Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Sucrase-Isomaltase Complex: An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.SucraseEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Necturus maculosus: A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Lactase-Phlorizin Hydrolase: The multifunctional protein that contains two enzyme domains. The first domain (EC 3.2.1.62) hydrolyzes glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. The second domain (EC 3.2.1.108) hydrolyzes LACTOSE and is found in the intestinal brush border membrane. Loss of activity for this enzyme in humans results in LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.CitrullineEpithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Gliadin: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth: A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.PhlorhizinIntestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Necturus: A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.Glucose Transporter Type 5: A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enteroendocrine Cells: Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lactase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.DisaccharidasesElements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Enteropeptidase: A specialized proteolytic enzyme secreted by intestinal cells. It converts TRYPSINOGEN into its active form TRYPSIN by removing the N-terminal peptide. EC 3.4.21.9.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to L-GLUTAMATE in the presence of NAD. Defects in the enzyme are the cause of hyperprolinemia II.Ferrozine: A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

Modulation of intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes in human enterocyte Caco-2 cells by interferon-gamma and interleukin-6: role of nitric oxide and cooperation with antibiotics. (1/903)

The influence of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-6 on the intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes phagocytosed from the apical pole was examined in polarized Caco-2 cells. IFN-gamma (from the apical pole) and IL-6 (from the basolateral pole) considerably reduced the bacterial intracellular growth, an effect largely abolished by l-monomethyl arginine. Both cytokines caused overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. IL-6, but not IFN-gamma, caused a partial restriction of L. monocytogenes in phagosomes and largely prevented the cytosolic forms from being surrounded by actin. Ampicillin was bacteriostatic in unstimulated cells but modestly bactericidal in cells treated with IFN-gamma and IL-6. Azithromycin (a macrolide) was fairly bactericidal and sparfloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) highly bactericidal in all situations. IFN-gamma and IL-6 may therefore be important determinants in the protection of epithelial cells from intracellular multiplication of L. monocytogenes. Ampicillin may fail in their absence, requiring the use of other antibiotics such as the fluoroquinolones.  (+info)

Intestinal adaptation and enterocyte apoptosis following small bowel resection is p53 independent. (2/903)

Adaptation following small bowel resection (SBR) signals enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Because p53-induced p21(waf1/cip1) may be important for apoptosis in many cells, we hypothesized that these genes are required for increased enterocyte apoptosis during adaptation. Male C57BL/6 (wild-type) or p53-null mice underwent 50% proximal SBR or sham operation (bowel transection-reanastomosis). Adaptation (DNA-protein content, villus height-crypt depth, enterocyte proliferation), appearance of apoptotic bodies, and p53 and p21(waf1/cip1) protein expression were measured in the ileum after 5 days. Adaptation was equivalent after SBR in both wild-type and p53-null mice as monitored by significantly increased ileal DNA-protein content, villus height, and enterocyte proliferation. The number of crypt apoptotic bodies increased significantly after SBR evenly in both wild-type and p53-null mice. In the p53-null mice, SBR substantially induced the expression of p21(waf1/cip1) protein in villus enterocytes. The p53-independent induction of p21(waf1/cip1) may account for the similar intestinal response to SBR between wild-type and p53-null mice. Intestinal adaptation and increased enterocyte apoptosis following intestinal resection occur via a p53-independent mechanism.  (+info)

Increased dietary triacylglycerol markedly enhances the ability of isolated rabbit enterocytes to secrete chylomicrons: an effect related to dietary fatty acid composition. (3/903)

Dietary fats are efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and transported into the blood via the lymph as chylomicrons, despite enormous variations in the amount and composition of the dietary lipid. The aim of the present study was to investigate how enterocytes respond to increased dietary fats of different composition. Rabbits were fed a low fat chow diet, and chow supplemented with sunflower oil (high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids), fish oil (high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids), or an oil mixture of a composition similar to that of the typical western diet. Feeding fat for 2 weeks markedly stimulated the ability of the isolated enterocytes to synthesize and secrete apolipoprotein B48, triacylglycerol, and cholesteryl ester (up to 18-, 50-, and 80-fold, respectively) in particles of chylomicron density. The magnitude of stimulation was sunflower oil > western diet lipid > fish oil. Single doses of lipid given 18 h prior to isolation of enterocytes stimulated chylomicron secretion by only 10% of that observed after 2 weeks of dietary supplementation. Enterocytes are replaced rapidly (half-life 1-2 days) by cells which move from the crypts to the tips of the villi, where absorption of nutrients takes place. Our observations suggest that dietary lipids modulate the function of enterocytes as they move from the crypts, so that the cells are 'turned-on' to lipid absorption. The results also show that diets of different fatty acid composition vary in their effects.  (+info)

