Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
An enzyme complex found in the brush border membranes of the small intestine. It is believed to be an enzyme complex with different catalytic sites. Its absence is manifested by an inherited disease called sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
The multifunctional protein that contains two enzyme domains. The first domain (EC 3.2.1.62) hydrolyzes glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. The second domain (EC 3.2.1.108) hydrolyzes LACTOSE and is found in the intestinal brush border membrane. Loss of activity for this enzyme in humans results in LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
A hexose transporter that mediates FRUCTOSE transport in SKELETAL MUSCLE and ADIPOCYTES and is responsible for luminal uptake of dietary fructose in the SMALL INTESTINE.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cells found throughout the lining of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that contain and secrete regulatory PEPTIDE HORMONES and/or BIOGENIC AMINES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A specialized proteolytic enzyme secreted by intestinal cells. It converts TRYPSINOGEN into its active form TRYPSIN by removing the N-terminal peptide. EC 3.4.21.9.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate to L-GLUTAMATE in the presence of NAD. Defects in the enzyme are the cause of hyperprolinemia II.
A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.

Modulation of intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes in human enterocyte Caco-2 cells by interferon-gamma and interleukin-6: role of nitric oxide and cooperation with antibiotics. (1/903)

The influence of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-6 on the intracellular growth of Listeria monocytogenes phagocytosed from the apical pole was examined in polarized Caco-2 cells. IFN-gamma (from the apical pole) and IL-6 (from the basolateral pole) considerably reduced the bacterial intracellular growth, an effect largely abolished by l-monomethyl arginine. Both cytokines caused overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. IL-6, but not IFN-gamma, caused a partial restriction of L. monocytogenes in phagosomes and largely prevented the cytosolic forms from being surrounded by actin. Ampicillin was bacteriostatic in unstimulated cells but modestly bactericidal in cells treated with IFN-gamma and IL-6. Azithromycin (a macrolide) was fairly bactericidal and sparfloxacin (a fluoroquinolone) highly bactericidal in all situations. IFN-gamma and IL-6 may therefore be important determinants in the protection of epithelial cells from intracellular multiplication of L. monocytogenes. Ampicillin may fail in their absence, requiring the use of other antibiotics such as the fluoroquinolones.  (+info)

Intestinal adaptation and enterocyte apoptosis following small bowel resection is p53 independent. (2/903)

Adaptation following small bowel resection (SBR) signals enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Because p53-induced p21(waf1/cip1) may be important for apoptosis in many cells, we hypothesized that these genes are required for increased enterocyte apoptosis during adaptation. Male C57BL/6 (wild-type) or p53-null mice underwent 50% proximal SBR or sham operation (bowel transection-reanastomosis). Adaptation (DNA-protein content, villus height-crypt depth, enterocyte proliferation), appearance of apoptotic bodies, and p53 and p21(waf1/cip1) protein expression were measured in the ileum after 5 days. Adaptation was equivalent after SBR in both wild-type and p53-null mice as monitored by significantly increased ileal DNA-protein content, villus height, and enterocyte proliferation. The number of crypt apoptotic bodies increased significantly after SBR evenly in both wild-type and p53-null mice. In the p53-null mice, SBR substantially induced the expression of p21(waf1/cip1) protein in villus enterocytes. The p53-independent induction of p21(waf1/cip1) may account for the similar intestinal response to SBR between wild-type and p53-null mice. Intestinal adaptation and increased enterocyte apoptosis following intestinal resection occur via a p53-independent mechanism.  (+info)

Increased dietary triacylglycerol markedly enhances the ability of isolated rabbit enterocytes to secrete chylomicrons: an effect related to dietary fatty acid composition. (3/903)

Dietary fats are efficiently absorbed in the small intestine and transported into the blood via the lymph as chylomicrons, despite enormous variations in the amount and composition of the dietary lipid. The aim of the present study was to investigate how enterocytes respond to increased dietary fats of different composition. Rabbits were fed a low fat chow diet, and chow supplemented with sunflower oil (high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids), fish oil (high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids), or an oil mixture of a composition similar to that of the typical western diet. Feeding fat for 2 weeks markedly stimulated the ability of the isolated enterocytes to synthesize and secrete apolipoprotein B48, triacylglycerol, and cholesteryl ester (up to 18-, 50-, and 80-fold, respectively) in particles of chylomicron density. The magnitude of stimulation was sunflower oil > western diet lipid > fish oil. Single doses of lipid given 18 h prior to isolation of enterocytes stimulated chylomicron secretion by only 10% of that observed after 2 weeks of dietary supplementation. Enterocytes are replaced rapidly (half-life 1-2 days) by cells which move from the crypts to the tips of the villi, where absorption of nutrients takes place. Our observations suggest that dietary lipids modulate the function of enterocytes as they move from the crypts, so that the cells are 'turned-on' to lipid absorption. The results also show that diets of different fatty acid composition vary in their effects.  (+info)

Regulation of small intestinal Na-P(i) type IIb cotransporter by dietary phosphate intake. (4/903)

Dietary restriction of phosphate is a well-known stimulator (acting indirectly via vitamin D(3)) of small intestinal apical Na-P(i) cotransport. In the present study, we document by Western blots and immunohistochemistry that, in mice, a low-P(i) diet given for several days leads (in parallel to a stimulation of Na-P(i) cotransport) to an increase of the abundance of the type IIb Na-P(i) cotransporter in the brush-border membrane of mouse enterocytes. Similar results were also obtained by an injection of cholecalciferol. The abundance of the type IIb transcript was investigated by Northern blots. These results indicated that the amount of the type IIb transcript was not changed by either low-P(i) diet or cholecalciferol. It is concluded that stimulation of intestinal Na-P(i) cotransport by low-P(i) diet and vitamin D(3) can be explained by an increased amount of type IIb Na-P(i) cotransporters in the brush-border membrane and that augmentation of type IIb Na-P(i) cotransporters is not related to an increased rate of transcription of the type IIb gene.  (+info)

Identification of the major intestinal fatty acid transport protein. (5/903)

While intestinal transport systems for metabolites such as carbohydrates have been well characterized, the molecular mechanisms of fatty acid (FA) transport across the apical plasmalemma of enterocytes have remained largely unclear. Here, we show that FATP4, a member of a large family of FA transport proteins (FATPs), is expressed at high levels on the apical side of mature enterocytes in the small intestine. Further, overexpression of FATP4 in 293 cells facilitates uptake of long chain FAs with the same specificity as enterocytes, while reduction of FATP4 expression in primary enterocytes by antisense oligonucleotides inhibits FA uptake by 50%. This suggests that FATP4 is the principal fatty acid transporter in enterocytes and may constitute a novel target for antiobesity therapy.  (+info)

Binding of pili from uropathogenic Escherichia coli to membranes secreted by human colonocytes and enterocytes. (6/903)

PapG adhesins mediate the binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Although receptors for these adhesins have not been demonstrated in intestinal epithelia, the colonic microflora includes strains of uropathogenic E. coli. We now report that surfactant-like particles secreted by the human intestine contain receptors for PapG adhesins and may provide an intestinal habitat for uropathogenic bacteria.  (+info)

Up-regulation of glutathione S-transferase activity in enterocytes of young children. (7/903)

The relationship between age and busulfan apparent oral clearance (Cl/F) expressed relative to adjusted ideal body weight and body surface area (bsa) was evaluated in 135 children aged 0 to 16 years undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for various disorders. Busulfan plasma levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after the first daily dose of the 4-day dosing regimen. Cl/F expressed relative to adjusted ideal body weight (ml/min/kg) and bsa (ml/min/m(2)) was lower in 9- to 16-year-old (y.o.) compared with 0- to 4-y.o. children (49 and 30%; p<.001). We hypothesized that the greater busulfan Cl/F observed in young children was in part due to enhanced (first-pass intestinal) metabolism. Busulfan conjugation rate was compared in incubations with human small intestinal biopsy specimens from healthy young (1- to 3-y.o.) and older (9- to 17-y.o.) children. Villin content in biopsy specimens was determined by Western blot and busulfan conjugation rate was expressed relative to villin content to control for differences in epithelial cell content in pinch biopsies. Intestinal biopsy specimens from young children had a 77% higher busulfan conjugation rate (p =.037) compared with older children. We have previously shown that glutathione-S-transferase (GST) A1-1 is the major isoform involved in busulfan conjugation, and that this enzyme is expressed uniformly along the length of adult small intestine. Thus, the greater busulfan conjugation activity in intestinal biopsies of the young children was most likely due to enhanced GSTA1-1 expression. We conclude that age dependence in busulfan Cl/F appears to result at least in part from enhanced intestinal GSTA1-1 expression in young children.  (+info)

NOX, a novel nitric oxide scavenger, reduces bacterial translocation in rats after endotoxin challenge. (8/903)

Endotoxemia promotes gut barrier failure and bacterial translocation (BT) by upregulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gut. We hypothesized that administration of a dithiocarbamate derivative, NOX, which scavenges nitric oxide (NO), may reduce intestinal injury and BT after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive NOX or normal saline via subcutaneously placed osmotic pumps before or after LPS challenge. Mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and blood were cultured 24 h later. Transmucosal passage of Escherichia coli C-25 or fluorescent beads were measured in an Ussing chamber. Intestinal membranes were examined morphologically for apoptosis, iNOS expression, and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. NOX significantly reduced the incidence of bacteremia, BT, and transmucosal passage of bacteria and beads when administered before or up to 12 h after LPS challenge. LPS induced enterocyte apoptosis at the villus tips where bacterial entry was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. NOX significantly decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei and nitrotyrosine residues. NOX prevents LPS-induced gut barrier failure by scavenging NO and its toxic derivative, peroxynitrite.  (+info)

