B3, B4 and C2. A phylogenetic tree that correlated well with the present enterovirus classification scheme was established using these full genome sequences and all other available full genome sequences of EV-71 and human enterovirus A (HEV-A). Using the 5' UTR, P2 and P3 genomic regions, however, isolates of EV-71 subgenotypes B3 and C4 segregated away from other EV-71 subgenotypes into a cluster together with coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16/G10) and EV-71 subgenotype C2 clustered with CV-A8. Results from the similarity plot analyses supported the clustering of these isolates with other HEV-A. In contrast, at the same genomic regions, a CV-A16 isolate, Tainan5079, clustered with EV-71. This suggests that amongst EV-71 and CV-A16, only the structural genes were conserved. The 3' end of the virus genome varied and consisted of sequences highly similar to various HEV-A viruses. Numerous recombination crossover breakpoints were identified within the non-structural genes of some of these newer EV-71 subgenotypes. CONCLUSION: Phylogenetic evidence obtained from analyses of the full genome sequence supports the possible occurrence of inter-typic recombination involving EV-71 and various HEV-A, including CV-A16, the most common causal agent of HFMD. It is suggested that these recombination events played important roles in the emergence of the various EV-71 subgenotypes.  (+info)

We modified the capsid protein of a human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) belonging to subgenogroup C4 (HEV71-C4) to generate a mouse virulent strain, based on the genetic information derived from our previous subgenogroup B3 mouse-adapted virus. Infectious clone-derived mutant virus populations containing the capsid protein mutations VP1-Q145E and VP1-Q145G were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious clone of a subgenogroup C4 strain. Viruses expressing the VP1-Q145E were virulent in 5-day-old BALB/c mice with 100 % mortality rate observed. Skeletal muscle appears to be the primary site of replication of this virus with limb muscle showing severe myositis. Virus was also isolated from spleen, liver, heart and brain of infected mice. This study demonstrates that introducing a key mutation into the HEV71 VP1 capsid protein is able to generate a mouse virulent HEV71 strain from a different genogroup as well as providing an alternative strategy for the generation of mouse virulent HEV71.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and may also cause severe neurological diseases, such as encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like paralysis. To examine the genetic diversity of EV71, we determined and analyzed the complete VP1 sequences (891 nucleotides) from nine EV71 strains isolated in Fuyang, China. We found that nine EV71 strains isolated were over 98% homologous at the nucleotide level and 93%-100% homologous to members of the C4 subgenogroup. At the amino acid level, these Fuyang strains were 99% -100% homologous to one another, 97%-100% homologous to members of the C4 subgenogroup, and the histidine(H) at amino acid position 22 was conserved among the Fuyang strains. The results indicate that Fuyang isolates belong to genotype C4, and an H at position 22 appears to be a marker for the Fuyang strains.
Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) causes hands, feet, and mouth area disease (HFMD), which is mostly self-limited but might end up being complicated with a serious to fatal neurological symptoms in some kids. trojan produce genus of the assembled family members and is normally one of the causative virus-like realtors of hands, feet, and mouth area disease (HFMD) (6, 7, 14, 16, 41). HFMD is normally generally a common (+)-Alliin self-limited youth Rabbit polyclonal to A4GALT disease but may possess problems of serious to fatal neurological symptoms in some kids (1, 5, 6, 16, 21). In the former 10 years, the regularity of EV71 outbreaks linked with serious neurological (+)-Alliin disease made an appearance to possess elevated in the Pacific cycles area, most in China notably, where huge outbreaks possess been taking place each year since 2007 (24, 53). While the virological or epidemiological system root this local concentrate of serious EV71 an infection continues to be generally unidentified, the ...
OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency and type of neurological complications after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with an HLA identical unrelated donor or a mismatched related donor (alternative donors) to the neurological complications after matched sibling BMT for standard and high risk leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndromes. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutively treated patients with (a) BMT from alternative donors (n=39), (b) treated with matched sibling BMT for standard risk leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, or aplastic anaemia (n=53), and (c) treated with matched sibling BMT for high risk leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, or aplastic anaemia (n=49). RESULTS: A total of 72 neurological complications were found. Most of these occurred within the first 6 months after transplant. Thirty six patients developed a severe neurological complication: 17 Alternative donor patients (44%) by contrast with six standard risk patients (11%) and 13 high risk patients (27%; p,0.005). The ...
Scientists warned on Wednesday of a potential wave of coronavirus-related brain damage as new evidence suggested COVID-19 can lead to severe neurological complications, including inflammation, psychosis and delirium. A study by researchers at University College London (UCL) described 43 cases of patients with COVID-19 who ... ...
Williams, David and Sioofy, Amir and Goodfellow, Ian and MacKenzie, John and Evans, David. 2009. The cellular attachment and entry of human enterovirus 71: the role of glycosaminoglycans and evidence for a second receptor, in American Society for Virology 25th Annual Meeting, Jul 15 2009. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin ...
Causes of hand pain may include certain disorders or infections, injury, vitamin B12 deficiency or nerve compression, states Healthgrades. Excessive walking, too much weight, arthritis, foot strain...
COVID-19 Impact on EV and EV Infrastructure Market by Vehicle (Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles), Propulsion (BEV, PHEV and FCEV), Charging Station (Normal and Super) and Region - Global Forecast to 2021 ...
Auto manufactures who were debating stepping into the EV market may be having second thoughts after the release of a recent study from the Massachusetts
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Kudryavtsev DS, Shelukhina IV, Son LV, Ojomoko LO, Kryukova EV, Lyukmanova EN, Zhmak MN, Dolgikh DA, Ivanov IA, Kasheverov IE, Starkov VG, Ramerstorfer J., Sieghart W., Tsetlin VI, Utkin YN ...
During 2005, 764 children were brought to a large childrens hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, with a diagnosis of hand, foot, and mouth disease. All enrolled children had specimens (vesicle fluid, stool, throat swab) collected for enterovirus isolation by cell culture. An enterovirus was isolated from 411 (53.8%) of the specimens: 173 (42.1%) isolates were identified as human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and 214 (52.1%) as coxsackievirus A16. Of the identified HEV71 infections, 51 (29.5%) were complicated by acute neurologic disease and 3 (1.7%) were fatal. HEV71 was isolated throughout the year, with a period of higher prevalence in October-November. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 HEV71 isolates showed that during the first half of 2005, viruses belonging to 3 subgenogroups, C1, C4, and a previously undescribed subgenogroup, C5, cocirculated in southern Vietnam. In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity ...
Human enterovirus C99 (EV-C99) belongs to Human enterovirus C. EV-C99 is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. The genome is approximately 7.4 kb, including a 5ʹ untranslated region (UTR), structural polypeptide P1, nonstructural polypeptides P2 and P3, and a 3ʹ UTR. All EV-C99 strains can be classified into three genotypes, A, B, and C (1). EV-C99 strains have been isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patients and from oral polio-vaccinated and healthy individuals (1-4). At present, there are very few EV-C99 sequences available in the GenBank database.. A stool sample of a healthy child in Yunnan, China, was inoculated into human embryonic lung diploid fibroblasts (KMB17) and propagated in up to three passages. The sample induced a cytopathic effect (CPE), was stored at −80°C, and was named strain K292/YN/CHN/2013. The viral RNA was extracted from cell culture supernatants using the AxyPrep body fluid viral DNA/RNA miniprep kit (Axygen, Union City, CA). Then, the partial VP1 ...
Nanchang is a city of long history. As early as 50,000 years ago, clans inhibited the Anyi region of the Nanchang city. About three thousand years ago, to the north Aixi Lake, south of Qingyun Pu, the arc of the formation of ancient Nanchang gathering area residents. Han Emperor five years (202 BC), Han Guan Ying the local garrison, located Yu Zhang County, next year the construction of the city, site in this city about 4 kilometres (2.5 miles) southeast of Nanchang Railway Station Huang Temple City, the city perimeter miles eighty-four step, called Guan Ying City, it was built to create a history of Nanchang city. First built Nanchang County, Yu Zhang county of Gunji, take grand southern and Southern prosperity, meaning, named Nanchang. The territories encompassing modern-day Jiangxi Province-including Nanchang-was first incorporated into China during the Qin dynasty, when it was conquered from the Baiyue peoples and organized as Jiujiang Commandery (Chinese: 九江郡).[6] In 201 BC, ...
To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and pathogenic molecular characteristics of an hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreak caused by enterovirus 71 in Linyi City, Shandong Province, China during November 30 to December 28, 2010. One hundred and seventy three stool specimens and 40 throat samples were collected from 173 hospitalized cases. Epidemiologic and clinical investigations, laboratory testing, and genetic analyses were performed to identify the causal pathogen of the outbreak. Among the 173 cases reported in December 2010, the male-female ratio was 1.88: 1; 23 cases (13.3%) were severe. The majority of patients were children aged | 5 years (95.4%). Some patients developed respiratory symptoms including runny nose (38.2%), cough (20.2%), and sore throat (14.5%). One hundred and thirty eight EV71 positive cases were identified based on real time reverse-transcription PCR detection and 107 isolates were sequenced with the VP1 region. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length VP1
To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and pathogenic molecular characteristics of an hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreak caused by enterovirus 71 in Linyi City, Shandong Province, China during November 30 to December 28, 2010. One hundred and seventy three stool specimens and 40 throat samples were collected from 173 hospitalized cases. Epidemiologic and clinical investigations, laboratory testing, and genetic analyses were performed to identify the causal pathogen of the outbreak. Among the 173 cases reported in December 2010, the male-female ratio was 1.88: 1; 23 cases (13.3%) were severe. The majority of patients were children aged | 5 years (95.4%). Some patients developed respiratory symptoms including runny nose (38.2%), cough (20.2%), and sore throat (14.5%). One hundred and thirty eight EV71 positive cases were identified based on real time reverse-transcription PCR detection and 107 isolates were sequenced with the VP1 region. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length VP1
In the past 2 years, CDC has learned of several clusters of respiratory illness associated with human enterovirus 68 (HEV68), including severe disease. HEV68 is a unique enterovirus that shares epidemiologic and biologic features with human rhinoviruses (HRV) (1). First isolated in California in 1962 from four children with bronchiolitis and pneumonia (2), HEV68 has been reported rarely since that time and the full spectrum of illness that it can cause is unknown. The six clusters of respiratory illness associated with HEV68 described in this report occurred in Asia, Europe, and the United States during 2008--2010. HEV68 infection was associated with respiratory illness ranging from relatively mild illness that did not require hospitalization to severe illness requiring intensive care and mechanical ventilation. Three cases, two in the Philippines and one in Japan, were fatal. In these six clusters, HEV68 disproportionately occurred among children. CDC learned of clusters of HEV68 from public ...
|h4|Background|/h4|Diseases caused by human enteroviruses (EVs) are a major global public health problem. Thus, the effective diagnosis of all human EVs infections and the monitoring of epidemiological and ecological dynamic changes are urgently needed.|h4|Methods|/h4|Based on two comprehensive virological surveillance systems of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), real-time PCR and nested RT-PCR (RT-snPCR) methods based on the enteroviral VP1, VP4-VP2 and VP4 regions were designed to directly detect all human EVs serotypes in clinical specimens.|h4|Results|/h4|The results showed that the proposed serotyping strategy exhibit very high diagnostic efficiency (Study 1: 99.9%; Study 2: 89.5%), and the variance between the study was due to inclusion of the specific Coxsackie virus A6 (CVA6) real-time RT-PCR and VP4 RT-snPCR in Study 1 but not Study 2. Furthermore, only throat swabs were collected and analyzed in Study 2, whereas in Study 1, if a specific EV serotype was not identified in the primary stool
A doctor can tell if your child has hand-foot-and-mouth disease by the symptoms you describe and by looking at the sores and blisters. Tests usually are not needed.. Mouth Disease. Your mouth is one of the most important parts of your body. Any problem that affects your mouth can make it hard to eat, drink or even smile. There are plenty of problems that affect the mouth, some common mouth problems include Cold sores, which is the painful sores on the lips and around the mouth, caused by a virus and also Canker sores that is painful sores in the mouth, caused by bacteria or viruses. The most painful infection is Thrush, which is a yeast infection that causes white patches in your mouth and Leukoplakia that is the white patches of excess cell growth on the cheeks, gums or tongue, common in smokers. Dry mouth, a lack of enough saliva, caused by some medicines and certain diseases such as gum or tooth problems and also it may lead to bad breath.. Prevention and Vaccines. Appropriate infection ...
At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had ≥85% similarity at the 3 end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. Intracerebral inoculation of one-day old mice with the virus resulted in 16% of the mice showing swollen hind limbs and significantly lower weight gain in comparison to EV-71 B4
In the news recently we are hearing more and more about Human Enterovirus D-68, otherwise known as EV-D68. Watch this Urgent Care Medical Minute Alert to find out what you need to know about EV-D68, which is mostly affecting children, and what you can do to help your child avoid contracting it. Human Enterovirus, also …. What You Should Know About EV-D68 Read More ». ...
