Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Enterovirus InfectionsEnterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Enteroviruses, Porcine: Species of ENTEROVIRUS causing mild to severe neurological diseases among pigs especially in Eastern Europe. Mild strains are also present in Canada, U.S., and Australia. Specific species include Porcine enterovirus A and Porcine enterovirus B.Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: A mild, highly infectious viral disease of children, characterized by vesicular lesions in the mouth and on the hands and feet. It is caused by coxsackieviruses A.Enterovirus D, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70.Enterovirus, Bovine: A species in the family ENTEROVIRUS infecting cattle.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.HerpanginaMeningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Coxsackievirus Infections: A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Echovirus 9: A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Echovirus 6, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS that has caused outbreaks of aseptic meningitis in children and adults.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Parechovirus: A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting humans and rodents. The type species is Human parechovirus.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic: A highly contagious disease characterized by subconjunctival hemorrhage, sudden swelling of the eyelids and congestion, redness, and pain in the eye. Epidemic conjunctivitis caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV-70) was first described in Africa in 1969. It is caused also by Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v). Epidemics by this organism have appeared most frequently in Asia.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.ConjunctivitisAntibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Enteroviral RNA replication in the myocardium of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. (1/1211)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies dealing with the detection of enteroviral RNA in human endomyocardial biopsies have not differentiated between latent persistence of the enteroviral genome and active viral replication. Enteroviruses that are considered important factors for the development of myocarditis have a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity that is transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase into a minus-strand mRNA during active viral replication. The synthesis of multiple copies of minus-strand enteroviral RNA therefore occurs only at sites of active viral replication but not in tissues with mere persistence of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated enteroviral RNA replication versus enteroviral RNA persistence in endomyocardial biopsies of 45 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, we established a highly sensitive assay to specifically detect plus-strand versus minus-strand enteroviral RNA in the biopsies. Plus-strand enteroviral RNA was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 18 (40%) of 45 patients, whereas minus-strand RNA as an indication of active enteroviral RNA replication was detected in only 10 (56%) of these 18 plus-strand-positive patients. Enteroviral RNA was not found in biopsies of the control group (n=26). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a significant fraction of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis had active enteroviral RNA replication in their myocardium (22%). Differentiation between patients with active viral replication and latent viral persistence should be particularly important in future studies evaluating different therapeutic strategies. In addition, molecular genetic detection of enteroviral genome and differentiation between replicating versus persistent viruses is possible in a single endomyocardial biopsy.  (+info)

T cells contribute to disease severity during coxsackievirus B4 infection. (2/1211)

By using a model of coxsackievirus B4-induced disease, the question of whether tissue damage is due to the virus or to immune-mediated mechanisms was addressed. Both viral replication and T-cell function were implicated in contributing to the severity of disease. Three stages (I to III) of disease, which correspond to periods of high viral titers, low viral titers, and no infectious virus, have been identified. Stage I disease is considered to be primarily the result of viral replication. Immunopathological mechanisms appear to contribute to the severity of stage II and III disease. To investigate the role of T cells in contributing to the severity of disease, viral infection in CD8 knockout (ko) mice and CD4 ko mice was analyzed. CD8 T-cell responses appear to be beneficial during early, viral disease but detrimental in later disease when viral titers are diminishing. CD4 ko mice, unlike the parental strain, survived infection. Viral replication was lower in the CD4 ko mice. Was survival due to decreased viral replication or to the lack of T-helper-cell function? To investigate further the role of T helper cells in contributing to tissue damage, viral infection in two additional ko strains (interleukin-4 [IL-4] ko and gamma interferon ko strains) was examined. A clear correlation between viral replication and the outcome of infection was not observed. The absence of IL-4, which may influence T-helper-cell subset development, was advantageous during early viral disease but deleterious in later disease. The results suggest that T-cell-mediated immunity is both beneficial and detrimental during coxsackievirus B4 infection.  (+info)

Detection of adenoviral genome in the myocardium of adult patients with idiopathic left ventricular dysfunction. (3/1211)

