Enterovirus A, Human
Enterovirus B, Human
Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
Enterovirus D, Human
Echovirus 6, Human
Molecular Sequence Data
5' Untranslated Regions
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases
Hepatitis A virus
Viral Structural Proteins
Viral Plaque Assay
Ion Exchange Resins
Waste Disposal, Fluid
Enteroviral RNA replication in the myocardium of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. (1/1211)BACKGROUND: Previous studies dealing with the detection of enteroviral RNA in human endomyocardial biopsies have not differentiated between latent persistence of the enteroviral genome and active viral replication. Enteroviruses that are considered important factors for the development of myocarditis have a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity that is transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase into a minus-strand mRNA during active viral replication. The synthesis of multiple copies of minus-strand enteroviral RNA therefore occurs only at sites of active viral replication but not in tissues with mere persistence of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated enteroviral RNA replication versus enteroviral RNA persistence in endomyocardial biopsies of 45 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, we established a highly sensitive assay to specifically detect plus-strand versus minus-strand enteroviral RNA in the biopsies. Plus-strand enteroviral RNA was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 18 (40%) of 45 patients, whereas minus-strand RNA as an indication of active enteroviral RNA replication was detected in only 10 (56%) of these 18 plus-strand-positive patients. Enteroviral RNA was not found in biopsies of the control group (n=26). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a significant fraction of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis had active enteroviral RNA replication in their myocardium (22%). Differentiation between patients with active viral replication and latent viral persistence should be particularly important in future studies evaluating different therapeutic strategies. In addition, molecular genetic detection of enteroviral genome and differentiation between replicating versus persistent viruses is possible in a single endomyocardial biopsy. (+info)
T cells contribute to disease severity during coxsackievirus B4 infection. (2/1211)By using a model of coxsackievirus B4-induced disease, the question of whether tissue damage is due to the virus or to immune-mediated mechanisms was addressed. Both viral replication and T-cell function were implicated in contributing to the severity of disease. Three stages (I to III) of disease, which correspond to periods of high viral titers, low viral titers, and no infectious virus, have been identified. Stage I disease is considered to be primarily the result of viral replication. Immunopathological mechanisms appear to contribute to the severity of stage II and III disease. To investigate the role of T cells in contributing to the severity of disease, viral infection in CD8 knockout (ko) mice and CD4 ko mice was analyzed. CD8 T-cell responses appear to be beneficial during early, viral disease but detrimental in later disease when viral titers are diminishing. CD4 ko mice, unlike the parental strain, survived infection. Viral replication was lower in the CD4 ko mice. Was survival due to decreased viral replication or to the lack of T-helper-cell function? To investigate further the role of T helper cells in contributing to tissue damage, viral infection in two additional ko strains (interleukin-4 [IL-4] ko and gamma interferon ko strains) was examined. A clear correlation between viral replication and the outcome of infection was not observed. The absence of IL-4, which may influence T-helper-cell subset development, was advantageous during early viral disease but deleterious in later disease. The results suggest that T-cell-mediated immunity is both beneficial and detrimental during coxsackievirus B4 infection. (+info)
Detection of adenoviral genome in the myocardium of adult patients with idiopathic left ventricular dysfunction. (3/1211)BACKGROUND: The use of molecular biological techniques has demonstrated the importance of enteroviral infection of the myocardium in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in adults and adenovirus and enterovirus infection in children. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of adenoviral infection of the myocardium of adults with impaired left ventricular function of unknown origin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used to determine the frequency of detection of adenoviral DNA and enteroviral RNA in myocardial tissue samples from 94 adult patients with idiopathic left ventricular dysfunction and 14 control patients. Histological and immunohistological analyses were performed to detect myocardial inflammation. Adenoviral genomic DNA was detected by nPCR in 12 of the 94 patients with left ventricular dysfunction (in each case, adenovirus type 2), whereas enteroviral RNA was detected in another 12 patients. All control samples were negative for both viruses. In all patients, active myocarditis was excluded according to the Dallas criteria. However, there was significantly decreased CD2, CD3, and CD45RO T lymphocyte counts in the adenovirus-positive group compared with the adenovirus-negative group (P<0.05), whereas no differences were associated with enterovirus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Although enteroviruses are an important causative agent in the pathogenesis of myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy, this study shows that adenovirus infection is also important in the pathogenesis of left ventricular failure in adults. However, the pathogenetic basis of disease associated with adenovirus infection may be different than that after infection with other agents, particularly with respect to activation of the host immune response. (+info)