Human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli adhere to the brush border of human enterocytes. The mean number of bacteria adhering to one enterocyte (adhesion index) varied from 0.5 to 3.1 when the strains produce adhesins. Different factors related to enterocytes and to bacteria are involved in this variability. The number of bacteria which adhered to enterocytes issued from the same donor varied from from 0 to 12. Moreover the proportion of enterocytes on which several bacteria sticked did not exceed 20%. This variability might be due to the disparity in the maturation of the enterocytes. On the other hand, whatever the adhesion factors considered, the adhesion index varied according to the donors. ETEC strains did not express adhesion when bacteria were grown in a liquid medium but this capacity could be restored after transfer on solid medium. This phenomenon seemed like a phase-variation and appeared to be linked to a 4 to 6 kilobases (kb) plasmid. On the other hand, when the bacteria were grown on agar
Mutations that inhibit differentiation in stem cell lineages are a common early step in cancer development, but precisely how a loss of differentiation initiates tumorigenesis is unclear. We investigated Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) tumours generated by suppressing Notch (N) signalling, which blocks differentiation. Notch-defective ISCs require stress-induced divisions for tumour initiation and an autocrine EGFR ligand, Spitz, during early tumour growth. On achieving a critical mass these tumours displace surrounding enterocytes, competing with them for basement membrane space and causing their detachment, extrusion and apoptosis. This loss of epithelial integrity induces JNK and Yki/YAP activity in enterocytes and, consequently, their expression of stress-dependent cytokines (Upd2, Upd3). These paracrine signals, normally used within the stem cell niche to trigger regeneration, propel tumour growth without the need for secondary mutations in growth signalling pathways. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A transient niche regulates the specification of drosophila intestinal stem cells. AU - Mathur, Divya. AU - Bost, Alyssa. AU - Driver, Lan. AU - Ohlstein, Benjamin. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Stem cell niches are locations where stem cells reside and self-renew. Although studies have shown how niches maintain stem cell fate during tissue homeostasis, less is known about their roles in establishing stem cells. The adult Drosophila midgut is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs); however, how they are established is unknown. Here, we show that an ISC progenitor generates a niche cell via Notch signaling. This niche uses the bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 homolog, decapentaplegic, to allow progenitors to divide in an undifferentiated state and subsequently breaks down and dies, resulting in the specification of ISCs in the adult midgut. Our results demonstrate a paradigm for stem cell-niche biology, where progenitors generate transient niches that determine stem cell fate and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Loss of myosin Vb promotes apical bulk endocytosis in neonatal enterocytes. AU - Engevik, Amy C.. AU - Kaji, Izumi. AU - Postema, Meagan M.. AU - Faust, James J.. AU - Meyer, Anne R.. AU - Williams, Janice A.. AU - Fitz, Gillian N.. AU - Tyska, Matthew J.. AU - Wilson, Jean M.. AU - Goldenring, James R.. PY - 2019/11/4. Y1 - 2019/11/4. N2 - In patients with inactivating mutations in myosin Vb (Myo5B), enterocytes show large inclusions lined by microvilli. The origin of inclusions in small-intestinal enterocytes in microvillus inclusion disease is currently unclear. We postulated that inclusions in Myo5b KO mouse enterocytes form through invagination of the apical brush border membrane. 70-kD FITC-dextran added apically to Myo5b KO intestinal explants accumulated in intracellular inclusions. Live imaging of Myo5b KO-derived enteroids confirmed the formation of inclusions from the apical membrane. Treatment of intestinal explants and enteroids with Dyngo resulted in accumulation of ...
The integrity of the intestinal epithelium is crucial for the barrier function of the gut. Replenishment of the gut epithelium by intestinal stem cells contributes to gut homeostasis, but how the differentiated enterocytes are protected against stressors is less well understood. This study used the Drosophila larval hindgut as a model system in which damaged enterocytes are not replaced by stem cell descendants. By performing a thorough genetic analysis, it was demonstrates that a signalling complex consisting of p38b and MK2 forms a branch of SAPK signalling that is required in the larval hindgut to prevent stress-dependent damage to the enterocytes. Impaired p38b/MK2 signalling leads to apoptosis of the enterocytes and a subsequent loss of hindgut epithelial integrity, as manifested by the deterioration of the overlaying muscle layer. Damaged hindguts show increased JNK activity, and removing upstream activators of JNK suppresses the loss of hindgut homeostasis. Thus, the p38/MK2 complex ...
The integrity of the intestinal epithelium is crucial for the barrier function of the gut. Replenishment of the gut epithelium by intestinal stem cells contributes to gut homeostasis, but how the differentiated enterocytes are protected against stressors is less well understood. This study used the Drosophila larval hindgut as a model system in which damaged enterocytes are not replaced by stem cell descendants. By performing a thorough genetic analysis, it was demonstrates that a signalling complex consisting of p38b and MK2 forms a branch of SAPK signalling that is required in the larval hindgut to prevent stress-dependent damage to the enterocytes. Impaired p38b/MK2 signalling leads to apoptosis of the enterocytes and a subsequent loss of hindgut epithelial integrity, as manifested by the deterioration of the overlaying muscle layer. Damaged hindguts show increased JNK activity, and removing upstream activators of JNK suppresses the loss of hindgut homeostasis. Thus, the p38/MK2 complex ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Background & Aims: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a well-recognized mediator of liver disease and regeneration. However, the in vivo effects of IL-6 on enterocytes and the intestinal tract have not been elucidated. We sought to determine the in vivo effects of IL-6 on enterocytes.. Methods: Murine models of increased or absent IL-6 were examined.. Results: Systemic, high-dose IL-6 administration to mice over 7-10 days resulted in intestinal hyperplasia with a ~40% increase in small bowel mass and in intestinal villus height. No increase in crypt cell proliferation was noted. IL-6 administration was associated with induction of pSTAT3 in enterocytes along the lower and middle regions of villi but not in crypts. IL-6 administration was also associated with induction of anti-apoptotic proteins including pAKT, ref-1, and FLIP. along with decreased executor caspase activity and PARP cleavage. Pulse bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling demonstrated equivalent crypt cell proliferation rates but prolonged ...
Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipopolisakkarid enterositlerdeki ara baǧlanti proteini konneksin-43′ü etkileyerek hücreler arasi iletişimi bozmaktadir. AU - Ergün, Orkan. AU - Qureshi, Faisal G.. AU - Baty, Catherine. AU - Li, Jun. AU - Ford, Henri R.. AU - Hackam, David J.. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - Aim: Communication between enterocytes is likely to be essential for the maintenance of gut barrier integrity. In many cells such as neurons, intercellular communication occurs through the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin-43 (Cx43), and phosphorylation ofCx43 (pCx43) disrupts GJ function. However, the in vivo effects of LPS on GJ expression and phosphorylation in enterocytes are undefined. We hypothesized that LPS modulates connexin-43 expression and phosphorylation in enterocytes in-vitro. Methods: Inter-enterocyte communication was measured by microinjecting intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) with lucifer-yellow (LY) and a larger molecule rhodamine-dextrane (Rd-D). The specificity of GJ ...
Enterocita (it); Entérocyte (fr); Enterozito (eu); Enterocito (ast); Энтероцит каёмчатый (ru); Enterozyt (de); Enterócito (pt); Enterocīts (lv); 腸黏膜細胞 (zh); 腸細胞 (ja); Enterocyt (sk); Enterocyt (pl); Ентероцит (uk); Enterocyt (nl); enterocyte (en); Enterocito (es); Enterocyt (sv); Enterosyytti (fi); Enterocito (gl); خلية معوية (ar); Enterocyt (cs); Enteròcit (ca) type of cell (en); komórka nabłonkowa jelit (pl); Zelle des Darmepithels (de) Celula intestinal, Célula intestinal (es); Enterocyte, Entérocytes (fr); Enterocyty (pl); Ентероцити (uk); Энтероцит каемчатый (ru); Saumzelle (de); Enterócitos (pt); enterocytes, gut enterocytes, gut enterocyte (en); 腸上皮細胞, 腸細胞 (zh ...
With its stem cells, the intestine is able to regenerate itself continuously and to ensure the function and integrity of the tissue during the lifespan of an organism, says Dr. Jerome Korzelius, first author of the study published in Nature Communications.. Asymmetric cell division of intestinal stem cells. Asymmetric division of ISCs is crucial for the process of cell renewal. An ISC renews by dividing into another stem cell and an enteroblast (EB) daughter cell. This daughter cell can then differentiate into two different types of differentiated cells depending on signaling cues: absorptive enterocytes (EC), cells that take up nutrients and are responsible for immune defense or enteroendocrine cells (EE) that produce gastrointestinal hormones. Recent work has shown that lineage choice in these EB daughter cells is likely more complex than previously thought.. Transcription factor Klumpfuss as regulator. The researchers discovered that the transcription factor Klumpfuss (Klu), which is related ...
Surface active compounds present in food possibly have the ability to enhance the absorption of water soluble toxic agents. Therefore, we investigated whether fatty acids such as oleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both commonly present in food, negatively affect the integrity of tight junctions (TJ) in the intestinal epithelium and thereby increase the absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic substances. Caco-2 cells, which are derived from human absorptive enterocytes, were grown on permeable filters for 20-25 days. Differentiated cell monolayers were apically exposed for 90min to mannitol in emulsions of oleic acid (5, 15 or 30mM) or DHA (5, 15 or 30mM) in an experimental medium with or without Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Absorption of (14)C-mannitol increased and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) decreased in cell monolayers exposed to oleic acid and DHA, compared to controls. Cytotoxicity, measured as leakage of LDH, was higher in groups exposed to 30mM oleic acid and all ...
Surface active compounds present in food possibly have the ability to enhance the absorption of water soluble toxic agents. Therefore, we investigated whether fatty acids such as oleic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both commonly present in food, negatively affect the integrity of tight junctions (TJ) in the intestinal epithelium and thereby increase the absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic substances. Caco-2 cells, which are derived from human absorptive enterocytes, were grown on permeable filters for 20-25 days. Differentiated cell monolayers were apically exposed for 90min to mannitol in emulsions of oleic acid (5, 15 or 30mM) or DHA (5, 15 or 30mM) in an experimental medium with or without Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Absorption of (14)C-mannitol increased and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) decreased in cell monolayers exposed to oleic acid and DHA, compared to controls. Cytotoxicity, measured as leakage of LDH, was higher in groups exposed to 30mM oleic acid and all ...
Recent studies show that despite divergent qualities, both of these populations of intestinal stem cells display a substantial amount of plasticity between them. To help expand enhance Carboplatin reversible enzyme inhibition the versatile functions of intestinal crypt cells in maintaining epithelial homeostasis, Tetteh recently reported that the enterocyte precursors have the ability to dedifferentiate into stem cells upon the ablation of the expressing aISCs (2). They showed that the enterocyte differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase intestinal (precursor cells as a unique population within the TA zone that is distinct from aISCs or secretory precursors. This further warranted the use of as a proxy to generate enterocyte progenitor lineage tracing mice. Lineage tracing using an inducible cells originating from the upper part of the crypts. The lineage cells were entirely composed of absorptive precursors and enterocytes, and did not include secretory cells, such as goblet, enteroendocrine, ...
Two peptides from soybean β-conglycinin, i.e., YVVNPDNDEN (peptide 2) and YVVNPDNNEN (peptide 3), are known to be absorbed by human enterocytes. The former is ...