Singapore experienced a large epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in 2000. After reviewing HFMD notifications from doctors and child-care centers, we found that the incidence of HFMD rose in September and declined at the end of October. During this period, 3,790 cases were reported. We performed enteroviral cultures on 311 and 157 specimens from 175 HFMD patients and 107 non-HFMD patients, respectively; human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) was the most frequently isolated virus from both groups. Most of the HFMD patients were
Over the past 8 years, human enteroviruses (HEVs) have caused 27 227 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Xiamen, including 99 severe cases and six deaths. We aimed to explore the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Xiamen to inform the development of diagnostic assays, vaccines and other interventions. From January 2009 to September 2015, 5866 samples from sentinel hospitals were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR that targeted the HEV 5′ untranslated region and viral protein 1 region. Of these samples, 4290 were tested positive for HEV and the amplicons were sequenced and genotyped. Twenty-two genotypes were identified. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16, A6 and A10 (CA16, CA6 and CA10) were the most common genotypes, and there were no changes in the predominant lineages of these genotypes. EV71 became the most predominant genotype every 2 years. From 2013, CA6 replaced CA16 as one of the two most common genotypes. The results demonstrate the vast diversity of ...
Global Markets Directs Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease - Pipeline Review, H2 2019, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. The guide covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases.. The Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and features dormant and discontinued projects. The guide covers therapeutics under Development by Companies /Universities /Institutes, the molecules developed by Companies in Phase II, Phase I, Preclinical, Discovery and Unknown stages are 1, 3, 3, 1 and 2 respectively. Similarly, the ...
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease begins 3-7 days after exposure to someone with the illness. The illness is highly contagious and spreads by contact with the mouth, saliva, and skin of an infected person. Children are more susceptible than adults. The illness can begin with 1-2 days of fever, sore mouth, decreased appetite, and decreased activity. Shallow ulcers with a red border then form in the mouth. They can occur anywhere within the mouth. These ulcers are often painful for 3-4 days and can remain for 7-10 days. Soon after the ulcers in the mouth form, about half of the children will develop occasionally painful (sometimes itchy) red spots or blisters on the hands and feet. These spots are usually small and fade without crusting over in 2-7 days. A few children will develop stomach pain, diarrhea, achy joints, swollen lymph glands at the neck, a dramatic decrease in activity, or red spots or blisters on areas other than the hands and feet. Most children will have only one case of ...
|jats:title|ABSTRACT|/jats:title||jats:p|Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the primary causes of the epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that affect more than a million children in China each year and lead to hundreds of deaths. Although there has been progress with vaccines for EV71, the development of a CVA16 vaccine has proved more challenging, and the EV71 vaccine does not give useful cross-protection, despite the capsid proteins of the two viruses sharing about 80% sequence identity. The structural details of the expanded forms of the capsids, which possess nonnative antigenicity, are now well understood, but high resolution information for the native antigenic form of CVA16 has been missing. Here, we remedy this with high resolution X-ray structures of both mature and natural empty CVA16 particles and also of empty recombinant viruslike particles of CVA16 produced in insect cells, a potential vaccine antigen. All three structures are unexpanded native particles
WANG Yu-hui~1,GAO Guo-zhen~1,LUO Xu-wei~2,HOU Hong-chuan~2,ZHANG Hai-bin~2,HU Ting-jun~2(1.School of Mechanical and Electronical Engineering,Nanchang University,Nanchang 330029,China;2.Product Development Technology Center,Jiangling Motors CO.,LTD,Nanchang 330001,China) ...
Who is at risk for hand, foot, and mouth disease?. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) occurs mainly in children under 10 years old, but may occur in adults as well. HFMD is most common in children in child care settings, where diaper changing and potty training are constant and little hands are often in and out of the mouth frequently. Everyone is at risk for infection, but not everyone who is infected gets ill. Children are more likely to experience illness because they may not have immunity from a previous infection. Infection results in immunity to the specific virus, but a second episode may occur resulting from a different type of enterovirus. HFMD is more common in the summer and early autumn months. ...
During fall 2008, an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with onychomadesis (nail shedding) as a common feature occurred in Finland. We identified an unusual enterovirus type, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), as the causative agent. CVA6 infections may be emerging as a new and major cause of epidemic HFMD.
Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus that is responsible for several outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region over the past 15 years. Appropriate animal models are needed to understand EV71 neuropathogenesis better and to facilitate the development of effective vaccines and drugs. Non-human primate models have been used to characterize and evaluate the neurovirulence of EV71 after the early outbreaks in late 1990s. However, these models were not suitable for assessing the neurovirulence level of the virus and were associated with ethical and economic difficulties in terms of broad application. Several strategies have been applied to develop mouse models of EV71 infection, including strategies that employ virus adaption and immunodeficient hosts. Although these mouse models do not closely mimic human disease, they have been applied to determine the pathogenesis of and treatment and prevention of the disease. EV71 receptor-transgenic mouse models have recently been developed and
The mystery illness that has killed at least 52 children in Cambodia since April has been diagnosed as hand, foot and mouth disease ,according to the World Health Organization.. The virus, known as EV-71, is spread by sneezing, coughing and coming into contact with fluid from blisters or faeces from someone who is infected.. Hand, foot, and mouth disease is not related to the animal disease known as foot-and-mouth, Health officials say the two are caused by different viruses.. Julie Walker reports.. Duration: 220″. ...
Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: What You Can Do to Reduce Your Risk. From the spring to the fall seasons, Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease, a contagious viral illness, becomes more common. Caused by a combination of different viruses, HFMD largely affects infants and children under five years old; however, this does not mean that older children and adults are not at risk too. Although usually not a serious illness, symptoms typically begin as a general feeling of being unwell, such as a fever or …. [ Read More → ] ...
Hand foot and mouth disease is a relatively common childhood disease. It is rare for older children or adults to contract this virus. Symptoms include skin rashes, fever, and fatigue. As hand foot and mouth disease is a viral infection..
Attached is the full copy of a statement by Nick Brown, Minister of Agriculture, to the House of Commons today on the latest developments in the Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak. PARLIAMENTARY STATEMENT BY NICK BROWN I want to update the House on the latest position with regard to the foot and mouth disease outbreak. I also want to set out how the Government is taking forward disease control measures given our increased knowledge about how the disease has spread.
Hand, foot and mouth disease, more commonly known as HFMD, is a fairly mild but also highly contagious viral disease. HFMD usually affects infants and children. This usually occurs in small epidemics in nursery and kindergarten schools during the summer and autumn months. HFMD is also uncommon in infecting adults but may still be a possibility. HFMD is not related to the so-called Foot and Mouth Disease or FMD which is an infectious viral disease found in farm animals. CausesHFMD is caused by an...
Foot and mouth disease has an incubation period?At present the national epidemic of foot and mouth disease has an incubation period? | Information about your newborn baby: care up to one year old, pediatrics and pregnancy
Swine Foot and Mouth Disease ELISA kit, 192 tests Detect Ab (Serum)` Kit AE-200120-2 Swine Foot and Mouth Disease ELISA kit, 192 tests Detect Ab (Serum)` Kit AE-200120-2
Swine Foot and Mouth Disease IgG Distinguishing Test kit, 192 tests Kit AE-200125-2 Swine Foot and Mouth Disease IgG Distinguishing Test kit, 192 tests Kit AE-200125-2
Watery Mouth Disease Also known as: E. coli infection in lambs Watery mouth disease (WMD) is an important bacterial disease of neonatal lambs, especially in an intensive indoor situation.
You searched for: Exhibit Tags smoking Remove constraint Exhibit Tags: smoking Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Neoplasms Remove constraint Subject: Neoplasms Subject Mouth Diseases Remove constraint Subject: Mouth Diseases ...
MODEL RELEASED. Lesions forming a skin rash on the thigh in a two year old male patient with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFM). Caused by cocksackievirus (enterovirus) infection, HFM is a common disease in young children. - Stock Image C011/1828
A close relative of poliovirus, enterovirus 71 (EV71) is regarded as an important neurotropic virus of serious public health concern. EV71 causes Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease and has been associated with neurological complications in young children. Our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved in its neuropathogenesis has hampered the development of effective therapeutic options. Here, using a two-dimensional proteomics approach combined with mass spectrometry, we have identified a unique panel of host proteins that were differentially and dynamically modulated during EV71 infection of motor-neuron NSC-34 cells, which are found at the neuromuscular junctions where EV71 is believed to enter the central nervous system ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Medical conditions that cause shaking or tremors in the hand include brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, Parkinsons disease or an overactive thyroid, according to MedlinePlus. Other causes of tremors...
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious virus that causes painful mouth sores, fever and rashes on the hands and feet.
Do you have sores in your mouth and rash on your hands and feet? It could be hand, foot, and mouth disease. Treatment is available in Gatlinburg, TN.
Sometimes confused with foot and mouth (the disease that affects livestock), hand, foot and mouth disease is a completely different illness. Learn more.
We r all sick. Josh caught foot & mouth disease. Nahawa Bimby & me. I dont have the sores around the mouth or the rashes sa hands & feet but my fever went up to 40 last night. We r all taking Zoverax & Immunosin. Ang tibay the 3 yayas, Yaya A, Gerbel & Ruby. Di sila nahawa. Rare daw for an adult to get hawa but u know me -- lapitin ng sakit. Naka isolate kami for at least 1 week. ...
The first vaccine which protects children against hand, foot and mouth disease has been reported by scientists in China.The infection causes a rash and painful blisters, but in some cases results in brain infections which can be fatal.A trial involving 10,000 children, published in the Lancet, showed the vaccine was 90% effective against one virus which…
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease of cloven-hooved animals that causes lesions in the mouth and on the feet, alongside generalised illness. It affects cows, sheep, goats and pigs, and although they recover after a couple of weeks, it causes ...
A scare for many parents in Windsor Essex, as theres been an outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease at a number of area daycares.
The global foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine market size was valued at USD 1.5 billion in 2016 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.1% over the forecast period. Growing livestock population and increasing demand for animal products are some of the factors contributing to the increased adoption of these vaccines globally
Forty children in China died from the highly contagious hand, foot and mouth disease in March, almost doubling the death toll in the previous two months, state media reported.
TERMS OF REFERENCE. Terms of reference: To make recommendations for the way in which the Government should handle any future major animal disease outbreak, in the light of the lessons identified from the handling of the 2001 Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak in Great Britain.. The recommendations will be addressed to the Prime Minister and the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, and to the devolved administrations in Scotland and Wales.. Timetable: The Inquiry intends to complete its programme of work within 6 months and expects to submit its final report by mid-2002. If there are important emerging recommendations that should be passed to the Government sooner, the Inquiry will publish interim findings.. Chairman: Dr Iain Anderson CBE will conduct the Inquiry. ...
Foot and Mouth Disease is a highly contagious viral disease that mostly affects cattle and has very devastating socio-economic consequences if not timely controlled. Preliminary Investigation conducted by Veterinary experts from the Ministry indicate that a total number of 700 cattle are at immediate risk within the affected dip tank. However the investigations are still on going to establish the magnitude of spread and map the extent of the problem. ...
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a viral infectious disease. In Singapore, it is among those diseases for which cases occur throughout the year, and now, in the summer of 2013, it has also been spreading in Japan.
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a viral infection spread from close personal contact, through coughing or sneezing or touching shared surfaces.
infections~The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) discusses what exactly hand, foot, and mouth disease is, how to children cope with the discomfort it causes, and when to return to child care or school.
Hand, foot and mouth disease is usually seen in younger children aged two to four years old, and a Huntsville doctor has seen several cases in her waiting rooms.
Find out how Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease is diagnosed and treated. Plus, which children are most likely to get it, and where its most commonly caught.
The mechanism has been best studied for the enteroviruses (which include many human pathogens, such as poliovirus and coxsackie ... Enterovirus A Enterovirus B Enterovirus C Enterovirus D Enterovirus E Enterovirus F Enterovirus G Enterovirus H Enterovirus J ... Enteroviruses replicate at 37 °C, whereas rhinoviruses grow better at 33 °C, as this is the lower temperature of the nose. ... Enteroviruses infect the enteric tract, which is reflected in their name. On the other hand, rhinoviruses infect primarily the ...
These viruses include enterovirus 70 (EV70), human rhinovirus, coxsackievirus A21 and echovirus 1. Infectious clones of EV70 ... Humans are the only known natural host for poliovirus. The study of viral disease is therefore only feasible with the ... Mice producing the human CD155 protein were generated and infected with poliovirus. These mice exhibited all symptoms and ... Ren, R. B.; F. Costantini; E. J. Gorgacz; J. J. Lee; V. R. Racaniello (1990-10-19). "Transgenic mice expressing a human ...
The type species of the genus Enterovirus was changed from Poliovirus to (Human) Enterovirus C.[34] ... In 2008, the Poliovirus species was eliminated and the three serotypes were assigned to the species Human enterovirus C (later ... Poliovirus is structurally similar to other human enteroviruses (coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and rhinoviruses), which also ... Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV ...