Relationships between simian and human enteroviruses. (4/1211)Partial sequences from two genomic regions of simian enteroviruses were analysed and their relatedness to other picornaviruses was compared. Of the 18 simian viruses included in the analysis, sequences were obtained from eleven strains for at least one genomic region. In the 5' non-coding region, SV6, SV19, SV26, SV35, SV43 and SV46 (simian viruses) and BA13 (baboon virus) clearly grouped together with human enteroviruses, whereas SV4, SV28 and SA4 (South African isolate) were more distantly related. In the 3D RNA polymerase-coding region, SV26, SV35, SV43 and SV46 could be clearly identified as enteroviruses and fell into the previously defined cluster A, which contains such human viruses as coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. However, although SV6 and BA13 were also enterovirus-like, they did not belong to any known genetic cluster of human enteroviruses. Moreover, while SV18 could be recognized as a picornavirus, it did not directly group with members of the genus Enterovirus. (+info)
Pulmonary enterovirus infections in stem cell transplant recipients. (5/1211)In recent years, it has been recognised that the community respiratory viruses are a frequent cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised hosts such as bone marrow transplant recipients. By contrast, infections by non-polio enteroviruses have rarely been reported after stem cell transplantation. We present four cases of acute respiratory illness with enterovirus isolated as the sole pathogen from bronchoalveolar lavage. All four patients developed pneumonia and three died of progressive pneumonia, which reflects the severity of this complication. We conclude that enteroviral pulmonary infections may be a cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. (+info)
A double-selective tissue culture system for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage applied in a long-term environmental surveillance. (6/1211)We describe a simple, cost-efficient, double-selective method for isolation of wild-type poliovirus from sewage samples containing vaccine polioviruses and other enteroviruses, with a detection limit of 18 to 50 PFU per 1 to 2 liters of sewage. By this method we were able to process 1,700 sewage samples collected between 1991 and 1996, from which 10,472 plaques were isolated, 41 of them being identified as wild-type polioviruses. (+info)
Basolateral localization of fiber receptors limits adenovirus infection from the apical surface of airway epithelia. (7/1211)Recent identification of two receptors for the adenovirus fiber protein, coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I alpha-2 domain allows the molecular basis of adenoviral infection to be investigated. Earlier work has shown that human airway epithelia are resistant to infection by adenovirus. Therefore, we examined the expression and localization of CAR and MHC Class I in an in vitro model of well differentiated, ciliated human airway epithelia. We found that airway epithelia express CAR and MHC Class I. However, neither receptor was present in the apical membrane; instead, both were polarized to the basolateral membrane. These findings explain the relative resistance to adenovirus infection from the apical surface. In contrast, when the virus was applied to the basolateral surface, gene transfer was much more efficient because of an interaction of adenovirus fiber with its receptors. In addition, when the integrity of the tight junctions was transiently disrupted, apically applied adenovirus gained access to the basolateral surface and enhanced gene transfer. These data suggest that the receptors required for efficient infection are not available on the apical surface, and interventions that allow access to the basolateral space where fiber receptors are located increase gene transfer efficiency. (+info)
Typing of human enteroviruses by partial sequencing of VP1. (8/1211)Human enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) are the major cause of aseptic meningitis and also cause a wide range of other acute illnesses, including neonatal sepsis-like disease, acute flaccid paralysis, and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. The neutralization assay is usually used for enterovirus typing, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming and standardized antisera are in limited supply. We have developed a molecular typing system based on reverse transcription-PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the 3' half of the genomic region encoding VP1. The standard PCR primers amplify approximately 450 bp of VP1 for most known human enterovirus serotypes. The serotype of an "unknown" may be inferred by comparison of the partial VP1 sequence to those in a database containing VP1 sequences for the prototype strains of all 66 human enterovirus serotypes. Fifty-one clinical isolates of known serotypes from the years 1991 to 1998 were amplified and sequenced, and the antigenic and molecular typing results agreed for all isolates. With one exception, the nucleotide sequences of homologous strains were at least 75% identical to one another (>88% amino acid identity). Strains with homologous serotypes were easily discriminated from those with heterologous serotypes by using these criteria for identification. This method can greatly reduce the time required to type an enterovirus isolate and can be used to type isolates that are difficult or impossible to type with standard immunological reagents. The technique may also be useful for the rapid determination of whether viruses isolated during an outbreak are epidemiologically related. (+info)
The most common symptoms of enterovirus infections include:
* Abdominal pain
In some cases, enterovirus infections can lead to more severe complications, such as:
* Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD)
* Aseptic meningitis
Enteroviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through:
* Close contact with an infected person
* Contaminated food and water
* Insect vectors
There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and pain relief. Antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.
Prevention measures include:
* Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly preparing and storing food and water
* Avoiding sharing items that come into contact with the mouth, such as utensils and drinking glasses.