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Supplementary MaterialsTable_1. the gastrointestinal environment and resisted a broad pH Rabbit Polyclonal to CCRL1 range and enzymatic proteolysis. After binding to Caco-2 cells it marketed changes in surface area morphology and a rise in membrane roughness. It had been also cytotoxic to both epithelial and immune system cells through the digestive tract of mammals. It induced enterocyte loss of life with a lytic system and disrupted enterocyte Entinostat cell signaling monolayers within a dose-dependent way. Further, after dental administration to mice PmPV2 mounted on enterocytes and induced huge dose-dependent morphological adjustments on their little intestine mucosa, reducing the absorptive surface area. Additionally, PmPV2 was discovered in the Peyers areas where it turned on lymphoid follicles and brought about apoptosis. We provide evidence the fact that toxin can traverse the intestinal hurdle and induce dental adaptive immunity with proof circulating antibody response. All together, ...
This is a report of a symposium held at the March 1997 meeting of the American Society for Pharmacology and Therapeutics in San Diego. Our understanding of the events that control first-pass drug elimination in humans has increased tremendously by two sequential discoveries. First, cytochrome P-450s 3A4 and 5 are expressed at high concentrations in both hepatocytes and upper intestinal enterocytes, and therefore limit the systemic availability of many drugs. Second, P-glycoprotein is expressed at the lumenal surface of the intestinal epithelium and therefore also acts to oppose the absorption of unchanged drug. The following discussion brings together our current understandings of these interrelated phenomena to aid a more complete picture of how they may contribute both qualitatively and quantitatively to first-pass elimination.. ...
Bhan, M.K.; Khoshoo, V.; Phillips, A.D.; Smith, J.A.W.; Mathur, M., 1988: The enterocyte height and number in children with protracted diarrhoea
mutant generation, as well as with viral transfection of cultured enteroids, how many enterocytes, and at what postnatal stages, require endolysosomal functioning to sustain a healthy intestinal function. In order to translate these findings to humans, where the onset of weaning is not clearly defined as it is in rodents and even the existence of suckling-style enterocytes is largely ignored, we will also establish the postnatal period when human enterocytes display a specialized endolysosomal system. We will finally obtain, examine and culture human intestinal biopsies to test the novel hypothesis that endolysosomal abnormalities underlie neonatal intestinal pathologies such as pediatric malabsorption syndromes and necrotizing enterocolitis. These studies may lead to a fundamental change in the understanding of neonatal intestinal pathologies, leading causes of infant mortality worldwide ...
Principal Investigator:FUJIMIYA Mineko, Project Period (FY):2001 - 2002, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:General anatomy (including Histology/Embryology)
To determine whether genes involved in mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, movement, and turnover) play a role in ISC function, we used the ISC/EB-specific, RU486-inducible 5961-Gal4GeneSwitch (5961GS) driver to direct expression of UAS-RNAi lines in ISCs/EBs in the adult midgut (see Materials and methods for specific RNAi lines tested). Use of the drug-inducible system permits comparison of genetically identical individuals that are either expressing (+RU486) or not expressing (EtOH/−RU486) the transgene of interest. Overexpression of srl led to a decrease in intestinal dysplasia, as previously reported (Rera et al., 2011). However, in contrast to our expectations, RNAi-mediated depletion of Pink1 or Parkin resulted in a drastic improvement in intestinal homeostasis in aged flies. Manipulation of other factors tested had no significant effect on ISC maintenance or tissue homeostasis during the time points assayed (10, 30, and 50 d post-eclosion).. Mutations in the ...
mice were protected from NEC and transfer of intestinal lymphocytes from NEC mice into naive mice induced intestinal inflammation. The intestinal expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor TLR4, which is higher in the premature compared with full-term human and mouse intestine, is required for lymphocyte influx through TLR4-mediated upregulation of CCR9/CCL25 signaling. TLR4 also mediates a STAT3-dependent polarization toward increased proinflammatory CD3+CD4+IL-17+ and reduced tolerogenic Foxp3+ Treg lymphocytes (Tregs). Th17 lymphocytes were required for NEC development, as inhibition of STAT3 or IL-17 receptor signaling attenuated NEC in mice, while IL-17 release impaired enterocyte tight junctions, increased enterocyte apoptosis, and reduced enterocyte proliferation, leading to NEC. Importantly, TLR4-dependent Th17 polarization could be reversed by the enteral administration of retinoic acid, which induced Tregs and decreased NEC severity. These findings identify an important role for ...
The method of EDTA-mediated elution of human enterocytes, applied in these studies to the human small intestine for the first time, offers advantages over mechanical scraping of the mucosa (Paine et al., 1997); villous and crypt cells can be separated for investigation individually and the more gentle nature of the isolation procedure is less likely to damage the cells. Human and rat (Fasco et al., 1993) villous enterocytes exhibited similar susceptibility to release and elution from the small intestine by EDTA. However, in contrast to the rat small intestine where 1.5 mM EDTA effectively removes crypt cells after an extended period of incubation, 5.0 mM EDTA only removed up to 10% of crypt cells from human small intestine after a similar incubation period. A separation of human villous and crypt cells can thus be achieved by first eluting the villous cells with EDTA and then releasing the residual crypt cells mechanically by scraping.. The current studies support the well established ...
CP: Paneth cell.. Introduction. Allergy is essentially an inflammatory illness and the most common clinic manifestations linked to food allergy are skin related, mainly atopic eczema, and gastrointestinal mediated or not by IgE.1 Food allergy is characterized by a response of the immune system, mainly present in the gastrointestinal mucosa, to antigens orally ingested. Most of food allergens are low molecular weight proteins, ranging from 10 to 70 kDa, being the majority hydrosoluble and heat-resistant.2. At the same time that enterocytes are responsible for nutrients absorption, in the mucosa of the small intestine occurs most of the contact with antigenic materials in the gastrointestinal tract.3 Several defense mechanisms give to the gastrointestinal mucosa a complex structure that functions by using physiological and cellular factors to prevent antigens penetration. Its physical barrier is composed of enterocytes connected by junctional complex constituted by occlusive, adherence and ...
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract includes a diverse group of physiological features, including peristalsis, immune system protection, and nutrient absorptions. applications. We could actually identify many ground-breaking discoveries inside our review, while even more work is required to promote the scientific translation of gut bioengineering. solid course=kwd-title Keywords: Gut bioengineering, stem cells, organoids, gut fix, pharmaceutical research, laboratory on the chip Introduction Features from the gastrointestinal (GI) system mainly include meals digestive function PF-562271 ic50 and absorption of nutrition for support of day to day activities. These features are mediated with a diverse group of cells in different layers of the GI wall. The GI wall consists of mucous, submucous, muscular, and serosal layers.1,2 In the small intestine, for example, the mucous coating contains absorptive enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, Paneth cells, stem cells, PF-562271 ic50 ...
SARS-CoV-2 Host Cell Receptor. The surface of SARS-CoV-2 virus is covered by a large number of spike proteins, which are essential for the virus to gain entry into host cells. Each spike protein consists of two subunits, S1 and S2. The S1 subunit at the tip of the spike contains the receptor-binding domain (RBD) that binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the host cell receptor, while the S2 subunit, located on the stalk of the spike, mediates virus-host cell membrane fusion that is necessary for viral entry (1). For membrane fusion to occur, the S1 and S2 subunits must be cleaved open by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2-1).. ACE2, first identified in 2000, is an enzyme attached to the surface of host cells and is the entry point for SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is widely distributed throughout the body, being abundantly expressed on nasal epithelial cells, lung alveolar epithelial cells, and small intestinal enterocytes. ACE2 is also expressed in endothelium of vascular beds in organs ...
Adj. enterocytic Definition : Intestinal absorptive cells. Pathology enterocytic anomalies enterocytic diseases See also cells (...)
MRP3 is an ABC transporter localized in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells such as hepatocytes and enterocytes. In this study, the role of Mrp3 in drug disposition was investigated. Because Mrp3 preferentially transports glucuronide conjugates, we investigated the in vivo disposition of ac …
Secretion and Regulation of ApoB48 by Primary Hamster Intestinal EnterocytesIntestinal Enterocytes B C LabeledApoB48(%control) LabeledApoB48(%control) 0 20 40 …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial translocation in cultured enterocytes. T2 - Magnitude, specificity, and electron microscopic observations of endocytosis. AU - Wells, Carol L. AU - Jechorek, Robert P.. AU - Olmsted, Stephen B.. AU - Erlandsen, Stanley L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - Previous in vivo evidence has shown that bacterial phagocytosis by enterocytes may be an initial step in bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium. This study analyzed the interactions of cultured enterocytes, namely Caco-2 cells, with nine strains of enteric bacteria, tested in pure culture and in mixed culture. These nine strains had a spectrum of invasive potential and included Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes (three strains), Escherichia coli (three strains), Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Numbers of viable intracellular bacteria recovered from Caco-2 cells were: L. monocytogenes,S. typhimurium,P. ...
The rotavirus has infected people worldwide, causing 600,000-850,000 deaths each year. Various seroprevalence studies have shown that antibodies are present in most infants by the age of 3. In the US, there are 20-40 deaths and about 50,000 people are hospitalized each year because of rotavirus infection. The affected host cells are mature enterocytes lining the middle and upper end of the intestinal villi. Hepatocytes are also infected in laboratory animals. It is thought that the intermediate sub-viral particle (ISVP) is the infectious particle. The viral attachment protein is probably exposed after protease digestion in the GI tract and removes some or all of the outer capsid VP4. Large amounts of viral particles are shed in diarrheal stools. Histopathology of infected intestines shows villous atrophy and blunting because of the death of the mature enterocytes and infiltration of lamina propria with mononuclear cells. There is subsequently a repopulation of the villous tips with immature ...
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The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. The type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains. This cytokeratin is a major cellular protein of mature enterocytes and goblet cells and is specifically expressed in the gastric and intestinal mucosa. Keratin 20 is a type I cytokeratin. It is a major cellular protein of mature enterocytes and goblet cells and is specifically found in the gastric and intestinal mucosa. In immunohistochemistry, antibodies to CK20 can be used to identify a range of adenocarcinoma arising from epithelia that normally contain the CK20 protein. For example, the protein is commonly found in colorectal cancer, transitional cell carcinomas and in Merkel cell carcinoma, but is absent in lung cancer, prostate cancer, and non-mucinous ...
Whatever the mechanism by which Giardia damages villus epithelial cells and presumably produces increased epithelial cell loss, there would appear to be a predictable crypt cell response with an increase in crypt depth and crypt cell proliferation. In other conditions in which this response occurs, such as coeliac disease, there is repopulation of the villus by relatively immature enterocytes with reduced absorptive capacity. Increased intestinal proliferation has been confirmed in the gerbil model of giardiasis (56), but using thymidine kinase activity as a marker of maturity, there is no evidence in the jejunum or ileum that the cells repopulating the villous are less mature than those in controls. From these data, it seems likely that the structural and functional abnormalities observed in the microvillus membrane relate to direct injury rather than to a secondary mechanism increasing crypt cell production.. Work in our laboratory has shown, however, that Giardia can directly stimulate the ...
Differentiation environment so as to provide enterocyte-like monolayer with barrier functions, thus physiologically mimicking the human intestinal epithelium.
Richard E. Hartman, Robert B. W. Smith, Roberta S. Hartman, Charles E. Butterworth, Jack M. Molesworth; The Electron Microscopy of Human Intestinal Epithelium Obtained with the Crosby Intestinal Biopsy Capsule . J Biophys and Biochem Cytol 25 January 1959; 5 (1): 171-172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.5.1.171. Download citation file:. ...