Regulation of small intestinal Na-P(i) type IIb cotransporter by dietary phosphate intake. (4/903)

Dietary restriction of phosphate is a well-known stimulator (acting indirectly via vitamin D(3)) of small intestinal apical Na-P(i) cotransport. In the present study, we document by Western blots and immunohistochemistry that, in mice, a low-P(i) diet given for several days leads (in parallel to a stimulation of Na-P(i) cotransport) to an increase of the abundance of the type IIb Na-P(i) cotransporter in the brush-border membrane of mouse enterocytes. Similar results were also obtained by an injection of cholecalciferol. The abundance of the type IIb transcript was investigated by Northern blots. These results indicated that the amount of the type IIb transcript was not changed by either low-P(i) diet or cholecalciferol. It is concluded that stimulation of intestinal Na-P(i) cotransport by low-P(i) diet and vitamin D(3) can be explained by an increased amount of type IIb Na-P(i) cotransporters in the brush-border membrane and that augmentation of type IIb Na-P(i) cotransporters is not related to an increased rate of transcription of the type IIb gene.  (+info)

Identification of the major intestinal fatty acid transport protein. (5/903)

While intestinal transport systems for metabolites such as carbohydrates have been well characterized, the molecular mechanisms of fatty acid (FA) transport across the apical plasmalemma of enterocytes have remained largely unclear. Here, we show that FATP4, a member of a large family of FA transport proteins (FATPs), is expressed at high levels on the apical side of mature enterocytes in the small intestine. Further, overexpression of FATP4 in 293 cells facilitates uptake of long chain FAs with the same specificity as enterocytes, while reduction of FATP4 expression in primary enterocytes by antisense oligonucleotides inhibits FA uptake by 50%. This suggests that FATP4 is the principal fatty acid transporter in enterocytes and may constitute a novel target for antiobesity therapy.  (+info)

Binding of pili from uropathogenic Escherichia coli to membranes secreted by human colonocytes and enterocytes. (6/903)

PapG adhesins mediate the binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Although receptors for these adhesins have not been demonstrated in intestinal epithelia, the colonic microflora includes strains of uropathogenic E. coli. We now report that surfactant-like particles secreted by the human intestine contain receptors for PapG adhesins and may provide an intestinal habitat for uropathogenic bacteria.  (+info)

Up-regulation of glutathione S-transferase activity in enterocytes of young children. (7/903)

The relationship between age and busulfan apparent oral clearance (Cl/F) expressed relative to adjusted ideal body weight and body surface area (bsa) was evaluated in 135 children aged 0 to 16 years undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for various disorders. Busulfan plasma levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after the first daily dose of the 4-day dosing regimen. Cl/F expressed relative to adjusted ideal body weight (ml/min/kg) and bsa (ml/min/m(2)) was lower in 9- to 16-year-old (y.o.) compared with 0- to 4-y.o. children (49 and 30%; p<.001). We hypothesized that the greater busulfan Cl/F observed in young children was in part due to enhanced (first-pass intestinal) metabolism. Busulfan conjugation rate was compared in incubations with human small intestinal biopsy specimens from healthy young (1- to 3-y.o.) and older (9- to 17-y.o.) children. Villin content in biopsy specimens was determined by Western blot and busulfan conjugation rate was expressed relative to villin content to control for differences in epithelial cell content in pinch biopsies. Intestinal biopsy specimens from young children had a 77% higher busulfan conjugation rate (p =.037) compared with older children. We have previously shown that glutathione-S-transferase (GST) A1-1 is the major isoform involved in busulfan conjugation, and that this enzyme is expressed uniformly along the length of adult small intestine. Thus, the greater busulfan conjugation activity in intestinal biopsies of the young children was most likely due to enhanced GSTA1-1 expression. We conclude that age dependence in busulfan Cl/F appears to result at least in part from enhanced intestinal GSTA1-1 expression in young children.  (+info)