Symptoms of HFMD include:
* Painful sores on the tongue, lips, and inside the mouth (known as herpangina)
* A rash with blisters on the hands and feet (known as herpes gestationis)
* Painful blisters on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (known as plantar and palmar plaques)
* Loss of appetite
* Sore throat
HFMD is highly contagious and can be spread through close contact with an infected person, such as touching, hugging, or sharing objects like toys or utensils. The virus can also be found in the stool of infected individuals.
There is no specific treatment for HFMD, but symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, and plenty of fluids to stay hydrated. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases.
Prevention methods include:
* Frequent handwashing, especially after changing diapers or coming into contact with someone who is infected
* Avoiding close contact with people who are infected
* Disinfecting surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with the virus
* Practicing good hygiene, such as not sharing toys or utensils
It's important to note that HFMD can lead to complications in some cases, such as viral meningitis or encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. If your child experiences any of the following symptoms, seek medical attention immediately:
* Severe headache
* Stiff neck
* Confusion or irritability
* Difficulty breathing
In most cases, HFMD is a self-limiting illness and will resolve on its own with supportive care. However, it's important to be aware of the potential complications and seek medical attention if you have any concerns.
Echoviruses are transmitted through contact with an infected person's saliva, mucus, or feces. The virus can also be spread through contaminated food and water, as well as through insect vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks.
The symptoms of echovirus infection can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include fever, headache, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle weakness. In severe cases, echovirus infections can lead to complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis.
There is no specific treatment for echovirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with supportive care such as hydration, pain relief, and antipyretic medications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide appropriate medical care.
Prevention of echovirus infections includes practicing good hygiene, avoiding contact with people who are infected, and avoiding contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available for some types of echoviruses, such as the coxsackievirus B vaccine, which is recommended for children under the age of 5.
Overall, while echovirus infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, with proper medical care and support, most people recover fully from these infections.
Aseptic meningitis can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, fever, stiff neck, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to light, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage, seizures, and even death.
Aseptic meningitis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid analysis), and imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans). Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and pain management, as well as addressing any underlying causes. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed if a bacterial infection is suspected.
Aseptic meningitis can affect anyone, but it is more common in certain groups, such as children under the age of 5 and people with weakened immune systems. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The symptoms of herpangina typically begin within 2-5 days after exposure to the virus and can include:
* Sore throat
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck
* Painful ulcers on the tongue, lips, and inside the mouth
* Difficulty swallowing
In some cases, herpangina can lead to complications such as otitis media (middle ear infection), sinusitis, and pneumonia.
Diagnosis of herpangina is based on a physical examination of the ulcers and a review of the patient's medical history. There are no specific tests for herpangina, but a healthcare provider may order a throat culture or blood tests to rule out other conditions.
Treatment for herpangina typically focuses on relieving symptoms and allowing the illness to run its course. This can include:
* Pain relief medication such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to help manage fever and pain
* Antiviral medication in severe cases
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Avoiding acidic or spicy foods that can irritate the ulcers
* Good oral hygiene to prevent further irritation
It is important for individuals with herpangina to avoid close contact with others to prevent the spread of the virus. This includes staying home from school or work and avoiding social gatherings until all ulcers have healed and the fever has been gone for at least 24 hours.
Prevention measures for herpangina include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is infected. Avoiding close contact with individuals who have herpangina and not sharing eating or drinking utensils can also help prevent the spread of the virus.
There are some complications that can arise from herpangina, such as:
* Secondary bacterial infections of the ulcers, which can lead to more severe symptoms and longer recovery time
* Dehydration due to difficulty swallowing and fever
* Encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain, which is rare but can be serious and potentially life-threatening.
It is important for individuals who suspect they or their child may have herpangina to seek medical attention as soon as possible, especially if symptoms worsen or do not improve within a few days. A healthcare professional can provide proper diagnosis and treatment, and help prevent complications from arising.
Viral meningitis is a type of meningitis that is caused by a viral infection. It is a common and often mild form of meningitis that can affect people of all ages. The symptoms of viral meningitis are similar to those of bacterial meningitis, but they tend to be less severe and resolve more quickly.
Causes and Risk Factors:
Viral meningitis is caused by a variety of viruses, including enteroviruses, herpesviruses, and West Nile virus. The infection is usually spread through contact with an infected person's saliva, mucus, or other bodily fluids. People who are at higher risk for developing viral meningitis include young children, older adults, and those with weakened immune systems.
The symptoms of viral meningitis can include fever, headache, neck stiffness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, the infection can cause seizures, brain damage, and even death.