Narayan RJ, Boehm RD, Monteiro-Riviere NA. Cell and Protein Interactions with Diamond. In Handbook of Clinical Medicine-Law, Business, Regulation, Safety and Risk, (Eds. Bawa R, Audette G, Reese BE), Vol.11, Section III-Health, Safety, Risk and Biological Interactions, Pan Stafford Publishing, Singapore, Chapter 33, pp.809-822, 2016. Monteiro-Riviere NA. Safety of Nanoparticle Skin Penetration. In Percutaneous Penetration Enhancers-Chemical Methods in Penetration Enhancement-Nanocarriers Series(Eds. Dragicevic N and Maibach HI), Springer-Verlag Publishers, Heidelberg, Germany, Vol. 2, Chapter 24, pp. 363-376, 2016. Ortega MT, Jeffery B, Riviere JE, Monteiro-Riviere NA. Toxicological effect of pet food ingredients on canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and enterocyte-like cells. Journal Applied Toxicology 36 (2): 189-198, 2016. Lin Z, Monteiro-Riviere NA, Kannan R, Riviere JE. A computational framework for interspecies pharmacokinetics, exposure and toxicity assessment of gold ...
The differentiation and activation of monocytes (MO) and monocytic cells is modulated by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vitamin D3). In order to investigate early effects on the differentiation process of MO, we used the mRNA Differential Display technology to identify genes that are induced in freshly isolated human blood MO cultured for 4 hours with Vitamin D3. A cDNA fragment was isolated and Northern analysis confirmed a low expression of this cDNA at about 1,4 kb in MO which was increased by the addition of Vitamin D3. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE)-PCR we got a transcript (DDVit 1) of a length of 1251 bp containing an open reading frame that encodes a putative 16,5 kD protein. Database search revealed an identity with a possible enterocyte differentiation promoting factor with a length of 1177 bp that has not been further characterized. Therefore DDVit 1 may be a differentiation promoting factor for the monocytic lineage. Further investigations will clarify the role of ...
2006ರ ಕಾರ್ಬನ್‌ ನಿಯತಕಾಲಿಕೆಯ ಸಂಪಾದಕೀಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಮಾರ್ಕ್‌ ಮೊಂಥಿಯೊಕ್ಸ್‌ ಮತ್ತು ವ್ಲಾಡಿಮಿರ್‌ ಕುಜ್ನೆತ್ಸೊವ್‌ ಎಂಬಿಬ್ಬರು, ಇಂಗಾಲದ ನ್ಯಾನೊಟ್ಯೂಬ್‌‌ನ ಕುತೂಹಲಕರ ಮತ್ತು ಹೆಚ್ಚು ಬಾರಿ ತಪ್ಪಾಗಿ ಗ್ರಹಿಸಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿರುವ ಮೂಲದ ಕುರಿತು ವಿವರಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. 1991ರಲ್ಲಿ NECನ ಸುಮಿಯೊ ಈಜಿಮಾರವರು ಗ್ರಾಫೈಟಿಕ್‌ ಇಂಗಾಲದಿಂದ ರಚಿಸಿದ ನ್ಯಾನೊಮೀಟರ್-ಅಳತೆಯ ಟೊಳ್ಳಾದ ನ್ಯಾನೊಟ್ಯೂಬ್‌ಗಳನ್ನು ಆವಿಷ್ಕರಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ ಎಂದು ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ಶೈಕ್ಷಣಿಕ ಮತ್ತು ಜನಪ್ರಿಯ ...
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is crucial in maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis, participates in a vigorous signaling process and heightens inflammatory cytokine output. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of glutamine (GLN) on TLR-4 signaling in intestinal mucosa during methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis in a rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups of 8 rats each: 1) control rats; 2) CONTR-GLN animals were treated with oral glutamine given in drinking water (2%) 48 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection; 3) MTX-rats were treated with a single IP injection of MTX (20 mg/kg); and 4) MTX-GLN rats were pre-treated with oral glutamine similar to group B, 48 hours before and 72 hours after MTX injection. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. The expression of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 in the intestinal
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) is crucial in maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis, participates in a vigorous signaling process and heightens inflammatory cytokine output. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of glutamine (GLN) on TLR-4 signaling in intestinal mucosa during methotrexate (MTX)-induced mucositis in a rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups of 8 rats each: 1) control rats; 2) CONTR-GLN animals were treated with oral glutamine given in drinking water (2%) 48 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection; 3) MTX-rats were treated with a single IP injection of MTX (20 mg/kg); and 4) MTX-GLN rats were pre-treated with oral glutamine similar to group B, 48 hours before and 72 hours after MTX injection. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. The expression of TLR-4, MyD88 and TRAF6 in the intestinal
The most proximal and widest part of the small intestine is the duodenum. It starts at the pylorus of the stomach, ends at the duodenojejunal junction and measures about 25 cm long. It receives partly digested food (chyme) from the stomach and bile and pancreatic fluids from the pancreaticobiliary duct. After entering the duodenum the acidic contents from the stomach is neutralized by secretion from the intestine and pancreas. Enzymes secreted from the pancreas starts the degradation of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins to enable absorption. As in all of the small intestine, the mucosa forms fingerlike projections called villi.. that extend into the intestinal lumen. These are epithelial folds lined by two types of cells, enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes are simple columnar cells with basal elongated nuclei and an apical brush border. The brush border is the microscopic representation of small protrusions of the cell membrane, microvilli, which greatly increase the surface area of the ...
The most proximal and widest part of the small intestine is the duodenum. It starts at the pylorus of the stomach, ends at the duodenojejunal junction and measures about 25 cm long. It receives partly digested food (chyme) from the stomach and bile and pancreatic fluids from the pancreaticobiliary duct. After entering the duodenum the acidic contents from the stomach is neutralized by secretion from the intestine and pancreas. Enzymes secreted from the pancreas starts the degradation of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins to enable absorption. As in all of the small intestine, the mucosa forms finger-like projections called villi that extend into the intestinal lumen. These are epithelial folds lined by two types of cells, enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes are simple columnar cells with basal elongated nuclei and an apical brush border. The brush border is the microscopic representation of small protrusions of the cell membrane, microvilli, which greatly increase the surface area of the ...
The most proximal and widest part of the small intestine is the duodenum. It starts at the pylorus of the stomach, ends at the duodenojejunal junction and measures about 25 cm long. It receives partly digested food (chyme) from the stomach and bile and pancreatic fluids from the pancreaticobiliary duct. After entering the duodenum the acidic contents from the stomach is neutralized by secretion from the intestine and pancreas. Enzymes secreted from the pancreas starts the degradation of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins to enable absorption. As in all of the small intestine, the mucosa forms finger-like projections called villi that extend into the intestinal lumen. These are epithelial folds lined by two types of cells, enterocytes and goblet cells. Enterocytes are simple columnar cells with basal elongated nuclei and an apical brush border. The brush border is the microscopic representation of small protrusions of the cell membrane, microvilli, which greatly increase the surface area of the ...
1. Introduction. Microvillous inclusion disease (MVD) or microvillous atrophy disorder is a congenital disorder of the small intestinal epithelial cells that presents with persistent and severe diarrhea and it is characterized by enterocyte abnormalities [1] . The diarrhea starts in the first 72 hours of life (early onset form) or in 6 to 8 weeks after birth (late onset) [2] . This inheritance of MVD appears to be autosomal recessive, based on cases occurring in siblings and high incidence of consanguinity [3] . Molecular studies demonstrate mutation of the MYO5B that encoded for myosin 5b has a role in pathogenesis of the MVD [4] . Diagnosis is often delayed because of difficulties in taking a small bowl biopsy specimen in the neonatal period. Light microscopy shows enteropathy, and severe atrophy of the enterocytes brush borders, with instead of, accumulation of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and CD10 positive granules at the apical pole of immature enterocytes [1] . Transmission electron ...
Hypoxia is an important regulator of normal and cancer stem cell (CSC) differentiation. Colorectal CSCs from SW1222, LS180, and CCK81 colorectal cancer-derived cell lines are able to differentiate into complex 3D lumen-containing structures in normoxia, whereas in hypoxia, they form undifferentiated dense colonies that have reduced expression of the enterocyte differentiation marker CDX1, lack goblet cell formation, and have increased expression of BMI1 and activated Notch1. Hypoxia increases the clonogenicity of CSCs, which is cumulative as each round of hypoxia enriches for more CSCs. The hypoxic phenotype is reversible, because cells from hypoxic-dense colonies are able to reform differentiated structures when regrown in normoxia. We show that CDX1 is able to stimulate the generation of lumens even in hypoxia and has a negative feedback on BMI1 expression. Knockdown of CDX1 reduces lumen formation but does not affect goblet cell formation, suggesting that enterocytes and goblet cells form from
This gene is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor family. The encoded DNA-binding protein regulates intestine-specific gene expression and enterocyte differentiation. It has been shown to induce expression of the intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene, and inhibit beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity.[2] CDX1 has also been shown to play an important role in embryonic epicardial development. It has been demonstrated that CDX proteins suppress cardiac differentiation in both zebrafish and mouse embryonic stem cells, but the overall mechanism for how this happens is poorly understood.[5] However, CDX1 has been shown to be transiently expressed in the embryonic heart 11.5 days post coitum (dpc). This transient expression is thought to induce epicardial epithelial-to-mesynchemal transition and thus proper cardiovascular formation. It has been shown that low-dose CDX1 induction caused enhanced migration and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells into vascular ...
The plasma membrane recycling system is crucial for both the establishment and the maintenance of apical polarity in epithelial cells. Knocking down Rab11a in MDCK cells disrupts the initial formation of the apical surface (Bryant et al., 2010). Similarly, knockdown of MYO5B alters the establishment of apical lumens in MDCK cells (Roland et al., 2011). In this study, we demonstrate that Rab11a contributes to the maintenance of normal apical polarity in enterocytes. In Rab11aΔIEC duodenum samples and CaCo2‐BBE Rab11a‐KD cells, apically trafficked proteins were mislocalized, microvilli length was reduced and microvilli were aberrantly present on the basolateral membrane. While this work was in revision, another group also published information on a similar intestine‐targeted Rab11a‐knockout mouse model (Sobajima et al., 2015). Many of the aspects of the effects of Rab11a loss in this mouse were similar to those that we have observed including short microvilli and expansion of the ...
Sucrase-isomaltase (SI) is an enterocyte-specific gene that is expressed in complex developmental and spatial patterns. In this study, we examine the ability of regulatory elements within the human SI (hSI) gene to direct appropriate cell lineage and spatial patterns of expression in transgenic mice. Transgenic mouse lines were established using a construct containing bases -3424 to +54 of the hSI gene linked to the human growth hormone (hGH) structural gene. In each transgenic line, hGH mRNA and protein were expressed only in the small intestine and colon. In contrast to the endogenous mouse SI (mSI) gene, which was expressed along the entire length of the small intestine, hGH mRNA expression was predominantly found in the distal jejunum and ileum, with very low levels in more proximal portions of the small intestine. However, the pattern of transgene expression along the small intestinal crypt-villus axis was identical to the pattern of the endogenous mSI gene. These results suggest that
Age-related changes to histone levels are seen in many species. However, it is unclear whether changes to histone expression could be exploited to ameliorate the effects of ageing in multicellular organisms. Here we show that inhibition of mTORC1 by the lifespan-extending drug rapamycin increases expression of histones H3 and H4 post-transcriptionally, through eIF3-mediated translation. Elevated expression of H3/H4 in intestinal enterocytes in Drosophila alters chromatin organization, induces intestinal autophagy through transcriptional regulation, prevents age-related decline in the intestine. Importantly, it also mediates rapamycin-induced longevity and intestinal health. Histones H3/H4 regulate expression of an autophagy cargo adaptor Bchs (WDFY3 in mammals), increased expression of which in enterocytes mediates increased H3/H4-dependent healthy longevity. In mice, rapamycin treatment increases expression of histone proteins and Wdfy3 transcription, and alters chromatin organisation in the ...