"Ice as a reservoir for pathogenic human viruses: specifically, caliciviruses, influenza viruses, and enteroviruses". Medical ... Desonie, Dana (2008). Polar Regions: Human Impacts. New York: Chelsea Press. ISBN 978-0-8160-6218-8. .. ... The amount of carbon sequestered in permafrost is four times the carbon that has been released to the atmosphere due to human ... A direct infection from permafrost or ice to humans has not been demonstrated; such viruses are typically spread through other ...
"Human Enterovirus Species B in Ileocecal Crohn's Disease". Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology. 4 (6): e38. doi:10.1038 ... JC Virus and Simian Virus 40 Infection in Humans, and Association with Human Tumors". Polyomaviruses and Human Diseases. ... Di Luca, D; Zorzenon, M; Mirandola, P; Colle, R; Botta, GA; Cassai, E (1995). "Human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 in ... Atkinson, R L; Dhurandhar, N V; Allison, D B; Bowen, R L; Israel, B A; Albu, J B; Augustus, A S (2004). "Human adenovirus-36 is ...
Enterovirus 70 is a member of the genus of viruses called Enterovirus and family of the viruses Picornaviridae. Usually very ... AHC can only exist in a human host and is transmitted through human contact with an infected individual or object, such as a ... Enterovirus 70 infrequently causes polio-like permanent paralysis. The Coxsackievirus is another member of the genus of viruses ... called Enterovirus and family of the viruses Picornaviridae. Its isolation host is human. It is an antigenic variant of the ...
Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV ... 2004). "Enteroviruses". Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 535-7. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0. .. ... Poliomyelitis is caused by infection with a member of the genus Enterovirus known as poliovirus (PV). This group of RNA viruses ... "Poliomyelitis virus (picornavirus, enterovirus), after-effects of the polio, paralysis, deformations". Polio Eradication. ...
Coxsackie viruses belong to the Enteroviruses within the Picornaviridae.. Because FMD rarely infects humans, but spreads ... Infecting humansEdit. Humans can be infected with foot-and-mouth disease through contact with infected animals, but this is ... For human disease, see Hand, foot, and mouth disease.. Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphthae epizooticae) ... In the UK, the last confirmed human case occurred in 1966,[21][22] and only a few other cases have been recorded in countries ...
"Isolation and sequencing of a cDNA clone encoding the 85 kDa human lysosomal sialoglycoprotein (hLGP85) in human metastatic ... SCARB2 is a receptor for two viruses that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus ... Human LIMP-2 has a theoretical molecular weight of 54.3 kDa and is 478 amino acids in length. Though LIMP-2 was initially ... Lysosomal integral membrane protein 2 (LIMP-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCARB2 gene. LIMP-2 is expressed ...
"The cis-acting replication elements define human enterovirus and rhinovirus species". RNA. 14 (8): 1568-1578. doi:10.1261/rna. ... Cis-regulatory element List of cis-regulatory RNA elements Enterovirus cis-acting replication element and Enterovirus 5′ ... Potato virus X cis-acting regulatory element Human rhinovirus internal cis-acting regulatory element (CRE) Cordey, S; Gerlach, ...
Enteroviruses are among the most common and important human pathogens, and ordinarily its members are transmitted by the fecal- ... Ma E, Fung C, Yip SH, Wong C, Chuang SK, Tsang T (Aug 2011). "Estimation of the basic reproduction number of enterovirus 71 and ... "ICTV Taxonomy history: Enterovirus A". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Archived from the original on 6 ... "ICTV Taxonomy history: Human coxsackievirus A4". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 6 February ...
Viral meningitis Enterovirus (EV) caused meningitis. This is the most common cause of viral meningitis, with 90% of viral ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Mumps meningoencephalitis Mosquito carried viruses of the flavivirus family. Saint Louis ... In fact, 90 percent of all meningitis cases that are viral are caused by enteroviruses. Other viruses that may cause aseptic ... The most common cause of aseptic meningitis is a viral infection, specifically by enteroviruses. ...
Voroshilova MK (1989). "Potential use of nonpathogenic enteroviruses for control of human disease". Progress in Medical ... in human non-small cell lung cancer". Human Gene Therapy. 10 (18): 3013-29. doi:10.1089/10430349950016410. PMID 10609661. S2CID ... "Newly Identified Enterovirus C Genotypes, Identified in the Netherlands through Routine Sequencing of All Enteroviruses ... Pre-existing immunity can be partly avoided by using viruses that are not common human pathogens. However, this does not avoid ...
Berry LJ, Au GG, Barry RD, Shafren DR (2008). "Potent oncolytic activity of human enteroviruses against human prostate cancer ... Within the Picornaviradae family of viruses, Coxsackievirus A21 is a member of the Human enterovirus C species. The virus ... 2004). "Systemic therapy of malignant human melanoma tumors by a common cold-producing enterovirus, coxsackievirus a21". Clin ... 1 June 2005). "Oncolysis of vascular malignant human melanoma tumors by Coxsackievirus A21". Int J Oncol. 26 (6): 1471-6. doi: ...
Sinovac is also developing vaccines for enterovirus 71 and human rabies. Its wholly owned subsidiary, Tangshan Yian, is ... manufacture and commercialization of vaccines that protect against human infectious diseases. The company is based in Haidian ...
... and human parainfluenza viruses have variable peaks depending on the specific strain. Enteroviruses, with the exception of ... Influenza, Human orthopneumovirus (RSV), and human coronaviruses are more prevalent in the winter. Human bocavirus and Human ... Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2019. "Antibiotics". nhs.uk. 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2020-11-19. " ... Bacteria are unicellular organisms present on Earth can thrive in various environments, including the human body. Antibiotics ...
2013). "Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses in influenza-like illness in Latin America". Virol. J. 10: 305. doi:10.1186/1743- ... audio) Enterovirus D68 and Paralysis (2014-10-03). "Enterovirus D68 and Paralysis". The Disease Daily/Outbreak News/Healthmap. ... members of the enterovirus D and enterovirus A species, respectively, as suspected causes. Some evidence supports a causal role ... In response to the suggestion that the enterovirus might be taking over the role of polio, Nath said that EV-D68 was far less ...
Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957, and in 1958 it was selected, in competition with the live vaccines of Koprowski ... 2004). "Enteroviruses". Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 535-7. ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0. Katz SL, ... It may also be spread by food or water containing human feces and less commonly from infected saliva. Those who are infected ... Poliomyelitis is caused by infection with a member of the genus Enterovirus known as poliovirus (PV). This group of RNA viruses ...
"Ice as a reservoir for pathogenic human viruses: specifically, caliciviruses, influenza viruses, and enteroviruses". Medical ... The amount of carbon sequestered in permafrost is four times the carbon that has been released to the atmosphere due to human ... A direct infection from permafrost or ice to humans has not been demonstrated; such viruses are typically spread through other ... Caliciviruses, influenza A, and enteroviruses (ex. Polioviruses, echoviruses, Coxsackie viruses) have all been preserved in ice ...
FMDV does not cross over or infect humans but is extremely infectious within cloven-hoofed animals. Foot and mouth disease 3C ... Picornain 3C is encoded by enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, aphtoviruses and cardioviruses. These genera of picoviruses cause a ... Picornavirus 3C protease's infectivity and proteolytic effects is what leads picornavirus to cause pathogenicity in humans and ... Coxsackievirus belongs to the Picornaviridae family and Enterovirus genus. Coxsackievirus is shed through stool and bodily ...
Ooi, Mong How (2007). "Human Enterovirus 71 Disease in Sarawak, Malaysia: A Prospective Clinical, Virological, and Molecular ... He is also an expert on enterovirus 71, which causes hand foot and mouth disease and encephalitis. He works on improving the ... Ooi, Mong How (2010). "Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of enterovirus 71". The Lancet Neurology. 9 (11): 1097-1105 ... Solomon, Tom (2010). "Virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of enterovirus 71" (PDF). The Lancet Infectious ...
... enterovirus infections, as coxsackievirus B, could protect against onset and development of type 1 diabetes. Enteroviruses ... but to date there is no evidence to support this hypothesis in humans. A 2004 systematic review analyzing a possible ... "Enteroviruses" SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Del Bigio, Marc; Herath, Jayantha; Menticoglou, Savas; Schneider, Carol; ... Coxsackie B4 Virus are enteroviruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. These viruses can be found worldwide. They are ...
Such untreated runoff has caused contamination by E. coli and Enterovirus, making the water unsafe for human contact. The ...
Human water-borne diseases usually come from other humans, thus human-derived materials (feces, medical waste, wash water, lawn ... and enterovirus. In less developed countries there may be risks from cholera and dysentery organisms and a range of tropical ... In general, more human activity up stream (i.e. the larger the stream/river) the greater the potential for contamination from ... For example, human excreta should be buried well away (>60 meters/200 feet) from water sources to reduce contamination. In some ...
Human rhinovirus A Human rhinovirus B 2005.265V.04 To assign the following species to the genus Enterovirus in the family ... Human rhinovirus C to the genus Enterovirus. 2008.084V.A.HRV-C-Sp 2008.084V To create a new species named Human rhinovirus C in ... Human rhinovirus can remain activated for up to three hours outside of a human host. Once the virus is contracted, a person is ... Human rhinoviruses preferentially grow at 32 °C (89 °F), notably colder than the average human body temperature of 37 °C (98 °F ...
... the human enterovirus that was tested binds much more strongly to human DAF than to mouse or rat DAF. Echoviruses and coxsackie ... and DAF-Fc has yet to be tested in humans. Binding of DAF to human HIV-1 when the virons are budding from the surface of ... protects human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from inactivation by human complement". Eur J Immunol. 25 (1): 285-90. doi:10.1002 ... Complement decay-accelerating factor, also known as CD55 or DAF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CD55 gene. DAF ...
Viruses that can cause meningitis include: Enteroviruses Enterovirus 71 Echovirus Poliovirus (PV1, PV2, PV3) Coxsackie A virus ... Meningitis can be an indication that an individual with HIV is undergoing seroconversion, the time when the human body is ... "1998-Enterovirus Outbreak in Taiwan, China-update no. 2". WHO. "1997-Viral meningitis in Gaza". WHO. "1996-Viral meningitis in ... The most common causes of viral meningitis in the United States are non-polio enteroviruses. The viruses that cause meningitis ...
SET domain containing 3 (SETD3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SETD3 gene. It is a methyl transferase implicated ... A mouse line deficient in SETD3 expression was shown to be immune to enterovirus infection. This could pave the way for the ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Actin-histidine N- ... December 2019). "Enterovirus pathogenesis requires the host methyltransferase SETD3". Nature Microbiology. 4 (12): 2523-2537. ...
Shehadeh N, Shamir R, Berant M, Etzioni A (2001). "Insulin in human milk and the prevention of type 1 diabetes". Pediatric ... including enteroviruses (especially coxsackievirus B), cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, mumps virus, rubella virus and ... enterovirus infections, as coxsackievirus B, could protect against onset and development of type 1 diabetes.[92] ... "Reversal of diabetes with insulin-producing cells derived in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells". Nature Biotechnology. 32 ...
The type species of the genus Enterovirus was changed from Poliovirus to (Human) Enterovirus C. The primary determinant of ... In 2008, the Poliovirus species was eliminated and the three serotypes were assigned to the species Human enterovirus C (later ... Poliovirus is structurally similar to other human enteroviruses (coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and rhinoviruses), which also ... Although humans are the only known natural hosts of poliovirus, monkeys can be experimentally infected and they have long been ...
Genus Enterovirus, mit Species Coxsackie-Virus, Poliovirus - en. Enterovirus C, sowie den Rhinoviren - en. Rhinovirus A, B, C,… ... Genus Lymphocryptovirus (mit Species Human herpesvirus 4, en. Human gammaherpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), syn. Epstein-Barr-Virus (EBV)) ... Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), sowie Avianes Metapneumovirus - en. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). *Genus Orthopneumovirus, mit ... Genus Mastadenovirus (mit den Species Human mastadenovirus (Humane Adenoviren) A bis G) ...
Sequencing and Analyses of All Known Human Rhinovirus Genomes Reveals Structure and Evolution,url=,journal=Science,language=en, ... enterovirus,enteroviruse]] të tjera nga rinoviruset, [[ Viruse të parainfluenzës njerëzore,viruset parainfluenza]] [[ ...
Herpesvirus: Cytomegalovirus,[17] Epstein Barr virus,[18] Varicella zoster virus, Human herpesvirus 6, Human herpesvirus 7 ve ... Bondarenko VI, Zadorozhnaia VI (March 1992). "[The role of enteroviruses in the etiology of diseases of the pancreas, kidneys ... Arcay L (May 2001). "[Human microsporidiosis]". Invest Clin (Spanish; Castilian). 42 (Suppl 1), s. 3-42. PMID 11416983.. KB1 ... Atías A (June 1995). "[Update on microsporidiosis in humans]". Rev Med Chil (Spanish; Castilian). 123 (6), s. 762-72. PMID ...
... human respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, Enteroviruses, and metapneumovirus.[12] Frequently, more than one virus is ... It binds to human ICAM-1 receptors through unknown methods to trigger the release of inflammatory mediators.[27] These ... Human parainfluenza virus typically results in inflammation of the nose, throat, and airways.[29] In young children, when it ... The common cold is the most common human disease[54] and people are affected all around the world.[16] Adults typically have ...