Viral meningitis is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests. A healthcare provider may perform a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for testing. The CSF can be tested for the presence of viruses or other signs of infection.
Treatment and Prognosis:
There is no specific treatment for viral meningitis, but symptoms can be managed with rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Antiviral medications may be prescribed in some cases. Most people with viral meningitis recover fully within a week or two, but some may experience lingering fatigue or other symptoms for several weeks. In rare cases, the infection can lead to long-term complications such as hearing loss or learning disabilities.
There is no vaccine to prevent viral meningitis, but good hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection. These include:
1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Not sharing drinks or utensils with others.
5. Keeping surfaces clean and disinfected, especially in areas where food is prepared or eaten.
It's important to note that bacterial meningitis can be prevented with vaccines, and it's crucial to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of meningitis are present.
Coxsackievirus infections are a group of viral diseases caused by enteroviruses, primarily Coxsackie A and B viruses. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and nervous system.
Types of Coxsackievirus Infections:
1. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD): This is a common viral illness that affects children under the age of 10, causing fever, mouth sores, and a rash with blisters on the hands and feet.
2. Herpangina: A severe form of HFMD characterized by small ulcers in the mouth and throat.
3. Aseptic Meningitis: An inflammation of the meninges (protective membranes) around the brain and spinal cord, often caused by Coxsackievirus B.
4. Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle caused by Coxsackievirus B.
5. Pericarditis: Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium) caused by Coxsackievirus B.
6. Pleurodynia (also known as Coxsackievirus pleurisy): A sudden onset of chest pain, fever, and cough caused by Coxsackievirus A.
7. Meningoradiculitis: Inflammation of the meninges and spinal nerves caused by Coxsackievirus B.
Symptoms of Coxsackievirus Infections:
The symptoms of coxsackievirus infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the individual affected. Common symptoms include:
* Muscle pain
* Sore throat
* Mouth sores (in HFMD)
* Rash (in HFMD)
* Blisters (in HFMD)
* Seizures (in severe cases)
* Meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord)
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
* Myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle)
* Pericarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart)
* Pleurodynia (chest pain, fever, and cough)
* Meningoradiculitis (inflammation of the meninges and spinal nerves)
Diagnosis of Coxsackievirus Infections:
The diagnosis of coxsackievirus infections is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
* Blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the virus
* PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to detect the genetic material of the virus in respiratory or gastrointestinal secretions
* Culture of the virus from respiratory or gastrointestinal secretions
* Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans to evaluate the extent of inflammation or damage to organs.
Treatment and Management of Coxsackievirus Infections:
There is no specific treatment for coxsackievirus infections, but supportive care may be provided to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Supportive care may include:
* Rest and hydration
* Pain management with over-the-counter pain medications or prescription medications
* Antihistamines to reduce fever and relieve itching
* Antiviral medications in severe cases
* Oxygen therapy if necessary
* Intravenous fluids if dehydration is present.
Prevention of Coxsackievirus Infections:
Prevention of coxsackievirus infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals such as children and people with weakened immune systems. Prevention measures include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Avoiding sharing food, drinks, or personal items with people who are sick
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are experiencing symptoms of a coxsackievirus infection
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of the virus through sexual contact.
Complications of Coxsackievirus Infections:
Coxsackievirus infections can lead to complications, especially in high-risk individuals. Complications may include:
* Meningitis or encephalitis, which can be life-threatening
* Myocarditis, which can lead to heart failure
* Pericarditis, which can cause chest pain and difficulty breathing
* Retinitis, which can cause blindness
* Gastrointestinal bleeding
* Kidney damage or failure.
Prognosis for Coxsackievirus Infections:
The prognosis for coxsackievirus infections is generally good for most people, especially those with mild symptoms. However, high-risk individuals, such as children and people with weakened immune systems, may experience more severe illness and have a poorer prognosis.
Prevention of Coxsackievirus Infections:
Prevention is key to avoiding coxsackievirus infections. Some ways to prevent the spread of the virus include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding sharing personal items with people who are sick
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are experiencing symptoms of a coxsackievirus infection
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of the virus through sexual contact.
Treatment of Coxsackievirus Infections:
There is no specific treatment for coxsackievirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter medications and home remedies. Some ways to manage symptoms include:
* Taking over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to reduce fever and relieve headache and body aches
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities until symptoms improve
* Using a humidifier to relieve dryness and discomfort in the throat and nose.
Complications of Coxsackievirus Infections:
Coxsackievirus infections can lead to complications, such as:
* Meningitis: an inflammation of the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
* Encephalitis: an inflammation of the brain
* Myocarditis: an inflammation of the heart muscle
* Pericarditis: an inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
* Pleurodynia: a painful inflammation of the lining of the chest cavity.