Background & Aims: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a congenital intestinal malabsorption disorder caused by defective apical vesicular transport. Existing cellular models do not fully recapitulate this heterogeneous pathology. The aim of this study was to characterize 3-dimensional intestinal organoids that continuously generate polarized absorptive cells as an accessible and relevant model to investigate MVID. Methods: Intestinal organoids from Munc18-2/Stxbp2-null mice that are deficient for apical vesicular transport were subjected to enterocyte-specific differentiation protocols. Lentiviral rescue experiments were performed using human MUNC18-2 variants. Apical trafficking and microvillus formation were characterized by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Spinning disc time-lapse microscopy was used to document the lifecycle of microvillus inclusions. Results: Loss of Munc18-2/Stxbp2 recapitulated the pathologic features observed in patients with MUNC18-2 deficiency. The ...
Protein is a dietary component essential for nutritional homeostasis in humans. Normally, ingested protein undergoes a complex series of degradative processes following the action of gastric, pancreatic and small intestinal enzymes. The result of this proteolytic activity is a mixture of amino acids and small peptides. Amino acids (AAs) are transported into the enterocyte (intestinal epithelial cell) by a variety of AA transporters that are specific for cationic (basic) AA, neutral AA, and anionic (acidic) AA. Small peptides are absorbed into enterocytes by the PEPT1 transporter. Inside enterocytes peptides are hydrolyzed, and the resulting amino acids are released together with those absorbed by AA transporters into blood via multiple, basolateral, AA transporters. Hydrolysis-resistant peptides, however, are transported out of the cells by a basolateral peptide transporter that has not been identified molecularly ...
We then performed mRNA-sequencing analysis to determine gene expression changes induced by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2-infection of hSIOs cultured continuously in EXP medium and hSIOs cultured in DIF medium. Infection with SARS-CoV-2 elicited a broad signature of cytokines and interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) attributed to type I and III IFN responses (Fig. 5A and tables S1 and S2), as confirmed by gene ontology analysis (Fig. 5B). An overlapping list of genes appeared in SARS-CoV-2-infected DIF organoids (fig. S6 and table S3). mRNA-sequencing analysis confirmed differentiation of DIF organoids into multiple intestinal lineages, including ACE2 up-regulation (fig. S7). SARS-CoV also induced ISGs but to a much lower level (table S4). Figure 5C shows the regulation of SARS-CoV-2-induced genes in SARS-CoV-infected organoids. This induction was similar to infections with other viruses such as norovirus (31), rotavirus (32), and enteroviruses (33, 34). A recent study (35) described an antiviral ...
L-Glutamine - the most abundant amino acid in the human body - is involved in many metabolic processes, including the synthesis and protection of muscles tissue, the production of glycogen, and immune support during periods of immune and muscular stress.* L-Glutamine is also a major source of fuel for enterocytes (intestinal cells) and hence supports the integrity of the intestinal lining.. ...
L-Glutamine - the most abundant amino acid in the human body - is involved in many metabolic processes, including the synthesis and protection of muscle tissue, the production of glycogen, and immune support during periods of immune and muscular stress.* L-Glutamine is also a major source of fuel for enterocytes (intes
... enterocytes, gut enterocytes, gut enterocyte (en); 腸上皮細胞, 腸細胞 (zh) ... Media in category "Enterocytes". The following 34 files are in this category, out of 34 total. ... Vectorial pathway for statin distribution from enterocytes to hepatocytes for their pharmacological action and metabolism and ... enterocyte (en); Enterocito (es); Enterocyt (sv); Enterosyytti (fi); Enterocito (gl); خلية معوية (ar); Enterocyt (cs); ...
Enterocytes also have an endocrine role, secreting hormones such as leptin. The major functions of enterocytes include: Ion ... Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells which line the inner surface of the small and ... Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using GLUT5. It is thought to cross into the blood ... Lipids are broken down by pancreatic lipase aided by bile, and then diffuse into the enterocytes. Smaller lipids are ...
Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells found in the small intestine. A glycocalyx ... The major functions of enterocytes include:[1]. *Ion uptake, including sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper. This ... Fructose, on the other hand, crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte, using GLUT5. It is thought to cross into the blood ... Glucose crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte using the sodium-glucose cotransporter. It moves through the cytosol ( ...
Oncogenic transformation of normal enterocytes by overexpression of cyclin D1.. Kazanov D1, Shapira I, Pick M, Kolker O, ... We hypothesize that normal enterocytes over-expressing cyclin D1 will demonstrate a transformed phenotype. The nontumorigenic ...
The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is a moderately conserved pathogenicity island consisting of 35,000 base pairs in the ... The LEE has a 38% G+C ratio.[clarification needed] Locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded regulator v t e v t e. ...
3B, top) or ApoA1+ enterocyte phenotypes (DIF; Fig. 3B, bottom). SARS-CoV also readily infected enterocyte lineage cells (fig. ... We observed similar infection rates of enterocyte precursors and enterocytes, whereas ACE2 expression increased ~1000-fold upon ... SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes. By Mart M. Lamers, Joep Beumer, Jelte van der Vaart, Kèvin Knoops, Jens ... SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes. By Mart M. Lamers, Joep Beumer, Jelte van der Vaart, Kèvin Knoops, Jens ...
In particular, it has been demonstrated that mature enterocytes can act as antigen presenting cel … ... Stem cells in the intestinal epithelium give rise to enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and Paneth cells. Each ... The role of enterocytes in gut dysfunction Pathol Res Pract. 1998;194(11):741-51. doi: 10.1016/S0344-0338(98)80063-0. ... Stem cells in the intestinal epithelium give rise to enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and Paneth cells. Each ...
A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens.. T K McDaniel, K G Jarvis, M S ... A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens.. T K McDaniel, K G Jarvis, M S ... A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens.. T K McDaniel, K G Jarvis, M S ... A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Nutrient uptake by rat enterocytes during diabetes mellitus; evidence for an increased sodium electrochemical gradient.. Debnam ...
Increased transporter mRNA and protein expression in enterocytes.. C F Burant, S Flink, A M DePaoli, J Chen, W S Lee, M A ... Enterocytes were sequentially isolated from jejunum and ileum of normal fed rats, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, and diabetic ... There was a four- to eightfold increase in the amount of enterocyte glucose transporter mRNA after diabetes with greater ... to 6-fold in enterocytes isolated from diabetic animals in both jejunum and ileum. Insulin was able to reverse the increase in ...
3A and D), which represented 40% of total GLUT2 in the enterocyte membranes of mice fed fructose-rich diet for 30 days (Fig. 3C ... Enterocyte membranes were separated according to densities (1.057-1.150 g/l) in iodixanol gradients (20). GLUT2 was found in ... Insulin action is transduced via receptors in enterocyte plasma membranes in vivo (25,26) and in vitro in Caco-2/TC7 cells. The ... The effects of insulin on enterocytes were studied in Caco-2/TC7 cells (15,24), which enabled a separation between the effects ...
Adj. enterocytic Definition : Intestinal absorptive cells. Pathology enterocytic anomalies enterocytic diseases See also cells (...)
Duodenal Enterocytes in Genetic Hypotransferrinaemic Mice Are Not Iron Deficient DJ Pountney; DJ Pountney ... DJ Pountney, KB Raja, AM Konijn, TJ Peters, RJ Simpson; Duodenal Enterocytes in Genetic Hypotransferrinaemic Mice Are Not Iron ... Glutamine metabolism in chick enterocytes: absence of pyrroline-5-carboxylase synthase and citrulline synthesis Biochem J ( ... 17β-Oestradiol increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat enterocytes Biochem J (March,1999) ...
Twenty-five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to adhere to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells in culture. ... Adhesion of human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells J Gen Microbiol. 1992 Aug;138 Pt 8: ... Twenty-five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to adhere to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells in culture. ...
... enterocyte explanation free. What is enterocyte? Meaning of enterocyte medical term. What does enterocyte mean? ... Looking for online definition of enterocyte in the Medical Dictionary? ... enterocyte. Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. enterocyte. (entĕr-ō-sīt), A type of epithelial cell that lines the gut. ... entero- + -cyte] enterocyte. (ĕn′tĕr-ō-sīt″) [″ + ″] A nutrient-absorbing cell located on the surface of the small intestinal ...
Susumu Ito (2011) CIL:10937, epithelial cell, enterocyte. CIL. Dataset. https://doi.org/doi:10.7295/W9CIL10937 ...
THE LOCUS OF ENTEROCYTE EFFACEMENT. The 35-kb LEE PAI consists of 41 open reading frames (ORFs) and is the defining genetic ... The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is the defining genetic feature of the AE pathogens, encoding the T3SS and the core ... Regulation of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement in Attaching and Effacing Pathogens. R. Christopher D. Furniss, Abigail ... The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded regulator controls expression of both LEE- and non-LEE-encoded virulence ...
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If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
Enterocyte-Based Bioassay via Quantitative Combination of Proinflammatory Sentinels Specific to 8-keto-trichothecenes. Seong- ... Ambivalent roles of early growth response 1 in inflammatory signaling following ribosomal insult in human enterocytes. Biochem ... We thus developed an enterocyte-based bioassay system measuring epithelial stress responses to 8-keto-trichothecenes. In the ... Citation: Park S-H and Moon Y (2020) Enterocyte-Based Bioassay via Quantitative Combination of Proinflammatory Sentinels ...
... signaling in human and rat duodenal enterocytes. Clusters of interconnecting enterocytes (10-50 cells) were isolated by mild ... Melatonin-induced enterocyte [Ca2+](i) signaling as well as mucosal cell-to-cell communication may be involved in stimulation ... Enterocytes in clusters functioned as a syncytium.. Overnight fasting rapidly and profoundly down-regulated the responses to ... Melatonin-induced calcium signaling in clusters of human and rat duodenal enterocytes. Sjöblom, Markus Uppsala University, ...
PARTIAL CHARACTERISATION OF BRUSHBORDER MEMBRANE BOUND IRON BINDING PROTEIN OF GUINEA PIG ENTEROCYTES T.K. BALA; T.K. BALA ... PARTIAL CHARACTERISATION OF BRUSHBORDER MEMBRANE BOUND IRON BINDING PROTEIN OF GUINEA PIG ENTEROCYTES. Biochem Soc Trans 1 May ...
No binding of the I 125 NT with plasmatic membranes of adipocytes or enterocytes was observed. Unspecifi c binding of I 125 NT ... In vivo investigations of neurotensin receptors in adipocytes, hepatocytes and enterocytes of rat ...
Myosin Vb and rab11a regulate ezrin phosphorylation in enterocytes. Herschel S. Dhekne, Nai-Hua Hsiao, Pieter Roelofs, Meena ... Myosin Vb and rab11a regulate ezrin phosphorylation in enterocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Myosin Vb and rab11a regulate ezrin phosphorylation in enterocytes. Herschel S. Dhekne, Nai-Hua Hsiao, Pieter Roelofs, Meena ... Myosin Vb and rab11a regulate ezrin phosphorylation in enterocytes. Herschel S. Dhekne, Nai-Hua Hsiao, Pieter Roelofs, Meena ...
The mean enterocyte height (EH) in normally nourished children was 31+or-2.7 micro m. There was a significant reduction in the ... Bhan, M.K.; Khoshoo, V.; Phillips, A.D.; Smith, J.A.W.; Mathur, M., 1988: The enterocyte height and number in children with ...
Elliott SJ, Wainwright LA, McDaniel TK, Jarvis KG, Deng YK, Lai LC, The complete sequence of the locus of enterocyte effacement ... Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli Strains Negative for Locus of Enterocyte Effacement On This Page ... Locus of enterocyte effacement from Citrobacter rodentium: sequence analysis and evidence for horizontal transfer among ... Invasion of epithelial cells by locus of enterocyte effacement-negative enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2005; ...
In vitro, enterocyte phenotype was rescued partially by co-culture of cancer cells with goblet cells and completed through ... mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier ... In vitro, enterocyte phenotype was rescued partially by co-culture of cancer cells with goblet cells and completed through ... Oleic Acid Uptake Reveals the Rescued Enterocyte Phenotype of Colon Cancer Caco-2 by HT29-MTX Cells in Co-Culture Mode. ...
To calculate copy numbers of proteins in the enterocytes, [researchers] assumed the volume of these cells to be about 1400µm^3 ... Buschmann RJ, Manke DJ (1981) Morphometric analysis of the membranes and organelles of small intestinal enterocytes. I. Fasted ... Corticostatic peptides cause nifedipine-sensitive volume reduction in jejunal villus enterocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: ...