NOX, a novel nitric oxide scavenger, reduces bacterial translocation in rats after endotoxin challenge. (8/903)

Endotoxemia promotes gut barrier failure and bacterial translocation (BT) by upregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gut. We hypothesized that administration of a dithiocarbamate derivative, NOX, which scavenges nitric oxide (NO), may reduce intestinal injury and BT after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive NOX or normal saline via subcutaneously placed osmotic pumps before or after LPS challenge. Mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and blood were cultured 24 h later. Transmucosal passage of Escherichia coli C-25 or fluorescent beads were measured in an Ussing chamber. Intestinal membranes were examined morphologically for apoptosis, iNOS expression, and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. NOX significantly reduced the incidence of bacteremia, BT, and transmucosal passage of bacteria and beads when administered before or up to 12 h after LPS challenge. LPS induced enterocyte apoptosis at the villus tips where bacterial entry was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. NOX significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei and nitrotyrosine residues. NOX prevents LPS-induced gut barrier failure by scavenging NO and its toxic derivative, peroxynitrite.  (+info)

  • We postulated that inclusions in Myo5b KO mouse enterocytes form through invagination of the apical brush border membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results suggest that apical bulk endocytosis in Myo5b KO enterocytes resembles activity-dependent bulk endocytosis, the primary mechanism for synaptic vesicle uptake during intense neuronal stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, apical bulk endocytosis mediates the formation of inclusions in neonatal Myo5b KO enterocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Goldenring, James R. / Loss of myosin Vb promotes apical bulk endocytosis in neonatal enterocytes . (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: Inter-enterocyte communication was measured by microinjecting intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) with lucifer-yellow (LY) and a larger molecule "rhodamine-dextrane (Rd-D). The specificity of GJ function was assessed by pretreatment of cells with "oleamide", a specific inhibitor of GJ function. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Enterocyte injections allowed passage of LY but not Rd-dextran to adjoining cells, suggesting GJ function. (elsevier.com)
  • We found Klu to be expressed specifically in EBs to regulate cellular differentiation towards the enterocyte lineage", tells Dr. Korzelius, who is currently working at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne, Germany. (innovations-report.com)
  • The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is a moderately conserved pathogenicity island consisting of 35,000 base pairs in the bacteria Escherichia coli genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • Intestinal virulence factors are indicated in red for the locus of enterocyte effacement genes, blue for prophage-encoded Shiga toxin genes, and green for VFs carried by pR444_C, a pO157-like plasmid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains negative for locus of enterocyte effacement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The study of serotypes combined with that of the locus of enterocyte effacement island (LEE) allowed a better appreciation of the heterogeneity of the isolates and helped to determine whether the environment could be one of the main reservoirs in which new clones pathogenic for humans could emerge. (asm.org)
  • Background: In this study, we present evidence that proteins encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE), considered critical for Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adherence to follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells at the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ), do not appear to contribute to O157 adherence to squamous epithelial (RSE) cells also constituting this primary site of O157 colonization in cattle. (harvard.edu)
  • In EPEC, the plasmid-encoded regulator Per is required for maximal expression of proteins encoded on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), and a LEE-encoded regulator (Ler) is part of the Per-mediated regulatory cascade upregulating the LEE2 , LEE3 , and LEE4 promoters. (asm.org)
  • In EPEC strain E2348/69, the AE phenotype is encoded by a 35.6-kb pathogenicity island, the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) ( 31 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • These result from the action of highly regulated EPEC secreted proteins which are released via a type III secretion system, many genes of which are located within a pathogenicity island known as the locus of enterocyte effacement. (asm.org)
  • Melatonin-induced enterocyte [Ca2+](i) signaling as well as mucosal cell-to-cell communication may be involved in stimulation of duodenal mucosal HCO3- secretion. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, we set up cellular models of fatty acid absorption and secretion by enterocytes cocultured with bacteria and showed that, in vitro , both L. paracasei and E. coli inhibited lipid secretion, through increased intracellular fat storage and enhanced lipid catabolism, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Studies of enterocyte signaling and intestinal secretion requires particular evaluation regarding feeding status. (diva-portal.org)