It's important to seek medical attention if you or your child experiences any of these complications, as they can be serious and potentially life-threatening.
Coxsackievirus infections are common and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. Prevention is key, and taking steps such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and keeping children home from school or daycare when they are ill can help reduce the risk of transmission. If you suspect that you or your child has a coxsackievirus infection, it's important to seek medical attention if symptoms worsen or if complications develop. With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with coxsackievirus infections recover fully.
1. Norovirus: This virus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis (stomach flu) worldwide, affecting people of all ages. It can be transmitted through contaminated food or water, close contact with infected individuals, or touching surfaces that have been contaminated with the virus.
2. Rotavirus: This virus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children under five years old, particularly in developing countries. It can be spread through close contact with an infected child, contaminated food and water, or fecal matter.
3. Aichi virus: This virus was first identified in Japan in 2011 and has since been associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in several other countries. It is primarily transmitted through the consumption of contaminated shellfish.
4. Sapporo virus: This virus was discovered in Japan in 2013 and has been linked to a range of illnesses, including gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. It is believed to be transmitted through close contact with an infected individual or contaminated surfaces.
5. Edge Hill virus: This virus was identified in the UK in 2012 and has been associated with a range of illnesses, including gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. It is primarily transmitted through close contact with an infected individual or contaminated surfaces.
These are just a few examples of Picornaviridae infections that can affect humans and animals. The virus family includes many other members that can cause a range of diseases, highlighting the importance of public health measures to prevent and control outbreaks of viral illnesses.
A type of encephalitis caused by a virus that inflames the brain and spinal cord, leading to fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death. Viral encephalitis is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito or tick, but can also be spread through contact with infected blood or organs. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and seizures, as well as antiviral medications in severe cases.
Synonyms: viral encephalitis
Antonyms: bacterial encephalitis
Similar term: meningitis
1. Complete paralysis: When there is no movement or sensation in a particular area of the body.
2. Incomplete paralysis: When there is some movement or sensation in a particular area of the body.
3. Localized paralysis: When paralysis affects only a specific part of the body, such as a limb or a facial muscle.
4. Generalized paralysis: When paralysis affects multiple parts of the body.
5. Flaccid paralysis: When there is a loss of muscle tone and the affected limbs feel floppy.
6. Spastic paralysis: When there is an increase in muscle tone and the affected limbs feel stiff and rigid.
7. Paralysis due to nerve damage: This can be caused by injuries, diseases such as multiple sclerosis, or birth defects such as spina bifida.
8. Paralysis due to muscle damage: This can be caused by injuries, such as muscular dystrophy, or diseases such as muscular sarcopenia.
9. Paralysis due to brain damage: This can be caused by head injuries, stroke, or other conditions that affect the brain such as cerebral palsy.
10. Paralysis due to spinal cord injury: This can be caused by trauma, such as a car accident, or diseases such as polio.
Paralysis can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, work, and participate in social and recreational activities. Treatment options for paralysis depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medications, surgery, or assistive technologies such as wheelchairs or prosthetic devices.
There are three main forms of poliomyelitis:
1. Non-paralytic polio, which causes symptoms such as fever, headache, and sore throat, but does not lead to paralysis.
2. Paralytic polio, which can cause partial or complete paralysis of the muscles in the limbs, trunk, and respiratory system. This form is more severe and can be fatal.
3. Post-polio syndrome, which occurs in some individuals years after they have recovered from a paralytic polio infection. It is characterized by new muscle weakness, pain, and fatigue.
Poliomyelitis was once a major public health problem worldwide, but widespread immunization campaigns have led to a significant decline in the number of cases. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set a goal of eradicating polio by 2018.
Treatment for poliomyelitis typically focuses on managing symptoms and supporting respiratory function. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intensive care, such as mechanical ventilation. Physical therapy and rehabilitation are also important in helping individuals recover from paralysis.
Prevention is key to controlling the spread of poliomyelitis. This includes vaccination with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), which has been shown to be safe and effective in preventing polio. In addition, good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, can help reduce the risk of transmission.
The term CAH is used to differentiate this type of conjunctivitis from other types of conjunctival infections that may have a more gradual onset or different symptoms. The acute hemorrhagic nature of the condition refers to the presence of bleeding in the conjunctiva, which can range from mild spotting to severe hemorrhaging.
CAH is usually caused by a viral infection, such as adenovirus or enterovirus, but it can also be caused by bacterial infections such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae. The condition is typically diagnosed through a physical examination of the eyes and may require further testing, such as a viral culture or PCR test, to determine the cause.