ΔIEC enterocytes compared with tight apical staining in wild‐type enterocytes (Fig. 1B). In contrast, in Rab11aΔIEC duodenum ... 2014) Myosin Vb and Rab11a regulate phosphorylation of ezrin in enterocytes. J. Cell Sci. 127:1007-1017, doi:10.1242/jcs.137273 ... Interestingly, the enterocytes of patients with STX3 mutations show many of the same characteristics as those in the Rab11aΔIEC ... Rab8a‐KO mouse enterocytes displayed sparse brush borders with short microvilli. SEM scale bars: 10 µm; TEM scale bars: 1 µm. ( ...
QseA and GrlR/GrlA Regulation of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement Genes in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Regan M. ... The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded regulator controls expression of both LEE- and non-LEE-encoded virulence ... A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92 : ... Hierarchy in the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement genes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. ...
  • The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is a moderately conserved pathogenicity island consisting of 35,000 base pairs in the bacteria Escherichia coli genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genetic locus of enterocyte effacement conserved among diverse enterobacterial pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • Intestinal virulence factors are indicated in red for the locus of enterocyte effacement genes, blue for prophage-encoded Shiga toxin genes, and green for VFs carried by pR444_C, a pO157-like plasmid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains negative for locus of enterocyte effacement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is the defining genetic feature of the AE pathogens, encoding the T3SS and the core effector proteins necessary for pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • The formation of these lesions, and the infectious process of the AE pathogens more broadly, depends on a type three secretion system (T3SS), encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) PAI ( 5 ), and a suite of locally and distally encoded effector proteins ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Most Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections that are associated with severe sequelae such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are caused by attaching and effacing pathogens that carry the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). (cdc.gov)
  • Many disease-related STEC serogroups, including the most prevalent O157:H7 clone, possess a chromosomal pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Transcription of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) genes in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is regulated by the LEE-encoded Ler and GrlR/GrlA proteins as well as the non-LEE-encoded regulator QseA. (asm.org)
  • The genes responsible for the formation of AE lesions are located on a pathogenicity island named the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • The study of serotypes combined with that of the locus of enterocyte effacement island (LEE) allowed a better appreciation of the heterogeneity of the isolates and helped to determine whether the environment could be one of the main reservoirs in which new clones pathogenic for humans could emerge. (asm.org)
  • Background: In this study, we present evidence that proteins encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE), considered critical for Escherichia coli O157 (O157) adherence to follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells at the bovine recto-anal junction (RAJ), do not appear to contribute to O157 adherence to squamous epithelial (RSE) cells also constituting this primary site of O157 colonization in cattle. (harvard.edu)
  • In EPEC, the plasmid-encoded regulator Per is required for maximal expression of proteins encoded on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), and a LEE-encoded regulator (Ler) is part of the Per-mediated regulatory cascade upregulating the LEE2 , LEE3 , and LEE4 promoters. (asm.org)
  • In EPEC strain E2348/69, the AE phenotype is encoded by a 35.6-kb pathogenicity island, the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) ( 31 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Melatonin-induced enterocyte [Ca2+](i) signaling as well as mucosal cell-to-cell communication may be involved in stimulation of duodenal mucosal HCO3- secretion. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, we set up cellular models of fatty acid absorption and secretion by enterocytes cocultured with bacteria and showed that, in vitro , both L. paracasei and E. coli inhibited lipid secretion, through increased intracellular fat storage and enhanced lipid catabolism, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Studies of enterocyte signaling and intestinal secretion requires particular evaluation regarding feeding status. (diva-portal.org)
  • Coffee Stomach Acid Secretion In Enterocytes Function Of Mitochondria Hydrochloric Acid Stomach Concentration Of Solutions Step APPENDIX V. List of details of the national reporting systems to communicate adverse reactions (side effects) for use in section 4.8 "Undesirable effects" of SmPC. (ammeglobe.com)
  • Cause drowsiness some doctors stomach coffee recommend secretion acid infectious causes, a large portion of my patients who come in secretion complaining of definition in enterocytes of chronic sore evidence also suggests that PPIs may inhibit Helicobacter pylori, a type of bacteria that can cause peptic ulcers, gastritis, and other gastrointestinal problems. (ammeglobe.com)
  • Thought it was a separate blockers (H2 stress stomach acid secretion in enterocytes function blockers) decrease capsule device may cause discomfort when swallowing. (ammeglobe.com)
  • on basolateral surface of enterocytes and promotes iron secretion into. (nativeartscircle.org)
  • Aim 1 will examine transcriptional regulation of Mfge8 in differentiated Caco-2 cells and primary enterocytes, secretion of Mfge8 into the intestinal lumen in response to different nutrients, and identification of the cellular source of Mfge8 required for fat absorption through use of transgenic mice with enterocyte specific deletion of Mfge8 or Mfge8 deficient mice with enterocyte specific expression of Mfge8. (grantome.com)
  • Two iron transport proteins, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin 1 (FPN), are expressed in duodenal enterocytes [4, 5]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To calculate copy numbers of proteins in the enterocytes, [researchers] assumed the volume of these cells to be about 1400µm^3 (primary sources) and the protein content of mammalian cells to be about 20% (BNID 111217 ). (harvard.edu)
  • Świątecka D, Markiewicz L, Wróblewska B. The effect of hydrolysates of proteins from rice milk on the physiological response of enterocytes and on the adhesion of bacteria from healthy and allergic people - an in vitro study. (termedia.pl)
  • Dgat1 and Dgat2 regulate enterocyte triacylglycerol distribution and alter proteins associated with cytoplasmic lipid droplets in response to dietary fat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In adults, proteins from ingested foods are digested by proteases in the lumen of the digestive track, largely in the stomach, and then the resulting amino acids are absorbed by intestinal enterocytes. (northwestern.edu)
  • Then, in the intestinal lumen, enterocytes endocytose the whole proteins and degrade them in their lysosomes. (northwestern.edu)
  • This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enterocytes were isolated by enzyme digestion of the intestinal lumen, followed by partial purification via differential centrifugation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The main function of enterocytes is absorbing molecules from the gut lumen and transport them to inner connective tissue and blood vessels. (uvigo.es)
  • T he intestine lumen is full of molecules potentially toxic for enterocytes. (uvigo.es)
  • MTP is highly expressed in the enterocytes, lining the lumen of the jejunum, and is critical in the production of chylomicrons assembled from lipid/cholesterol and their transfer into systemic circulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In situ hybridization showed that after the induction of diabetes there was new hybridization in lower villus and crypt enterocytes that was reversed by insulin treatment. (jci.org)
  • Thus, the increase in total hexose transport caused by diabetes is due to a premature expression of hexose transporters by enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis, causing a cumulative increase in enterocyte transporter protein during maturation. (jci.org)
  • 1991) Corticostatic peptides cause nifedipine-sensitive volume reduction in jejunal villus enterocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • 2. Intestinal villus growth, enterocyte migration and proliferation of the turkey poult. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Villus growth, enterocyte migration and proliferation were measured in the small intestine of poults (Meleagridis gallopavo) to determine if hen age and/or egg size influences these characteristics during the first week after hatching. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Villus growth differences and enterocyte migration were not consistently affected by hen age or egg weight class in poults from 1 to 7 days old. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The inactivation of i-IELs by daily administration of FK506 disappeared apoptosis of enterocytes in villus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It showed that the inactivation of i-IELs by daily administration of FK506 could inhibit apoptosis in enterocytes, and these results suggested that the dysfunctional enterocytes, which should have been led to apoptosis, remained on the villus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Activation of TLR4 on enterocytes by LPS leads to an increase in enterocyte apoptosis and villus loss, as well as reduced intestinal repair by blocking intestinal restitution and proliferation, leading to mucosal disruption. (grantome.com)
  • Although gut lipid absorptive capacity is depressed after trauma and hemorrhagic shock, it remains unknown whether this is associated with an impairment in the enterocyte triglyceride (TG) synthesis, and if so, whether villus or crypt cells participate in the lipid absorption under such conditions. (uab.edu)
  • The enterocytes along the crypt-villus axis from the proximal small intestine were isolated at either 0, 1.5, or 5 h after fat feeding. (uab.edu)
  • Microvilli at the apical surface of enterocytes allow the efficient absorption of nutrients in the intestine. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, part of the machinery for ezrin activation depends on myosin Vb/rab11a-controlled recycling endosomes which, we propose, may act as subapical signaling platforms that enterocytes use to regulate microvilli development and maintain human intestinal function. (biologists.org)
  • We demonstrate that loss of Rab11a induced alterations in enterocyte polarity, shortened microvillar length and affected the formation of microvilli along the lateral membranes. (biologists.org)
  • These data affirm the role of Rab11a in apical membrane trafficking and the maintenance of apical microvilli in enterocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, these treatments induced the disappearance and heterogenous expression of F-actin in microvilli of enterocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In patients with inactivating mutations in myosin Vb (Myo5B), enterocytes show large inclusions lined by microvilli. (elsevier.com)
  • The distal ends of C. albicans filaments appeared to mediate adherence to enterocyte apical microvilli, and thigmotropism (contact guidance) appeared to play a role in C. albicans adherence. (umn.edu)
  • Human enterocyte adhesion of enteroadherent Escherichia coli. (bvsalud.org)
  • We further show that enterocytes can internalize Escherichia coli into phagosomes, that the bacteria remain viable intracellularly, and that TLR4 is required for this process to occur. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of melatonin on intracellular calcium signaling by duodenal enterocyte in vitro were examined in tissues of both human and rat origin. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present study aimed to analyze precisely whether co-culture of two colon cancer cell lines, mucus-producing cells HT29-MTX and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, ameliorate differentiation into an in vitro intestinal barrier model and the signaling pathways involved. (mdpi.com)
  • In vitro, enterocyte phenotype was rescued partially by co-culture of cancer cells with goblet cells and completed through oleic acid interaction with signaling pathways dysregulated in cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • This laboratory study used organoid cultures of epithelial lining cells from human small and large intestine as an in vitro model system to study SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in enterocytes. (cebm.net)
  • Our results suggest that cryopreserved human enterocytes represent a physiologically relevant and convenient in vitro experimental system for the evaluation of intestinal metabolism, akin to cryopreserved human hepatocytes for hepatic metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite recent in vitro experiments with cultured human intestinal cell lines as models of mature enterocytes of the small intestine ( 7 , 12 , 17 , 22 ), bacterial cell surface-associated factors of lactobacilli potentially acting as adhesins remain to be characterized. (asm.org)