BACKGROUND: The use of molecular biological techniques has demonstrated the importance of enteroviral infection of the myocardium in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in adults and adenovirus and enterovirus infection in children. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adenoviral infection of the myocardium of adults with impaired left ventricular function of unknown origin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used to determine the frequency of detection of adenoviral DNA and enteroviral RNA in myocardial tissue samples from 94 adult patients with idiopathic left ventricular dysfunction and 14 control patients. Histological and immunohistological analyses were performed to detect myocardial inflammation. Adenoviral genomic DNA was detected by nPCR in 12 of the 94 patients with left ventricular dysfunction (in each case, adenovirus type 2), whereas enteroviral RNA was detected in another 12 patients. All control samples were negative for both viruses. In all patients, active myocarditis was excluded according to the Dallas criteria. However, there was significantly decreased CD2, CD3, and CD45RO T lymphocyte counts in the adenovirus-positive group compared with the adenovirus-negative group (P<0.05), whereas no differences were associated with enterovirus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Although enteroviruses are an important causative agent in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, this study shows that adenovirus infection is also important in the pathogenesis of left ventricular failure in adults. However, the pathogenetic basis of disease associated with adenovirus infection may be different than that after infection with other agents, particularly with respect to activation of the host immune response.  (+info)

Relationships between simian and human enteroviruses. (4/1211)

Partial sequences from two genomic regions of simian enteroviruses were analysed and their relatedness to other picornaviruses was compared. Of the 18 simian viruses included in the analysis, sequences were obtained from eleven strains for at least one genomic region. In the 5' non-coding region, SV6, SV19, SV26, SV35, SV43 and SV46 (simian viruses) and BA13 (baboon virus) clearly grouped together with human enteroviruses, whereas SV4, SV28 and SA4 (South African isolate) were more distantly related. In the 3D RNA polymerase-coding region, SV26, SV35, SV43 and SV46 could be clearly identified as enteroviruses and fell into the previously defined cluster A, which contains such human viruses as coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. However, although SV6 and BA13 were also enterovirus-like, they did not belong to any known genetic cluster of human enteroviruses. Moreover, while SV18 could be recognized as a picornavirus, it did not directly group with members of the genus Enterovirus.  (+info)

Pulmonary enterovirus infections in stem cell transplant recipients. (5/1211)

In recent years, it has been recognised that the community respiratory viruses are a frequent cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised hosts such as bone marrow transplant recipients. By contrast, infections by non-polio enteroviruses have rarely been reported after stem cell transplantation. We present four cases of acute respiratory illness with enterovirus isolated as the sole pathogen from bronchoalveolar lavage. All four patients developed pneumonia and three died of progressive pneumonia, which reflects the severity of this complication. We conclude that enteroviral pulmonary infections may be a cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts.  (+info)

A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance. (6/1211)

We describe a simple, cost-efficient, double-selective method for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage samples containing vaccine polioviruses and other enteroviruses, with a detection limit of 18 to 50 PFU per 1 to 2 liters of sewage. By this method we were able to process 1,700 sewage samples collected between 1991 and 1996, from which 10,472 plaques were isolated, 41 of them being identified as wild-type polioviruses.  (+info)

Basolateral localization of fiber receptors limits adenovirus infection from the apical surface of airway epithelia. (7/1211)

Recent identification of two receptors for the adenovirus fiber protein, coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I alpha-2 domain allows the molecular basis of adenoviral infection to be investigated. Earlier work has shown that human airway epithelia are resistant to infection by adenovirus. Therefore, we examined the expression and localization of CAR and MHC Class I in an in vitro model of well differentiated, ciliated human airway epithelia. We found that airway epithelia express CAR and MHC Class I. However, neither receptor was present in the apical membrane; instead, both were polarized to the basolateral membrane. These findings explain the relative resistance to adenovirus infection from the apical surface. In contrast, when the virus was applied to the basolateral surface, gene transfer was much more efficient because of an interaction of adenovirus fiber with its receptors. In addition, when the integrity of the tight junctions was transiently disrupted, apically applied adenovirus gained access to the basolateral surface and enhanced gene transfer. These data suggest that the receptors required for efficient infection are not available on the apical surface, and interventions that allow access to the basolateral space where fiber receptors are located increase gene transfer efficiency.  (+info)