Enterovirus)(68型~)等60餘型,近年來又陸續發現多種型別,依據基因序列分析結果將之重新歸類,分為人類腸病毒A、B、C、D(Human enterovirus A、B、C、D)型,其中腸病毒71型被歸類於人類腸病毒A型。 在所有腸病毒中,除 ... Enterovirus B. Enterovirus C. Enterovirus D. Enterovirus E. Enterovirus F. Enterovirus G. Enterovirus H. Enterovirus J. ... 腸道病毒(Enterovirus)又稱腸病毒,是一種主要寄生於腸道
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis is a highly contagious disease caused by one of two enteroviruses, enterovirus 70 and ... of Health & Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. p. 112. ISBN 978-0990449119.. ... Lévêque N, Huguet P, Norder H, Chomel JJ (April 2010). "[Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis]". Med ... Infection by human adenovirus accounts for 65% to 90% of cases of viral conjunctivitis.[13] ...
B20-B24) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease[संपादित करें]. *(B20.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting ... B97.1) Enterovirus as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters *Coxsackievirus ... B24.) Unspecified Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Disease. (B25-B34) Other viral diseases[संपादित करें]. *(B25.) ... B21.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease Resulting in malignant neoplasms *(B21.0) HIV disease resulting in Kaposi's ...
Human excreta (feces, urine, blood and other bodily fluids) often mixed with used toilet paper or wet wipes; this is known as ... Viruses (for example hepatitis A, rotavirus, enteroviruses),. *Protozoa (for example Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, ... If the wastewater contains human feces, as is the case for sewage, then it may also contain pathogens of one of the four types: ... Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been contaminated by human use. Wastewater is "used water from any ...
Eastern Equine encephalitis virus vaccine for humans[7]. *Ebola vaccine[8]. *Enterovirus 71 vaccine[9] ... Human vaccines[edit]. Viral diseases[edit]. Virus. Diseases or conditions. Vaccine(s). Brands ... "Human Vaccines. 7 (11): 1192-1197. doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.17017. PMC 3323497 . PMID 22048120.. ... "Human Vaccines. 7 (11): 1225-1233. doi:10.4161/hv.7.11.18203. PMC 3323498 . PMID 22205439.. ...
In humans, deficiencies in the gene products necessary for HRR during meiosis likely cause infertility.[10] In humans, ... Muslin C, Mac Kain A, Bessaud M, Blondel B, Delpeyroux F. Recombination in Enteroviruses, a Multi-Step Modular Evolutionary ... Galetzka D, Weis E, Kohlschmidt N, Bitz O, Stein R, Haaf T. Expression of somatic DNA repair genes in human testes. J Cell ... The resulting recombinant viruses may sometimes cause an outbreak of infection in humans.[20] ...
Viruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis.[2] Most cases of viral meningitis are caused by enteroviruses (common ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); causes AIDS. *La Crosse virus. *Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) ... The most common causes of viral meningitis in the United States are non-polio enteroviruses. The viruses that cause meningitis ...
Throughout history, humans adapted to a diet by living off the land. Today, humans maintain the same genes that have been ... "Diabetes and enterovirus autoimmunity in glacial Europe." Med.Hypotheses. 52: 423-429. O'Keefe, J.H. and L. Cordain. 2004. " ... The human body adapted over time to crave calorie-dense foods and to store energy efficiently because our ancestors did not ... In the case of humans, the result is a "Paleolithic" genome, which is not adapted to today's environment and is contributing to ...
Nontyphoidal serotypes can be transferred from animal-to-human and from human-to-human. They usually invade only the ... Typhoidal serotypes can only be transferred from human-to-human, and can cause food-borne infection, typhoid fever, and ... Typhoidal serotypes include Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, which are adapted to humans and do not occur in other ... Salmonella species can be found in the digestive tracts of humans and animals, especially reptiles. Salmonella on the skin of ...
Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services. *Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related ...
Safety, Reactogenicity, and Immunogenicity of Human Rotavirus Vaccine RIX4414 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Infants ... Rao VC, Seidel KM, Goyal SM, Metcalf TG, Melnick JL (1 de agosto de 1984). «Isolation of enteroviruses from water, suspended ... Human Vaccines. 6 (7): 532-42. PMC 3322519. . PMID 20622508. doi:10.4161/hv.6.7.11278. !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de ... Human Vaccines. 7 (7): 734-48. PMID 21734466. doi:10.4161/hv.7.7.15511. !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) ...
Re-‬‬Emerging Human Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers: ‭ ‭A Review. ‬‬‬American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology‭ 201‭6‬‬ ... Polio eller poliomyelitis forårsages af poliovirus, en lille Enterovirus C med en proteinkappe og et genom af +ssRNA på 7.500 ... Livmoderhalskræft forårsages af HPV, human papillomavirus, en lille DNA oncovirus med en proteinkappe og et genom af cirkulært ... chicken pox) og Helvedesild forårsages af Varicella zoster virus, VZV, Human alphaherpesvirus 3, HHV-3, se en:Varicella zoster ...
Human body parts[edit]. Main article: Traditional Chinese medicines derived from the human body ... Human placenta has been used an ingredient in certain traditional Chinese medicines,[145] including using dried human placenta ... "There are 365 days in the year, while humans have 365 joints [or acu-points]... There are 12 channel rivers across the land, ... it offers explanations on the relation between humans, their environment, and the cosmos, on the contents of the body, on human ...
... but this does not allow a manufacturer to claim that pure hydrochloric acid is fit for human consumption. ...
Biological contamination refers to food that has been contaminated by substances produced by living creatures, such as humans, ... Institute strives primarily to understand important biological triggering mechanisms and improve assessment methods of human ...
The complete set of viruses in an organism or habitat is called the virome; for example, all human viruses constitute the human ... Role of recombination in evolution of enteroviruses. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2005;15(3):157-67. doi:10.1002/rmv.457. PMID ... zur Hausen H. Novel human polyomaviruses-re-emergence of a well known virus family as possible human carcinogens. International ... Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus can lead to tropical spastic paraparesis and adult T-cell leukaemia.[181] Human ...
"Human organ and tissue transplantation". WHO. Retrieved 23 September 2010.. *^ "Draft guiding principles on human organ ... on human organ transplants in 1987[37] which resulted in the WHO Guiding Principles on Human Organ Transplantation being ... China, illegal trade in human body parts : hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred ... a b HUMAN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION - A Report on Developments Under the Auspices of WHO (1987-1991), page 7, World Health ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection One of the Human papillomaviruses Human parainfluenza virus infection Human parainfluenza ... Enterovirus infection Enterovirus species Epidemic typhus Rickettsia prowazekii Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease) Parvovirus ... Cervical cancer, vulvar cancer & Genital warts (condyloma), Penile cancer, Anal cancer (Human papillomavirus (HPV)) ... Human bocavirus infection Human bocavirus (HBoV) Human ewingii ehrlichiosis Ehrlichia ewingii Human granulocytic anaplasmosis ( ...
2004). "Enteroviruses". Sherris Medical Microbiology (4ª ed.). McGraw Hill. pp. 535-7. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.. ... Cashman NR, Covault J, Wollman RL, Sanes JR (1987). "Neural cell adhesion molecule in normal, denervated, and myopathic human ... A poliomielite está provocada pola infección cun membro do xénero enterovirus denominado poliovirus (PV). Este grupo de virus ... "Poliomyelitis virus (picornavirus, enterovirus), after-effects of the polio, paralysis, deformations". Polio Eradication. ...
Viral Infections of Humans: Epidemiology and Control. Plenum Press. pp. 865-92. ISBN 978-0-306-44855-3.. ... and Enterovirus Infections" (PDF). Clinical Infectious Diseases, the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2008.. ... Kennedy PG (2002). "Varicella-zoster virus latency in human ganglia". Rev. Med. Virol. 12 (5): 327-34. doi:10.1002/rmv.362. ... 1992). "Herpes zoster and human immunodeficiency virus infection". J. Infect. Dis. 166 (5): 1153-56. doi:10.1093/infdis/166.5. ...
Viruses that cause meningitis include enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus (generally type 2, which produces most genital sores ... or cross-react with normal human proteins.[51][53] Still, some countries (New Zealand, Cuba, Norway and Chile) have developed ... enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 2 and mumps in those not vaccinated for this).[20] Serology (identification of antibodies to ... Viral meningitis is typically caused by enteroviruses, and is most commonly spread through fecal contamination.[50] The risk of ...
Solecki, D.; Gromeier, M.; Mueller, S.; Bernhardt, G.; Wimmer, E. (2002). "Expression of the human poliovirus receptor/CD155 ... "A direct interaction between proteins 2CATPase and VP3 is required for enterovirus morphogenesis". PLoS Pathogens. 6 (8): ... has now been developed by Matthias Gromeier at Duke University for the treatment of human glioma. ...
TABLE 1. Nonpolio enterovirus and human parechovirus reports to the National Enterovirus Surveillance System (NESS), by type ... TABLE 2. Fifteen enterovirus and human parechovirus types most frequently reported to the National Enterovirus Surveillance ... Abbreviations: EV = enterovirus; HPeV = human parechoviruses; NESS = National Enterovirus Surveillance System; NREVSS = ... Enterovirus and Human Parechovirus Surveillance - United States, 2009-2013. Glen R. Abedi, MPH1; John T. Watson, MD1; Huong ...
2007) Enterovirus 94, a proposed new serotype in human enterovirus species D. J Gen Virol 88:849-858. ... 2002) Human rhinovirus 87 and enterovirus 68 represent a unique serotype with rhinovirus and enterovirus features. J Clin ... Molecular basis for the acid-initiated uncoating of human enterovirus D68. Yue Liu, Ju Sheng, Arno L. W. van Vliet, Geeta Buda ... Molecular basis for the acid-initiated uncoating of human enterovirus D68. Yue Liu, Ju Sheng, Arno L. W. van Vliet, Geeta Buda ...
RN Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)-one of many non-polio enteroviruses-was initially isolated in California in 1962, from four ... Documentation Tip: Human Enterovirus D68 was last modified: November 4th, 2014 by John Verhovshek ... Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)-one of many non-polio enteroviruses-was initially isolated in California in 1962, from four children ... Pallansch, M.A & Roos,R.P. (2001). Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsakieviruses, echoviruses, band newer enteroviruses. In ...
Recently, two human transmembrane proteins, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 ... Among HEV-A, coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth ... Among HEV-A, coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth ... two human transmembrane proteins, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), ...
Enterovirus C, Human: A species of Enterovirus infecting humans and containing 11 serotypes, all coxsackieviruses. ...
Enterovirus D, Human: A species of Enterovirus infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human ...
Human enterovirus 71 uncoating intermediate captured at atomic resolution ... Human enterovirus 71 uncoating captured at atomic resolution.. Lyu, K., Ding, J., Han, J.F., Zhang, Y., Wu, X.Y., He, Y.L., Qin ... Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand-foot-and-mouth diseases (HFMD) in young children, and ... Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand-foot-and-mouth diseases (HFMD) in young children, and ...
Binding to Decay-Accelerating Factor Is Not Required for Infection of Human Leukocyte Cell Lines by Enterovirus 70 Alain Haddad ... Enterovirus 70 Binds to Different Glycoconjugates Containing α2,3-Linked Sialic Acid on Different Cell Lines M. Reza Nokhbeh, ... Crystal Structure and Thermostability Characterization of Enterovirus D68 3Dpol Chunnian Wang, Caiyan Wang, Qing Li, Zhong Wang ... Enterovirus 70 Receptor Utilization Is Controlled by Capsid Residues That Also Regulate Host Range and Cytopathogenicity ...
Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase is an IFN-γ-inducible entry factor for Enterovirus. ... Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase is an IFN-γ-inducible entry factor for Enterovirus. ... Expression of hWARS is also required for productive infection by other human enteroviruses, including the clinically important ... Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) receptors that have been identified to date cannot fully explain the pathogenesis of EV-A71, which is ...
Enteroviruses of the human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs) (e.g., coxsackie B viruses [CVBs] and echoviruses) have been ... Enteroviruses, particularly human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs), such as coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs), are ... Modulation of innate immunity in human pancreatic islets infected with enterovirus in vitro. J Med Virol 2011;83:658-664pmid: ... Cytokine and Chemokine Production by Human Pancreatic Islets Upon Enterovirus Infection. Barbara M. Schulte, Kjerstin H.W. ...
Computer model showing the human enterovirus 71 mature virion capsid glycoprotein VP1 (red) complexed with Fab fragments of the ... Caption: Human enterovirus 71 complexed with antibody D5. Computer model showing the human enterovirus 71 mature virion capsid ... enterovirus, ev71, fab, glycoprotein, human, illustration, molecular model, molecular structure, molecule, monoclonal, nobody, ...
Human enterovirus 71 has caused outbreaks in many parts of the world, especially Southeast Asia, with some fatal cases. The ... Seroprevalence rate of anti-Human Enterovirus 71 (HEV71) antibodies. *Figure 2. Geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-Human ... Human enterovirus 71 has caused outbreaks in many parts of the world, especially Southeast Asia, with some fatal cases. The ... Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is an emerging concern in many parts of the world. It has caused several large outbreaks, ...