  • With CYP3A4 activity comparable to that of human hepatocytes, enterocytes are a useful in vitro test system for the investigation of intestinal drug metabolism, drug-drug interactions, and toxicity assessments. (invitroadmet.com)
  • Animal enterocytes can be accompanied by hepatocytes isolated from the same animal, allowing scientists an opportunity to investigate the impact that first-pass effects may have on a compound in both test systems in vitro. (invitroadmet.com)
  • We will utilize an enteroctye cell line for in vitro studies including RT-PCR, SDS-PAGE and immunofluorence microscopy, where upstream markers of TLR4 signaling (pMAPKs) and downstream markers (inflammatory cytokine production, enterocyte migration and apoptosis) will be assessed with or without Hsp70 induction or inhibition. (grantome.com)
  • TLR4 activation in vitro led to increased enterocyte apoptosis and reduced enterocyte migration and proliferation, suggesting a role for TLR4 in intestinal repair. (jimmunol.org)
  • Possible mechanisms of induction of apoptosis in enterocytes by intraepithelial lymphocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We reported that the administration of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and subsequently activation of intestinal intra-epithelial lymphocytes (i-IELs) could induce apoptosis to enterocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To elucidate the mechanism of the induction of apoptosis in enterocytes by activated i-IELs, we designed experiments to stimulate the IEL by anti-CD3 mAb and to examine the subsequent changes to the enterocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Results: We show that non-hematopoetic JNK2 but not JNK1 expression confers protection from DSS-induced intestinal inflammation reducing epithelial barrier dysfunction and enterocyte apoptosis. (ovid.com)
  • Instead of repairing every insult, damaged and old enterocytes die by apoptosis,are then extruded from the epithelial layer, and continuously replaced by new ones. (uvigo.es)
  • In support of this possibility, increased NEC severity in C3H/HeOUJ mice resulted from increased enterocyte apoptosis and reduced enterocyte restitution and proliferation after mucosal injury compared with mutant mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • Rotavirus selectively invades and kills mature enterocytes in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterocytes , or intestinal absorptive cells , are simple columnar epithelial cells found in the small intestine . (wikipedia.org)
  • used human intestinal organoids, a "mini-gut" cultured in a dish, to demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 readily replicates in an abundant cell type in the gut lining-the enterocyte-resulting in the production of large amounts of infective virus particles in the intestine. (sciencemag.org)
  • We report in this work successful isolation and cryopreservation of enterocytes from human small intestine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. (rush.edu)
  • In the small intestine, the amount of enterocytes is about 80 % of the total gut enterocytes. (uvigo.es)
  • Small intestine of a rat showing that enterocytes are abundant in the epithelium. (uvigo.es)
  • The mechanical integrity of the intestine epithelium, that is, the cohesion between enterocytes and the lack of intercelular passages, depends on the cell adhesion complexes between adjacent enterocytes. (uvigo.es)
  • The life cycle of enterocytes begins in the bottom part of the Lieberkühn glands and ends in the tips of the villi of the small intestine or in the epithelial surface of the large intestine. (uvigo.es)
  • Enterocytes are epithelial cells that line the villi of the small intestine. (pigprogress.net)
  • That is where 'micro-enteral nutrition' comes in, delivering nutrients specifically to nourish the enterocyte cells in the small intestine. (pigprogress.net)
  • Enterocytes from the small intestine and colonocytes showed the highest proportions of cells co-expressing ACE2 and TMPRSS2 . (cdc.gov)
  • In particular, it has been demonstrated that mature enterocytes can act as antigen presenting cells. (nih.gov)
  • Secondly, it has been observed that probiotics have the capacity of binding to cellular receptors on the surface of mature enterocytes , thereby interfering with pathogen penetration processes into these cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ALP and SI are considered to be two differentiation markers for mature enterocytes (34). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mature enterocytes expressing the highest levels of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) viral receptor were susceptible to productive infection. (cebm.net)
  • CIL:10937, epithelial cell, enterocyte. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The etiology of congenital diarrheal disorders is diverse, but several are associated with defects in the predominant intestinal epithelial cell type, enterocytes. (biologists.org)
  • Small intestinal development in the young chick: crypt formation and enterocyte proliferation and migration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enterocyte proliferation and intracellular bacteria in animals. (bmj.com)
  • Iron saturation alters the effect of lactoferrin on the proliferation and differentiation of human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells). (harvard.edu)
  • The majority of GSTA1-1 in the body is found in hepatocytes, although it is also found in enterocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Of these systems, primary enterocytes may represent the most physiologically relevant model, akin to primary hepatocytes for hepatic metabolism. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Being one of the first to isolate primary hepatocytes and enterocytes in the industry, IVAL's scientists continue to develop novel products for your ADMET research needs. (invitroadmet.com)
  • Twenty-five strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to adhere to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells in culture. (nih.gov)
  • This study analyzed the interactions of cultured enterocytes, namely Caco-2 cells, with nine strains of enteric bacteria, tested in pure culture and in mixed culture. (umn.edu)
  • The origin of inclusions in small-intestinal enterocytes in microvillus inclusion disease is currently unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • STEC containing LEE are characterized by their ability to attach to the host intestinal mucosa and destroy the surrounding microvillus brush border, which causes substantial cytoskeletal rearrangements within the enterocyte ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • is used as energy source by the enterocytes of the intestinal mucosa. (fgcusg.org)
  • Differentiation of immature enterocytes into enteroendocrine cells by Pdx-1 overexpression. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] S.Yamada, H.Kojima, M.Fujimiya (他3名): 'Differentiation of immature enterocytes into enteroendocrine cells by Pdx-1 overexpression'Am. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] S.Yamada, H.Kojima, M.Fujimiya, T.Nakamura, A.Kashiwagi, R.Kikkawa: 'Differentiation of immature enterocytes into enteroendocrine cells by Pdx-1 overexpression'Am.J.Physiol.Gastrointest.Liver Physiol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It moves through the cytosol (cytoplasm) and exits the enterocyte via the basolateral membrane (into the blood capillary) using GLUT2. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS -In Caco-2/TC7 cells, insulin action diminished the transepithelial transfer of sugar and reduced BBM and basolateral membrane (BLM) GLUT2 levels, demonstrating that insulin can target sugar absorption by controlling the membrane localization of GLUT2 in enterocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By what method of transport do amino acids cross the basolateral membrane of enterocytes. (aginginplacenorwich.org)
  • The NKA is localized to the basolateral membrane, although the columnar nature of the enterocytes dictates that the majority of the NKA protein resides in the lateral membrane, pumping Na + into the lateral interspace (lis) ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • The level of sugar absorption is also regulated by a rapid and transient recruitment of GLUT2 into enterocyte BBM ( 4 , 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Biliary bile acids form mixed micelles together with fatty acids, which function as a transport vehicle to deliver fatty acids to the apical membrane of enterocytes for absorption [42]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The gut microbiota contributes to nutrients absorption and metabolism by enterocytes, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood, and most conclusions are inferred from studies comparing germfree and conventional animals colonized with diverse bacterial species. (asm.org)
  • 50 mM lead to rapid, phenotypic, non-genomic adaptations by the enterocyte to recruit another transporter, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), to the apical membrane to increase glucose absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: A small amount of GLUT2 is active at the lesser luminal concentrations of glucose, but when exposed to concentrations of 100 mM, the enterocyte presumably changes its phenotype by recruiting GLUT2 apically to markedly augment glucose absorption. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, the correlation between the cadmium absorption process and gene expression of DMT1 was investigated in an experimental model of human absorptive enterocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • All these symptoms disappear by weaning, when pathological enterocytes are replaced by normal-looking, adult-like enterocytes (which do not use endosomes and lysosomes for nutrient absorption). (northwestern.edu)
  • Following absorption of the products of pancreatic lipase by the intestinal enterocytes, the resynthesis of triglycerides occurs. (sttialphakappa.org)
  • Mfge8 then binds enterocyte ?v?3 and ?v?5 integrins activating a signaling pathway that increases the absorption of dietary fat coupled with synthesis of triglyceride (TG) in the endoplasmic reticulum and hydrolysis of TG in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. (grantome.com)
  • The rationale for these studies is that delineating the role of the Mfge8-integrin axis in intestinal lipid absorption is necessary to understand the mechanisms by which enterocytes regulate lipoprotein production. (grantome.com)
  • Figure 1 - Na+ and K+ pumps in the enterocytes for nutrient absorption. (pigprogress.net)
  • Enterocytes, or intestinal absorptive cells, are simple columnar epithelial cells which line the inner surface of the small and large intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells in the intestinal epithelium give rise to enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells, and Paneth cells. (nih.gov)
  • One alternative could determine the villous fraction of Marsh III mucosae either with monoclonal antibodies against enterocyte alkaline phosphatase or esterase or by identifying the lowest cells in the villous epithelium expressing their corresponding gene-activated mRNAs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Clusters of interconnecting enterocytes (10-50 cells) were isolated by mild digestion ( collagenase/dispase) of human duodenal biopsies or rat duodenal mucosa loaded with fura-2 AM and attached to the bottom of a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber. (diva-portal.org)
  • coli strains manifesting localised (17), diffuse (8) or aggregative (17) phenotypes of adherence to HEp-2 cells were tested for their ability to adhere to human enterocytes isolated from duodenal biopsies of adult volunteers to obtain further evidence of their enteropathogenecity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most of them become enterocytes, but also globet cells, M cells, and the other cell types. (uvigo.es)
  • The aminoterminal peptides (2-34)PTHrP, (3-34)PTHrP and (7-34) PTHrP bound efficiently to the receptor but were severely defective in stimulating cAMP in enterocyte cells indicating that the first six residues of piscine (1-34)PTHrP, although not important for receptor binding, are essential for activation of the adenylate cyclase/phosphokinase A (AC-PKA)-receptor-coupled intracellular signalling pathway. (ualg.pt)
  • Park J , Jeon H , Pyo J , Kim Y , Yoo M , . Deficiency in DNA damage response of enterocytes accelerates intestinal stem cell aging in Drosophila . (aging-us.com)
  • No binding of the I 125 NT with plasmatic membranes of adipocytes or enterocytes was observed. (aaem.pl)
  • Buschmann RJ, Manke DJ (1981) Morphometric analysis of the membranes and organelles of small intestinal enterocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • In the apical membranes, there area many transporters that are the gates for molecules resulting from digestion to come in the enterocyte. (uvigo.es)
  • In the basolateal membranes there are other transporters for these molecules to exit the enterocyte and reach the blood vessels. (uvigo.es)