Typing of human enteroviruses by partial sequencing of VP1. (8/1211)

Human enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) are the major cause of aseptic meningitis and also cause a wide range of other acute illnesses, including neonatal sepsis-like disease, acute flaccid paralysis, and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. The neutralization assay is usually used for enterovirus typing, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming and standardized antisera are in limited supply. We have developed a molecular typing system based on reverse transcription-PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the 3' half of the genomic region encoding VP1. The standard PCR primers amplify approximately 450 bp of VP1 for most known human enterovirus serotypes. The serotype of an "unknown" may be inferred by comparison of the partial VP1 sequence to those in a database containing VP1 sequences for the prototype strains of all 66 human enterovirus serotypes. Fifty-one clinical isolates of known serotypes from the years 1991 to 1998 were amplified and sequenced, and the antigenic and molecular typing results agreed for all isolates. With one exception, the nucleotide sequences of homologous strains were at least 75% identical to one another (>88% amino acid identity). Strains with homologous serotypes were easily discriminated from those with heterologous serotypes by using these criteria for identification. This method can greatly reduce the time required to type an enterovirus isolate and can be used to type isolates that are difficult or impossible to type with standard immunological reagents. The technique may also be useful for the rapid determination of whether viruses isolated during an outbreak are epidemiologically related.  (+info)

  • Other markers will be analysed secondarily: detection of enterovirus RNA in control venous samples, detection of stigmata of viral replication by immunochemistry or detection of negative RNA strands, analysis of the antibody response to enterovirus in blood, molecular typing of enteroviruses detected in the lesions… Expected benefits: This study should allow to better understand the putative involvement of enteroviruses in atherosclerosis-linked diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Virosensor diagnosis4 Virosensor (structural chip-based optosensing virus probing system), which is for the rapid and sensitive detection of viral antigen in medical samples, will be used for analyzing the interaction kinetics between anti-influenza-virus (or anti-Enterovirus 71-virus) and its influenza virus antigen (or Enterovirus 71 antigen) present in patients'and normal samples. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recently, non-enterovirus species names were revised to remove host names (human, bovine, simian, and porcine) and replaced with the group designation (A through J) and serotype number. (rxlist.com)
  • Enteroviruses cause a range of human and animal diseases, some life-threatening, but there remain no licenced anti-enterovirus drugs. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • A multicenter study developed in collaboration with colleagues of the University Hospital of Reims (France) showed that it was frequent to detect enterovirus RNA in cardiac biopsies from patients with myocardial infarction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Glutathione facilitates enterovirus assembly by binding at a druggable pocket. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • In comparison with results from direct sequencing of Enterovirus 71 and Influenza Virus, the investigators evaluate the performance of virosensor , including reproducibility, sensitivity, specificity, and cross-reaction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With such technique, the investigators hope to make early diagnosis and give Enterovirus 71 and Influenza Virus patients early treatment to reduce the complications and case-fatality rate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Unlike the flu, there is no vaccine available for enterovirus and officials say cleaning hands regularly and staying home when you are ill to protect yourself and others will help stop the circulation of the virus. (invermerevalleyecho.com)
  • Although you can develop immunity to one virus, you can still get sick with any of the other enteroviruses. (iowa.gov)
  • News about the resurgence of the enterovirus hasn't hit the media with the same force as news of Ebola cases. (phsponyexpress.org)
  • As hysteria about Ebola rages on, word about the Enterovirus continues to fly under the radar, despite the fact that hundreds have been diagnosed in the U.S. with enterovirus, compared to the four victims who have been diagnosed with Ebola on American soil. (phsponyexpress.org)
  • It amazes me the amount of attention Ebola receives compared to this Enterovirus," junior Daniel Czornyj said. (phsponyexpress.org)
  • The 88.3% rate of detection of enterovirus (EV) nucleic acids in the neuronal cell bodies within the gray matter of the spinal cord of patients with ALS strongly suggests association between persistent EV RNA and ALS. (neurology.org)