  • Coffee Stomach Acid Secretion In Enterocytes Function Of Mitochondria Hydrochloric Acid Stomach Concentration Of Solutions Step APPENDIX V. List of details of the national reporting systems to communicate adverse reactions (side effects) for use in section 4.8 "Undesirable effects" of SmPC. (ammeglobe.com)
  • Cause drowsiness some doctors stomach coffee recommend secretion acid infectious causes, a large portion of my patients who come in secretion complaining of definition in enterocytes of chronic sore evidence also suggests that PPIs may inhibit Helicobacter pylori, a type of bacteria that can cause peptic ulcers, gastritis, and other gastrointestinal problems. (ammeglobe.com)
  • Thought it was a separate blockers (H2 stress stomach acid secretion in enterocytes function blockers) decrease capsule device may cause discomfort when swallowing. (ammeglobe.com)
  • on basolateral surface of enterocytes and promotes iron secretion into. (nativeartscircle.org)
  • Effects of melatonin on intracellular calcium signaling by duodenal enterocyte in vitro were examined in tissues of both human and rat origin. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. (mdpi.com)
  • In vitro, enterocyte phenotype was rescued partially by co-culture of cancer cells with goblet cells and completed through oleic acid interaction with signaling pathways dysregulated in cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Świątecka D, Markiewicz L, Wróblewska B. The effect of hydrolysates of proteins from rice milk on the physiological response of enterocytes and on the adhesion of bacteria from healthy and allergic people - an in vitro study. (termedia.pl)
  • Our results suggest that cryopreserved human enterocytes represent a physiologically relevant and convenient in vitro experimental system for the evaluation of intestinal metabolism, akin to cryopreserved human hepatocytes for hepatic metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite recent in vitro experiments with cultured human intestinal cell lines as models of mature enterocytes of the small intestine ( 7 , 12 , 17 , 22 ), bacterial cell surface-associated factors of lactobacilli potentially acting as adhesins remain to be characterized. (asm.org)
  • With CYP3A4 activity comparable to that of human hepatocytes, enterocytes are a useful in vitro test system for the investigation of intestinal drug metabolism, drug-drug interactions, and toxicity assessments. (invitroadmet.com)
  • Animal enterocytes can be accompanied by hepatocytes isolated from the same animal, allowing scientists an opportunity to investigate the impact that first-pass effects may have on a compound in both test systems in vitro. (invitroadmet.com)
  • We will utilize an enteroctye cell line for in vitro studies including RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE and immunofluorence microscopy, where upstream markers of TLR4 signaling (pMAPKs) and downstream markers (inflammatory cytokine production, enterocyte migration and apoptosis) will be assessed with or without Hsp70 induction or inhibition. (grantome.com)
  • TLR4 activation in vitro led to increased enterocyte apoptosis and reduced enterocyte migration and proliferation, suggesting a role for TLR4 in intestinal repair. (jimmunol.org)
  • While EPEC invades tissue culture cells in vitro, this is not thought to occur in vivo ( 39 , 56 ), and it is now clear that the virulence of EPEC depends primarily on the induction of a characteristic ultrastructural lesion in which the bacteria make intimate contact with the apical plasma membrane, causing localized destruction of the intestinal brush border and distortion of the apical enterocyte membrane. (asm.org)
  • We further show that enterocytes can internalize Escherichia coli into phagosomes, that the bacteria remain viable intracellularly, and that TLR4 is required for this process to occur. (elsevier.com)
  • We hypothesize that normal enterocytes over-expressing cyclin D1 will demonstrate a transformed phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: A small amount of GLUT2 is active at the lesser luminal concentrations of glucose, but when exposed to concentrations of 100 mM, the enterocyte presumably changes its phenotype by recruiting GLUT2 apically to markedly augment glucose absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • This study focused on intestinal restitution including phenotype switching of absorptive enterocytes and the abundance of different enterocyte subtypes in weaned pigs after porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • The enterocytes were isolated by enzyme digestion of the intestinal lumen, followed by partial purification via differential centrifugation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The main function of enterocytes is absorbing molecules from the gut lumen and transport them to inner connective tissue and blood vessels. (uvigo.es)