Development of a transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction method for specific detection of human enterovirus 71 ... Development of a Transcription-Reverse Transcription Concerted Reaction Method for Specific Detection of Human Enterovirus 71 ... Development of a Transcription-Reverse Transcription Concerted Reaction Method for Specific Detection of Human Enterovirus 71 ... Development of a Transcription-Reverse Transcription Concerted Reaction Method for Specific Detection of Human Enterovirus 71 ...
RNA enteroviruses. Of 12 enterovirus species, serotype representatives of the four human enteric species (enterovirus A-D) such ... Efficacy of Inactivation of Human Enteroviruses by Multiple-Wavelength UV LEDs. Contact. National Risk Management Research ... Presenting the efficacy of inactivation of four human enteroviruses by multiple-wavelength UV LEDs in American Society for ... Efficacy of Inactivation of Human Enteroviruses by Multiple-Wavelength UV LEDs. Presented at American Society of Microbiology ...
Human enterovirus 71 has caused outbreaks in many parts of the world, especially Southeast Asia, with some fatal cases. The ... Seroepidemiology of Human Enterovirus 71, Singapore Eng-Eong Ooi*. , Meng-Chee Phoon†, Baharudin Ishak†, and Soh-Ha Chan† ... Geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-Human Enterovirus 71 (HEV71) antibody with 95% confidence intervals in children of different ... Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the ...
Detection and rapid differentiation of human enteroviruses following genomic amplification. Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Detection and rapid differentiation of human enteroviruses following genomic amplification.. M M Kuan ... This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ...
High prevalence of human enterovirus a infections in natural circulation of human enteroviruses. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:4095- ... Frequency of human enterovirus before development of autoimmunity. The frequency of human enterovirus RNA in stool samples ... Testing for human enterovirus RNA was performed in duplicate in 20-μl-volume one-step real-time RT-PCR with a primer-probe ... Quantity of human enterovirus RNA. The effect of viral load was assessed by dividing the positivity into two categories: low to ...
The utilization of the chebulagic acid treatment on mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 was able to ... Chebulagic acid may represent a potential therapeutic agent to control infections to enterovirus 71. ... Human enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. ... Human enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. ...
... Ylipaasto, P. ... We hypothesised that enterovirus infection induces a specific gene expression pattern that results in islet destruction and ... gene expression and secreted cytokine profiles induced by lytic or benign enterovirus infections were studied in primary human ... More likely the combined effect of these and possibly cellular energy depletion lie behind the enterovirus-induced necrosis of ...
Inhibitory activity against Human Enterovirus 71 (4643) C using plaque reduction assay. ...
... and human parechoviruses (HPeV) are endemic worldwide. These infections are a constant cause of hospitalisation and severe ... Presence of human non-polio enterovirus and parechovirus genotypes in an Amsterdam hospital in 2007 to 2011 compared to ... Presence of human non-polio enterovirus and parechovirus genotypes in an Amsterdam hospital in 2007 to 2011 compared to ... Enteroviruses (EV) and human parechoviruses (HPeV) are endemic worldwide. These infections are a constant cause of ...
Contemporary Circulating Enterovirus D68 Strains Have Acquired the Capacity for Viral Entry and Replication in Human Neuronal ... Contemporary Circulating Enterovirus D68 Strains Have Acquired the Capacity for Viral Entry and Replication in Human Neuronal ... Contemporary Circulating Enterovirus D68 Strains Have Acquired the Capacity for Viral Entry and Replication in Human Neuronal ... Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has historically been associated with respiratory illnesses. However, in the summers of 2014 and 2016 ...
Enterovirus Enterovirus Infections EV-C104 Female Genotype Human Enterovirus Humans Infant Infant, Newborn Letter Letters To ... We assessed neurologic sequelae associated with an enterovirus 71 (EV71) outbreak in South Korea during 2009. Four of 94 ...
We describe a model of Enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis in 2-week-old mice that shares many features with the human central ... Mice were infected via oral and parenteral routes with a murine-adapted virus strain originally from a fatal human case. The ...
... a range of different enterovirus serotypes circulate in human populations. The evolution of enteroviruses occurs through ... Enteroviruses are members of the family Picornaviridae that cause widespread infections in human and other mammalian ... Frequency and Dynamics of Recombination within Different Species of Human Enteroviruses. Peter Simmonds, Jon Welch ... In future work, it will be of value to carry out more structured sampling of enterovirus variants in human populations over ...
Systemic Therapy of Malignant Human Melanoma Tumors by a Common Cold-Producing Enterovirus, Coxsackievirus A21. Darren R. ... Next we assessed whether common human enteroviruses other than CAV21, which also use a cell receptor complex consisting of DAF ... Experimental Design: The oncolytic capacity of a genetically unmodified wild-type common cold-producing human enterovirus ( ... Systemic Therapy of Malignant Human Melanoma Tumors by a Common Cold-Producing Enterovirus, Coxsackievirus A21 ...
Cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 negatively regulates enterovirus and human rhinovirus infections. J Virol 87:10423-10434. doi: ... human rhinovirus [HRV]); and hand, foot, and mouth disease (enterovirus 71 [EV71]), among other illnesses. There are no ... Enterovirus 2Apro targets MDA5 and MAVS in infected cells. J Virol 88:3369-3378. doi:10.1128/JVI.02712-13. ... Human airway epithelial cells produce IP-10 (CXCL10) in vitro and in vivo upon rhinovirus infection. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol ...
... outbreak caused by enterovirus 71 in Linyi City, Shandong Province, China during November 30 to December 28, 2010. One hundred ... From: An atypical winter outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with human enterovirus 71, 2010 ...
Introduction: Molecular studies have confirmed the silent circulation of enterovirus (EntV) and hepatitis A virus in the ... Assessment of the risk for human health of Enterovirus and Hepatitis A virus in clinical and water sources from three ... Identification of 20 common human enterovirus serotypes by the use of a reverse transcription-PCR-based reverse line blot ... Improved detection systems for TT virus reveal high prevalence in humans, non-human primates and farm animals. J Gen Virol. ...
... cross-reactivity of enterovirus capsid protein (VP1) antibodies with human mitochondrial proteins. Hansson, Sara F. ... but not on isolated human islets infected in vitro with enteroviruses, could be blocked after mixing the clone 5-D8/1 with the ... Collectively, our data show that the clone 5-D8/1 detects two human mitochondrial enzymes in addition to enteroviral VP1. The ... These findings call for revisiting the presence of enteroviruses in pancreatic islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. ...
  • Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emerging pathogen that primarily causes childhood respiratory infections and is linked to neurological diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Although most enterovirus infections are asymptomatic, particular clinical manifestations are associated with specific types of enteroviruses ( Pallansch and Roos, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Enterovirus infections are common and usually mild, yet severe infections where virus spreads to pancreas, brain, and heart do occur. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Chebulagic acid may represent a potential therapeutic agent to control infections to enterovirus 71. (mdpi.com)
  • We hypothesised that enterovirus infection induces a specific gene expression pattern that results in islet destruction and that such a host response pattern is not shared among all enterovirus infections but varies between virus strains. (diva-portal.org)
  • Methods The changes in global gene expression and secreted cytokine profiles induced by lytic or benign enterovirus infections were studied in primary human pancreatic islet using DNA microarrays and viral strains either isolated at the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes or capable of causing a diabetes-like condition in mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Enteroviruses are members of the family Picornaviridae that cause widespread infections in human and other mammalian populations. (asm.org)
  • The evolution of novel circulating recombinants of enteroviruses may therefore potentially lead to changes in disease associations or severity in naturally occurring enterovirus infections in humans. (asm.org)
  • The enteroviruses cause between 10 and 15 million symptomatic infections in the U.S. each year, ranging in severity from the common cold to overwhelming neonatal sepsis and death. (asmscience.org)
  • The role of human leukocytes as a target for enterovirus infections was studied in this report. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Outbreaks of enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated CNS infections have recently been reported in Asia, Australia, and Europe. (kowsarpub.com)
  • More than 90% of infections caused by the nonpolio enterovirus are asymptomatic or result only in an undifferentiated febrile illness. (medscape.com)
  • Enteroviruses are a group of ubiquitous viruses that cause a number of infections which are usually mild. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common enterovirus infections appear to initiate or facilitate the pathogenetic processes leading to type 1 diabetes, and sometimes also precipitate the clinical disease. (nih.gov)
  • It is not known in detail how enterovirus infections bring about the loss of insulin-producing beta-cells, a phenomenon characteristic of the disease. (nih.gov)
  • Recent results from studies on pancreases from human autopsies and cultured human islets support the idea that during systemic enterovirus infections, the virus may reach pancreatic islets and cause direct beta-cell damage. (nih.gov)
  • If the association holds true then it would be possible to reduce the risk of developing type 1 diabetes by preventing enterovirus infections with a multivalent enterovirus vaccine that could be given to children soon after birth. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously observed an inverse correlation between the incidence of type 1 diabetes and enterovirus infections in the background population. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to analyse whether maternal enterovirus antibody status, which reflects both the frequency of enterovirus infections and the protection conferred by the mother on the offspring, also correlates with the incidence of type 1 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Enterovirus infections are common in all age groups. (springer.com)
  • The group of enteroviruses comprises more than 60 serotypes and the infections are usually asymptomatic or mild flu-like diseases. (springer.com)
  • As there are limited treatment options for EV71, there is a high mortality rate of 30-40% during even the acute stages of infection.Enterovirus 71 infections eventually involve the CNS and often lead to cardiopulmonary failure, causing the prognosis to be extremely low. (news-medical.net)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate whether enterovirus infections predict progression to type 1 diabetes in genetically predisposed children repeatedly positive for islet autoantibodies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For many years, viral infections have been suspected to play a role, but the specific etiologic agent(s) in human type 1 diabetes remains elusive. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In an attempt to evaluate for the first time whether such a general model of disease progression rather than initiation by enteroviruses applies to human type 1 diabetes, we tested whether enteroviral infections predict progression to type 1 diabetes in children repeatedly positive for islet autoantibodies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Rhoades RE , Tabor-Godwin JM , Tsueng G , Feuer R . Enterovirus infections of the central nervous system. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Despite significant advances in health care, outbreaks of infections by enteroviruses (EVs) continue to plague the Asia-Pacific region every year. (ox.ac.uk)
  • During the course of viral infections, the human body produces neutralizing antibodies which play a defining role in clearing the virus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To study enterovirus infections, we tested 24,093 clinical specimens (nasopharyngeal swab, sputum, and alveolar lavage fluid) from patients with RTIs that were reported through RVSS during June 2014-December 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC researchers have developed a reverse transcription/semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-snPCR) assay for diagnosis of enterovirus infections within clinical specimens. (nih.gov)
  • Enterovirus infections, although commonly asymptomatic, may also be associated with a wide range of clinical diseases including hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis. (mja.com.au)
  • This necessitates the need for assays that can detect and resolve enterovirus co-infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, in a polio-free world, where there might be reduced funding for enterovirus surveillance, assays are needed that can in one swoop detect and resolve enterovirus co-infections, including different poliovirus types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virological diagnosis of enterovirus type 71 infections: experiences gained during an epidemic of acute CNS diseases in Hungary in 1978. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Infection control guidelines for hospitalized patients with EV-D68 infection should include standard precautions, and contact precautions in certain situations, as is recommended for all enteroviruses. (aapc.com)
  • Hyperexpression and plasma membrane translocation of hWARS were observed in IFN-γ-treated semipermissive (human neuronal NT2) and cDNA-transfected nonpermissive (mouse fibroblast L929) cells, resulting in their sensitization to EV-A71 infection. (jci.org)
  • Expression of hWARS is also required for productive infection by other human enteroviruses, including the clinically important coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and EV-D68. (jci.org)
  • The aim of this study was to gain insight into the cytokines and chemokines that are produced by human pancreatic islets upon infection with CVBs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To this end, we studied the response of human islets of Langerhans upon mock or CVB3 infection. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our data represent the first comprehensive overview of inflammatory mediators that are secreted by human islets of Langerhans upon CVB infection and may shed light on the role of enteroviruses in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Enteroviruses, particularly human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs), such as coxsackie B viruses (CVBs) and echoviruses (EVs), are implicated as environmental factors, and a recent meta-analysis confirms that there is a clinically significant association between enterovirus infection and autoimmunity/type 1 diabetes ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Microarray studies previously have been performed on CVB-infected human islets of Langerhans ( 7 , 8 ), yet a detailed analysis of cytokine production and secretion upon enterovirus infection in human islets is lacking. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study, we set out to investigate production and secretion of a broad range of cytokines and chemokines to gain further insight into the inflammatory processes that are initiated in human islets of Langerhans upon HEV-B infection. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conclusions/interpretation The results suggest a distinct, virusstrain- specific, gene expression pattern leading to pancreatic islet destruction and pro-inflammatory effects after enterovirus infection. (diva-portal.org)
  • Primary infection with an enterovirus leads to viral replication in the tissue around the gastrointestinal tract, followed by a transient viremia and sometimes migration into other tissues ( 2 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Results: In vitro studies established that human melanoma cells endogenously express elevated levels of ICAM-1/DAF and were highly susceptible to rapid viral oncolysis by CAV21 infection, whereas ICAM-1/DAF-expressing peripheral blood lymphocytes were refractile to infection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 acts as a restriction factor during infection by picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and human rhinovirus. (asm.org)