Treatment for CAH typically involves antiviral or antibacterial medication, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as pain and discharge. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have the infection.
There are several different types of conjunctivitis, including:
1. Allergic conjunctivitis: This type is caused by an allergic reaction and is more common in people who have a history of allergies.
2. Bacterial conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a bacterial infection and is often accompanied by a thick discharge and redness of the eye.
3. Viral conjunctivitis: This type is caused by a viral infection and is highly contagious.
4. Chemical conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to chemicals or foreign objects, such as smoke, dust, or pollen.
5. Irritant conjunctivitis: This type is caused by exposure to irritants such as chemicals or foreign objects.
Symptoms of conjunctivitis can include redness and discharge of the eye, itching, burning, and tearing. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments for bacterial conjunctivitis, anti-inflammatory medication for allergic conjunctivitis, and viral conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting and requires supportive care only.
It's important to note that conjunctivitis can be highly contagious, so it's important to practice good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding sharing personal items like towels or makeup, and not touching the eyes. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's important to see a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The symptoms of myocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the inflammation and the location of the affected areas of the heart muscle. Common symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.
Myocarditis can be difficult to diagnose, as its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions such as coronary artery disease or heart failure. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and blood tests.
Treatment of myocarditis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Mild cases may require only rest and over-the-counter pain medication, while more severe cases may require hospitalization and intravenous medications to manage inflammation and cardiac function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.
Prevention of myocarditis is important, as it can lead to serious complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias if left untreated. Prevention strategies include avoiding exposure to viruses and other infections, managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and getting regular check-ups with a healthcare provider to monitor cardiac function.
In summary, myocarditis is an inflammatory condition that affects the heart muscle, causing symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Diagnosis can be challenging, but treatment options range from rest and medication to hospitalization and surgery. Prevention is key to avoiding serious complications and maintaining good cardiac health.
Some common examples of CNSVD include:
1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis: This is an inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus. It can cause fever, headache, confusion, and seizures.
2. West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis: This is an infection of the brain caused by the West Nile virus, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and confusion.
3. Japanese encephalitis (JE): This is a viral infection that affects the brain and is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms can include fever, headache, seizures, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
4. Rabies: This is a viral infection that affects the brain and is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, usually a dog, bat, or raccoon. Symptoms can include fever, headache, agitation, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
5. Enteroviral encephalitis: This is an infection of the brain caused by enteroviruses, which are common viruses that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms can include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
The diagnosis of CNSVD typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood tests or lumbar puncture), and imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans). Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and rehabilitation.
Prevention of CNSVD includes avoiding exposure to mosquitoes and other vectors that can transmit disease, maintaining good hygiene practices (such as washing hands frequently), and getting vaccinated against diseases such as rabies and measles. In addition, taking steps to prevent head trauma and using protective equipment when engaging in activities that involve risk of head injury can help reduce the risk of CNSVD.
Overall, while central nervous system viral diseases can be serious and potentially life-threatening, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and prevent long-term complications. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.
Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.
Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.
Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.
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Centers for Diseas3
- Leonard Peruski, head of laboratory operations at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Dr. John MacArthur, U.S. CDC country director in Thailand, addressed 27 health officials from 14 countries during this workshop on diagnosing enterovirus, one of the most common causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease. (ait.org.tw)
- Concerned parents and employees may also want to review the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Enterovirus D68 fact sheet . (houstonisd.org)
- Healthcare providers and hospitals in several regions of the United States notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during August 2022 about increases in pediatric hospitalizations in patients with severe respiratory illness who also tested positive for rhinovirus (RV) and/or enterovirus (EV). (cdc.gov)