  • Enterocytes from all 24 donors were then individually evaluated for the quantifiable drug metabolism pathways. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In our laboratory, we embarked upon the isolation and cryopreservation of enterocytes with the goal of developing a physiologically relevant experimental model for the evaluation of intestinal uptake, metabolism, and efflux. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We report in this work our success in the isolation and cryopreservation of human enterocytes to retain viability and drug metabolism enzyme activities. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Enterocytes are responsible for first-pass metabolism and are the key cell type for assessing oral bioavailability. (invitroadmet.com)
  • Cryopreserved Human Enterocytes are characterized for viability, yield and Drug metabolism activity and are available in single donor or pooled lots. (invitroadmet.com)
  • Using an integrated approach encompassing cellular and murine models and combining metabolic parameters measurement, lipid droplet imaging, and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated that under homeostatic conditions, L. paracasei promotes fat storage in enterocytes, whereas E. coli enhances lipid catabolism and reduces chylomicron circulating levels. (asm.org)
  • There was also less lipid storage within the cytoplasm of enterocytes (p=0.005) following oral glucose. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVES -A physiological adaptation to a sugar-rich meal is achieved by increased sugar uptake to match dietary load, resulting from a rapid transient translocation of the fructose/glucose GLUT2 transporter to the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Intact enterocytes possess key cellular properties that are key to the assessment of in vivo events, including an intact plasma membrane to allow modeling of membrane permeability, uptake and efflux drug transporters, as well as complete and uninterrupted DME pathways and cofactors for both phase I oxidation and phase II conjugation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In summary, our results indicate that the uptake of cadmium into human absorptive enterocytes may be mediated by DMT1. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results suggest that apical bulk endocytosis in Myo5b KO enterocytes resembles activity-dependent bulk endocytosis, the primary mechanism for synaptic vesicle uptake during intense neuronal stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • We will use these and related mice to determine which type of nutrient uptake is compromised upon endolysosomal system failure in neonatal enterocytes. (northwestern.edu)
  • Uptake of a given microbe by enterocytes was strain-specific and was not influenced by the presence of another strain, regardless of the invasive ability of the coinfecting strain. (umn.edu)
  • Total RNA was extracted from pellets of enterocytes and reverse transcribed to cDNA, and expression of orexin receptors 1 and 2 (OX1R and OX2R) was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. (diva-portal.org)
  • Induction of intracellular calcium signaling in isolated duodenal enterocytes is thus mediated primarily by OX1R receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Power, D. M. Ligand binding and signalling pathways of PTH receptors in sea bream (Sparus auratus) enterocytes, Cell and Tissue Research, 323, 2, 333-341, 2006. (ualg.pt)
  • We have characterised PTH receptors (PTHR) in piscine enterocytes and established, by using aminoterminal PTHrP peptides, the amino acid residues important for receptor activation and for stabilising the ligand/receptor complex. (ualg.pt)
  • Glucose crosses the apical membrane of the enterocyte using the sodium-glucose cotransporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) 2, GLUT5, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 protein content was increased from 1.5- to 6-fold in enterocytes isolated from diabetic animals in both jejunum and ileum. (jci.org)
  • There was a four- to eightfold increase in the amount of enterocyte glucose transporter mRNA after diabetes with greater changes in sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2 than in GLUT5 levels. (jci.org)
  • Mobilisation of enterocyte fat stores by oral glucose in humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Publications] H.Kojima, T.Nakamura, M.Fujimiya (他13名): 'Combined Expression of Pancreatic Duodenal Homeobox 1 and Islet Factor 1 Induces Immature Enterocytes to Produce Insulin'Diabetes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The transcriptional repressor Blimp1 is strongly expressed in immature enterocytes in utero, but these are gradually replaced by Blimp1(-) crypt-derived adult enterocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One month after the onset of diabetes, jejunal enterocytes were prepared from normal, diabetic, and diabetic plus insulin-treated rats. (tamu.edu)
  • Noori-Mugahi S M H, Moghani-Ghoroghi F. Morphometry of Rat Jejunal Enterocytes Number and Height after L-Arginine and L-NAME Administration. (zjrms.ir)
  • We hypothesize that normal enterocytes over-expressing cyclin D1 will demonstrate a transformed phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • Among the properties exerted by lactobacilli, adhesion to enterocytes is a key feature of probiotic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • We hypothesized that bacterial translocation across the intact barrier occurs after internalization of the bacteria by enterocytes in a process resembling phagocytosis and that TLR4 is required for this process. (elsevier.com)
  • Strikingly, the internalization of Gram-negative bacteria into enterocytes in vivo and the translocation of bacteria across the intestinal epithelium to mesenteric lymph nodes were significantly greater in wild-type mice as compared with mice having mutations in TLR4. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest a novel mechanism by which bacterial translocation occurs and suggest a critical role for TLR4 in the phagocytosis of bacteria by enterocytes in this process. (elsevier.com)
  • Hackam, David J. / Enterocyte TLR4 mediates phagocytosis and translocation of bacteria across the intestinal barrier . (elsevier.com)
  • Enterocytes were sequentially isolated from jejunum and ileum of normal fed rats, streptozotocin-diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with insulin. (jci.org)
  • We have examined effects of melatonin and receptor ligands on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) signaling in human and rat duodenal enterocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • COVID-19: TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 promote SARS-CoV-2 infection of human small intestinal enterocytes. (cebm.net)
  • In a laboratory study, human enterocytes expressing high ACE2 receptor levels could support infection with SARS-CoV-2. (cebm.net)
  • Freshly isolated clusters of enterocytes, obtained from rat duodenal mucosa or human duodenal biopsies, were loaded with fura 2-AM and mounted in a perfusion chamber. (diva-portal.org)
  • The primary [Ca2+](i) response was a slow increase to a sustained plateau persisting after orexin-A removal, and a similar response was observed in enterocytes from human biopsies. (diva-portal.org)
  • Chew CS, Säfsten B, and Flemström G . Calcium signaling in cultured human and rat duodenal enterocytes. (springer.com)
  • In order to translate these findings to humans, where the onset of weaning is not clearly defined as it is in rodents and even the existence of suckling-style enterocytes is largely ignored, we will also establish the postnatal period when human enterocytes display a specialized endolysosomal system. (northwestern.edu)
  • EAEC-diffuse (EAEC-D) did not adhere to the human enterocytes . (bvsalud.org)
  • In human small intestinal organoids (hSIOs), enterocytes were readily infected by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 , as demonstrated by confocal and electron microscopy . (bvsalud.org)
  • The enterocytes in nude and scid mice decreased in the expression of amino acid transporter, CD98, the activity of ALP, and the adhesion activity with basement membrane due to the decline in the expression of integrin α_6 on the enterocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Identification of transport abnormalities in duodenal mucosa and duodenal enterocytes from patients with cystic fibrosis. (springer.com)
  • Previous in vivo evidence has shown that bacterial phagocytosis by enterocytes may be an initial step in bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium. (umn.edu)
  • These mutant strains also were used to quantify the effect of the INT1 gene product on C. albicans adherence (yeast and filamentous forms) to cultured enterocytes. (umn.edu)
  • Increased transporter mRNA and protein expression in enterocytes. (jci.org)
  • The Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) transporter in the enterocyte is the target of EZE action. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rab11a deficiency in enterocytes altered the apical localization of syntaxin 3. (biologists.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to elucidate the ability of orexin-A to induce intracellular calcium signaling in acutely isolated duodenal enterocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • LPS did not induce membrane ruffling or macropinocytosis in enterocytes, excluding their role in bacterial internalization. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, apical bulk endocytosis mediates the formation of inclusions in neonatal Myo5b KO enterocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Goldenring, James R. / Loss of myosin Vb promotes apical bulk endocytosis in neonatal enterocytes . (elsevier.com)
  • We found that two endolysosomal ion channels, mucolipins 3 and 1 (also known as TRPML3 and 1), are highly co-expressed in neonatal enterocytes from birth to weaning. (northwestern.edu)
  • We also found that, in the absence of both mucolipins, neonatal enterocytes suffer pathological endolysosomal vacuolation together with reduced endocytosis, and that the mutant mice suffer diarrhea and reduced growth. (northwestern.edu)
  • Tonisity International developed a method of singularly feeding these enterocytes, by providing an isotonic protein solution containing the right balance of amino acids and sugar molecules. (pigprogress.net)
  • For this form of intracellular digestion, enterocytes during the suckling period develop a prominent system of endosomes and lysosomes. (northwestern.edu)
  • All nutrients have to come in through the 'front door' of the enterocyte, move through the cell, and go out the 'back door' again into the bloodstream, where they circulate and can be used by the body's tissues. (pigprogress.net)
  • Enterocytes can absorb many nutrients simultaneously, but can only manage them in small sizes. (pigprogress.net)
  • In adult mammals, enterocytes are the main source of circulating citrulline, which serves as the precursor for arginine synthesis, primarily in the kidney. (tamu.edu)
  • On the basis that citrulline availability is the rate-limiting factor for renal arginine synthesis, we hypothesized that citrulline synthesis from glutamine was reduced in enterocytes of diabetic rats, which may contribute to the decrease in plasma arginine levels. (tamu.edu)
  • Impaired enterocyte triglyceride synthesis after trauma-hemorrhage and resuscitation. (uab.edu)
  • Bengtsson MW, Makela K, Herzig KH, Flemstrom G. Short food deprivation inhibits orexin receptor 1 expression and orexin-A induced intracellular calcium signaling in acutely isolated duodenal enterocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cryptlike enterocytes were selected (caged), and changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) were evaluated by fluorescence imaging. (diva-portal.org)
  • Remarkably, TLR4 coimmunoprecipitated with FAK, and small interfering RNA-mediated FAK inhibition restored enterocyte migration after TLR4 activation, demonstrating that the FAK-TLR4 association regulates intestinal healing. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings demonstrate a critical role for TLR4 in the development of NEC through effects on enterocyte injury and repair, identify a novel TLR4-FAK association in regulating enterocyte migration, and suggest TLR4/FAK as a therapeutic target in this disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • We now show that FcγRIIa-transfected enterocytes can internalize IgG-opsonized erythrocytes into actin-rich cups, confirming that these enterocytes have the molecular machinery required for phagocytosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Melatonin and melatonin receptor agonists2-iodo-N-butanoyl-5-methoxytryptamine and 2-iodomelatonin (1.0-100 nM) increased enterocyte [Ca2+](i), EC50 of melatonin being 17.0 +/- 2.6 nM. (diva-portal.org)
  • Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Indeed, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed on differentiated enterocytes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Orexin-A at all concentrations tested (1-100 nM) increased [Ca2+](i) in enterocytes isolated from continuously fed rats, and the OX1R-antagonist SB-334867 (10 nM) attenuated the response. (diva-portal.org)
  • In rats, the enterocytes showed massive DNA fragmentation 30 mm and subsequent detachment 2 hours after injection of anti-CD3 mAb (1F4) made in our laboratory. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Taken together, these data show that EGFR plays an important role in LPS-induction of COX-2 expression in enterocytes, which may be one mechanism for EGF in inhibition of NEC. (elsevier.com)
  • It is not known what is the mechanism for moving enterocytes from the glands to the epithelial surface. (uvigo.es)
  • The central hypothesis is that in response to ingestion of dietary fat, enterocytes secrete the integrin ligand Mfge8. (grantome.com)

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