  • MTP is highly expressed in the enterocytes, lining the lumen of the jejunum, and is critical in the production of chylomicrons assembled from lipid/cholesterol and their transfer into systemic circulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The level of sugar absorption is also regulated by a rapid and transient recruitment of GLUT2 into enterocyte BBM ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Biliary bile acids form mixed micelles together with fatty acids, which function as a transport vehicle to deliver fatty acids to the apical membrane of enterocytes for absorption . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The gut microbiota contributes to nutrients absorption and metabolism by enterocytes, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood, and most conclusions are inferred from studies comparing germfree and conventional animals colonized with diverse bacterial species. (asm.org)
  • 50 mM lead to rapid, phenotypic, non-genomic adaptations by the enterocyte to recruit another transporter, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), to the apical membrane to increase glucose absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, the correlation between the cadmium absorption process and gene expression of DMT1 was investigated in an experimental model of human absorptive enterocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • All these symptoms disappear by weaning, when pathological enterocytes are replaced by normal-looking, adult-like enterocytes (which do not use endosomes and lysosomes for nutrient absorption). (northwestern.edu)
  • Following absorption of the products of pancreatic lipase by the intestinal enterocytes, the resynthesis of triglycerides occurs. (sttialphakappa.org)
  • Figure 1 - Na+ and K+ pumps in the enterocytes for nutrient absorption. (pigprogress.net)
  • Further, more systematic evidence for the role of enterocytes and their absorption via endocytosis came from another experiment where researchers used a variety of agents that block endocytosis. (scienceblog.com)
  • In the apical membranes, there area many transporters that are the gates for molecules resulting from digestion to come in the enterocyte. (uvigo.es)
  • In the basolateal membranes there are other transporters for these molecules to exit the enterocyte and reach the blood vessels. (uvigo.es)
  • m/s which was probably due to its negative effect on enterocyte membranes. (org.ua)
  • We determined here the permeability coefficients of murine enterocyte membranes for water molecules and glycerol, 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) cryoprotectants at 12°C and calculated the values of activation energy of their penetration. (org.ua)
  • It moves through the cytosol (cytoplasm) and exits the enterocyte via the basolateral membrane (into the blood capillary) using GLUT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • By what method of transport do amino acids cross the basolateral membrane of enterocytes. (aginginplacenorwich.org)
  • The NKA is localized to the basolateral membrane, although the columnar nature of the enterocytes dictates that the majority of the NKA protein resides in the lateral membrane, pumping Na + into the lateral interspace (lis) ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • Enterocytes were sequentially isolated from jejunum and ileum of normal fed rats, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with insulin. (jci.org)
  • Facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) 2, GLUT5, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 protein content was increased from 1.5- to 6-fold in enterocytes isolated from diabetic animals in both jejunum and ileum. (jci.org)
  • These results reveal incomplete restitution of enterocytes in the jejunum and potentially impaired immune surveillance in the ileum after PEDV infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Among the properties exerted by lactobacilli, adhesion to enterocytes is a key feature of probiotic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • We hypothesized that bacterial translocation across the intact barrier occurs after internalization of the bacteria by enterocytes in a process resembling phagocytosis and that TLR4 is required for this process. (elsevier.com)
  • Strikingly, the internalization of Gram-negative bacteria into enterocytes in vivo and the translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium to mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly greater in wild-type mice as compared with mice having mutations in TLR4. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest a novel mechanism by which bacterial translocation occurs and suggest a critical role for TLR4 in the phagocytosis of bacteria by enterocytes in this process. (elsevier.com)
  • Hackam, David J. / Enterocyte TLR4 mediates phagocytosis and translocation of bacteria across the intestinal barrier . (elsevier.com)
  • The pathogenesis of EPEC depends on the formation of an ultrastructural lesion in which the bacteria make intimate contact with the host apical enterocyte membrane. (asm.org)