- Non-polio health concern has been boosted by the recent outbreaks enterovirus: enterovirus D68 in the United States, 2014 [cited of EV-D68 infection in the United States (http://www.cdc. (cdc.gov)
- Evidence of infection with an enterovirus was found in about 80% of people with acute flaccid myelitis. (nih.gov)
- More research is needed to understand whether enterovirus infection contributes to the development of this rare but serious condition. (nih.gov)
- Many scientists have suspected that infection with a type of virus called an enterovirus plays a role in AFM. (nih.gov)
- Previous studies have looked for enterovirus infection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of people with AFM, largely without success. (nih.gov)
- While other possible causes of AFM continue to be investigated, this study provides further evidence that enterovirus infection may be a factor in AFM. (nih.gov)
- A new study analyzing samples from patients with and without acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) provides additional evidence for an association between the rare but often serious condition that causes muscle weakness and paralysis, and infection with non-polio enteroviruses. (nih.gov)
- The researchers first looked for direct evidence of enterovirus infection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 13 children and one adult diagnosed with AFM in 2018. (nih.gov)
- The investigators also sought indirect evidence of enterovirus infection by looking for antibodies to enteroviruses made by the immune system in response to an infection. (nih.gov)
- The team developed a microchip assay, AFM-SeroChip-1, that detects the presence of antibodies generated in response to any human enterovirus (EV-A, EV-B, EV-C or EV-D) infection. (nih.gov)
- However, a benzene-sulfonamide derivative and related compounds have been shown recently to block infection of a range of enteroviruses by binding the capsid at a positively-charged surface depression conserved across many enteroviruses. (ox.ac.uk)
- As these measures are relaxed in multiple countries, increased in cases of respiratory virus infection have been observed, including enterovirus D68 in Europe . (enterovirus.net)
- We present a case of disseminated enterovirus infection resulting from combined rituximab and ibrutinib maintenance treatment in a 57-year-old Caucasian patient. (medscape.com)
- High-dose intravenous therapy should be considered as treatment for severe enterovirus infection. (medscape.com)
- Diagnosis of enterovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of multiple specimen types. (uchicago.edu)
- When you talk about summer colds, you're probably talking about a non-polio enterovirus infection. (nih.gov)
- Non-polio enteroviruses cause about 10 to 15 million infections and tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Laboratory testing for EV-D68 should be considered during the late summer and early fall season for patients with severe respiratory illness, especially children, among whom symptomatic enterovirus infections, including EV-D68, are more common. (phsd.ca)
- CDC researchers have developed a reverse transcription/semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-snPCR) assay for diagnosis of enterovirus infections within clinical specimens. (nih.gov)
- The peak incidence was in September, in line with seasonal occurrence of enterovirus infections. (enterovirus.net)
- In severe enterovirus infections, we recommend subtyping for the development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies. (medscape.com)
- Meningitis is the leading infectious syndrome that affects the central nervous system, and most cases are caused by viral infections, mainly enterovirus. (bvsalud.org)
- We report a rapid increase in enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections, with 139 cases reported from eight European countries between 31 July and 14 October 2021. (scilifelab.se)
- About half of people with enterovirus infections don't get sick at all. (nih.gov)
- All age groups can be affected, but like most viral infections, enterovirus infections predominate in childhood," says Pichichero. (nih.gov)
- Adults may be protected from enterovirus infections if they've developed antibodies Germ-fighting molecules made by the immune system. (nih.gov)
- To prevent enterovirus infections, says Pichichero, "it's all about blocking viral transmission. (nih.gov)
- http://www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/outbreaks/ gov/non-polio-enterovirus/outbreaks/EV-D68-outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
- Spikes in AFM cases, primarily in children, have coincided with outbreaks of the enteroviruses EV-D68 and EV-A71. (nih.gov)
- After its global emergence in 2014, subsequent outbreaks of enterovirus D68 occurred in 2016 and 2018. (enterovirus.net)
- A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis ( MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC ). (lookformedical.com)
- A species of ENTEROVIRUS that has caused outbreaks of aseptic meningitis in children and adults. (lookformedical.com)
- A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 11 serotypes, all coxsackieviruses. (umassmed.edu)
- The assay primers were designed for broad specificity and amplify all recognized enterovirus serotypes. (nih.gov)
- A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses. (lookformedical.com)
- A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and consisting of 2 serotypes: Human enterovirus 68 and Human enterovirus 70. (lookformedical.com)
- Among these, 60 samples contained species B and 2 samples contained species A serotypes (coxsackievirus A6 and enterovirus 71) were identified. (ox.ac.uk)
- CONCLUSIONS: The availability of a simple and rapid method for identification of serotypes and individual HEV strains or clusters directly from CSF will be of substantial value in surveillance, understanding more about serotype-associated differences in disease and monitoring the global spread of pathogenic variants such as enterovirus 71. (ox.ac.uk)
- The group of enteroviruses includes many important human pathogens such as poliovirus (PV), coxsackievirus, and rhinovirus. (academictransfer.com)