  • Salient organizing principles for understanding the epidemiology of enterovirus infection and disease include evolutionary and adaptational strategies, the interaction of the virus with its human host and the environment, and characteristic modes of transmission. (asmscience.org)
  • The spectrum of enteroviral infection and disease can be better understood and categorized according to epidemiologic features that include modes of transmission as well as evolutionary-adaptational aspects of the relationships between the viral agents, their human hosts, and the environment. (asmscience.org)
  • Human parechovirus (HPeV) and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) are commonly acquired in the first six months of life and associated with central nervous system infection. (confex.com)
  • In vitro infection set-ups using human skeletal muscle and colon cell lines were designed to assess the antiviral effect of the probiotic bacteria during entry and post-entry steps of the infection cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Washington state will likely join the list too: As of Thursday morning, Seattle and King County Public Health announced that Seattle Children's Hospital is investigating a "cluster of patients with severe respiratory illness who tested positive for a possible enterovirus infection. (parentmap.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the association between enterovirus D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis during the 2014 enterovirus D68 respiratory outbreak in the USA. (nih.gov)
  • Formalin-inactivated vaccine provokes cross-protective immunity in a mouse model of human enterovirus 71 infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A murine oral enterovirus 71 infection model with central nervous system involvement. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Pathogenicity of a poliomyelitis-like disease in monkeys infected orally with enterovirus 71: a model for human infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The state health department said there are more than 100 strains of enterovirus with 10 to 15 million cases every year in the U.S. The infection typically occurs seasonally during the summer and fall. (fox59.com)
  • Which physical findings are characteristic of enterovirus infection? (medscape.com)
  • Researchers at the Center for Infection and Immunity at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, provide new evidence supporting an association between elevated levels of enteroviruses in the intestinal tracts of children and islet autoimmunity, a precursor to Type 1 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • Using immature stem cells to create a miniature model of the gut in the laboratory, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and the University of Pittsburgh have determined how infection-causing enteroviruses enter the intestine. (news-medical.net)
  • For example, "both bovine and human lactoferrins were found to be potent inhibitors of EV71 infection" and "ribavirin could be a potential anti-EV71 drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annual probability of enterovirus 71 infection among children 2-15 years of age, Cambodia, by geographic quadrant, 1994-2011. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings are in line with our previous observations supporting the hypothesis that a low frequency of enterovirus infection in the background population increases the susceptibility of young children to the diabetogenic effect of enteroviruses. (springer.com)
  • Rarely, enteroviruses cause severe infection, such as meningitis or myocarditis. (springer.com)
  • Protection against enterovirus infection depends mainly on neutralising antibodies. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this review was to summarize the epidemiology, clinical pictures, and virology of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. (openepidemiologyjournal.com)
  • Enterovirus 71 (otherwise known as EV71), is an infection which first ravaged parts of Malaysia in 1997. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on July 08, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Enterovirus-71-Infection.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • CONCLUSIONS This novel observation suggests that progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes may increase after an enterovirus infection characterized by the presence of viral RNA in blood. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Studies with murine Min6 insuloma cells, which were also efficiently phagocytosed, revealed that increased ISG expression in DCs upon encountering CVB-infected cells resulted in an antiviral state that protected DCs from subsequent enterovirus infection. (ru.nl)
  • We report a case of enterovirus C105 infection in an 11-year-old girl with lower respiratory tract symptoms that was identified through the Respiratory Virus Surveillance System, which covers 30 sentinel hospitals in all 16 districts of Beijing, China. (cdc.gov)
  • 6 months, and children who had mother who worked as farmers, daily wage employees, and unprofessional skilled jobs had a greater chance of enterovirus infection than those who had unemployed mothers. (springer.com)
  • To report the findings of the enhanced surveillance set up in New South Wales in response to the recent outbreak of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. (mja.com.au)
  • Children aged less than 10 years with suspected or confirmed enterovirus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • In early March 2013, paediatricians practising in the northern beaches area of Sydney alerted their public health unit (PHU) to an increase in the number of young children presenting with severe neurological manifestations of enterovirus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • The PHU issued alerts to clinicians and the local community, and the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network circulated advice to clinical staff on diagnosing and managing patients with suspected neurological complications of enterovirus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • Also in March 2013, New South Wales Health issued a statewide media release and alerts to general practitioners, emergency departments (EDs), paediatricians and neurologists, and established an enhanced surveillance system focusing on children with severe enterovirus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • However, we [ 7 ] have recently shown that the assay lacks the capacity to resolve enterovirus types present in cases of co-infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fatal enterovirus type 71 infection: rapid detection and diagnostic pitfalls. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Among HEV-A, coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, two human transmembrane proteins, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2), were identified as functional receptors for EV71 and CVA16. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of severe hand-foot-and-mouth diseases (HFMD) in young children, and structural characterization of EV71 during its life cycle can aid in the development of therapeutics against HFMD. (rcsb.org)
  • In this work, the antiviral activity of two commercially available probiotics, namely Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis ( L. reuteri Protectis) and Lactobacillus casei Shirota ( L. casei Shirota), was assayed against Coxsackieviruses and Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the main agents responsible for HFMD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Safety and immunogenicity of a novel human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase I clinical trial. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Enterovirus 71 (EV71), also known as Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), is a virus of the genus Enterovirus in the Picornaviridae family, notable for its role in causing epidemics of severe neurological disease and hand, foot, and mouth disease in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic reproductive number (R0) for enterovirus 71 (EV71) was estimated to a median of 5.48 with an interquartile range of 4.20 to 6.51. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to Picornaviridae family. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we showed that human intestinal epithelial cells HT-29 were susceptible to EV71, and the infected cells exhibited cytopathic effects (CPEs) and were prone to apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Our study has demonstrated a unique way of antiviral responses in human gut different from other tissue cells in response to EV71, which may account for mild symptoms in intestinal tract. (elsevier.com)
  • Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), for which there are currently no therapeutics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • From this study, we report two new, highly potent neutralizing antibodies, A9 and D6, against enterovirus 71 (EV71), the causative agent of HFMD. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our previous studies have shown that vitamin A (VA) status is associated with antiviral immunity and pathogenic conditions in enterovirus 71 (EV71)-infected children. (cambridge.org)
  • In the present study, we established an in vitro model to investigate the effects and potential mechanism of the antiviral activity of VA. Human monocytic U937 cells were cultured in vitro and infected with EV71. (cambridge.org)
  • Yao, Kun 2012-04-01 00:00:00 Enterovirus 71(EV71) causes recurring outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease and encephalitis leading to complications or death in young children. (deepdyve.com)
  • Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major cause of HFMD worldwide and, in the past 15 years, has caused large outbreaks in South-East Asia associated with severe neurological disease and deaths. (mja.com.au)
  • Enterovirus type 71 (EV71), one of the etiologic agents of epidemic hand, foot, a disease (HFMD), has been associated with febrile rash illness, aseptic meningitis encephalitis, and a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis similar to that caused by [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] (1,2). (acronymfinder.com)
  • The genus Enterovirus within family Picornaviridae , non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome of positive polarity, is comprised of more than 100 serotypes ( Pallansch and Roos, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Enteroviruses are genetically and antigenically highly variable, and recombination within and between serotypes contributes to their genetic diversity. (asm.org)
  • At any one time point, a range of different enterovirus serotypes circulate in human populations. (asm.org)
  • Molecular methods have enabled the rapid identification of new enterovirus (EV) serotypes that would have been untypable using existing neutralizing antisera. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Nucleotide sequences encoding the VP1 capsid protein (882-888 nt) are less than 65 % identical to the homologous sequences of the recognized human EV serotypes, but within each group the sequences are more than 78 % identical. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Serologic studies have distinguished 71 human enterovirus serotypes on the basis of antibody neutralization tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although individual enteroviruses (EV) exhibited differences in their beta-cell tropism in the cultured human islets, all serotypes studied contained highly destructive strains. (nih.gov)
  • Human enteroviruses (EV) consist of more than 100 serotypes classified within four species for enteroviruses (EV-A to -D) and three species for rhinoviruses, which have been implicated in a variety of human illnesses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The common human viruses, human enteroviruses (EV), consist of more than 100 serotypes most classified within four species for enteroviruses (EV-A to -D) and three species for rhinoviruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because almost all EV serotypes have a conserved 5′ nontranslated region, the use of PCR with primers from this region offers a means of identifying the majority of EVs that infect humans by using a single assay ( 6 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Enteroviral RNA in serum or rectal swabs was detected using reverse transcriptase PCR with primers specific for the conserved 5′ noncoding region, detecting essentially all enterovirus serotypes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A total of 93 human EV strains belonging to 45 different serotypes were identified, far exceeding the number of strains and serotypes found in similar samples in previous studies. (cdc.gov)
  • To identify the serotypes of the untypeable enterovirus-like viruses by a method other than the neutralization assay, the partial VP1 sequences of the untypeable strains was determined by the use of primer pairs 012 and 011 or 040 and 011 as described by Oberste et al. (sld.cu)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect human enterovirus and identify its serotypes. (springer.com)
  • The assay primers were designed for broad specificity and amplify all recognized enterovirus serotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Of 12 enterovirus species, serotype representatives of the four human enteric species (enterovirus A-D) such as coxsackievirus A10 (CVA10), echovirus 30 (Echo30), poliovirus 1 (PV1), and enterovirus 70 (EV70) respectively were selected as testing RNA viruses. (epa.gov)
  • The oncolytic capacity of a genetically unmodified wild-type common cold-producing human enterovirus (Coxsackievirus A21, CAV21) was assessed against in vitro cultures and in vivo xenografts of malignant human melanoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite great similarity in the structure and replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CBV3), echovirus 1 (EV1), and poliovirus 1 (PV1), the ability of these viruses to infect human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and B (Raji), T (Molt-4) and monocytic (U-937) cell lines differed markedly. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Other enteroviruses such as CA6, CA7, CA10, CA14 and coxsackievirus type B strain 2 (CB2) may also associate with the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6)-associated North American enterovirus outbreak of 2011-2012 was evaluated. (medscape.com)
  • Whole genome sequence analysis revealed the virus to be a genomic chimera that likely arose from recombination between coxsackievirus B3 and two recently identified enteroviruses, EV 86 and EV97. (scripps.edu)
  • Exceptions were enterovirus A71, coxsackievirus B4, echovirus 14, and echovirus 30, which diversified in 2017-2018. (bvsalud.org)
  • RESULTS: In this study, we show that both mock- and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-infected human and porcine pancreatic islets were efficiently phagocytosed by human monocyte-derived DCs. (ru.nl)
  • among these children, 56.1% were positive for enterovirus-A (EV-A), 17.7% were positive for coxsackievirus (CV), and 26.2% were positive for other human RNA enteroviruses. (springer.com)
  • Water-soluble Au 102 ( para -mercaptobenzoic acid) 44 clusters, functionalized by maleimide linkers to target cysteines of viral capsid proteins, were synthesized and conjugated to enteroviruses echovirus 1 and coxsackievirus B3. (pnas.org)
  • Enteroviruses (EVs) and human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are small, non-enveloped RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which are known or suspected to cause a spectrum of clinical manifestations in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Enteroviruses of the human enterovirus B species (HEV-Bs) (e.g., coxsackie B viruses [CVBs] and echoviruses) have been implicated as environmental factors that trigger/accelerate type 1 diabetes, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae is a group of nonenveloped RNA viruses that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and other mammals. (asm.org)
  • Enteroviruses were originally classified as polioviruses, coxsackie type A or B viruses (CVA and CVB), or echoviruses ( e nteric c ytopathic h uman o rphan viruses), depending on the infectious properties of the virus, such as its pathogenicity in mice. (asm.org)
  • Kowada K, Takeuchi K, Hirano E, Toho M, Sada K. Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of human enteric viruses other than norovirus using samples collected from gastroenteritis patients in Fukui Prefecture, Japan. (aaem.pl)
  • Partial 3D sequences were more closely related to those of simian EVs than to human viruses in HEV-A. These results suggest that the four new types may represent a new subgroup within HEV-A, in addition to the existing human and simian subgroups. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although enteroviruses cause a great variety of diseases including meningitis, paralysis and myocarditis, the life-cycle of these viruses in man is still quite poorly understood. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Human enteroviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans. (pasteur.fr)
  • Enteroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses whose replication involves the synthesis of negative strand intermediates. (pasteur.fr)
  • Enterovirus is a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of their pathogenesis in humans and animals, the enteroviruses were originally classified into four groups, polioviruses, Coxsackie A viruses (CA), Coxsackie B viruses (CB), and echoviruses, but it was quickly realized that there were significant overlaps in the biological properties of viruses in the different groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the 81 non-polio types, there are 22 Coxsackie A viruses, 6 Coxsackie B viruses, 28 echoviruses, and 25 other enteroviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enteroviruses are members of the picornavirus family, a large and diverse group of small RNA viruses characterized by a single positive-strand genomic RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two overlapping fragments were produced using a newly designed degenerated primer targeting the conserved CRE region for enteroviruses A-D and one degenerated primer set designed to specifically target the conserved region for each enterovirus species (EV-A to -D). This method was capable of sequencing the full genome for all viruses except two, for which nearly 90% of the genome was sequenced. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enteroviruses are non-enveloped viruses, approximately 7500 nucleotides (nt) in length with a positive, single-stranded RNA genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enteroviruses are small RNA viruses that cause diseases with various symptoms ranging from mild to severe. (mdpi.com)
  • Three viruses isolated from chimpanzees grouped with human isolate EV-A89 and four (four chimpanzees, one gorilla) represented a newly identified type, EV-A119. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While several viruses have been linked to type 1 diabetes, seroepidemiology, histopathology, animal studies, and in vitro experiments have provided the strongest overall evidence for enteroviruses, although results have been somewhat conflicting and not conclusive ( 2 - 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Viruses are microscopic organisms that survive and multiply inside living hosts, such as animals and humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Viruses are minuscule - 45,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But while there are many types of viruses in the world, only some are known to cause illness in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes is a chronic endocrine disorder in which enteroviruses, such as coxsackie B viruses and echoviruses, are possible environmental factors that can trigger or accelerate disease. (ru.nl)
  • Enteroviruses are small, nonenveloped RNA viruses that cause illnesses in humans ranging from mild to severe ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 1.6%) adults were positive for enterovirus or other respiratory viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • 10 Viruses other than poliovirus were tested in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays using pan-enterovirus and pan-poliovirus primers. (sld.cu)
  • These nonenveloped viruses contain numerous clinically important human pathogens belonging to coxsackie viruses, echoviruses, and polioviruses. (pnas.org)
  • Because there are more than 200 viruses that cause the common cold, the human body can never build up resistance to all of them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Polio is caused by person-to-person transmission of polio viruses (enteroviruses, three main types). (medicinenet.com)
  • The viruses are only spread human to human by direct and indirect contact. (medicinenet.com)
  • Enteroviruses are a group of viruses that include the polioviruses (viruses that cause polio) along with other types of viruses called coxsackieviruses and echoviruses. (medicinenet.com)
  • Rhinoviruses (viruses that cause the common cold) are the most common viruses infecting humans. (medicinenet.com)
  • The second most common viruses infecting humans are the non-polio enteroviruses (all the members of this virus group excluding the polio-causing viruses). (medicinenet.com)
  • Because polio viruses survive only in humans and are transmitted only by human contact, the World Health Organization (WHO) is trying to eradicate polio worldwide. (medicinenet.com)
  • Of six coding polymorphisms in the clade B1 enterovirus D68 polyprotein, five were present in neuropathogenic poliovirus or enterovirus D70, or both. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of the enteroviruses and the classification of poliovirus among them. (medscape.com)
  • Historically, poliomyelitis was the most significant disease caused by an enterovirus, namely poliovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • L20B is a transgenic mouse cell line that expresses the human poliovirus receptor on the surface (CD155). (sld.cu)
  • Furthermore, the CD155 receptor is not shared with other enteroviruses, thus making L20B cells highly specific for poliovirus isolation. (sld.cu)
  • 11,12 Enterovirus isolates, i.e., pan-enterovirus RT-PCR-positive but pan-poliovirus RT-PCR-negative isolates, were taken for virus neutralization tests using Lim-Benyesh-Melnick serum pools A to H for the identification of enterovirus. (sld.cu)
  • There is therefore the need to ensure that enterovirologist globally, especially those outside the global polio laboratory network, can participate in poliovirus surveillance without neglecting their enterovirus type of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More importantly, it piggy-backs on the first round PCR product of the WHO recommended assay and consequently ensures that enterovirologists interested in nonpolio enteroviruses can continue their investigations, and contribute significantly and specifically to poliovirus surveillance, by using the excess of their first round PCR product. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, these structures enabled the identification of hot spots for capsid rearrangements, which led to the hypothesis that the protomer interface near the junction and the 2-fold axis permits the opening of large channels for the exit of polypeptides and viral RNA, which is an uncoating mechanism that is likely conserved in enteroviruses. (rcsb.org)
  • The utilization of the chebulagic acid treatment on mice challenged with a lethal dose of enterovirus 71 was able to efficiently reduce mortality and relieve clinical symptoms through the inhibition of viral replication. (mdpi.com)
  • Contemporary Circulating Enterovirus D68 Strains Have Acquired the Capacity for Viral Entry and Replication in Human Neuronal Cells. (jcvi.org)
  • Contemporary Circulating Enterovirus D68 Strains Have Acquired the Capacity for Viral Entry and. (jcvi.org)
  • We demonstrate that AUF1 knockdown in human cells results in increased viral translation, RNA synthesis, and virus production. (asm.org)
  • Enteroviruses were recovered from 40%, 28.57% and 33.33% of river water polluted with sewage samples in Lahore, Islamabad and Rawalpindi, respectively, while the presence of 13.13% and 11.76% of viral load was also confirmed in the drinking water of Lahore and Rawalpindi, respectively. (aaem.pl)
  • In a hospital setting, you can do a viral study to find out if a child has an enterovirus. (parentmap.com)
  • We investigated the cause of these cases by metagenomic next-generation sequencing, viral genome recovery, and enterovirus D68 phylogenetic analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Virosensor diagnosis4 Virosensor (structural chip-based optosensing virus probing system), which is for the rapid and sensitive detection of viral antigen in medical samples, will be used for analyzing the interaction kinetics between anti-influenza-virus (or anti-Enterovirus 71-virus) and its influenza virus antigen (or Enterovirus 71 antigen) present in patients'and normal samples. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Enteroviruses appear to be the most common viral cause of myopericarditis and account for at least half of all cases of acute myopericarditis. (medscape.com)
  • We report a case of fatal myocarditis in a newborn infant who was infected with a human enterovirus detected by throat culture and RT-PCR for viral RNA in plasma. (scripps.edu)
  • Being able to simultaneously amplify the whole genome and identify enteroviruses in samples is important for studying the viral diversity in different geographical regions and populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enterovirus proteins are translated as a single polyprotein, which is cleaved by viral proteases to release capsid and nonstructural proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we report a success in labeling enteroviruses by atomically precise thiol-stabilized gold clusters with 1.5-nm metal cores that bind, via a covalent link, to cysteines that are close to the viral surface. (pnas.org)
  • As of August 2015, a total of 16 HPeV types and 118 EV types (within four EV species known to infect humans: A, B, C, and D) had been identified, and the spectrum of illness caused differed among virus types ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Human enterovirus species A (HEV-A) is one of the four species of HEV in the genus Enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae . (frontiersin.org)
  • Consistently, human pancreatic islets can be infected with several different species of enteroviruses in vitro ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To investigate the dynamics of the recombination process, sequence phylogenies between three regions of the genome (VP4, VP1, and 3Dpol) were compared among species A and B enterovirus variants detected in a human population-based survey in Scotland between 2000 and 2001, along with contemporary virus isolates collected in the same geographical region. (asm.org)
  • Species B enteroviruses showed much more frequent, time-correlated recombination events than those found for species A, despite the equivalence in population sampling, concordant with a linkage analysis of previously characterized enterovirus sequences obtained over longer collection periods. (asm.org)
  • Together, these findings provide new insights into the dynamics of species A and B enterovirus recombination and evolution and into the contribution of structured sampling to documenting reservoirs, emergence, and spread of novel recombinant forms in human populations. (asm.org)
  • Using the proposed molecular typing scheme, these data support their identification as four new types within the species Human enterovirus A (HEV-A). In almost all cases, the VP1 sequences were more similar to those of some simian EVs than to the human EVs. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Enteroviruses 76, 89, 90 and 91 represent a novel group within the species Human enterovirus A. J Gen Virol . (medscape.com)
  • Molecular identification of 13 new enterovirus types, EV79-88, EV97, and EV100-101, members of the species Human Enterovirus B. Virus Res . (medscape.com)
  • This virus is a member of the enterovirus species A. Species A was formerly assigned to the genus Rhinovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, the enterovirus species EV-A, EV-B, EV-C, EV-D have not been observed so far to exchange genomic regions among them, with the exception of the 5'UTR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using purified calpains 1 and 2 in an in vitro assay, we show that addition of calpains leads to an increase in the release of VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins from P1 of enterovirus B species, detected by western blotting. (mdpi.com)
  • These species A virus types overlapped with those circulating in human populations in the same area. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The remaining six strains comprised a new species D type, EV-D120, infecting one chimpanzee and four gorillas, and a single EV variant infecting a bonobo that was remarkably divergent from other EVs and potentially constitutes a new enterovirus species. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fifteen species of enterovirus are known, 7 of which are known to infect humans. (cdc.gov)
  • These species include enterovirus A-D and rhinovirus A-C ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • There are 13 species in the genus Enterovirus (EV) (family Picornaviridae, order Picornavirales). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Polioviruses (alongside other nonpolio enteroviruses [NPEVs]) belong to species C and are the prototype members of the genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enteroviruses belong to a large family of picornaviridae, which are about 30- to 35-nm icosahedral bionanoparticles consisting of a protein capsid without a lipid envelope ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belongs to a group of enteroviruses that contain a single positive-sense RNA genome surrounded by an icosahedral capsid. (pnas.org)
  • We identified an IFN-γ-inducible EV-A71 cellular entry factor, human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (hWARS), using genome-wide RNAi library screening. (jci.org)
  • This analysis used novel bioinformatic methods to quantify phylogenetic compatibility and correlations with serotype assignments of evolutionary trees constructed for different regions of the enterovirus genome. (asm.org)
  • The enterovirus genome is a single strand of positive-sense RNA of approximately 7,500 nucleotides (nt) comprising a long open reading frame flanked 5′ and 3′ by untranslated regions (UTRs). (asm.org)
  • Identification of a novel GC-rich 113-nucleotide region to complete the circular, single-stranded DNA genome of TT virus, the first human circovirus. (aaem.pl)
  • Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3'-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All enteroviruses contain a genome of approximately 7,500 bases and are known to have a high mutation rate due to low-fidelity replication and frequent recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picornaviruses are responsible for a range of human and animal diseases, but how their RNA genome is packaged remains poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • One child with acute flaccid myelitis and a sibling with only upper respiratory illness were both infected by identical enterovirus D68 strains. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, a recombination analysis of ~3000 Enterovirus genomes identified many recombination events where one of the recombination partners has not been sequenced yet, thus revealing that there exists a large, yet undetected enterovirus genetic reservoir that may lead to new recombination events and the emergence of new strains, genotypes and pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to results of enterovirus phylogenetic analysis, remicroneutralization tests using in house monospecific rabbit antiserum were performed to confirm the serotype of the untypeable strains. (sld.cu)
  • RT-PCR, nucleotide, amino acid and phylogenetic analyses of enterovirus type 71 strains from Asia. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has historically been associated with respiratory illnesses. (jcvi.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Picornaviruses primarily infect the gastrointestinal or upper respiratory tracts of humans and animals and may disseminate to tissues of the central nervous system, heart, skin, liver, or pancreas. (asm.org)
  • Enterovirus D68 was implicated in a widespread outbreak of severe respiratory illness across the USA in 2014 and has also been reported sporadically in patients with acute flaccid myelitis. (nih.gov)
  • 48 patients were included: 25 with acute flaccid myelitis, two with enterovirus-associated encephalitis, five with enterovirus-D68-associated upper respiratory illness, and 16 with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis who tested positive for enterovirus. (nih.gov)
  • Enterovirus D68 was detected in respiratory secretions from seven (64%) of 11 patients comprising two temporally and geographically linked acute flaccid myelitis clusters at the height of the 2014 outbreak, and from 12 (48%) of 25 patients with acute flaccid myelitis overall. (nih.gov)
  • The virus, known as enterovirus D68 or EV-D68 is a respiratory ailment that causes fever, cough, runny nose, sneezing and body aches. (fox59.com)
  • Enteroviruses affect millions of people worldwide each year and are often found in the respiratory secretions (e.g., saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) and stool of an infected person. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Transmission of enteroviruses can occur directly by the faecal-oral route, from contaminated environmental sources, or by respiratory droplet transmission. (mja.com.au)
  • Human enterovirus 71 has caused outbreaks in many parts of the world, especially Southeast Asia, with some fatal cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists have identified the cause of outbreaks of enterovirus, one of the most prevalent types of virus in the world. (news-medical.net)
  • Enterovirus 71 outbreaks, Taiwan: occurrence and recognition. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Enteroviruses have also been implicated in the etiology of chronic diseases such as inflammatory myositis, diabetes mellitus, dilated cardiomyopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and post-poliomyelitis muscular atrophy. (asmscience.org)