  • OBJECTIVES -A physiological adaptation to a sugar-rich meal is achieved by increased sugar uptake to match dietary load, resulting from a rapid transient translocation of the fructose/glucose GLUT2 transporter to the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Intact enterocytes possess key cellular properties that are key to the assessment of in vivo events, including an intact plasma membrane to allow modeling of membrane permeability, uptake and efflux drug transporters, as well as complete and uninterrupted DME pathways and cofactors for both phase I oxidation and phase II conjugation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In summary, our results indicate that the uptake of cadmium into human absorptive enterocytes may be mediated by DMT1. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results suggest that apical bulk endocytosis in Myo5b KO enterocytes resembles activity-dependent bulk endocytosis, the primary mechanism for synaptic vesicle uptake during intense neuronal stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • We will use these and related mice to determine which type of nutrient uptake is compromised upon endolysosomal system failure in neonatal enterocytes. (northwestern.edu)
  • Uptake of a given microbe by enterocytes was strain-specific and was not influenced by the presence of another strain, regardless of the invasive ability of the coinfecting strain. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study we have found the permeability coefficients of murine enterocytes to water and such cryoprotectants as: ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol, 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). (org.ua)
  • Kovalenko I.F., Gordiyenko O.I. Determination of osmotically inactive volume of murine enterocytes. (org.ua)
  • Assuming the fact, that the survival time of murine enterocytes was also the highest in this cryoprotectant solution unlike glycerol and DMSO, we might conclude 1,2-PD to be the best cryoprotectant among the studied ones to freeze murine enterocytes. (org.ua)
  • One month after the onset of diabetes, jejunal enterocytes were prepared from normal, diabetic, and diabetic plus insulin-treated rats. (tamu.edu)
  • Noori-Mugahi S M H, Moghani-Ghoroghi F. Morphometry of Rat Jejunal Enterocytes Number and Height after L-Arginine and L-NAME Administration. (zjrms.ir)
  • Orexin-A at all concentrations tested (1-100 nM) increased [Ca2+](i) in enterocytes isolated from continuously fed rats, and the OX1R-antagonist SB-334867 (10 nM) attenuated the response. (diva-portal.org)
  • In rats, the enterocytes showed massive DNA fragmentation 30 mm and subsequent detachment 2 hours after injection of anti-CD3 mAb (1F4) made in our laboratory. (nii.ac.jp)
  • On the basis that citrulline availability is the rate-limiting factor for renal arginine synthesis, we hypothesized that citrulline synthesis from glutamine was reduced in enterocytes of diabetic rats, which may contribute to the decrease in plasma arginine levels. (tamu.edu)
  • These mutant strains also were used to quantify the effect of the INT1 gene product on C. albicans adherence (yeast and filamentous forms) to cultured enterocytes. (umn.edu)
  • Total RNA was extracted from pellets of enterocytes and reverse transcribed to cDNA, and expression of orexin receptors 1 and 2 (OX1R and OX2R) was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. (diva-portal.org)
  • Induction of intracellular calcium signaling in isolated duodenal enterocytes is thus mediated primarily by OX1R receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Power, D. M. Ligand binding and signalling pathways of PTH receptors in sea bream (Sparus auratus) enterocytes, Cell and Tissue Research, 323, 2, 333-341, 2006. (ualg.pt)
  • We have characterised PTH receptors (PTHR) in piscine enterocytes and established, by using aminoterminal PTHrP peptides, the amino acid residues important for receptor activation and for stabilising the ligand/receptor complex. (ualg.pt)
  • We found that two endolysosomal ion channels, mucolipins 3 and 1 (also known as TRPML3 and 1), are highly co-expressed in neonatal enterocytes from birth to weaning. (northwestern.edu)
  • Tonisity International developed a method of singularly feeding these enterocytes, by providing an isotonic protein solution containing the right balance of amino acids and sugar molecules. (pigprogress.net)
  • All nutrients have to come in through the 'front door' of the enterocyte, move through the cell, and go out the 'back door' again into the bloodstream, where they circulate and can be used by the body's tissues. (pigprogress.net)
  • Remarkably, TLR4 coimmunoprecipitated with FAK, and small interfering RNA-mediated FAK inhibition restored enterocyte migration after TLR4 activation, demonstrating that the FAK-TLR4 association regulates intestinal healing. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings demonstrate a critical role for TLR4 in the development of NEC through effects on enterocyte injury and repair, identify a novel TLR4-FAK association in regulating enterocyte migration, and suggest TLR4/FAK as a therapeutic target in this disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • We now show that FcγRIIa-transfected enterocytes can internalize IgG-opsonized erythrocytes into actin-rich cups, confirming that these enterocytes have the molecular machinery required for phagocytosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Using an integrated approach encompassing cellular and murine models and combining metabolic parameters measurement, lipid droplet imaging, and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated that under homeostatic conditions, L. paracasei promotes fat storage in enterocytes, whereas E. coli enhances lipid catabolism and reduces chylomicron circulating levels. (asm.org)