- The non- polio enteroviruses coxsackievirus A2, coxsackievirus A6, coxsackievirus A10, echovirus 18, enterovirus A71 and enterovirus C96 were identified from clinical specimens collected from AFP cases. (bvsalud.org)
Positive for enterovirus3
- CSF specimens from the 18 confirmed cases of enteroviral encephalitis were RT-PCR positive for enterovirus in all but one case. (tmu.edu.tw)
- Of the remaining 57 cases of nonenteroviral encephalitis, only 4 were positive for enterovirus RT-PCR. (tmu.edu.tw)
- Upon further typing, some specimens have been positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). (cdc.gov)
- Enteroviruses cause a range of human and animal diseases, some life-threatening, but there remain no licenced anti-enterovirus drugs. (ox.ac.uk)
Polymerase chain re1
- Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive procedure for the diagnosis of enteroviruses, it has never been systemically applied to the treatment of enteroviral encephalitis using intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). (tmu.edu.tw)
- To learn more about the 2014 outbreak, visit the CDC web page -- www.cdc.gov/non-polio-enterovirus/about/EV-D68.html . (medlineplus.gov)
- The most notorious enterovirus, which causes polio, has been eradicated in the U.S. through vaccination. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this funding opportunity announcement is to solicit applications to expand basic research on non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) that will inform the development of pan-enterovirus vaccines and broad-spectrum antivirals against enteroviruses A, B, C, and D. (nih.gov)
- A few enteroviruses can cause polio, but vaccines have mostly eliminated these viruses from Western countries. (nih.gov)
- Far more widespread are more than 60 types of non-polio enteroviruses. (nih.gov)
- Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System, and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory . (bvsalud.org)
- Would you like to contribute to the development of new enterovirus vaccines as a postdoctoral researcher? (academictransfer.com)
- We have a new opening at the Virology Section of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University where you will be working on new enterovirus vaccines. (academictransfer.com)
- However, antibodies to enteroviruses were found in the CSF of almost 80% of people with AFM. (nih.gov)
- No antibodies to enteroviruses were found in children with Kawasaki disease. (nih.gov)
- None of the CSF samples from children with Kawasaki disease had antibodies that reacted with any enterovirus. (nih.gov)
- Enteroviruses Laboratory Diagnosis Workshop (Apr. (ait.org.tw)
- The purpose of this collaboration is to develop an animal model of Enterovirus D68 to understand disease progression and outcomes such as acute flaccid myelitis. (nih.gov)
- A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. (lookformedical.com)
- Health care providers ordering enterovirus/EV-D68 testing are required to complete a Clinical Summary Form and a General Test Requisition Form when submitting samples for EV-D68 testing. (phsd.ca)
- Clinical laboratories currently identify enteroviruses by virus isolation and subsequent virus neutralization tests, or serological assays. (nih.gov)
- The enterovirus molecular diagnostic test is prepared in a kit form, consisting of three reagent preparations (three separate test steps), to which a technician adds enzymes and RNA extracted from a clinical specimen. (nih.gov)
- Australia also performs enterovirus and environmental surveillance to complement the clinical system focussed on children . (bvsalud.org)
- National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Doherty Institute. (bvsalud.org)
- Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a virus that causes flu-like symptoms that range from mild to severe. (medlineplus.gov)
- Species of ENTEROVIRUS causing mild to severe neurological diseases among pigs especially in Eastern Europe. (lookformedical.com)
- For the first time in New Zealand, we report on the identification of Enterovirus C105 (EV-C105) from a 52-year-old male hospitalised with mild respiratory tract symptoms. (who.int)
- Body temperatures may range from 101 to 104 °F. Enteroviruses can also cause mild respiratory symptoms, sore throat, headache, muscle aches and gastrointestinal issues like nausea or vomiting. (nih.gov)
- Despite the epidemiological link between enterovirus circulation and AFM cases, evidence of direct causality has not been found. (nih.gov)
- Less common enteroviruses can cause other symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Enterovirus C, Human" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Enterovirus C, Human" by people in this website by year, and whether "Enterovirus C, Human" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Enterovirus C, Human" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
- RVs and EVs are both part of the Enterovirus genus. (cdc.gov)
- But nationwide, enteroviruses cause an estimated 10 million to 15 million illnesses each year, usually between June and October. (nih.gov)
- Re-emergence of enterovirus D68 in Europe after easing the COVID-19 lockdown, September 2021. (scilifelab.se)
- In a new study funded by NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), researchers led by Drs. W. Ian Lipkin and Nischay Mishra from Columbia University used advanced technologies to search for enteroviruses. (nih.gov)
- This highlights the importance of enterovirus surveillance for detection of the importation of new genotypes such as EV-C105, thus allowing a better understanding of the roles they play in disease. (who.int)
- Fluid is also key with enterovirus which affects the GI tract. (tv20detroit.com)
- This virus - more commonly referred to as Enterovirus D68 - is not new. (houstonisd.org)
- Presence of enteroviruses in recreational water in Wuhan, China. (nih.gov)
- But adults can still get sick if they encounter a new type of enterovirus. (nih.gov)
- But other enteroviruses are still common. (nih.gov)
- Health officials believe the best way to prevent Enterovirus D68 is by practicing good hygiene. (houstonisd.org)