  • The neuropathy of paralytic diseases caused by enteroviruses is due to direct cellular destruction. (medscape.com)
  • Human enteroviruses have been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including the common cold, hand foot and mouth disease, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis, myocarditis, encephalitis, and poliomyelitis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although there is a severe lack of treatments available for Enterovirus 71, the China Food and Drug Administration approved the world's first Enterovirus 71 vaccine on December 3rd 2015, which has been shown to prevent severe cases of hand, foot and mouth diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Palacios G , Oberste MS . Enteroviruses as agents of emerging infectious diseases. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Human enteroviruses (EVs) are highly prevalent in sewage and have been associated with human diseases with complications leading to severe neurological syndromes. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular studies have confirmed the silent circulation of enterovirus (EntV) and hepatitis A virus in the environment, even in the absence of clinical manifestation. (aaem.pl)
  • Molecular epidemiology promises new insights into the origin, evolution, and prevention of human enteroviruses. (asmscience.org)
  • The molecular basis of mouse adaptation by human enterovirus 71. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The enterovirus molecular diagnostic test is prepared in a kit form, consisting of three reagent preparations (three separate test steps), to which a technician adds enzymes and RNA extracted from a clinical specimen. (nih.gov)
  • The enteroviruses are leading causes of meningitis, encephalitis, poliomyelitis, myocarditis, and nonspecific febrile illnesses of newborns and young infants. (asmscience.org)
  • Here we report the atomic structure of one such virus, Ljungan virus, the type member of the genus Parechovirus B, which has been linked to diabetes and myocarditis in humans. (nature.com)
  • Ljungan virus (LV), a picornavirus originally isolated from voles, has been proposed as a zoonotic virus, potentially associated with type-1 diabetes mellitus, myocarditis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans 9 . (nature.com)
  • Staining on islets of Langerhans from subjects with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, but not on isolated human islets infected in vitro with enteroviruses, could be blocked after mixing the clone 5-D8/1 with the mitochondrial proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • In conclusion, we show that cellular proteases, calpains, can cleave structural proteins from enterovirus polyprotein in vitro. (mdpi.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In vitro phagocytosis of human or porcine primary islets or Min6 mouse insuloma cells by DCs was investigated by flow cytometry and confocal analysis. (ru.nl)
  • Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) receptors that have been identified to date cannot fully explain the pathogenesis of EV-A71, which is an important global cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease and life-threatening encephalitis. (jci.org)
  • The evidence for involvement of enterovirus in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis comes predominantly from the Finnish population ( 4 - 6 ), whereas a study from Colorado ( 7 ) and one from Germany ( 8 ) did not find any significant association. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The exact pathogenesis in human beings is, so far, unclear. (news-medical.net)
  • The genus enteroviruses includes enteroviruses and rhinoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)-one of many non-polio enteroviruses-was initially isolated in California in 1962, from four children with pneumonia and bronchiolitis. (aapc.com)
  • Janes V A , Minnaar R , Koen G , van Eijk H , Dijkman-de Haan K , Pajkrt D , Wolthers K C , Benschop K S . Presence of human non-polio enterovirus and parechovirus genotypes in an Amsterdam hospital in 2007 to 2011 compared to national and international published surveillance data: a comprehensive review. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Studies from the Asia Pacific region suggest a link with non-polio enteroviruses. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the association between non-polio enterovirus and acute encephalopathy causing neurological morbidity in children. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • Non-polio enteroviruses and chikugunya virus were found not to be the etiologic agent responsible for the convulsion with neurologic morbidity observed in the Ghanaian children. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • A major review by UNSW Sydney medical researchers has identified strong evidence that a virus called Enterovirus D68 is the cause of a mystery polio-like illness that has paralysed children in the US, Canada and Europe. (news-medical.net)
  • Enterovirus 71 infrequently causes polio-like syndrome permanent paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 81 non-polio and 3 polio enteroviruses that can cause disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and seasonal distribution of polio and other enteroviruses at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Naples, Southern Italy, from January 2010 to December 2014. (elsevier.com)
  • Among the 140 non-polio enterovirus isolated from inlet sewage, 69.3% were Coxsackieviruses type B and 30.7% were Echoviruses. (elsevier.com)
  • Alternate PCR assays separated polio and nonpolio enteroviruses. (aappublications.org)
  • Nonpolio enteroviruses may be a significant cause of fever and hospitalization in infants ≤3 months of age. (aappublications.org)
  • 6 In addition, nonpolio enteroviruses have been detected in infants at low risk for SBI twice as often as those determined to be at high risk. (aappublications.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all enterovirus D68 sequences associated with acute flaccid myelitis grouped into a clade B1 strain that emerged in 2010. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma samples collected from blood donors over 7 calendar months were tested anonymously in mini-pools of 95 donations, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human enterovirus and parechovirus sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Enterovirus sequences were not detected in factor VIII or IX clotting factor concentrates. (nih.gov)
  • The evolutionary role of recombination in the generation of enterovirus genomes is discussed in detail in this chapter. (asmscience.org)
  • RNA recombination appears to be a major driving force in the evolution of enteroviruses as well as in the shaping of their genetic architecture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rashid M, Khan MN, Jalbani N. Detection of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus, and Enterovirus in Tap Water and Their Association with the Overall Quality of Water in Karachi, Pakistan. (medscape.com)
  • While there is no preventive vaccine or medicine to treat enteroviruses directly, medical attention is needed if there is difficulty breathing or if there are significant changes in condition , such as if a child initially only shows mild cold symptoms then suddenly begins wheezing or coughing in an alarming way. (parentmap.com)
  • Scientists at the University of Tampere and the Karolinska Institutet have demonstrated that an enterovirus vaccine can protect against virus-induced diabetes in a mouse model for Type 1 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
  • Use of single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to study the cellular complexity of the human cerebral cortex, vaccine responses, and the development of multiple sclerosis. (jcvi.org)
  • Human enterovirus 71 complexed with antibody D5. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Computer model showing the human enterovirus 71 mature virion capsid glycoprotein VP1 (red) complexed with Fab fragments of the monoclonal antibody D5 (green, blue). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Geometric mean titer (GMT) of anti-Human Enterovirus 71 (HEV71) antibody with 95% confidence intervals in children of different age groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody prepared against a recombinant form of the human interferon beta protein was purified from clone A7 hybridoma supernatant by protein G affinity chromatography. (atcc.org)
  • Aloe induces interferon and inhibits Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) and Enterovirus 71 (E71) replication. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Human enterovirus 71 is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease in children under six years of age. (mdpi.com)
  • We describe a model of Enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis in 2-week-old mice that shares many features with the human central nervous system (CNS) disease. (ovid.com)
  • The human protein, prohibitin, may be used by the virus to enter motor neurons and cause the neurological complications of hand, foot and mouth disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Human enteroviruses (HEVs) occur in high concentrations in wastewater and can contaminate receiving environmental waters, constituting a major cause of acute waterborne disease worldwide. (elsevier.com)
  • It is the most common infectious disease in humans and is mainly caused by coronaviruses or rhinoviruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a common causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Outbreak of neurologic enterovirus type 71 disease: a diagnostic challenge. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Clinical laboratories currently identify enteroviruses by virus isolation and subsequent virus neutralization tests, or serological assays. (nih.gov)
  • These findings call for revisiting the presence of enteroviruses in pancreatic islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Phagocytosis of enterovirus-infected pancreatic beta-cells triggers innate immune responses in human dendritic cells. (ru.nl)
  • The goal of this study was to investigate the interaction between enterovirus-infected human pancreatic islets and human DCs. (ru.nl)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Human DCs can phagocytose enterovirus-infected pancreatic cells and subsequently induce innate antiviral responses, such as induction of RLHs. (ru.nl)
  • Roivainen, M. / Enterovirus-induced gene expression profile is critical for human pancreatic islet destruction . (vtt.fi)
  • Development of a transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction method for specific detection of human enterovirus 71 from clinical specimens. (nih.gov)
  • Rahimi P, Roohandeh A, Sohrabi A, Mostafavi E, Bahram Ali G. Impact of Human Enterovirus 71 Genotypes in Meningoencephalitis in Iran, Jundishapur J Microbiol. (kowsarpub.com)
  • A novel outbreak enterovirus D68 strain associated with acute flaccid myelitis cases in the USA (2012-14): a retrospective cohort study. (nih.gov)
  • The National Enterovirus Surveillance System (NESS) is a passive surveillance system that has been collecting laboratory data on types of EV and HPeV in the United States since the 1960s. (cdc.gov)
  • Environmental Surveillance through Next-Generation Sequencing to Unveil the Diversity of Human Enteroviruses beyond the Reported Clinical Cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • The enhanced enterovirus surveillance system had two arms. (mja.com.au)
  • More likely the combined effect of these and possibly cellular energy depletion lie behind the enterovirus-induced necrosis of islets. (diva-portal.org)
  • Phagocytosis of CVB3-infected, but not mock-infected, human and porcine islets resulted in induction of ISGs in DCs, including the retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like helicases (RLHs), RIG-I, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (Mda5). (ru.nl)
  • cDNA synthesis and detection of human enteroviruses (HEVs) was performed as previously described ( 15 - 18 ). (kowsarpub.com)
  • Cell culture-based detection of enteroviruses is of limited practical use because of slow turnaround time (3.7 to 8.2 days) and limited sensitivity. (aappublications.org)
  • Seroprevalence rate of anti-Human Enterovirus 71 (HEV71) antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Maternal enterovirus antibodies were analysed from serum samples taken from pregnant women between 1983 and 2001 in Finland and Sweden using enzyme immunoassay and neutralisation assays. (springer.com)
  • Enteroviruses (EV) and human parechoviruses (HPeV) are endemic worldwide. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • We have measured the frequency of viraemia of enteroviruses and parechoviruses in 83 600 Scottish blood donors to allow an initial assessment of their risk to blood safety. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, the findings presented herein demonstrate an important proof of principle using administration of replication-competent CAV21 as a potential biological oncolytic agent in the control of human metastatic melanoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Enterovirus receptors and virus replication in human leukocytes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mice were infected via oral and parenteral routes with a murine-adapted virus strain originally from a fatal human case. (ovid.com)
  • Improved detection systems for TT virus reveal high prevalence in humans, non-human primates and farm animals. (aaem.pl)
  • Their prevalence in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infants tested for enterovirus (EV) and herpes-simplex virus (HSV) is unknown. (confex.com)
  • We modified the capsid protein of a human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) belonging to subgenogroup C4 (HEV71-C4) to generate a mouse virulent strain, based on the genetic information derived from our previous subgenogroup B3 mouse-adapted virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mutations in VP2 and VP1 capsid proteins increase infectivity and mouse lethality of enterovirus 71 by virus binding and RNA accumulation enhancement. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • To develop a real-time diagnostic technique with Virosensor for Enterovirus 71 and Influenza Virus detection, the investigators conduct a prospective clinical study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In comparison with results from direct sequencing of Enterovirus 71 and Influenza Virus, the investigators evaluate the performance of virosensor , including reproducibility, sensitivity, specificity, and cross-reaction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With such technique, the investigators hope to make early diagnosis and give Enterovirus 71 and Influenza Virus patients early treatment to reduce the complications and case-fatality rate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pleconaril interferes with enterovirus attachment and uncoating by binding to the virus protein capsid. (medscape.com)
  • These advances allow for future investigations of the structure−function relations of enteroviruses and enterovirus-related virus-like particles, including their entry mechanisms into cells and uncoating in cellular endosomes. (pnas.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus vaccines 30. (ebay.co.uk)
  • Vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons 69. (ebay.co.uk)
  • This method also demonstrated the ability to discriminate, in both spiked and unspiked mixtures, the different enterovirus types present. (frontiersin.org)
  • Western blotting, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry were used to identify human islet proteins bound by the clone 5-D8/1. (diva-portal.org)
  • Laajala M, Hankaniemi MM, Määttä JAE, Hytönen VP, Laitinen OH, Marjomäki V. Host Cell Calpains Can Cleave Structural Proteins from the Enterovirus Polyprotein. (mdpi.com)
  • Enteroviruses are important pathogens in infants, but their true contribution to febrile illness in infants ≤90 days old is unknown. (aappublications.org)
  • Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is an emerging concern in many parts of the world. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, we developed a rapid, sensitive method to detect and genetically classify all human enteroviruses in mixtures. (frontiersin.org)
  • The study demonstrates both the circulation of genetically divergent EV variants in apes and monkeys as well as those shared with local human populations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Deep metagenomic sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid from 14 patients with acute flaccid myelitis did not reveal evidence of an alternative infectious cause to enterovirus D68. (nih.gov)
  • We compared patients with acute flaccid myelitis who were positive for enterovirus D68 with those with acute flaccid myelitis but negative for enterovirus D68 using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test, two-sample unpaired t test, and Mann-Whitney U test. (nih.gov)
  • Full length protein corresponding to Enterovirus 71 aa 1-297. (abcam.com)
  • Enterovirus D68 viraemia was identified in a child experiencing acute neurological progression of his paralytic illness. (nih.gov)